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  • 151.
    Karlsson, Klas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Omprövningsförrättningar: En studie med fokus på villkor och skäl2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today matters concerning cooperation between properties is regulated in the Swedish facility law. Facilities are formed for eternal time, but due to various reasons conditions can change in a way that affects the facilities. To modify the conditions of the changed circumstances is 35 § applicable, called reassessment. To protect the property owner's interest shall not all situation automatically lead to a reassessment. Three different conditions are therefore listed in the 35 § and one of those must be achieved to allow a reassessment. When a decision is based on a section of a law, the surveyor must specify which condition he based his decision on.

    The study is based on a hypothesis that there seems to be confusions about what reasons for a reassessment should be tested against which condition. The purpose of the study is to find out and clarify the relationship between the conditions and various reasons. This will hopefully contribute to an easier and more time efficient administration of a reassessment. A survey will also be made to see how the relationship is handled by surveyors in completed reassessments.

    The study is based on a combination of a quantitative method which is used for the collection of reassessments and a legal method which is used for reading reassessment files, legal texts, preparatory work and court cases.

    It was hard to clarify the relationship between the conditions and reasons via legal text, preparatory work and court cases because they didn’t give so much information. A joint assessment of legal texts, preparatory work and court cases resulted however in a clarification of which reasons considered to be linked to which condition. Based on the results of the study the survey found that the wrong connection is made in 21% of the cases. The outcome with the most negative effect are those cases where the reasons are considered to be linked to a clear need, but instead they have been tested against substantially change circumstances. This was the outcome in 41% of the acts consisting reasons that were considered related to a clear need. In a third of the files no specific section of the law was tried or an incorrect application was made.

    To sum up the results of this study strengthen the hypothesis of the uncertainties surrounding the application of § 35. Partly through the survey of the actual application of 35 § which proved inadequate but also by the scant support and directives that were available around the issue of reassessments. The authors hope that the results of the study will clarify the links and contribute to a comprehension of the importance to specify the right condition.

  • 152.
    Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Laga kraft vinning för lovärenden enligt PBL (2010:900)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each municipality in Sweden must have a local building committee. The committee consists of elected politicians responsible for managing the permit process related to construction, dem-olition and ground processing. The committee manages the permit process by delegating the entire task or parts of it to employed officials. If there is no delegation the officials will write a suggested decision to be reviewed and decided by the committee.

    This essay investigates construction-, demolition- and ground processing permit where the of-ficials and the local building committee differ in their decisions and the assessment which led to these decisions. The examination included studies of four municipalities in the county of Västra Götaland: two smaller, Färgelanda and Munkedal municipalities, and two larger, Trollhättan and Uddevalla. The investigation consisted of two parts. One examination of the permit protocols, and a series of interviews with officials. During 2015 there were 1386 cases of permits within the four municipalities. 23 of these were cases of the committee not deciding in accordance with the proposition of the officials. A number of errors were also found, such as there not being a stated reason for the decision, or lack of any clear legal reference. This raises the question of whether or not the rule of law is followed during these circumstances.

    After consulting with Ulrika Nolåker from Byggutbildarna, the issues were expanded further when it was discovered that more errors occur during the municipal management of the con-cerned parties and the announcements of the cases. In order to receive further guidance, knowledge and information on how to interpret the laws handling concerned parties and an-nouncements, contact was made with Ulf Jensen and Eidar Lindgren, professor in real estate science at Högskolan Väst, and lecturer of real estate sciences at Kungliga Tekniska Högsko-lan, respectively.

    The conclusions of the examination is that the building committee puts a lot of responsibility on the officials through delegations. The cases when there is no delegation and the case is decided by the committee are few. The reasons why the proposition and the final decision not always matches is due to different factors such as different knowledge or different assessments. Neither the committee nor the officials are consistent with the law referencing in the decisions. The municipality cannot guarantee that every concerned party have been given the chance to give their opinion, when some of them use what’s called "silent agreement". Only three of the cases has the municipality received and opinion from every concerned party. None of the cases has been announced in the correct time and two has not been announced at all.

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  • 153.
    Karlsson, Sanne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Maurer, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Förstudie för kontrollanläggningsutrustningi mindre vattenkraftstationer för Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five small hydroelectric power plants, constructed 1920 and later, are owned by UddevallaEnergi AB. The hydroelectric power plants are located in Bäveån in Uddevalla. The total installed power is approximately 2 MW. K4 Fossumsberg is the largest hydroelectric powerplant and has a production capacity of 1 MW. The hydroelectric power plants is not only used for energy production but also for regulation of the water levels in Bäveån and Öresjö.

    On behalf of Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB this bachelor thesis has been done to specify which equipment is preferable as the station monitoring and control equipment. The key areas ofthe report is generator protection, control and regulation, communication and HMI in the plants. There are demands from Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB regarding for instance overcurrent protection, earth fault protection, over- and under voltage protection and reversepower protection. Furthermore it is requested that the new station monitoring and controlequipment is compatible with MicroSCADA and has further options for using the protocol IEC 60870-5 for communication between station and the SCADA system used in the operating centre.

    Numerous products has been studied and many of them fulfil the requirements stated by Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB. The manufactures mentioned in this report are Schneider Electric, ABB and DEIF.

    Conclusions are made that Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB should invest in separate units for control and generator protection to achieve a higher level of safety in case of a fault in either generator protection or control equipment. Furthermore it is concluded that to obtain a more complete specification to use when choosing equipment one should consider the cost. More research is needed to take this into account.

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  • 154.
    Kastinen, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Wu, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Alternativ till kreosotimpregneradestolpar i Vattenfalls elnät i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of a possible ban of creosote impregnated poles can become a real scenario within the EU the year 2018 Vattenfall are searching for other alternatives. Steel, concrete, laminated wood and composite are considered the most competitive alternatives today and are being investigated in this report. Basic technical specifications, impacts on the environment and costs of the different pole types are being analyzed in the report and compared to the creosote impregnated pine pole. This report will describe how well the alternative pole types are suited in Vattenfalls electrical grid in Sweden.

    Due to confidentiality reasons the exact amount of costs and expenses will not be included in the report. The price of purchase and recycling will instead be presented as a quota between the alternative pole divided by the creosote pole. Neither will sleepers nor other pole foundations be included in this report.

    The method that is being used is to first present relevant theory about the mentioned pole types. Also the impregnation process, survey and disintegration/recycling of poles will be explained.

    The environmental analysis are based on IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet's LCA where the creosote pole are compared to its alternatives. They conclude that it is the creosote pole that has the least impact on the environment if you look at the whole life-cycle.

    The conclusion is that the composite pole are shown to be one of the most competitive alternatives because it is considered to be environmental-friendly and its low weight makes it easy to work with. Also, it's not impregnated and can therefore be used everywhere without any legal restrictions. This pole type is also very relevant as it is already released on the market.

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  • 155.
    Khorshid, Hosein
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Reservmatning av radiella nät via reservkraftverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has in recent years encountered several storms that resulted in major damage to the power grids with long interruption time as a consequence. That is the reason why today the government agencies are more strict towards network owners when it comes to power failure periods. The thesis investigates the reserve supply of long radial distribution grid via back-up power generator where there is no extra power supply available from nearby electrical distribution grids.

    The report examines two radial power grids from electrical and economic perspective. The calculations are performed to investigate the way that the back-up power generator affects the quality of the generated electricity and the distribution grids safety function. Economical comparisons between back-up power plants and new construction of power grids are examined with the objective to supply nearby distribution grids with electrical power.

    The results show not only that the reserve supply via the back-up generator plant meets the requirements for power quality and protection functions in the distribution grids, but it is also economically profitable. A limiting factor has been the reactive generation from cable distribution grids at low current intensities that affects the range of the operating alternator. As a measure towards this, shunt reactor coils have been proposed to compensate for the reactive power.

  • 156.
    Kjörk, Henning
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Förbättring av det förebyggande underhållet i ett lokalt distributionsnät2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten har tillkommit för att genomlysa underhållsarbete på Arvika Teknik elnät i syfte att kunna förbättra effektiviteten med i huvudsak befintliga resurser. Undersökningen har fokuserat på de måldokument och befintliga instruktioner. Ett studiebesök på Trollhättans energi elnät genomfördes också för att tjäna som jämförelseobjekt i framför allt hur nätdokumentation och besiktningsmodulen användes. För att peka på förbättringspotential i underhållsprocessen genomfördes en nulägesanalys och jämfördes med etablerad erfarenhet genom konceptet TPM. Även begreppen TQM och RCM som i elnätssammanhang förekommer i en förenklad variant s.k. Streamline RCM diskuteras översiktligt.

    Rapporten landar i ett antal förslag till förbättringar på kort och lång sikt, där de mest betydelsefulla är att förtydliga målen för underhållet och befintliga roller och ansvarsområden. En metod som föreslås är att genom 5S arbete uppnå en bättre ordning och struktur och på detta sätt närma sig en TPM filosofi i driften av elnätet. Och genom att strukturerad erfarenhetsåterföring påbörja ett ständigt förbättringsarbete.

  • 157.
    Kolic, Edo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Bearing current and shaft voltage measurement in electrical motors2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fast-rising voltage pulses of pulse width modulated drives, the generated shaft voltage of electrical motors causes electrical discharge currents in bearings. These discharges can cause bearing failure leading to costly maintenance and unexpected production stops. To eliminate the raised shaft voltage, several techniques are used such as shaft grounding brushes, insulated bearings and conductive grease. The possibility to measure discharge activity on a PWM driven induction motor offers a tool for researchers to test different bearings in electric motors. In order to measure the shaft voltages and bearing currents, modifications of an induction motor are made firstly using 3D software and then on the physical motor. By insulating the bearing from the frame and attaching a copper ring to the bearings outer race bearing currents can be measured. The combined measurements of shaft voltage, bearing currents and frame currents shows the bearings conductive states at low speed, and insulated state at higher speed. Electrical discharge activity (DA) is observed as shaft voltage raises, resulting in a bearing current spike and shaft voltage drops rapidly while stator current is unaffected.

    Experimental tests were performed with a sample bearing at different operating conditions, such as operating speed, temperature, motor load, etc., to determine the effect of the common mode voltages on bearing currents and shaft voltages. At low temperatures between 23-26 ˚C and motor speeds above 1000 rpm EDM currents were observed. On temperatures above 40 ˚C no major EDM currents were observed regardless of rpm due to the bearing remaining in an ohmic conductive state. The modifications of the motor have shown to give reliable bearing current and shaft voltage measurements that can help in future research in this area.

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  • 158.
    Kolton, Hubert
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Moberg Larsson, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommunalt arbete med framtagande av grundunderlag: Kartläggning av kommunernas arbete kring grundkartor och fastighetsförteckningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the need for residential grows such as the usage of land, the usage of zoning plans increases. Conditions of zoning plans regulate the usage of land and water, but also directions for the settlement. Zoning plans are documents which are legally binding for fifteen years. In order for zoning plans to retain its legal binding, it is important that the used base support is of a good and reliable quality. In accordance with comments from Lantmäteriet, Boverket and SOU, the work with creating the base support is considered too be deficient. By deficient, flaws such as defective application, systematic issues but also lack of quality, competence and resources. Due to the struggle with the base support and the lack of previous surveying, it makes the subject interesting to examine.

    The purpose of this study is to establish knowledge concerning municipals and their work with creating the base support. Similar to the purpose of the study, the question at issue is directed towards the municipalities of Sweden and their work with the creation of the base support. In order to fulfill the purpose and question at issue of the study, seven subqueries have been used.

    For the implementation of the study an oppinion poll has been sent out too all the 290 municipalities of Sweden. The forms answered by municipals have been processed with a quantative analysis and compiled as statistics. At the day of the deadline 145 out of 290 municipalities had attended the oppinion poll.

    As can be seen in the results of the study, a majority of all municipalities uses their own resources for creating the base support. This despite all of the other operators available who is producing the base support. Therefore using their own resources is more preferable than hiring private operators that offers services in mapping and measurement. Even though a majority of the municipalities chooses to create the base support themselves, written routines and guidelines regarding the creation is lacking. Other than that the statistics presents several municipalities that has previous experiences of base support lacking in quality, which has caused negative sanctions. In connection with their investigation "Ny PBL - på rätt sätt", the SOU recommends a municipal cooperation in matters concerning PBL. According to the results of the oppinion poll municipal cooperations are rare. Amongst the municipals with a "Kommunal lantmäterimyndighet", there is a majority that indicates the participation of KLM in matters of the base support.

    The largest deviations from the recommendations of SOU is around the municipal cooperation and also the uniformity amongst the municipalities in the country.

  • 159.
    Kucukovic, Kenan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rungberg, Kasper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Optimering av kommunalt nätverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes problems that SML-IT has in their existing network. The current situation is marked by a budget that does not allow an investigation by the organization itself, and has asked us to start an investigation. They have problems such as unauthorized DHCP servers that are connected to their network, this is usually done by ignorant employees that want better coverage. This leads to the network not working as intended. The organization claims that their current hard- or software do not support any good solutions to the problem. Another problem that existed was the authentication of the municipal public network. SML are offering a guest network to tourists and other users, however there are big problems within the security aspect. When a user wants to access the network, a temporary user is created by the staff. The user remains anonymous since the newly created account is not tied to the actual person using the account. This makes it very difficult for the organization to keep track of which user breaks an organization policy and what the users are doing because there are no mappings between the logged in user and an actual person. The methodology was taken care of by an interview with the staff of the IT-department, open and questions was asked with the problems in mind. Then began investigations on different manufacturers websites and general searches on various search engines was executed. The results that have been developed through the method has demonstrated several solutions in relation to the issues. Authentication on the public network resulted in different solutions, but both had a big focus on security versus ease of use. The problem with DHCP-servers was not actually hard to solve, they already had a solution in the existing infrastructure, it was just a matter of implementing it where it was needed.

  • 160.
    Kullgren, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Bolagisering av kommunal vatten- och avloppsverksamhet: En studie av överlåtelsernas giltighet med avseende på rättigheter för ledningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish municipality public water supply and sewerage work activity has been put into municipal companies in small extent since the 70s. Corporatizations were not so common in the beginning, but in the 90s it increased and several municipalities around the country started to put their public water supply and sewerage into municipal companies. Today have 76 of 290 municipalities corporatized their water supply and sewerage work.When a municipal activity are transferred to municipal companies the utilities that are property fixtures must be separated from the property, in order for the transfer to be legal according to the conditions in the Swedish Land Code. The utility easements that belong to the activity must be transferred together with the title of the facilities, otherwise the transfer is not valid according to the Swedish Utility Easements Act. In order for the transfer agreements to be legally sustainable and to avoid future problems, the transfer must be accurate according to the law.The aim of the study is to investigate in which extent the transfer agreements that are established during the transfer of public water supply and sewerage work activity to municipal companies are legally sustainable. Questions that will be answered in this study are: how should a transfer of water supply and sewerage work activity be proceeded with regard to the utility easements? What are transferred from the municipality to the municipal company? Are the transfers legally sustainable?The method that have been used are to study transfer agreements and do interviews and questionnaires with erudite people employed at the municipal companies. When the analysis of the transfer agreement were made and the result from the interviews and questionnaires were put together, it gave the authors an idea of the agreements validity.The result shows that several of the transfers aren’t valid and that there are plenty of utilities in the municipalities that don’t have any rights. During the transfer the utilities that are property fixtures should be separated from the property in order for the transfer to be legally valid. The utilities easements should also be transferred so that the title of the utilities and the rights of the utilities have the same owner.

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  • 161.
    Kvarnström, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Wallerström, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Realtidsmätning inom fastighetsbildning med "Precise Point Positioning" (PPP)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS positioning in conjunction with the real property is usually used the traditional RTK measuring (Real-Time Kinematic) by SWEPOS network RTK service. This service requires mobile phone coverage or equivalent two-way communication, which can be problematic in areas with poor mobile phone coverage. Under these circumstances, PPP (Point Positioning Precise) could be more useful in real property measures when such services receives the correction data in real time from the satellites. PPP does not require any cell phone coverage, however it requires a communication link, a RTX service to obtain corrections externally from a RTX satellite. The purpose of the study is to examine the possibility of using PPP in real time at the real property as an alternative to traditional GNSS measurements with network RTK. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by starting out from already known coordinates (RIX 95 points). The measurements were performed out at five different locations in Sweden, Gothenburg, Vanersborg, Karlstad, Torsby and Malung-Salen. Measurement data obtained from the observations have been analyzed and compared with real property requirements. The results of the study were obtained in the form of data analyzed by comparison of the known (RIX 95) points. The deviation is known from RIX 95 point recognized in income based on the time factor, the bias of the translative case species, changes in deviation from south to north and from two calculation models, a translation and a transformation. To correct the measured values from the RTX service for a better match to the RIX 95 points calculation models were developed to facilitate the modeling of systematic deviations incurred and meet the demands of real property. Analyzing and examining various relationships have shown that after about 20 minutes of measuring, the precision of the measurements starts to become more stable. Based on the results, the conclusion is that the PPP does not work in real property areas within the core network, however, the method works for forestry and agricultural properties outside the core network. Assuming a modelling through translational alternative transformation, developed in this study is used to adjust the coordinates, the PPP measurement is working in all real property registration measures. This requires that the measurement data is obtained after 20 minutes of measurement or more.

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  • 162.
    Landhage, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Wictorzon, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    VSSC – Very Simple SMS Configuration2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of internet access can be a huge problem when you need to make quick changes or shut your network down in case of an attack since remote access usually utilizes SSH or VPN. This thesis will describe a method to give secure access to a local network by sending commands or receiving info through SMS, thus increasing the reach of mobile access when data access is nonexistent. We have created a solution that is easy to set up and that requires only small economic investments.

  • 163.
    Larsson, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Fastställande av energiinnehållet i ljusbågar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An electrical arc is the result of ionization of gas that plays the role as an electrical conductor between electrodes with different potentials. The size of the hazard an electrical arc can produce is mainly determined by two factors, the time the arc can be active and the minimum distance from the arc origin. As a consequence of growing power grids, bigger dimensions of wires and cables and when large generator effects are connected to the same grids, the fault currents increase and their by the hazard of electrical arcs. In combination with faulty conducted hazard analysis, lack of knowledge of electrical arcs and power grids with large fault currents there are accidents and incidents coursed by exposure of electrical arcs.

    The purpose of this work is to make it easier to choose the right personal protective equipment and the safest work method for the workers safety against electric arcs. Power in an electrical arc is measured by calories per square centimeter (Cal/cm²) in other words it's the energy that an electrical arc contains. The energy can be calculated but it takes a lot of pre work with collecting the right parameters that determines the volume of the electrical arc. To avoid doing this every time some work is needed to be done by or in a high voltage area a crib sheet in the form of a diagram will be created that reflects general electrical arcs in real power grids in medium voltage power grids.The crib sheet is done and can perform its task. The cheat paper is made to work for all the 10kV power grids in Sweden, the cheat paper is by choice made to provide the worker with personal protective equipment that always is slightly more protective than needed, this because all the 10kV power grids are made differently, and are differently loaded and have different size.

  • 164.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Modell för optimering av diagnos och felsökning, Volvo Personvagnar AB2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 165.
    Larsson, Kevin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olofsson, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Analys av fragmentering i krypterade tunnlar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sending data over public networks demands a lot from transfer methods and intermediate systems that forwards secure traffic. A popular solution is Virtual Private Networks. When traversing a VPN traffic is effected depending on options on clients and devices that are responsible for the forwarding of data. Fragmentation of packets can occur when the size of the datagram exceeds the allowed Maximum Transmission Unit size of the link.  This degree project is focused on the fragmentation of traffic traversing VPN with differing transformsets, layer 3 and, layer 4 protocols. Datagrams are analyzed before, inside, and after the tunnel.  Fragmentation is more frequent when it comes to User Datagram Protocol than Transport Control Protocol, because of TCP functions that counteract fragmentation.  The project showed clearly that the overhead which is a direct result from using a VPN solution can cause fragmentation if the protocol used does not have any builtin functions to counteract fragmentation. A notable result was an IPv6 TCP transmission that was fragmented inside the tunnel despite the IPv6 design-specifications clearly state that IPv6 datagrams may only be fragmented by senders, and not intermediary devices.

  • 166.
    Larsson, Tony
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Hansson Carlberg, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    En jämförelsestudie av antal attacker mot olika internetleverantörers nät med hjälp av Honeypots2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about installing, configuring and comparing honeypots in different Internet Service Providers (ISP) networks. The ISPs that was used in this study was Telia, Bredbandsbolaget and Sunet. Each of the networks had a honeypot installed in it. The number of attacks against the honeypots was collected under the period 22-02-2017 - 08-03-2017, with the help of the sensors p0f, Kippo, Snort and Dionaea. The software “Modern Honey Network” and “Splunk” was used for the collection of data from these sensors. Data showed that the different amount of attacks against the honeypots between Telia and Bredbandsbolaget wasn’t significant, but it did show that the honeypot on Sunet had more attacks aimed towards it. This is interesting because the honeypots on Telia and Bredbandsbolaget had more unique attacks (attacks from unique IP-addresses). Apart from the number of attacks, the result also shows what ports have been targeted the most, what operating systems that had been used in the attacks, the usernames, passwords and commands that had been used in SSH connections, signatures that had generated Snort-alerts and from where the attacks originated geographically. Date

  • 167.
    Lind, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Marknadsstudie inför framtagande av nytt nätinformationssystem för Vimmerby Energi & Miljös elnät2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the market for current grid information system for electric grids, to determine which functions that are needed by Vimmerby Energi & Miljö AB. And also which grid information system that is best suited.The selection was based on information found on each grid information system's home-page. By means of demonstration data was collected from the selected grid information system, for comparison.From the comparison one could determine that all of the grid information systems did sat-isfy all the demands from Energimarknadsinspektionen concerning power outages and prior regulation of electrical grid tariffs. All of the grid information systems also satisfied the demands for grid calculations, primarily short circuit currents and earth fault imped-ances.Three of the presented grid information systems were purely graphical, whilst the fourth, which is the present grid information system, were table based. This could be supple-mented with a module for graphically displaying the positions of the lines on a map.By investigating the grid information systems work methods, functionality, strengths and weaknesses it was found that, from a purely technical perspective, the best choice would be DigPro's dpPower. Although Powel's OpenNIS proved to be a good alternative.Since the report only investigates the grid information systems from a technical perspec-tive, and therefore don't report on any of the cost of implementing or sustaining the grid information system, the recommended system might end up not being the best choice. This is mostly due to the purpose of the report, which is to investigate and find which type of functions that suite Vimmerby Energi & Miljö's need. And the recommended grid in-formation system is the one which is considered to satisfy most of these needs.

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  • 168.
    Lindberg, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kalkylmodell för beräkning av anbud inom regionnät2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the groundwork for a development of a calculation model for the regional network. The aim was to investigate the factors that influence a project's outcomes and to provide suggestions on how Linjemontage can develop their organization. A suggestion for a new timesheet has been developed, in order to get a clearer picture of how much time the project's different parts really took compared to the estimated time.

    The factors that are considered sensitive at a project's outcome are landowners, which can be difficult to get in touch with, and difficult to reach a common solution with. Power outage planned during the pre-projectation which is not accepted by the utility owner. Incorrect deliveries of materials and delays in deliveries. Incorrect documents such as construction documents and incorrect design by designers. Errors made by subcontractors and non-standard constructions. Problems experienced during the project, such as delays and theft of materials and tools. Machine failure and rapid reorganization within the project. Lack of specific training. Weather, seasons, ground conditions and insufficient time for planning.

    To get the employees of the company more involved, a suggestion of a way to continuously monitor the project through the company's intranet has been made. This suggestion would increase the participation of the project members, and rise the ability to easily compare the estimated time with the actual time spent on each part of the project. Another suggestion in how the employees can monitor the total outcome for all projects during the year has been made. This would create an opportunity for the employees to be able to work for a bonus at end of year.

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  • 169.
    Lindberg, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Philip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    IPv4 vs IPv6: En prestandajämförelse inom e-sport2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In todays networks IPv4 is the communications protocol most widely used for exchanging information on the Internet. However, the four billion addresses that exist have started to run out and the implementation of the successor IPv6 have increased. This study compares IPv4 and IPv6 in computergames to see if the gaming experience differs between the two protocols.The games Open Arena and Teeworlds are used to measure packets per second, which is the most important aspect in real-time applications, packet size and the amount of data being transferred. The tests are conducted using two different scenarios – one on a LAN and one on a network imitating the Internet for online gaming. A survey is also made where the participants play games using both IPv4 and IPv6 to see if any deviations are noticed.IPv4 is superior when it comes to the amount of games that has support for the protocol, but IPv6 has some advantages. The packets are somewhat larger but this does not affect the gaming experience. NAT is a function that translates addresses which can put load on the routers, especially if a lot of private addresses are translated to a public address. With IPv6 the routers are not as loaded since there is no need for NAT. Another advantage is that the end-to-end connection is simplified.The tests show there are differences between IPv4 and IPv6 when gaming but 11 out of 12 participants find them insignificant.

  • 170.
    Lindberg, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Ulasi, Micheal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Limitations of implementing low-end Cisco Catalyst switches in a Leaf-Spine topology2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the growing number of interconnected devices and users, there is a need for a new data center architecture such as the Leaf-Spine topology, one that aims at improving the traffic performance of the data center network. However, this architecture is in its infancy, and the implementation cost is high because it may require the replacement of existing multilayer switches with new and expensive ones. This thesis performed a background study on the possibility of implementing a Leaf-Spine topology using existing low-end Catalyst switches. The low-end multilayer Catalyst switch examined was the Catalyst 3650 series switch.

    Results illustrate that it is possible to implement a Leaf-Spine network with Catalyst 3650 switches. However, how much the production network is impacted by the limitations of the low-end Catalyst switches depends on the workloads running on the network, the number of servers, and the bandwidth allocation that each application requires and that the data center operator is willing to provide. The project identified that the Catalyst 3650 switches can support various number of servers that delivers different bandwidth capacity per server and oversubscription ratios. To realize the best performance fewer servers should be distributed across multiple leaf switches, and incast traffic patterns have some advantages over unicast traffic patterns when using CEF's per-packet based load balancing.

  • 171.
    Linde, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Planera för dagvatten: en studie över PBL och särskilda dagvattenstrategiers tillämpning vid dagvattenhantering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of research done of the change in climate supports the theory that our climate is changing. The frequency of heavy rainfall will increase in the southern parts of Sweden, and we can already see the changes. More rain leads to higher levels of stormwater which can increase the pressure on our treatment plants and sewer systems. In time they can get undersized, which might cause damage and other inconveniences on our society. The counties in the country have, with their planning monopoly, responsibility to adapt the society so that these negative effects, that the changes in climate bring, can get minimized. The main purpose of the study was to examine how counties can use laws to plan for the stormwater, both for today and for the future. The purpose was also to examine how many counties in Västra Götaland use strategies for stormwater and if these strategies bring any advantages. Three main issues were identified to fulfill the purpose of the study:  How can the problems around stormwater be managed through Plan- och bygglagens different levels of planning?  How many counties in Västra Götaland use any form of strategy for stormwater?  How are these strategies for stormwater used by counties in Västra Götaland? The state in Sweden that will get the highest change in rain levels according to recent studies is Västra Götaland. Therefore, the study only examines this state. The study is based on a survey about the usage of stormwater strategies. The survey was sent out to all 49 counties in Västra Götaland. Theoretical research on the topic was also made so that the issue "How can the problems with increasing stormwater levels be managed through Plan- och bygglagens different levels of planning?" could be investigated. 33 counties answered the survey and out of these, eleven counties had strategies for stormwater management. These strategies are used as a foundation for planning, but with varying results in the different counties. The study has shown that current law in Sweden can be used to create measures for managing the problems around stormwater, provided that it can be applied in the way the authors of the law intended. The counties economic conditions, sufficient competence and engagement is deal-breakers when it comes to application of the law in an efficient way, when dealing with stormwater management.

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  • 172.
    Liu, Yuyang
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Wi-Fi positioning: a study of navigation and guidance in large supermarkets2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the scenario of navigation and guidance for uses in large supermarkets. Have known the defects of GPS in indoor environment, Wi-Fi technology is chosen as the positioning technology. The purpose of this study is to analysis and evaluate whether a Wi-Fi positioning system can satisfy the user requirements based on different perspectives of it and how. Several parameters of a Wi-Fi based positioning system are analyzed in the following sections: positioning principle, accuracy, latency, cost, privacy. An overview of other existing other technologies is also presented in the end. The result from these parameters shows that a Wi-Fi based positioning system is an appropriate choice for this case.

  • 173.
    Lundborg, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöö, Ludvig
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Beredning av distributionsnät i Tösse2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns a preparatory work of a distribution network in Tösse, Åmål County. This work has been done in cooperation with Vattenfall Service Nordic AB in Säffle. The area in question includes a pole-mounted substation, 1.5 km of overhead line and 0.1 km of cable. The preparation cover voltage levels of 10/0.4 kV. The reason why this work has been carried out is that people in the area have complained about the quality of the electricity to Vattenfall. In order to increase the quality will the previous overhead line and the polemounted substation be demolished. The overhead line will be replaced by cable, the polemounted substation will be replaced by a substation. There will also be an extra substation added.

    The preparation work in the thesis was carried out in parallel with a preparation work at Vattenfall in Säffle, which means that there are two proposals to choose from on the continuation of the project. In this thesis, the group has not applied for any permits, but the requirements have been taken in consideration. This preparatory work emanated from the submitted proposal the planner at Vattenfall had for suggestion, the group made changes when necessary. This project will affect eight costumers. The estimated cost off the project is approximately 1.03 million SEK.

    There was also a comparison made between dry-type and oil-immersed transformers. This was made to investigate if it's economically defensible to get the more environment friendly option between these two. The group was in contact with ABB whom is a major manufacturer of both types of transformers. The conclusion that the group came to after the comparison was that it's not viable to buy the more environment friendly dry-type transformer in this project.

  • 174.
    Lundgren, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kähkönen, Marianne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Tillämpning av 16 § 2 st. ledningsrättslagen: Omvandling från inskrivna rättigheter till ledningsrätt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Law of utility easement 1973: 1144 (LL) gained legal force in 1974 and was added in order for utility owners to have the option of choosing a more substantive protection, to properly pull out certain utilitys and retain them within the conceeded space. Previously, utility owners secured their utilitys with contract servitut or use rights through the enrollment. However, if no one volunteered to give up his land, there was another option, such as forcing someone else's land by virtue of the expropriation act. It was a costly and time-consuming alternative.  In LL, 16 § 2 st. were also created to streamline the cadastral process and make it less costly. LL 16 § 2 st. is a simplified procedure, a so-called conversion, which means that signed-in contract servitudes or rights of use are converted into utility easement. Some of the limitations that the procedure involves is that the content of the agreement cannot be changed upon conversion to utility easement. The cadastral surveyor does not need to meet with interested parties, unless there are special reasons. The thesis aims at finding out how LL 16 § 2 st. apply theoretically according to legislation and how the paragraph is applied in practice. The thesis also aims at identifying the pros and cons of conversion.

     The thesis began by studying literature such as legislation, propositions and SOU (Government Public Investigations). Subsequently, cadastral surveyors were interviewed within the state and municipal cadastral survey. The interviews gave an understanding how 16 § 2 st. used in practice, but also how common it is and is to apply it.   Two of the seven cadastral surveyors had applied the paragraph, and they considered to have good knowledge of the paragraph. Some cadastral surveyors do not want to apply it because there are some uncertainties about whether or not the contents of the written agreements may change during a conversion. The majority of all persons interviewed in this study consider that there are uncertainties about conversion to utility easement law. In summary, advantages of conversion are that it is a shorter and cheaper process of cadastral than a normal procedure. The disadvantages are that there are uncertainties about whether and how the content of the agreement may change.

  • 175.
    Lundin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olofsson, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Exploateringsavtal, LOU och upphandlingstvång: Vad säger lagen och hur resonerar branschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing discussion within the industry whether public procurement should be applied or not regarding municipality facilities that are regulated in development agreements. The law render for the municipality to either enjoin the developer “to institute” or “to finance”, however it is without clarification regarding the compatibility with the public procurement legislation. The study reaches the conclusion that public facilities that are regulated in the development agreements are subject to public procurement. The four criteria’s that constitutes a contract within the Swedish Act on Public Contracts (LOU) are all fulfilled. The municipals does not see consultant disqualification or regulation of the financial questions, that already is in the development agreement that proceed the procurement, causes any practical problems. It’s established that it could still be a theoretical issue. Applying the law of public procurement may come with complex problems. The municipality or the developer that has intention to build on the development area, have in an agreement through the development agreement that can regulate financial obligations for the developer. This will in theory give the developer incentive to come with an offer in the procurement that is not dependent on the actual costs; the developer should either way pay through the development agreement. The developer whom also is operative within the development agreements area who per say already is the land owner. Investigations, such as for example geotechnical investigations can continuously be done as a preparation for the development to come on the land. The law of public procurement regulates prior involvement of candidates or tenderers, so called consultant disqualification, which might be actualized. The study shows that the municipals that have partaken in the study do not have a unified way of working. Since 2015-01-01 at least 28 % of the 120 responding municipals let the developer execute the development of the municipal facilities in at least one development agreement. Another result that emerged is that in one of the three interviewed municipals there is a “voluntary” enforcement of the Swedish Act on Public Contracts (LOU), in spite of the opinion that the law of procurement should not be used. The use of LOU instead fulfills the purpose of securing the quality of roads and pavements. The developers that has partaken in the study state that there are several advantages with being the developer of the public areas coordinated with expansion of the land. The study’s survey and interviews with municipals show the opposite, that the developer whom has been enjoined to finance public facilities in the development agreement rarely participates as a tender in the procurement.The municipals does not see consultant disqualification or regulation of the financial questions, that already is in the development agreement that proceed the procurement, causes any practical problems. It’s established that it could still be a theoretical issue.It has also come to light that there is a different approach depending on work categories. Legal experts are described as the theorists and think that LOU should be used. The development engineers are on the other hand seen as the practitioners and they want the developer to have the opportunity to build the municipals facilities and then after they are finished is handed over to the municipal.

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  • 176.
    Lundmark, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Persson, Chris
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Analyzing Symbiosis on SMT Processors Using a Simple Co-scheduling Scheme2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) allows for more efficient processor utilization through co-executing multiple threads on a single processing core, increasing system efficiency and throughput. Multiple co-executing threads share the functional units of a processing core and if the threads use the same functional units, efficiency decreases as this is a scenario where SMT cannot convert thread-level parallelism (TLP) to instruction-level parallelism (ILP). In previous work by de Blanche and Lundqvist, they propose a simple co-scheduling principle co-scheduling multiple instances of the same job should be considered a bad co-schedule as they are more likely to use the same resources. In this thesis, we apply their principle on SMT processors with the rationale that identical threads should use the same functional units within a processing core. We demonstrate that by disallowing jobs to coexecute with itself we enable SMT to convert TLP to ILP more often and that this is true if jobs cannot exploit ILP by themselves. Intuitively, we also show that slowing down ILP by doing the opposite can alleviate the stress on the memory system.

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  • 177.
    Lundmark, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Persson, Chris
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Prestandaanalys av VoIP-trafik över IPsec2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is a time sensitive type of data, where high latency results in unusable phone calls. The goal is to keep the latency down while new features are desired, such as security as prevention against monitoring. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a protocol suite used for securing data traffic through a tunnel - without the end users awareness. A problem that may occur when IPsec is encrypting data, delay will be added which is not a favourable condition for VoIP. When encryption algorithms become more complex, they become more secure, but with the cost of longer encryption and decryption times which in turn may have a negative effect on real-time applications.This report examines IPsec, cryptography, VoIP and the relationship between them. The measurement shows which encryption algorithm that is most effective in conjunction with encryption of VoIP. The results show which encryption algorithms that may be used without affecting the quality of a VoIP call in a controlled lab environment.

  • 178.
    Lundstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Nordqvist, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Uppgradering av kretsscheman i en HVDC-station2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted on behalf of ABB in Ludvika. ABB has received an order for an upgrade of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) station. There are two main technologies that HVDC is based on; line commutated converters (LCC) and voltage source converters (VSC). The LCC technology is the oldest and most widely used. It's also the technology that the upgraded station is based on. VSC HVDC is a newer technology that has the advantage of not requiring a generating power grid on both sides of the HVDC link but has the disadvantage that it cannot handle as high power as LCC can. With these qualities it has become a popular technology to use to transfer energy from offshore wind farms to the mainland or to provide oil platforms with energy. VSC technology was first introduced in 1997 by ABB where it is called HVDC Light.

    The revised HVDC link is a connection between two countries and has a total power transmission of 600 MW. The upgrade also includes updating existing circuit diagrams for the HVDC station to be available in the new software Engineering Base. The circuit diagrams have been drawn in Microsoft Visio. The equipment which have been designed and examined in this report applies to equipment on the DC side of the HVDC station. This includes grounding knives, disconnectors, power transformers, voltage dividers, current protection units and wall bushings.

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  • 179.
    Maars, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Thomsson, Patric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    När ”påbörjas” en detaljplan?: en kartläggande studie om begreppet ”påbörjad”2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    1st of January 2015 some changes were made in the Planning and Building Act. This was made because of the Swedish government wanted to make the planning process easier. The law changes include the planning process and the development contracts for detailed development plans. The transitional provisions, however, made a reservation to regulate the situations in which older legislation would be used. The regulation is that older legislation should be used if the detailed development plan were initiated prior to 1 January 2015. The purpose of this study is to investigate when a detailed development plan is initiated.  The study is based on current legislation and its application, this will be investigated using various methods. To interpret the law about the concept, legal dignity approach has been used through different interpretation methods. In order to gain an understanding of how the law is applied, a legal sociological approach has been used. This was done by conducting a questionnaire survey, where all the municipalities in Sweden were asked how they interpret the concept.  This has shown that the term is unclearly defined, as evidenced by the varying answers received from the municipalities in the survey. However, the majority of municipalities interpret the concept "initiate" according to the definitions that the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the government have formulated. What is also evident from the study is that the differences in the different legislation are large and that the municipality's conditions change significantly depending on when a detailed plan is "initiated". The study also shows that the units within the municipality interpret the term in a generally similar manner. The result of the legal interpretation and compilation of the survey shows that National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the government's definitions of "initiated" detailed development plan are unclear. And that the existing definitions are in need of clarification for the application of these transitional rules by similar municipalities.  

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  • 180.
    Magnusson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Isaq, Ranin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kortslutningsberäkningar och kontroll av selektivitet för del av mellanspänningsnätet vid AkzoNobel i Stenungsund2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been developed for ÅF Industry, Stenungsund, on behalf of AkzoNobel. The assignment consists of performing short circuit calculations in the program software Vision, in addition establishing a selective plan. When doing short circuit calculations it is the maximum and the minimum values on short circuit power and short circuit current that is calculated, since it is the short circuit current that the protection will break before it does damage on the installation. The selectivity analysis has been done from an overhead network on 10, 8 kV down to a low voltage signal box on 0,525 kV in the plant.

    To be able to complete this mission, data on cables, transformers, rails and protection is gathered. A single line diagram over AkzoNobels plant is later drawn into the software with parameters given by our client. Short circuit calculations are made in the single line diagram in all low and middle voltage switchgear. The selective plan is conducted by placing the protection in the single line diagram, in addition to having the settings added to the Vision. When all protections are installed in the software, they will be marked and in that way, individually or together, be shown in a current-time-diagram. The assessment of the selectivity is that the plant does not get effected by low voltage protection in LSP-10 that is not selective in all fault modes with the closest overhead protection SPAC 331C SPCJ 4D44 in underlying switchgear D.

  • 181.
    Mehmeti, Arsim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Mehmeti, Driton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    En förstudie avseende omfördelning av laster vid företaget Nolato Cerbo AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a preliminary study conducted at the company Nolato Cerbo AB, a company in Trollhättan that produces plastic packaging e.g. for the pharmaceutical industry. The work was commissioned by the consulting firm ÅF Industry AB.

    The company has an electrical installation where some transformers are heavily loaded, while others have much spare capacity. The aim with this work is to investigate what loads are appropriate to reallocate to a new switchgear and to give suggestions on what transformer should feed the new switchgear to get a better utilization of the electrical installation.

    The result shows mainly which loads should be included in the new switchgear and how this should be designed with a capacity that also ensures future expansions. A proposal has been made on a suitable transformer feeding the new switchgear, as this transformer meets the requirements for accessible cables and sufficient reserve capacity.

  • 182.
    Mortada, Mohamad
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Smartphone: Examination of TLS protocol in Appified World2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is evident that users are more comfortable today with using mobile applications rather than web service since the rapid evolution of smartphone and communication services. Due to this, almost all companies have further enhanced, expanded and converted their services into mobile applications in order to accommodate their services with users needs.

    Unfortunately, many studies have revealed that a huge amount of those applications are vulnerable to Man-In-The-Middle attack (MITMA) due to wrong coding or wrong configuration of SSL/TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol which could leak data.

    This study aims to highlight and examine the SSL/TLS protocol used by applications that are always connected from three different perspectives. Firstly, Android and iOS APIs, library and sample code were examined to evaluate the tools and code provided by both platforms. Secondly, applications were examined by applying the TLS implementation tips provided by both platforms and by performing MITMA on different users smartphones. Finally, the user behavior was examined by performing a live demo at the center of Gothenburg city to understand the users awareness of TLS certificate validation warning message.

    The result concluded that misunderstanding of TLS implementation increases the level of unsecure applications that leak data. Performing different MITMA scenarios in this paper proved this. Also, both platforms suffer from high percentage of applications that uses HTTP rather than HTTPS.

    The high percentage of found vulnerable applications during this study proves that developers are unaware to rightly implement the TLS protocol in smartphones applications.

    Furthermore, the results of the live demo revealed that users are unaware of TLS warning message and are also unaware of how to secure their personal data

  • 183.
    Moussaoui, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Idlund, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Livscykelkostnad för ställverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When planning to build switchgears, companies can decide to update the components or they could destroy and rebuild with a new one. The investments differ both economically and in life length of the switchgear. The purpose of this is to validate a calculator orchestrated in excel, which aims to provide a basis for investment regarding switchgears. The work is done for ABB Vasteras where the question of modernizing or destroy and rebuild is a constant dilemma.

    By doing lifecycle cost calculator each of the investments get an individual number which can be compared, and thereby give an indication of which whom is the better. The calculator is created through theories from literature studies and the methods contained are Net present value, Annuity method and Payback method. Variables such as Rate of return, Economic lifecycle and components included are all open for modification in the calculator in order to fit any type of switchgear investment. A conclusion from the work is that the calculator works as a basis for investments and gives a clear indication of the better choice.

  • 184.
    Munther, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Ljunggren, Michel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Studie av insamlad störningsinformation angående elnätets elkvalitet före och efter utförda förbättringsåtgärder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out on behalf of the Power Quality Department, Vattenfall Distribution, Sweden. The goal is that by using collected disturbance data from low voltage meters an assessment can be made in how the power quality of the electricity has changed in an area where investments were made to achieve improvements in the electrical grid. Electricity distributor companies are required by law to maintain a good power quality in the supply point of the consumer. To assess what good power quality means Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate have compiled guidelines that is contained in the regulation EIFS 2013:1. This regulation has been frequently used in the project.

    There is a great difficulty in analysing if an electricity network has improved after investments. This is due to the large amounts of data required to be analysed in this project. Often, the amount of data and subsequent analysis tools restricts the analysis process. There are additionally many parameters that affect the process, such as intense weather conditions including snow. It is also common that individual meters report the majority of the power quality disturbance. These meters can create a misleading general view of the grid area. To assess how an investment has contributed to changes in power quality the project group focused on analysing voltage sags and voltage swells. From the grid areas analysed a singular area exhibits improvements regarding the collected disturbances for a project where cable burial was performed. This is substantiated when two similar weather disturbances that occurred within area are compared to each other, one which occurred before the reconstruction and one that occurred afterwards. This concludes that within the grid area the network has become more resistant to disturbances after the investment.

    A similar grid in the surrounding area has been analysed but the clear trends existing in the previous area can not be detected here. By comparing more areas, the project team tries to find out what causes this. The conclusion the group made was that it is difficult to analyse a big grid areas but easy to analyse separate consumer with the available data. The report includes ideas and thoughts of how the interference data from the meters can be used to assess power quality in addition to a discussion of which parameters e.g. weather, may be used for future interesting comparisons with other data.

  • 185.
    Naamanka, Jani
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Prestandaundersökning av en Cisco Catalyst 3560 v2 med stora mängder ACL:er2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s datacentre, security is put on the gateway or on an ASA. Now there’s a new technology being developed that’s called VXLAN. With this new technology Cisco and VMware are choosing to put security at the virtual machines. Cisco’s solution is to put the security on so called leaf switches and VMware’s solution is to put their security on virtual gateways. The aim of this study was to see how a Cisco Catalyst 3560 v2 reacts with big chunks of ACLs configured on it. What this investigation wanted to attain was to see if a switch can manage the big chunks of ACLs but also to see how the switch reacts, either it restarts or becomes so slow that the network can’t be used.. The investigation was done by connecting several computers to a switch and after that send packets in wire speed.

  • 186.
    Naeimy, Rahman
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Al Joumajla, Najlaa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Eldistributionssystem för en processanläggning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a diploma work done at Preem refinery which is the largest facility in the oil refinery in Scandinavia. Preem refinery plans to build a new substation to meet the power requirements arise a new vacuum distillation plant. A literature study has been carried out and all theory based on facts are brought from our visit to Preem refinery. The facts collection of literature and communication created by the supervisor at Preem refinery, the report discusses how the approximate principal solutions, the construction of the substation should be and what aspects should be taken into account. That report provides a brief overview of the structures, and discusses some basis of a fundamental principle solutions required to achieve the target safety, reliability and maintainability. The report presents brief proposals on substations configurations in accordance with the purpose. Consideration has been given to the earth system needed to protect the facility and property. The transformer location as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both options have been considered. The work brings together a recommendation on the design of control rooms with facilities for switchgear, auxiliary power systems plus battery. The report presents substations with different function types, construction principles / design as well as various modifications of group types. This report includes various methods and suggestions regarding the maintenance aspect. Condition monitoring is the most effective option in terms of maintenance and this can be addressed through different methods and assumptions. The operational availability can be optimized by having access to an existing stock of spare parts in place. A well-functioning method or ordering system for storing and consumables to minimize the risk of downtime.

  • 187.
    Nielsen, Tim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Grafikortsberäkningar på Android: utvärdering av Renderscript2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport kommer möjligheten att använda grafikkortet för att göra beräkningar som normalt utförs på processorn att undersökas och fokus kommer att läggas på Renderscript.Valet av att fokusera på Renderscript föll sig naturligt då Renderscript inte har studerats och utvärderats i samma utsträckning som OpenGL ES och OpenCL. Som testplattformer används Samsung Galaxy S3 och Samsung Galaxy S5 men resultaten är applicerbara på alla bärbara enheter som använder Android som operativsystem.Genom att undersöka tidsåtgången hos olika lösningar för GPGPU på Androidmobiler har en jämförelse kunnat göras mellan Renderscript och det idag mer frekvent använda OpenGL ES.Renderscript är mer användarvänligt än OpenGL ES något som eftersöks hos GPGPU lösningaroch i detta arbete visas Renderscript också kunna exekvera mycket snabbt. Mendetta var bara i bästa fall men dessa resultat kunde inte replieras i egna skript för att nå det bästa fallet kommer utvecklare behöva mer hjälp i form av bättre dokumentation eller exempel som saknas i nuläget. Resultaten från de skript som skrevs med Renderscript var så dåliga att OpenGL ES i nuläget fortfarande är det främsta valet för GPGPU på Androidmen Renderscript ser ut att vara ett lovande alternativ.

  • 188.
    Nilsson, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Persson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Nevanperä, Pontus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av problem inom småskalig vattenkraft och faskompensering av asynkrongenerator i ett vattenkraftverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this thesis includes what causes disruptions in small hydropower stations with asynchronous generators and what requirements the power grid owners have. This was made through a survey that was sent to a group of members in Svensk vattenkraftförening (SVAF). The thesis includes general information about small hydropower stations and how they are constructed. The survey shows that the ones that are affected by short disruptions in production is often caused by grid loss while longer disruptions, over a week, is often caused by mechanical failure. The electrical failures that are caused by problems in capacitor banks or generators have only in a few cases caused disruption for a longer period of time. The survey shows that the requirements from the power grid owners towards the owners of the hydropower station vary. The majority of the responders claim that they have reactive power compensation installed but only a few of them are within the recommended interval that is set by the AMP.

    In the second part of the report a small hydropower station where an asynchronous generator consumes more reactive power than the agreement with the power grid owner allows. Therefore the owner needs to reduce the reactive power usage from the grid or pay a fee. The purpose is to find a solution on how to reduce the required reactive power from the grid. The thesis also includes different aspects to consider when installing a capacitor bank. To reach an accepted level of reactive power usage from the grid, an idle current compensation is recommended. The conclusion of this thesis is that a capacitor bank within the size interval of 21,2 - 26,1 kVAr is required and the payback time of this investment will be approximately six years.

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  • 189.
    Nilsson, Eric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Carlzon, Conny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Comparing how iSCSI is affected on different switch models, regarding buffers and ASICs2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores and measures if an iSCSI storage solution is better suited with per-port, per ASIC or a shared buffer memory switch environment. A real topology with physical equipment was used, in order to get as accurate measurements as possible.Variables such as number of ASICs and link speed were included in the test method

  • 190.
    Nilsson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rosén, Charlotta
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Attefallshus: hur ser utvecklingen ut?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On July 2nd 2014 a law Change was performed, concerning building-free measures. This suggestion would make it possible to build a 25 square meters building, without building permit. This building is also known as an Attefall house and can be found in PBL 9:4 a. The thought behind this change is to get a more flexible process and that smaller buildings can be built faster, when the building permit isn’t requested. These small buildings could be future homes especially for young people or newly arrived people. In this study it’s investigated how the development has taken place for Attefall house -  how many starting clearance and final clearance and what the main uses are. This report will also look at the supervision when it comes to an Attefall houses. The court case MÖD P 7514-15 is a case that perhaps will be important for routines at the building committees. The Court contradicted what is said in PBL 13:15, that only the applicant can appeal a refused start clearance. In the future can this case create controversy among the building committees and their routines around this moment because the court rules against what the law states. That´s why this question is investigated - to see if the building committees have to change anything since the court case became known. The study was conducted in all Building Committees in Västra Götaland. The study is using both legal, quantitative and qualitative methods, for example questionnaire and practice study. The result of the study shows that the development of an Attefall house appears to be the same now as it was in the beginning. Since the law change took effect has 1262 starting clearances and 311 finish clearances been granted in Västra Götaland. These are relatively evenly distributed between 2014 and 2017, no clear trend could be noted. And it seems to be the same throughout all years. When it comes to applications, Attefall house is mainly built as an accessory building and is used as storage, guesthouse or garage. The conclusion was that the development of Attefall house in Västra Götaland also seems to be the same as when the law change came into effect.  Regarding the question about routines of supervision, how the building committees handles the situation when a neighbor arrive with a complaint about an Attefall house, the answers were a little bit different. 70 % of the Building Committees who answered the question properly handled the situation by starting a supervisory case if suspected there are reasons for it. Remaining Building Committees had different answers, for example that they passed the appeal to a supreme court or simply didn’t allow the neighbor to complain.  

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  • 191.
    Nisén, Rickard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Salman, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Beredning av kabelnät i Follingbo på Gotland och kartläggning av olika förläggningsmetoder2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is divided into two parts, a preparation and a survey of the different methods for underground power cable. The thesis contains a general description of how the preparation can be carried out, different methods for underground power cable and a preparation made in Follingbo Gotland. The discussion section includes the different methods for underground power cable, while the resulting preparation is described in Chapter 4.

    In the current situation there are air carried power lines supplying customers in the area. With the preparation GEAB wants to weatherproof its grid by placing air lines in the ground. The project consists of about 4.6 km high voltage overhead lines and about 2.5 km low-voltage cables.

    The planned network consists of about 7 km high voltage cable and about 5 km low voltage cable. It also includes 5 new substations and 7 cable cabinets in the project. All high voltage is 10 kV and low voltage 0.4 kV. The preparation was performed on NEKTAB for GEAB. This preparation is the third stage of a larger project.

  • 192.
    Nisén, Rickard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Vaern, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Dokumentation av överbelastade transformatorer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was performed at Nossebro Energy. The goal was to identify any overloaded transformers in Nossebros power grid. The report's theoretical part is mainly about trans-formers and the effects of overloading them. Existing data from Nossebro Energy were used to do the survey. The calculations of the transformers were done in the software Mickel. The result of the calculations could then be displayed as a list with the work load for each transformer. It turns out, that twelve of the 199 transformers in the survey had a loading rate above 100%. On six of the twelve transformers a more thorough investigation could be made, because the underlying customers had meters with hourly readings.

    To make the survey, infor-mation about customer consumption was needed for each transformer. Nossebro Energy have two types of meters to bill subscribers: MILAB for measuring the hourly consump-tion and TURTLE for measuring monthly consumption. Elvira was used to see what type of meter each customer were using. MActor was used to see the customer consumption hourly. The survey was to compare the consumption of the transformer rated power. The results of the survey showed that one of the six transformers were overloaded. One of the reasons why the result from the hourly survey and the result from Mickel varies is believed to be because Mickel performs calculations of effects with Velander.

  • 193.
    Nordén, Jennifer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Jinhagen, Olivia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lösningar för sommarparkering i kustorter: En jämförelse mellan Båstad, Orust och Tjörn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The car has for a long time been in the center of society planning and has characterized the street network. Therefore, both public parking spaces are required for visitors but also accommodation. The parking spaces can be arranged both inside and outside the local plan. Regardless of the choice of process, construction permits are required for parking facilities. The society is now in a developmental phase where norms and policies is heading for a sustainable development. Many municipalities choose to control the number of parking spaces to promote the choice of alternative transportations.  This study handle smaller coastal municipalities along the west coast which is affected by a drastically increased population during the summer. This increased population is causing a large number of drivers and a major parking demand. The participating municipalities are Båstad, Orust and Tjörn whose practical solutions are compared. 

    The study is a mapping of the municipalities’ practical solutions and its approach to parking problems during the summer. With the help of this survey, other municipalities can be inspired and guided.  Semi-structured interviews with three different officials in each municipality showed comparative criteria and based on this a result was produced. The three municipalities proved to have different solutions to the parking problem, such as changing the location of parking spaces, alternative transportations or temporary parking spaces. Båstad municipality has chosen to build a larger parking lot outside the city center, where drivers are referred by signage. Orust municipality has arrange rental bikes for visitors and is investing in a new walking and cycling network. Tjörn municipality chooses to set up provisional parking spaces to cover increased needs.

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  • 194.
    Nyberg, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Riskbedömning och underhållsstrategier för ABB:s högeffektlaboratorium i Västerås2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the upcoming years, ABB's high power laboratory in Västerås is facing a period of reinvestments. In order to facilitate the decision-making, and to lay the foundation to effective maintenance programs for new equipment, it is important to have a clearly defined maintenance strategy, including methods to adequately assess the plant and its risk factors. The aim of this report is to suggest such strategies and risk assessments methods.A literature study of maintenance engineering, followed by a qualitative study of the high power laboratory's prerequisites, leads up to a maintenance strategy based on the primary business strategies of ABB Corporate Research. Assigning a risk class to different components enables a risk-adapted maintenance schedule to be deployed. These risk classes are the weighted result of qualitative risk assessments that includes both economic and human consequences. The cohesive structure in this strategy is the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), hence the importance of its data being thorough, complete and searchable.At the high power laboratory, risk assessments in areas related to personal safety is commonly used, and the technical skills within ABB Corporate Research's own personnel is high. Thus, the step of implementing a qualitative risk assessment approach to maintenance management should be fairly straight forward.

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  • 195.
    Ohlsson, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Riskanalys av nätverksdokumentation åt finansbolag2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation and routines are important for a network engineer. The networks get more complex, the devices become more advanced and the number of devices we attach to the network is increasing. To make the networks more secure with high availability we need documentation and routines. Documentation is a great tool when working proactively with networks.

    This report is a review of a company's documentation and routines. The analysis focuses on the documentation for the network and compares it with the demands. The company works with finances so the demands are many and high.

    The report describes which methods that are used to get the result. The risks with not updating the documentation are described in form of a risk analysis. The object of the risk analysis is decided by the results of the first review.

    The result of the review shows which documentation that is good and which that needs improvement. The documentation that needs improvement gets proposals for action so they follow the demands.

  • 196.
    Oleryd, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Askevik, Karl-Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Nätplan för fördelningsstation M4 Torsby2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is made on behalf of Kungälv Energi AB. The purpose of the thesis is to establish a network plan for the area M4 Torsby that can be used as a foundation for reconstruction and investments in the area. The network plan contains a geographical description that provides an overview of the area including ground conditions and nature reserves. It also procures condition monitoring of the power network to detect its strengths and weaknesses in normal and reserve operation. To detect if the network can handle future loads a simulated scenario has been made.

    M4 Torsby consists of five lines which supply 1949 customers. Calculations show that a specific part of line L403 and some transformers around the area are overloaded during normal operation. The area can be alternately supplied. Calculations on the simulated future show that the network can handle future loads in both normal and reserve operation if the overloaded part of L403 is upgraded.

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  • 197.
    Olofsson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöman, Hampus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Fog computing - moving services in the fog based on client location2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The modern world is shifting towards a more connected society as more smart technologies are readily available. This causes a large influx of data being sent to the cloud for computing. Fog computing was created to support the cloud by moving computing power closer to the edge. However, fog computing currently lacks the capabilities to move a specific service depending on the location of a client. This thesis created a proof of concept that allows a service to detect a user's location and move itself to a fog node closer to the user. This was achieved by developing a prototype which was able to gather information about the connection and determine where to move the service to obtain the closest proximity to the user. With a successful prototype achieved a conclusion is drawn that the concept of moving a service depending on the location of a client is possible. Together with this conclusion several limitations and performance issues are brought up and discussed together with workarounds and possible solutions.

  • 198.
    Olofsson, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Java jämfört med C#, vilken sorterar snabbast på Raspberry Pi?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Java and C# is set against each other and running on a Raspberry Pi to see if they have similar processing times, or if there is a clear difference between the two languages.

    As Java-engine HotSpot will be used and Mono for C# and they will sort vectors with sorting algorithms from the language's support library and one implemented algorithm based on selection sort. This work is for those who want to work with an object-oriented language on Raspberry Pi, but has not decided yet on which one to choose. The result shows that Java performs better than C# in most cases, but in some cases C# is performing better.

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  • 199.
    Olson, Erica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Segerlind, Ellinor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Villkorade lov eller startbesked enligt PBL 4 kap. 14 § 1: planbestämmelsens förekomst och  tillämpning i detaljplaner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The questions about the use of land and water plays a central part in the work for a sustainable development. To achieve an efficient usage, it’s important that land and water is used for the purpose it’s most suited for. In some cases, different actions are necessary for an area to be suitable for its purpose. To ensure that actions are executed, before the usage of land changes, different conditions can be established as a plan regulation in detail development plans. The plan regulation is called conditions for permit or starting clearance. This study address the conditions dependent of a facility development. The paragraph can be found in the Planning and Building Act 4 Chap. 14 § 1.

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate if and in such case how the municipalities of Sweden use the plan regulation. To achieve this the study mapped which municipalities that use plan regulations and in what extent. It’s also investigated in what context the plan regulations are used. The study also examines definitions of terms stated in the Planning and Building Act, preparatory work or legal praxis and how the municipality interpret some of these terms. To investigate this fact both a quantitative, qualitative and legal method were used. The study covers all the detail development plans that went into legal force during 2016 among all the 290 municipalities in Sweden.  The result of the study discovered that 36 out of 1142 detail development plans included plan regulations. The use of the plan regulation was discovered in 25 municipalities almost all over the country, with certain concentration at the border of Sweden. The study shows that plan regulations was frequently used in detail development plans close to waterfronts and alps. The result also shows that plan regulations were most represented in cases of sewerage facilities, followed by water supply facilities and traffic. The use of plan regulations when it comes to energy facilities was only represented in one case. The terms that is concerned in the result is carry out and significant changes. Investigations of the definitions of the different terms in the paragraph shows that there weren’t any clear definitions in either Planning and Building Act, preparatory work or legal praxis. Most of the cases shows that the municipality interpret the term carry out according with what is reasonable to fulfil the purpose of the plan regulation.

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  • 200.
    Olsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Larsson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lokalkraftsbehov i transformatorstationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the auxiliary power requirement in Vattenfall's substations. Three common substations - national grid substation, regional grid substation and distribution grid substation - have been studied. All substations need auxiliary power to function properly. Auxiliary power is what powers the substation equipment, for example motor drives, transformer cooling, control equipment, heating and lighting.

    Auxiliary winding is one solution to supply auxiliary power, which is the option that Vattenfall commonly uses. The winding is placed in the main transformer and consists of a few turns around the iron core. The voltage from an auxiliary winding is never exactly 400 V and a matching transformer is therefore required. The report also briefly describes a few other auxiliary power solutions and a few temporary power consumptions.

    The study examines the theoretical auxiliary power requirements and what kind of equipment that has the highest power consumption in each of the three types of substations. The power consumption is divided into three categories, switchgear, control equipment and premises. The calculated auxiliary power requirement is 140 kVA for the national substation, 54 kVA for the region substation and 25 kVA for the distribution substation. The results show that the theoretical auxiliary power requirement in all of the studied substations is lower than the standard auxiliary winding sizes used by Vattenfall, which is 400 kVA, 250 kVA and 100 kVA.

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