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  • 151.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Understanding cooperative learning among teachers and pre-service teachers who integrate computer programming activities in their mathematics lessons2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings, International Association for Technology, Education and Development , 2020, p. 3564-3568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students and professionals with background in technical subjects are increasingly opting for a teaching career as a result of a conscious plan from the Swedish government to facilitate transition and completion of a teaching degree. One of the expected benefits from this measure is that students with broader academical and professional experiences could bring that knowledge into their future teaching practice and share it with in-service teachers during their practicum. The purpose of this study is to understand the subjectivities and practices of teachers and pre-service teachers as they engage in professional development activities together. Michel de  Certeau’s work on practices of everyday life serves as a lens for bringing forward the tensions and opportunities that appear in cooperative learning settings within external policy constrains. The motivations of mathematics teachers and preservice teachers that participate in computer programming training activities are analyzed in terms of tactics and strategies that preserve individual autonomy and group coherence and that allow them to make their own spaces within imposed structures. Some teachers resorted to avoidance tactics to escape reporting about their programming assignment, such as postponing it to future meetings or claiming time constrains, while others considered programming  activities  as  intruders  that  obstructed  their mathematics lessons and introduced moments of struggle, deception, confrontation and resignation. This sheds light upon how the practical and intellectual production that schools expect to reap from the process is disseminated increative alliances but leaves also a sense of deprofessionalization in the community.

  • 152.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Andersson, Jens
    Johansson, Anders
    Nilsson, Pål
    Gender and Programming: A Case Study2005In: Proceedings 2005: 3:e Pedagogiska inspirationskonferensen 31 maj 2005, Lund, Sweden, 2005, article id 3c9e8a1b-e904-4091-91d3-a5512d3a65fdConference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study highlights the effects of gender-related learning styles on a computer programming course at introductory level of engineering education. It was triggered by the observation of statistically relevant under-achievements among female students over the years. We try to identify concrete differences in motivation/learning styles between genders and prove that lack of previous relevant computer experience is not the only factor to blame. The paper analyzes the situation at a LTH course from the point of view of the conflicts outlined in the literature. Data from “before-starting” questionnaires and follow ups for subsequent evaluations expose significant gender differences. Analysis of the course materials and interviews with students reveals problems of constructive alignment and discouragements to the motivation of novice programmers. We investigated several pedagogical methods to adapt teaching and evaluation in order to increase all students’ competence and at the same time reduce the gap between genders. Our key recommendation is to make the separation between the teaching of algorithms and the teaching of the specific language syntax clearer. It is our belief that good teaching of engineering subjects will enhance learning for all students

  • 153.
    Färnefors, Viktoria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Making Sense of Automation: A case study on public values in the automation discourse2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automation is on the rise in the Swedish public sector and it is claimed to be a partial solution to the financial difficulties that many municipalities are facing. Concerns have been raised about how the use of software robots to automate processes could affect the public values that permeate the work in public administration. This thesis investigates how public values are manifested in the discourse among employees in the municipal social services regarding automation in public administration. As the use of software robots is a relatively new phenomena in public administration, there is need for empirical research on the effects. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect empirical data. To complement the interviews, a minor document analysis was performed. The results indicate that efficiency is expressed as the major driver for automation. In relation to other public values a need is expressed to protect or to use safeguards so that other values are not affected in a negative way. To uphold or increase values, like legality, service and quality, measures must be taken as it is not seen as a natural benefit of automation. Automation is expressed as a threat against individual assessments, since the robot cannot make subjective judgments based on citizens unique needs, which is identified as a major concern in the discourse and an important area for future research.

  • 154.
    Färnefors, Viktoria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindman, Oskar
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Användaracceptans av IT inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård: En kvalitativ studie om användaracceptans av ny teknologi under postimplementation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of IT in healthcare is by many considered to have several benefits. On the one hand, it can improve the health care by, among other things, making it more efficient. On the other hand, it can give economic advantages, for example by health care providers being able to save money. At the same time, there are studies showing problems may arise at the implementation of new technologies in healthcare. Problems reported include hesitation regarding the profitability of the technologies, and staff deeming the technology taking up too much time. There have also been reported difficulties in the post-implementation phase, for example increased strain on personnel and worsened communication between staff and patients. In the light of this, this study has investigated which factors influence the user acceptance of IT in healthcare during the post-implementation phase. This study has, with a qualitative approach and based on the theory UTAUT, carried out a number of interviews with personnel working in healthcare who recently took part in an implementation of new technology. Then, the result was analyzed to find out which factors most influence the acceptance of technology in healthcare. The result shows that expected performance is the factor that matters most for acceptance of new technology. The voluntariness and if the usage has become norm in the workplace both have a large effect on whether the technology is accepted or not. When the work routine is of a more complex nature it is also important to have a good understanding of the processes which the technology is built around. The study also shows that there is a need to adjust the UTAUT model to better explain acceptance within the context of Swedish healthcare. The degree of voluntariness should be more than a moderating variable, and a new construct, regarding knowledge about the processes and routines that govern the work in healthcare, ought to be considered.

  • 155.
    Gadolin, Christian
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. Centre for Healthcare Improvement,Department of Technology Management andEconomics, Chalmers University ofTechnology, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Eriksson, Erik
    Centre for Healthcare Improvement, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE), Department of Work Life and Social Welfare,University of Borås (SWE).
    Barriers and enablers of coordination across healthcare system levels2023In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 1-11, article id e2871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination across healthcare system levels is a global imperative to ensure efficient resource utilization and provide high-quality care. The substantial body of research on coordination in healthcare mainly concerns coordination across professional and organizational domains. Consequently, there is a dearth of empirical research aimed at delineating the determinants of coordination across healthcare system levels. This paper describes and analyses the barriers and enablers of healthcare coordination across national, regional, and local system levels in a populous Swedish region. Individual interviews and focus group discussions, encompassing a total of 63 individuals, were conducted with managers, administrators, and politicians. The findings of the paper underscore that the barriers identified were most often of a structural or institutional character, whereas the enablers of the studied cross-level coordination were mostly relational. Therefore, we propose that future research should aim to further delineate the prerequisites for personal relationships to emerge, as well as how they may act as enablers of coordination across healthcare system levels.

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  • 156.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Engineering.
    A Course Designed for "Non-Traditional Students": Who that Might Be?2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Multi-Conference onComplexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2015: and the 6th International Multi-Conference on Society and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2015 / [ed] Callaos, N., Hsing-Wei, C., Sánchez, B. & Tremante, A., International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2015, Vol. II, p. 177-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital era and online education offers new possibilities for distributing higher education to non-traditional students, for instance full-working participants. This article describes experiences based on six years’ experience from an online course designed for non-traditional students. An on-line course in statistics, designed for attracting non-traditional students is used as a case. It is shown that the characteristics of the participants are completely different in comparison to traditional campus students. These differences may be rewarding for teachers and may offer interesting pedagogical opportunities.

  • 157.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Digitalization of Health Care Paves the Way for Improved Quality of Life?2016In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4532, E-ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalization of health care is really a game changer for developing health care. This article gives an, overview, discuss opportunities and reflects on methodological issues in this new era. Important issues discussed include: Could digitalization offer the right chemistry between evidence based medicine and individualization of health care. Does Big Data imply long tail health care? How could patients be co-creators of health care? And, methodological pros and cons with different sources of "evidence".

  • 158.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Engineering.
    Work integrated learning and learning integrated work: a love story between academia and working life?2015In: The 21st International Conference on Information Systems Analysis and Synthesis: General Framework and Plenary, Keynote Speakers of the Spring 2015, 2015, Vol. 13 March, p. 5-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education is perhaps facing the most unprecedented challenges ever. Financial turbulence, high unemployment rates, demographical changes, technological development and increased demands for high competence certainly implies the importance of putting cooperation between academia and working life on top of the agenda.

    The aim with work integrated learning is to enhance learning and prepare for working life by letting knowledge from research go hand in hand with experience based knowledge. This is often discussed in the view of how working life could cross the border into academia. However, a challenge for higher education is to discuss how to cross the border in the opposite direction. How could academia support learning integrated work? How could we foster a new generation of professionals to become boundary crossers, reflective practitioners and be a part of a continuously improved community of practice?

  • 159.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The impact of word of mouth when booking a hotel: could a good friend's opinion outweigh the online majority?2019In: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 289-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online user generated reviews are transforming business and customer behavior and could have a major impact on sales. The primary aim of this study was to measure the impact of online reviews in comparison with the impact of a good friend's opinion. The question in focus was: to what extent could a single review made by a good friend compensate the opinion of the online majority? Subjects were randomly allocated to different versions of guest reviews of a fictive hotel: either constituting a positive or a negative online majority. After reading the reviews, respondents were asked about their booking intention. The respondents were also asked to re-evaluate booking intention given the additional information that a good friend has given a recommendation or an advice against booking the hotel. The study design was experimental and based on a survey which included 1319 respondents who were randomized to the different versions of guest reviews. The results showed that the overall valence of reviews is crucial for booking intention, also the latest two reviews were important even though the effect was much smaller. If the overall valence was negative the latest two reviews had no importance, no matter if these were positive or negative. But, if the overall valence was positive, then the booking intention could be diluted if the two latest reviews were negative. Concerning the primary aim of the study, it is concluded that a good friend’s word of mouth could outweigh the online majority. This means that a negative online majority could be outweigh by a good friend's recommendation and that a positive online majority could be outweigh by a goods friend's recommendation against booking the hotel. 

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  • 160.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Victoria
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Work-Integrated Learning: Impact of Individual and organizational Digitalization on Knowledge management and Expertise Sharing2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2019, p. 3601-3609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim with this study was to examine the impact of digitalization and the use of ICT for knowledge sharing in an organization. A secondary aim was to further develop knowledge management models to also include collaborative knowledge production and expertise sharing. Based on such a model, we developed a questionnaire answered by 265 respondents. We found that the relationship between using ICT for knowledge sharing was correlated to knowledge sharing also when adjusted for established factors like organisational climate and social norms. We conclude that digitalization, both individually and on an organisational level is an important asset for knowledge management, and that the use of ICT could support knowledge sharing beyond known and established important factors.

  • 161.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Work Integrated Learning: a Marriage Between Academia and Working Life2015In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4532, E-ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a demand for increased cooperation between higher education institutes and surrounding society, and different frameworks for such cooperation have been developed. University West in Sweden has a profile calledwork-integrated learning which could be regarded as a systematical approach for combining theory and practice.Actually work-integrated learning has become an ideologyfor the University which permeates all activities, i.e. education, research and cooperation with surrounding society. This article is a review, explaining and exemplifying our approach. We will also discuss strategies and challenges for bringing the relationship between theory and practice into a prospering marriage.

  • 162.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Melin, Jeanette
    The Department of Measurement Sciences and Technology, Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Gothenburg, Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Victoria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Angenete, Eva
    Department of Surgery, SSORG - Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Department of Surgery, Gothenburg.
    Are patients willing to take a more active role?: Questionnaires to measure patients’ willingness to be empowered2022In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 741-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    One crucial prerequisite for increased patient empowerment is the willingness among patients to take a more active role. The aim of this study was to develop questionnaires for measuring a patient’s willingness to be empowered in general and by using e-health.

    Methods

    The study was based on a random sample from an online panel. The 800 responders were Swedish citizens and reflected the internet-using population in Sweden regarding age, gender, income, and education. The measurement properties were evaluated according to the Rasch Measurement Theory.

    Results

    The analyses showed two questionnaires with adequate fit to the basic measurement model and with high reliability (PSI 0.84 and 0.89, respectively).

    Conclusion

    We conclude that this study generated two questionnaires with an intuitive order of items illustrating an understandable progression of willingness to be empowered in general as well as for e-health.Practice implicationsThe suggested questionnaires are valuable tools supporting the effort to tailor empowerment strategies to meet the patient’s willingness. Questionnaires will also be valuable for evaluating strategies for supporting willingness, studying factors related to willingness and potential inequalities due to e.g. varying digital literacy, and for enabling identification of patient stereotypes using cluster analyses.

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  • 163.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Do Municipal Facebook Performance and Citizen Satisfaction go Hand in Hand?2020In: Electronic journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 30-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relation between municipalities' social media performance and citizen satisfaction withthe municipality. An observational study was conducted, based on four different Swedish national public data sources. Thestudy shows that municipalities' Facebook performance is correlated to citizens' satisfaction with living in the municipalityand with satisfaction with municipal service provision. There was however no significant relationship between Facebookperformance and satisfaction with transparency and influence from a citizen perspective. In conclusion, one importantimplication of the study is that citizen perception regarding whether a municipality is a good place to live in or not is related to the use of social media for promoting the municipality. Furthermore, a relation between satisfaction and citizenperception of government service performance implies that social media could be valuable for interaction and co-creation.Finally, an implication is that usage of social media and the potential relationship to trust, influence and transparency mustbe further elaborated and studied. Overall, our recommendation is that municipalities and their citizens may benefit fromwell thought-out strategies of how to use social media for marketing, interaction and co-creating.

  • 164.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rawshani, Nina
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden, Department of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bång, Angela
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gelang, Carita
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden, Department of Ambulance and Prehospital Emergency Care, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan-Otto
    Department of Ambulance and Prehospital Emergency Care, Skaraborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anna
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    Department of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Could prioritisation by emergency medicine dispatchers be improved by using computer-based decision support?: A cohort of patients with chest pain2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 220, p. 734-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate whether a computer-based decision support system could improve the allocation of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or a life-threatening condition (LTC). We hypothesised that a system of this kind would improve sensitivity without compromising specificity. Methods: A total of 2285 consecutive patients who dialed 112 due to chest pain were asked 10 specific questions and a prediction model was constructed based on the answers. We compared the sensitivity of the dispatchers' decisions with that of the model-based decision support model. Results: A total of 2048 patients answered all 10 questions. Among the 235 patients with ACS, 194 were allocated the highest prioritisation by dispatchers (sensitivity 82.6%) and 41 patients were given a lower prioritisation (17.4% false negatives). The allocation suggested by the model used the highest prioritisation in 212 of the patients with ACS (sensitivity of 90.2%), while 23 patients were underprioritised (9.8% false negatives). The results were similar when the two systems were compared with regard to LTC and 30-day mortality. This indicates that computer-based decision support could be used either for increasing sensitivity or for saving resources. Three questions proved to be most important in terms of predicting ACS/LTC, [1] the intensity of pain, [2] the localisation of pain and [3] a history of ACS. Conclusion: Among patients with acute chest pain, computer-based decision support with a model based on a few fundamental questions could improve sensitivity and reduce the number of cases with the highest prioritisation without endangering the patients.

  • 165.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Www means win win win in education: some experiences from online courses in applied statistics2010In: OZCOTS 2010 Proceedings of the 7th Australian Conferenceon Teaching Statistics / [ed] Helen MacGillivray & Brian Phillips, Statistical society of Australia , 2010, p. 51-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the experiences from online courses in applied statistics. The courses were designed with the ambition of making studies in statistics, fun, interesting, useful, not that difficult and directly supported the possibility to combine studies and work. When designing the courses we considered three dimensions: "pedagogies","community" and "structure". Experiences after giving a first-year course three times show that the online course succeeds in attracting new studen ts since 90% of the participants would not be able to follow an on-campus course and 62% worked full time.

    The pedagogies were highly appreciated because focusing on the interpretation of results and using computer analyses really changed the prejudices about statistics. Structure and prompt feedback was experienced as important factors. It was possible to combine online studies with employment, and the student completion rate was (84%, 55% and 61%), with a potential for further improvements.

  • 166.
    Ghadban, Zahra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Massoumnataj, Dennis
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Trafiksäkerheten med autonoma bilar: Faktorer som kan påverka trafikanters uppfattning kring säkerheten med autonoma bilar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous cars are one of the most anticipated technologies that are rapidly evolving in the world today. The autonomous cars have already been applied on the roads today and will most likely continue to be applied in the future with the benefits they bring. But despite all the benefits, the society can still feel insecure about whether it can actually rely on fully autonomous cars. It is important that people feel safe both when they are in the car and when they are in the surrounding traffic. The study examines whether gender, age, trust and awareness have an impact on how people in the Swedish society perceive the safety of autonomous cars in the traffic. A quantitative research method in the form of a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was answered by a total of 265 respondents between the ages of 18-50+ of which 121 were men and 144 were women. The data collected was then analyzed through the statistical platform SPSS Software. The study reported that no association could be indicated between gender and the safety perception of autonomous cars and also for the factor age. However, a correlation was discovered for both factors trust and awareness.

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  • 167.
    Gillberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Moment 22: sambandet mellan systemförvaltning och den uteblivna måluppfyllnaden vid övergång till ehandel hos en offentlig organisation i Sverige.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of e-commerce has become an established term for various businesses that in various ways occur via the internet. This study has its focus on e-commerce in the public sector in Sweden. In Sweden e-commerce is introduced in the public sector continuously. It has been introduced in various degrees. Today more than one third of the local government organizations in Sweden and more than half of the country council management organizations have embraced e-commerce.

    The research question for this study is:

    What conditions can affect an organization’s progress toward goals regarding e-commerce project viewed from a system management perspective?

    The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the conditions that may affect a public organizations progress towards goals for e-commerce projects, from a system management perspective. The study is qualitative in nature. The empirical data,in the form of a case study was gathered through interviews and document studies in the municipal administrative organization. The theory in the study was collected through literature with presentation of research in the area of system management and organizational theory.

    Two conditions were observed in the study. These conditions have led to the consequence that the progress towards goals for e-commerce project in the organization where the case study was conducted not has been achieved:

    1. Competence and resources: The organization has not had sufficient staff resources dedicated to system management for the entire e-commerce lifetime of the organization.There is lack of resources with the right IT skills in the current situation

    2. The vertical organization: The online ordering system is not designed for the type of vertical organization as public organizations has. The organization where the case study was conducted has implemented an order process that is not consistent with the intended order process online ordering system. The organization made this adjustment to overcome the problems it brings to have a system that is not adapted to the organization's structure.

    The two conditions that were observed during the study has direct connection to the consequence that the organization has failed to reach its goal with the e-commerce adoption. The study demonstrates the link between the organization’s failure to progress towards the goals with the e-commerce project and the management of the e-ordering system. The result is that the organizations did not reach their goals to turn over to e-commerce. The goal for all public organizations is that all their outbound orders for goods and services electronically with the exception since it is unsuitable to manage them electronic by confidentiality or security reasons.

  • 168.
    Gjellebæk, Camilla
    et al.
    Østfold University College, Halden, Norway (NOR).
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bjørkquist, Catharina
    Østfold University College, Halden, Norway (NOR).
    The Dark Sides of Technology: Barriers to Work-Integrated Learning2020In: Augmented Cognition: Human Cognition and Behavior / [ed] Schmorrow Dylan D. & Fidopiastis Cali M., Springer International Publishing , 2020, p. 69-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization and technology are interventions seen as a solution to the increasing demand for healthcare services, but the associated changes of the services are characterized by multiple challenges. A work-integrated learning approach implies that the learning outcome is related to the learning environment and the learning affordances available at the actual workplace. To shape workplace affordances it is of great importance to get a deeper understanding of the social practices. This paper will explore a wide range of managers' and professionals' emotions, moods and feelings related to digitalization and new ways of providing healthcare services, as well as the professionals' knowledge and experiences. Zhang's affective response model (ARM) will be used as a systematic approach and framework to gain knowledge of how professionals and managers experience and experience digitization of municipal health services. The research question is: How can knowledge about dark sides of technology reduce barriers to work-integrated learning?This paper is based on a longitudinal study with a qualitative approach. Focus group discussions were used as method for collecting data. The findings and themes crystallized through the content analysis were then applied to the Affective Response Model as a systematic approach to gain more knowledge about professionals and managers' experiences and how that knowledge can reduce the barriers to work-integrated learning. Understanding of, and consciousness about the dark sides of technology and the professionals' affective responses may support the digitalization of the sector and the development of the new ways of providing healthcare services.

  • 169.
    Gjellebæk, Camilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Østfold University College, Faculty of Health and Welfare, P.O. 700, Halden, 1757, Norway (NOR).
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bjørkquist, Catharina
    Østfold University College, Faculty of Health and Welfare, P.O. 700, Halden, 1757, Norway (NOR).
    Fladeby, Nina
    Østfold University College, Faculty of Health and Welfare, P.O. 700, Halden, 1757, Norway (NOR).
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Management challenges for future digitalization of healthcare services2020In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 124, article id 102636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    eHealth is considered a solution to current challenges in healthcare. However, its use is not very well developed, and its potential has been little exploited. There are many reasons for the limited diffusion of eHealth. Knowledge, opportunities for training and collaborative activities are examples of factors that influence diffusion. Managerial responsibility is decisive in transforming healthcare. This paper aims at exploring middle management strategies that can facilitate workplace learning when introducing eHealth and new ways of providing healthcare. Introduction of eHealth will imply new and innovative working processes, where both employees and managers need to be aware that their work will change fundamentally, from routine work to work that involves learning, skills development and continuous changes in work practice. This study takes a qualitative approach by analysing data collected through focus group interviews. The findings indicate a necessity for a shift towards learning-oriented leadership and adaptive management that emphasizes employee involvement and opportunities for learning. Helping employees make sense of the complexities associated with continuously changing work practices is another identified middle management strategy. Scenario planning and backcasting stand out as suitable tools for sensemaking in complex organizations and as techniques that can promote workplace learning. © 2020 The Author(s)

  • 170.
    Granat Petersen, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Virtuell verklighet, din personliga terapeut?: – VR-teknik som alternativt medium för mindfulness och avslappningspraktik2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is a growing problem in today's society, and the pursuit of finding peace in ourselves is to be something we seek to maintain health, as diseases such as fatigue depression and burnout are becoming more common, as well down in the ages. Society is also becoming more technology-based, which could be a development that makes us feel a wider range of our medial consciousness and inner self. But could it also be used for something positive? That question piqued our interest in investigating the matter in this essay. VR technology allows us get the experience of being in a different place from the one we are physically. You do not have to leave home to have an hour in the Canary Islands or to sit on a mountain peak in the Alps. Both of these alternative sites feel very attractive for a person who needs to disconnect from the stress of everyday life for a while. Meditation and mindfulness are something that is discussed and exercised more and more. It is a trend that, with our digitized society, has become a counterweight to take us back to our medial nature. In this paper we investigate how the combination of VR and meditation could have the potential of becoming a good complement in treatment of everyday stress, what benefits and disadvantages might discovered etc.. To our data collection we have combined studies of previously done research on, among other things, VR as therapy as well as the effect of mindfulness at workplaces, together with a self-made study, where we allowed a small number of people to test for VR meditation for about 30 minutes. Participants were then allowed to evaluate their experience of VR meditation using our question as well as an interview.

  • 171.
    Grimmbråten, Erik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Söderberg, Patrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kostnadsfria tjänster i utbyte mot övervakning: En kvalitativ intervjustudie undersökande hur medvetna människors är om hur Google samlar in och hanterar deras personliga integritet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, more people are dependent on Google as a search engine for information or other services offered by Google, both at work and in privacy. With regard to previous surveys that expose a prevailing trend where users possess a naive behavior regarding how they share personal information on the internet, the question of how aware people are about how their personal privacy is exposed on the internet. Significantly more people are currently exposed to cybercrime and internet fraud than physical crimes and fraud, which places a greater demand on defending their personal privacy on the internet.

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate how aware Google users are about what information Google collects about them and what that information is used for. The study also aims to investigate how familiar Google users are to Google's privacy policy and privacy settings, focusing on influencing factors. Finally, the study also aims to investigate users' opinions about Google and whether these views are affected by an improved understanding about how Google collects information about their users.

    Method: A qualitative research approach was used with the intention of obtaining an insight and understanding of the subtle and complex phenomenon that the study intends to investigate. The method consisted of an initial exploratory literature study and an interview study applying semi-structured personal interviews. The selection consisted of eight people with varying sex, occupations, age and previous experience with Google. The analysis of the interview material was performed with an inductive approach inspired by the phenomenological approach and applied content analysis as the selected approach.

    Result: The result shows that people vary in how aware they are about how Google collects and manages their personal information. There is a lack of interest in people to familiarize themselves with and read Google's privacy policy or to make active choices within Google's privacy settings. People stick to their beliefs and values that they had about Google before participating in the study, even after an improved knowledge and understanding of how Google collects and manages their personal information.

    Conclusion: The study presents great challenges about creating a genuine interest and inclination for people to actively protect their personal privacy on the internet. Google is such a big part of people's everyday lives that they agree to be monitored in exchange for access to Google's services. The dependence on Google's services generates a naive behavior in people, who expose their personal integrity to major security risks on the internet.

  • 172.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    A Social Perspective on Implementation of e-Government: A Longitudinal Study at the County Administration of Sweden2012In: Case Studies in e-Government / [ed] Frank Bannister, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International, 2012, 1, p. 120-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Internal Digital Divide in Organizations2012In: E-Governance and Civic Engagement: Factors and Determinants of E-Democracy / [ed] Aroon Manoharan & Marc Holzer, Hershey, US: Information Science Reference, 2012, p. 235-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, internal digital divide problems in organizations are identified and discussed. A longitudinal case study focusing on the implementation of e-Government at a public organization in Sweden is used as a starting-point for the discussion. Although the general use of information and communication technology is very high in Sweden there are still problems with digital divide. Such problems could hamper the implementation process of e-Government. In the case study the older employees were especially stressed and had problems to renewing their competencies and adapting to new working situations due to the implementation of e-Government. Internal digital divide is however a complex phenomenon and involve aspects of learning, motivation, professionalization, management strategies and organizational culture. Some ways of bridging the internal digital divide problems are discussed. Soft systems methodology could be used for analysis and change of internal digital divide aspects involving a discussion with the concerned communities.

  • 174.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lessons learned from the development of an e-circle for munipalities2012In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2012 / [ed] T. Bastiaens & G. Marks, Chesapeake, VA: AACE , 2012, p. 577-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study is analyzed and lessons learned from the emergence of the Sambruk Academia for Swedish municipalities are discussed. The case study of an e-learning project was part of the Innoveta project, supporting and evaluating the establishment of contact centers in Swedish municipalities. An e-circle and video films were developed using Moodle as a Learning Management Systems. The main results were that it is important not to imitate successful solutions from other organizations, because of the different contexts and cultures. Instead good examples could be used in order to inspire, but there is a strong need of initial investigation and understanding of the learning cultures in the organizations, in order to develop e-learning courses that are relevant and used. It is also important to create a project group with members both from the organization and researchers, in order to have a mutual responsibility and understanding of the work.

  • 175.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Karlsson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Brukares användning av och inställning till välfärdsteknologi i hemmet2021In: Organisering, implementering och användning av välfärdsteknologi: Resultat från eTeam-projektet / [ed] Ann Svensson, Camilla Gjellebæk, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2021, p. 43-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Social media marketing in the wellness industry2013In: Toulon-Verona Conference XVI. USB-minne, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of social media is dramatically changing the way marketing communication is conducted. This paper reports a study regarding the use of social media in the wellness industry. This industry is competitive and utterly dependent on creating mutually beneficial relationships with customers. The purpose has been to investigate the use of social media marketing in the wellness industry. Qualitative methods have been used. In-depth interviews have been carried out with marketing communication professionals in seven leading Swedish SPA-hotels. The data from the interviews were analysed utilising the constant comparative method from the grounded theory approach. As a result dimensions describing the activities, challenges and results of social media in the hotels have been defined. The findings are related to service quality theory, in particular the service dominant logic of marketing, and a comprehensive framework is proposed. The findings should be useful for the scientific understanding of the effects of social media in marketing as well as for companies wanting to communicate in a better way in these new media.

  • 177.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Forsman, Berit
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Obeid, Ayman
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Samverkan och lärande vid implementering av välfärdsteknologi2021In: Organisering, implementering och användning av välfärdsteknologi: Resultat från eTeam-projektet / [ed] Ann Svensson, Camilla Gjellebæk, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2021, p. 52-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Experience Design: Understanding the Role of Technology for Virtual Experiences2005In: WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: New technologies have always teased the imagination of avant-garde artists on how to challenge existing cultural paradigms. For instance, experience design for the creative industries of today provides exciting challenges with a potential to innovate practices and creating new ways of interaction between the artist and her audience. In an ongoing research project we aim at framing the design space for virtual experiences. The paper presents and discusses the role of technology in such context and use three ongoing case studies where ICT has been used to augment and support consumers of cultural experiences. The analysis shows how technology-driven interventions are less oriented towards radical change compared to interventions that are rooted in their nondigital origins. 1.

  • 179.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Experience Design: Understanding the Role of Technology for Virtual Experiences2006In: Proceedings of 29th Information System Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 29: Paradigms, Politics, Paradoxes, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies have always teased the imagination of avant-garde artists on how to challenge existing cultural paradigms. For instance, experience design for the creative industries of today provides exciting challenges with a potential to innovate practices and creating new ways of interaction between the artist and her audience. In an ongoing research project we aim at framing the design space for virtual experiences. The paper presents and discusses the role of technology in such context and use three ongoing case studies where ICT has been used to augment and support consumers of cultural experiences. The analysis shows how technology-driven interventions are less oriented towards radical change compared to interventions that are rooted in their nondigital origins.

  • 180.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Virtual Experiences: Towards an understanding of the role of ICT in the innovation systems of creative industries2005In: Uddevalla Symposium 2005: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions, Uddevalla: Högskolan Trollhättan Uddevalla , 2005, p. 501-512Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Hafström, Angelica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Östfold, (NOR).
    Gjellebæk, Camilla
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Högskolan i Östfold, (NOR).
    Fladeby, Nina
    Högskolan i Östfold, (NOR).
    TUFF – Tillsammans Utvecklar vi För Framtiden: Ett förändringsprojekt för nytänkande och samskapande2021In: Organisering, implementering och användning av välfärdsteknologi: Resultat från eTeam-projektet / [ed] Ann Svensson, Camilla Gjellebæk, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2021, p. 68-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Hagenmalm, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wiberg, Anton
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Information eller intuition: magkänsla vid starten av en designprocess i UX-design2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A design project generally consists of several iterative phases that together create a design process. The initial phase can be initiated by either intuition or information. The purpose of this study was to investigate how practicing UX-designers in Swedish industries initiate their design processes; whether it is intuition- or information-based, and how the different approaches impact the development of expertise. The study was conducted through five qualitative, semi-structured interviews with UX-designers of different ages and work experiences, or expertise. The result shows that no design processes are initiated based on intuition, and that there are good possibilities for implementing robust frameworks, allowing for a more streamlined development of expertise in UX-design

  • 183.
    Hahne, Markus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Att inte vara vän med sina vänner: Vilka är de psykosociala konsekvenserna av ett utanförskap från socialamedier?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social media is increasing among all ages. At the same time, there are thosewho choose to stay offline. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a deeperunderstanding of how social media exclusion affects the individual, what thepsychosocial consequences are and how to cope with those. The study focused on howindividuals within a social network feel that relationships are influenced by socialmedia, when the network consists of both users and non-users. The empirical data wasgained from in-depth interviews with seven individuals of different gender and ageliving in Sweden. Amedeo Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological human scientificmethod was used to find the essence / structure of the phenomena. Antonovsky's theory,Sense of Coherence (SOC), was also applied in the analysis and discussion to link theinformants' experiences to the psychosocial consequences. The result describes thestructure of the phenomena, which is based on a number of psychosocial consequencesfor the individual. Some of the overall consequences were a risk of exclusion, missingout on information and uncontrolled publicity through other people's posts. The generalexperience of exclusion is that it is fine to live without social media and there is no lackof social networks. The result also shows that the consequences are influenced byproximity to social media. However, it is not certain that you have a lower SOC justbecause you are affected by more psychosocial consequences.

  • 184.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Design Principles for E-Learning that Support Integration Work: A Case of Action Design Research2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 11491 LNCS, p. 300-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design principles are prescriptive knowledge that offers theory-based guidelines for Design Science Research in Information Systems. This paper introduces and proposes a set of design principles for e-learning that support integration work. The design principles are proposed based on two cycles of Action Design Research. The cycles were conducted in the organizational setting of stakeholders and end-users known as integration workers, which are responsible for supporting the integration process of newly arrived immigrants of society. Overall, the contributions of this paper are (1) e-learning technologies that support integration work, (2) prescriptive knowledge in form of design principles for designing e-learning technologies that support integration work, and (3) an explicit case of Action Design Research that demonstrates the process of shaping and re-shaping design principles through two different cycles. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 185.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designing for Adaptable Learning2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research in this thesis emphasizes the endeavor of designing for adaptable learning. Designing for adaptable learning is understood as an overall response to designing for integration work. Designing for integration work is thus classified as a special case of designing for adaptable learning. Integration work in this research is understood as a professional practice that aims to improve and support the integration process of newly arrived immigrants (referred to as newcomers) in society. As professional practitioners of integration work, integration workers face daily challenges that are wicked by nature. In order to understand and problematize these challenges, the empirical work of this research was organized and performed within a case of digitalizing the civic orientation program in Sweden. The civic orientation program is a special case of integration work in Sweden, where integration workers organize and provide civic orientation to newcomers in Sweden. Different groups of newcomers are subsequently participating in a required 60 hours of civic orientation and are provided sessions through their native language. The integration workers are responsible for organizing and performing civic orientation through a dynamic process of dialogues, exercises, and more. Integration work as a practice, however, does not incorporate a standardized knowledge base, which provides integration workers a unified way of organizing and performing civic orientation. Instead, different counties and municipalities in Sweden organize and perform civic orientation in various ways. Furthermore, due to the extreme heterogeneity among newcomers as participants in civic orientation, the integration workers are forced to adapt. In turn, the integration workers themselves are heterogeneous due to their different roles, areas of responsibilities, and more essentially, worldviews. In order to understand and problematize the aspects of designing for integration work, an explorative approach was adopted through three consecutive cycles of Action Design Research. The cycles were performed from 2013 until completion of this thesis. The thesis was subsequently governed through three research questions: (1) How to design for integration work? (2)What makes designing for integration work significant? (3) Why do design for integration work? There search questions were addressed and answered through a body of produced knowledge that captures and provides the essential contributions of the thesis. The contributions of the thesis highlight different aspects of designing for integration work, as a special case of designing for adaptable learning. Thus, the contributions are presented and discussed with an explicit bearing toward designing for adaptable learning,as the general class of problems and solutions of this research. The contributions are consequently provided through: (1) an ensemble artifact that is termed a digital platform for civic orientation; (2) an Information Systems Design Theory for adaptable e-learning; (3) a design research methodology that incorporates work-integrated learning; (4) the meta-design of an open learning platform that supports the social integration of newcomers in society; and (5) a philosophical concept that problematizes and conceptualizes the essence of presence in e-learning. Ultimately, the research contributes to the research domains of information systems and work-integrated learning, by providing findings that problematize core aspects of designing for adaptable learning. Furthermore, the thesis extensively discusses the findings of this research by emphasizing a philosophical perspective toward core aspects of the research contributions. Finally, the thesis concludes with a set of limitations of the current research and a brief discussion about potential endeavours of future research.

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  • 186.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kernel Philosophy: A Way of Inspiring and Making Sense of Design in Information Systems Research?2018In: SIGPrag's proceedings, American Information Society , 2018, p. 1-19Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research in progress introduces the concept of kernel philosophy to advance prior discussions concerning design, meta-design, the underlying rationale of design, and the assumptions and values of which a design rationale rests upon. Consequently, the present research proposes philosophy as a kernel that ingrains the assumptions and values of a design rationale, and how an active use of kernel philosophy may establish a reflective attitude to-wards design in information systems research, through two main features (1) sense-making of design/meta-design and (2) inspiring the design/meta-design process. Finally, the paper pro-vides a brief demonstration of kernel philosophy in use and ends with a brief discussion con-cerning limitations and future research.

  • 187.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Revitalizing thoughts on Theory, Theorizing, and Philosophizing in Information Systems2021In: Advancing Information Systems Theories: Rationale and Processes / [ed] Hassan, Nik R., Willcocks, Leslie P. (Eds.), Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 363-395Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book chapter provides revitalizing thoughts on the meaning of theory, theorizing, and philosophizing in the field of Information Systems (IS). More specifically, the chapter scrutinizes and explicates central definitions of theory, theorizing, philosophy, and philosophizing, in the context of developing theoretical implications as a part of a larger theory development project. Additionally, the chapter introduces the concept of kernel philosophiesand conceptualizes different spaces for theory development projects in IS. Finally, the chapter ends with concluding remarks on philosophy and philosophizing as supportive medium for the theorizing process in IS.

  • 188.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Experience of Immersive Virtual Reality: A Phenomenology Inspired Inquiry2023In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, ISSN 1529-3181, E-ISSN 1529-3181, Vol. 52, p. 782-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    mmersive Virtual Reality (IVR) technology is becoming central for Information Systems (IS) research. However, existing studies in IS fall short of providing insights into how the IVR experience becomes meaningful for end-users. To increase granularity and specificity in this regard, researchers have suggested that the IVR experience can become meaningful due to its fleeting feeling of escapism. In this paper, I explore and characterize how individuals use the IVR experience to create meaning in the context of meaningful escapism, by undertaking a phenomenology inspired inquiry, based on Heideggerian views on meaning, meaningfulness, and world. Interviews and analysis were conducted within an empirical case of IVR fire safety training. As a result, four characteristics of the IVR experience as a meaningful form of escapism were unveiled: a sense of content, a sense of familiarity, a sense of mood, and a sense of care. Throughout this study, I offer a nuanced perspective on how the characteristics contribute to clarifyingthe distinctions and relationship between meaning and meaningfulness, as well as how the IVR experience becomes a meaningful escapism that provides an alternative of individual’s being-in-the-world, into a being-in-the-virtual-world, also known as Virtual Dasein. Further, this study contributes to the IS field by advancing the current discourse on IVR research and escapism, from a phenomenological perspective.

  • 189.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Notion of Users in Design Science Research2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Science Research (DSR) has since the last decade become a paradigm within the field of Information Systems (IS). It provides researchers and practitioners within IS with a rich set of tools in terms of methods, theoretical foundations, research validity and other characteristics. This paper investigates what the notion of users is in DSR. It presents results from a small literature review based on 31 DSR-papers. The results indicate a low presence of how DSR-papers conceptualize the concept of users. The paper suggests that DSR hasn’t reached it’s full potentialities in terms of positioning an explicit notion of users, and that it can be a relevant task for further research for IS-researchers in general, and for DSR-researchers in particular.

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  • 190.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Wickedness in Designing IT for Integration Work: A phenomenological account2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In design for complex, uncertain, and ill-natured situations, it is not possible to apply known methods and solutions without having a deeper situational understanding. Such design situations are infected with wicked problems that are contradictory and complex. This paper answers the question of how the wickedness of designing Information Technologies (IT) for integration work can be understood, and what implications the design situation has for the design process. The paper employs a phenomenological account to perform interviews together with stakeholders and users known as integration workers. Based on a phenomenological analysis, four wicked problems are identified to represent the wicked design situation: Struggle of hopes and fears, Contradiction of contingency, Contradiction of social presence, and Uncertainty of reliance. The wicked problems are subsequently addressed as interrelated and have implications for the design process, which is enframed through four proposed design implications: IT for subtle decision makings, IT for cross-boundary interaction, IT for disclosing proximity and distance, and IT for increased empowerment. The implications incorporate a holistic design ontology, which also shows the viability of phenomenology for studying, describing, and understanding how to tackle situational wickedness in design-oriented Information Systems (IS) research.

  • 191.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    A Duality of Digitalization: How Can We Understand the Tension Between Professional's Beliefs and Affordances with Digital Services in Civic Orientation?2015In: Conference Proceedings: ABSTRACTS All Concurrent Sessions Presented at the 19th World Conference on Cooperative & Work Integrated Education, WACE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the last 2 decades, workplaces have been provided with digital services for optimizing work activities and processes. A variety of professions have incorporated their tasks for teaching and learning through the utilization of novel digital services. Teachers and students have the opportunity to interact with each other regardless of geographical locations through distance education and learning. Overall, the phenomenon of digitalization has generated consequences and effects for the society in general, and workplaces and professionals in particular.

        Recently, a notion of digitalization has reached projects conducted on a national level for integrating newcomers in Sweden. The Swedish government has appointed members from University West, together with a municipality in West Sweden to launch a novel digitalization project. The project emphasizes challenges and issues with designing, developing and evaluating an open digital experience in Civic Orientation. This paper examines and discusses a duality of digitalization by investigating how we can understand the tension between professional’s pre-understanding and affordances of digital services in Civic Orientation. We will present results from interviews with professionals at the municipality, together with results from a survey evaluation. We argue in the paper, that it is beneficial for further research, to understand the tension between professional’s beliefs and affordances of digital services.

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  • 192.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    CollaborGeneous: A Framework of Collaborative IT-Tools for Heterogeneous Groups of Learners2015In: New Horizons in Design Science: Broadening the Research Agenda / [ed] Donnellan, Brian; Helfert, Markus; Kenneally, Jim; VanderMeer, Debra; Rothenberger, Marcus; Winter, Robert, Springer International Publishing , 2015, Vol. 9073, p. 376-380Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our designed prototype: CollaborGeneous. CollaborGeneous is a framework of collaborative IT-tools for heterogeneous groups of learners in Civic Orientation. It is designed to serve different types of activities for producing, maintaining, distributing and presenting digital learning-material within Civic Orientation. The significance of introducing our prototype is relevant for both practitioners and researchers within Design Science Research. The novelty of our artifact lies in its characteristic of use in the intersection between Civic Orientation and Information Systems, providing different groups of learner's necessary tools to collaborate and create an open digital experience of Civic Orientation.

  • 193.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An information systems design theory for adaptabe E-learning2016In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605, Vol. 2016-March, p. 4414-4423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Information Systems Design Theory is a prescriptive theory that offers theory-based principles, which can guide practitioners and scholars in the design of effective information systems and set an agenda for on-going research. This paper introduces and describes an ISDT for adaptable E-Learning. We formulate our ISDT based on two cycles of Action Design Research. The cycles were conducted in an authentic organizational setting with end-users, responsible for organizing, producing and distributing civic orientation. Based on our findings, we propose that our ISDT, together with its components, can be used to design, implement and support an information system that incorporates E-Learning, which is not explicitly constrained to the formal context of higher education. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 194.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rossi, Matti
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Introducing PADRE: Participatory Action Design Research2015In: Workshop Programme and Proceedings: AIS SIGPRAG Pre-ICIS Workshop :Practice-based Design and Innovation of Digital Artifacts, SIGPrag , 2015, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action Design Research (ADR) is a Design Research (DR) method that enriches the DesignScience Research (DSR) paradigm, by providing stages and principles for designing IT artifacts and allowing for their emergence in an organizational context. The method has been used and elaborated by scholars, extending the mode of the method and its stages, incorporating and adopting knowledge from related approaches such as Participatory Action Research(PAR) and Participatory Design (PD). In this paper, we have adopted principles and philosophy from PAR and PD to extend and elaborate the AD R method, by providing afront-end of Action Research (AR) that emphasizes learning through incremental iteration. We will introduce our elaborated method as Participatory Action Design Research (PADRE) and demonstrate how we have used it in our own research. We argue that the ADR method can benefit from incorporating learning within and across each and every stage iteratively. We also argue that learning can be used as an repository of knowledge, which informs and gets accumulated for formalization of learning that can be re-used within different cycles of ADR.Hence, we introduce PADRE and provide a model that consists of a set of key-components, which extends and elaborates the ADR method.

  • 195.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rossi, Matti
    Information Systems, Aalto University, Finland.
    PADRE: a Method for Participatory Action Design Research2016In: Tackling Society's Grand Challenges with Design Science: 11th International Conference, DESRIST 2016, St. John's, NL, Canada, May 23-25, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Editors: Parsons, J., Tuunanen, T., Venable, J., Donnellan, B., Helfert, M., Kenneally, J. (Eds.), Springer International Publishing , 2016, Vol. 9661, p. 19-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action Design Research (ADR) is a Design Research (DR) method that enriches the Design Science Research (DSR) paradigm, by providing stages and principles for designing artifacts and allowing for their emergence in an organizational context. The method has been used and elaborated by scholars, extending the mode of the method and its stages, incorporating and adopting knowledge from related approaches such as Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Participatory Design (PD). In this paper, we have adopted principles and philosophy from PAR and PD to extend and elaborate the AD R method, by providing a front-end of Action Research (AR) that emphasizes learning through incremental iteration. We will introduce our elaborated method as Participatory Action Design Research (PADRE) and demonstrate how we have used it in our own research. We argue that the ADR method can benefit from incorporating learning within and across each and every stage iteratively. We also argue that learning can be used as a learning nexus, which informs and gets accumulated for formalization of learning that can be re-used within different cycles of ADR. Hence, we introduce PADRE and provide a model that consists of a set of key-components, which extends and elaborates the ADR method

  • 196.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Chandra Kruse, Leona
    University of Liechtenstein, Vaduz, Liechtenstein.
    Iivari, Juhani
    University of Oulu, Information Systems, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    How Habermas' Philosophy can Inspire the Design of Information Systems: The Case of Designing an Open Learning Platform for Social Integration2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016. Ljungskile, Sweden, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika, 2016, Vol. 7, p. 1-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The notions of immigration and social integration have increasingly become central themes in public discourse,particularly in the European Union. Besides opportunities, this phenomenon also poses challenges to the host nations of promoting social integration of immigrants. Continuing an earlier Design Science Research project that developed an open learning platform for Civic Orientation in Sweden, this paper attempts to extend this platform using Jürgen Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action as an inspiration. We aim at designing a more inclusive open learning platform for social integration that supports instrumental, strategic, normatively-regulated, dramaturgical, and communicative action. We expect to further the relevance of philosophy in IS research by not only making sense of phenomena through philosophical lens, butalso attaining inspirations from philosophy in designing sociotechnical information systems.

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  • 197.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Conceptualizing the Essence of Presence in Distance Education through Digital Dasein2017In: International Journal on E-learning, ISSN 1537-2456, E-ISSN 1943-5932, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In order to learn, presence is necessary. If we experience a genuinely rich presence, exams, tests and other forms of evaluating knowledge are not crucial for learning. In distance learning, the concept of presence is not obvious. Presence in distance and network contexts usually means being active on social media. However, in distance and network learning, something more is needed. It is the face-to-face interaction that needs to be "digitalized". In order to investigate this, we have turned to Heidegger (1927) and the concept of Dasein. The concept of Dasein means to apprehend the existence of the world and not only the world itself. Digital Dasein means to transcend the digital medium and reveal the essence of presence for a more translucent form of e-learning. The need for an artefact mediating Digital Dasein has been identified.

  • 198.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Conceptualizing the essence of presence in E-learning through digital dasein2017In: International Journal on E-learning, ISSN 1537-2456, E-ISSN 1943-5932, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to learn, presence is necessary. If we experience a genuinely rich presence, exams, tests and other forms of evaluating knowledge are not crucial for learning. In distance learning, the concept of presence is not obvious. Presence in distance and network contexts usually means being active on social media. However, in distance and network learning, something more is needed. It is the face-to-face interaction that needs to be “digitalized”. In order to investigate this, we have turned to Heidegger (1927) and the concept of Dasein. The concept of Dasein means to apprehend the existence of the world and not only the world itself. Digital Dasein means to transcend the digital medium and reveal the essence of presence for a more translucent form of e-learning. The need for an artefact mediating Digital Dasein has been identified. © 2017, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. All rights reserved.

  • 199.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Conceptualizing the Essence of Presence in Distance Education through Digital Dasein2014In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2014, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2014, p. 746-754Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve learning, presence is necessary. If we have good presence, no tests are necessary. In distance learning, the concept of presence is not obvious. Presence in distance and network contexts usually means being active on social media. However, in distance and network learning, something more is needed. It is the face-to-face interaction that needs to be “digitalized”. In order to investigate this, we have turned to Heidegger (1927) and the concept of Dasein. The need for an artifact mediating Dasein has been identified. The concept of Dasein is not easy, not even in philosophical terms. It means being somewhere else, and not on the place you are present. We have extended the The Community of Inquiry Model originating from Garrisson & Andersson (2003) by introducing the concept of digital Dasein.

  • 200.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Thapa, Devinder
    University of Agder, Department of Information Systems, Gimlemoen 25, Kristiansand.
    Imparting social values through eLearning platform: A social learning approach2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we have identified a gap with regard to imparting social values in an eLearning platform that was designed for orienting immigrants entering Sweden (newcomers). We identified that an existing eLearning platform is more oriented towards creating awareness rather than imparting transformative learning. Therefore, we propose a conceptual framework suggesting how to bring in the social values in eLearning platform,by subsequently applying social learning approach to promulgate transformative learning in which the learner also internalize the values in their attitude and behavior. The proposed framework makes a theoretical contribution by combining the notion of value, value content, value systems and social learning approach in the eLearning platform. The contribution also has practical implications in terms of providing transformative learning to newcomers. We argue that the contents on social values through the eLearning platform should be transformative, and not only informative. We suggest to integrate social values in the eLearning platform; make the learning transformative, and impart those values through social learning approaches such as triple-loop learning, connecting various communities of practices and to make the platform more interactive and engaging

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