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  • 151.
    Johansson Zanjanchi, Carolina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wirtberg, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravet och bostadspriserna: En studie om prisförändringen på bostadsrätter under perioden då amorteringskravet infördes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the price change on housing during the introduction of the amortization requirement. The essay is limited to condominiums in Gothenburg.

    The Riksbank has in recent years discussed that measures need to be taken to prevent the Swedish housing market from being overheated. One of these measures is the introduction of the 2016 Amortization Claim. It was then legislated that the consumer is forced to amortize a certain percentage per year of his home loan. The amortization requirement was introduced to dampen household debt and block the way towards a potentially overheated market. It is therefore now interesting to examine what the effect of the amortization requirement had on the market.

    The study examines the effect of the requirement using an equilibrium model and a multiple regression with relevant data as a basis. This in the form of several explanatory variables and the amortization requirement as a dummy variable.

    The overall conclusion of the study states that housing prices will continue to increase during the imposition of the amortization requirement, both as a consequence of the introduction as well as a consequence of the impact of other factors.

  • 152.
    Joy Phiri Mwila, Taonga
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Trade and Economic Growth: The Zambia-China case2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the determinants of Zambia’s volume of trade during the period 1997-2012. Specifically we use the gravity model of international trade to panel data for Zambian exports to ten of the country’s major trading partners during the named period and include a dummy variable to single out the effect of China on Zambian exports. The results show that despite the different economic sizes and the distance between the two countries, the effect of exporting to China is a positive one for Zambia and this, in turn, is beneficial to the country’s economic growth. The results of the regression also suggest that despite distance being significant in trade choice it is proven not to be the complete determinant.

  • 153.
    Kadhim, Shler
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Brüls, Maxim
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Estimation of Trade Substitution Elasticities for Swedish Manufacturing Sectors: Armington elasticities at the two-digit ISIC Rev.3 level2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we estimate Armington elasticities for Swedish manufacturing sectors at the two-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification system (ISIC). These elasticities represent the sensitivity of Swedish consumption to relative price changes between imports and domestically produced products. We rework and refine the methodology taken from previous literature to create regression equations that keep intact the mathematical relationship inherent in substitution elasticities. Subsequently, data was taken from Eurostat and the OECD. This data was transformed into time series that correspond to the variables in the regression equations. The time series were tested for integration and cointegration. Out of fourteen manufacturing sectors for which data was available, we recommend five elasticity estimates for further use.

  • 154.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Entrepreneurship, social capital, governance and regional economic development: An introduction2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital And Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, 1, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University and Industry R&D Accessibilty and Regional Growth2008In: Italian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1720-3929, Vol. 7, no 2 (suppl), p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of traditional endogenous growth approaches is their assumption that the stock of knowledge is generally accessible across space. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contribution of R&D to economic growth in Swedish municipalities, taking account of the variation in R&D accessibility among different municipalities. We argue that the interaction possibilities at different spatial scales can be properly represented by an accessibility approach which discounts interaction potentials using travel time distances. Hence, the total accessibility of a municipality is divided into (i) intra-municipal, (ii) intra-regional and (iii) extra-regional accessibility to R&D. The main result of the analysis is that knowledge accessibility in a given period has a statistically significant effect on the growth in value-added per employee in subsequent periods. Furthermore, the knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the growth of another municipality, conditional on the municipalities belonging to the same functional region. The paper also demonstrates that knowledge accessibilities do not affect growth homogenously across municipalities. By dividing the full sample into three categories, the paper shows that knowledge investments have the largest effects on regional growth in municipalities belonging to a large functional region, but not necessarily in the largest municipality in the region.

  • 156.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, .
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Swedish perspectives on creative cities2014In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, ISSN 1466-6650, E-ISSN 1741-5136, Vol. 13, no 2-4, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of what has been written about the role of creativity for urban growth and development and about so called creative cities has used a very narrow definition of creativity and creative occupations and focused on a narrow set of so-called creative industries. This is unfortunate since creativity today is central and increasingly important also in other industries and within universities and research institutes for enhancing economic development. The present paper argues for a wider definition of creativity for the study of creative cities. The purpose is to discuss aspects of creativity and creative cities partly using inputs from the Swedish regional science tradition. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 157.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wixe, Sofa
    Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE),Sweden ..
    Preface2015In: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy: Knowledge, Technology and Internationalization / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Urban Gråsjö, Sofia Wixe, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. ix-xChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, UrbanUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.Wixe, SofiaJönköping International Business School, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Sweden.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy: Knowledge, Technology and Internationalization2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE),Sweden .
    Introduction2015In: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy: Knowledge, Technology and Internationalization / [ed] edited by Charlie Karlsson, Urban Gråsjö, Sofia Wixe, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, International Business School.
    Knowledge, Creativity and Regional Development2012In: The Regional Economics of Knowledge and Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2012, p. 27-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping International Business School, Jönköping University.Stough, Roger R.George Mason University.
    Agglomeration, Clusters And Entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping University,Jönköping International Business School.Stough, Roger R.Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Entrepreneurship, social capital and governance: Directions for the sustainable development and competitiveness of regions2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development. © Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough 2012. All rights reserved.

  • 163.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, International Business School.
    Stough, Roger R.
    George Mason University, Songdo Campus, Korea.
    Introduction: Human Capital and Agglomeration2012In: The Regional Economics Of Knowledge And Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2012, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping University, International Business School.Stough, Roger R.George Mason University, Songdo Campus, Korea.
    The Regional Economics Of Knowledge And Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Warda, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School (JIBS).
    Entrepreneurship and innovation networks2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 393-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we give a general introduction to the notion of entrepreneurship and how it has many complex meanings. Entrepreneurs in new firms but also in incumbent firms have a key role in local, regional and national economic development by taking risks to get things done by developing new combinations of ideas and/or doing things differently. In view of this, two of the main questions that are dealt with are: (1) which features make structural differences in institutions and innovation networks remain invariant between decades, and (2) how knowledge about such features can be employed in policy at the national and the regional level. The research questions highlighted in this special issue relate to many pertinent national and regional policy issues. The most apparent concerns conditions conducive for entrepreneurship in the form of new firms and firm growth. In this paper, we also introduce the different contributors to this special issue.

  • 166.
    Karlsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sera, Sabina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Urbanisering i Europa: Vilka faktorer är påverkande för urbanisering, och hur påverkas urbaniseringen i Europas länder av utvalda faktorer? 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is defined as the proportion of urban population and it is when people in a country move from the countryside to urban areas. The purpose of this report is to examine the factors that urbanization could be affected by. Urbanization is ongoing around the world and the urban population is increasing more and more, which means that rural areas are slowly but surely becoming depopulated. By reviewing previous literature several factors has proved important for the impact of urbanization. Six factors has been selected to examine if they have any impact on urbanization in Europe. The selected factors are GDP per capita, population, export per capita, number of employees, share of labor force and share of the highly educated. The report consists mainly of an analysis of European countries' urbanization during the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Four cross-sectional analyzes has been carried out, where each year were studied separately. The results of the study of urbanization in Europe shows a positive correlation between GDP per capita and the share of urban population. The result is consistent with the reviewed literature and previous similar studies conducted.

  • 167.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Björnbäck, Henrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravet: En effektiv åtgärd på skuldkvoten och på prisutvecklingen av bostadsrätter i Göteborg?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of the amortization requirement on housing prices and it’s change after the introduction. The timeframe for the study is from 2005 to 2018. We are also interested in debt in households which has a crucial part in the housing market. The essay is based on apartments and therefore is limited to the area in Gothenburg. The discussion regarding the amortization requirement have been an interesting subject for quite some time. Many options have been discussed back and forth about what specific measures that needed to be taken to prevent an overheating of the Swedish housing market. Yet, one of the measures was the amortization requirement that was introduced in 2016. The legislation forced the consumer to amortize a specific percentage per year of the mortgage. The requirement was introduced to adjust the debt of households, yet to prevent a housing market which was potentially on its way to being overheated. Due to the intense price increase on households that we have had in Sweden the last couple of years, it is now interesting to examine the virtual effect of the requirement on the housing market. This essay examines the virtual effect by managing an OLS-model and using a multiple regression with crucial and relevant data as a basis. This takes forms with substantial explanatory variables with a following of the amortization requirement as a dummy variable. The conclusion of the study states that the housing prices will have a pattern of price increase both due to the amortization requirement and debt in households. This is the consequence of the introduction of the requirement as wells as the impact of other substantial factors. The essential factors that was mentioned before that affects the house prices was more clear to sum up than the debt in households. It’s hard to draw a specific conclusion on what the specific factor is that influence the real cause. The only common factor was the interest rate and the time or trend.

  • 168.
    Karlsson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Martinsson, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutveckling på småhusmarknaden: Vilka faktorer påverkar prisutvecklingen på den svenska småhusmarknaden, och i vilken omfattning?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    House prices on the Swedish real estate market have increased greatly for the past thirty years, and the most recent developments is the largest. This topic is debated and affects a large part of the Swedish population and the economy in general. There are many theories about what is affecting and have caused this price trend. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the long and short run determinants of the Swedish real housing for the period 1986 to 2016, and the extent to which they affect. To clarify this, cointegration as a simple structural model to determine the relationship in the long term has been used. In the short run an ECM (Error Correction Model) has been used. Each variable is tested for unit root by Dickey - Fuller test and the variables are then tested for cointegration by Engel-Granger test. The study examines the variable real estate price index as the dependent variable, and the variables mortgage interest rates, disposable income, unemployment and dwellings completed as explanatory variables. We have used the time series for the period 1986 to 2016, and used quarterly data. The results of the regressions show that all the variables are significant and thus has a connection with the house prices. Disposable income and dwellings completed have a positive impact and if those increase, then the housing prices increase as well. Unemployment and interest rates, however, have a negative impact and if those increase, house prices will decrease in the long term. In short term the result shows that Sweden is in a housing bubble and actions are required to correct the prices to equilibrium level. The study's findings are in line with previous studies.

  • 169.
    Karlsson, Linn
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fredriksson, Linda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Humankapitalets inverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt: En kvantitativ analys som undersöker sambandet mellan humankapital och den ekonomiska tillväxten inom den Europeiska Unionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has five main targets for year 2020 to promote a smart and sustainable growth. Two of these targets are focused on further investments in the so called human capital. Human capital stands for a person’s education, knowledge and health. The aim of this study is to highlight which components of the human capital that affects the economic growth. This quantitative analysis in conducted through a multiple linear regression based on cross-sectional data over the member countries in the European Union. The relationship is analyzed for two different points in time, which represents today and 20 years ago. The result shows a positive significant relationship between investing in fixed capital and the economic growth for both points in time. Furthermore, the results show a positive significant relationship between population growth and the dependent variable 20 years ago. Finally, the results also show a negative relationship between health and economic growth today. The regression results together with previous research cannot establish an exact relationship between investing in human capital and the economic growth. Therefore, it is difficult to determine each variable’s actual impact and if the impact is bigger today than 20 years ago. However, the study can state that the variables representing human capital jointly have a great explanatory power in the economic growth

  • 170.
    Karlstam, Emilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Millberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prispåverkan på småhus: en analys av prispåverkande faktorer i Sveriges kommuner under 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis where the main objective is to investigate and analyze selected variables that we believe affect house prices in Sweden's municipalities in 2014. A regression analysis has been made to ensure that the factors actually affect the house prices, and the extent for the affect. The investigation is done with cross-sectional data and we restricted the thesis to only get data from 2014 and only the data on permanent houses. We have taken out a dependent variable; house prices and four independent variables; disposable income, employment rate, population growth, population density, and a dummy variable; geographical impact. The conclusion shows that the variables that statistically can be assured to have an impact on house prices is disposable income, employment rate, population density and proximity to a big city.

  • 171.
    Kaurissaari, Meeri
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The performance of Finnish funds: A comparison between Finnish funds and a European index2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of Finnish funds between January 2013 and April 2018. The purpose was to study if Finnish funds over- or underperform the market and if there are differences between returns on different fund categories. In line with previous studies, asset-pricing models were applied, which were chosen to be capital asset pricing model, Fama and French’s three-factor model and later developed fivefactor model. The models were used to find Jensen’s alpha to evaluate the performances. This was done by regressing the average returns of funds and market index on the variables in the models. Moreover, Sharpe ratio and average return were evaluated to find under- or overperformance. The data was observed on monthly basis and was collected from DataStream and Kenneth French’s data library. Empirical work revealed significant alphas on equity funds and Finland-funds. Comparing all aspects, equity and Finland-funds generated highest returns and reward-to-risk ratios. Hence, the study found that the two groups overperformed the market while the other fund categories showed no under- or overperformance of the market.

  • 172.
    Kumar Shil, Kazal
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dividend Policy and Impact on Stock Return: A study of financial stock market in Bangladesh2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dividend policy and the impact on the stock return. For this research purpose, a sample of 26 companies’ data has been used which are listed in the Dhaka Stock Exchange(DSE) main market of Bangladesh. For examining the regression result 10 years data were used for the period of 2005 to 2015. The relationship between dividend policy, dividend yield, Risk free interest rate and Expected return and market value were measured by CAPM, by using the regression analysis tools. All the variables were being collected from the Thomson Reuters data stream. The empirical estimation based on the CAPM Model shows there is not a significant effect on the average dividend yield on the average stock return. The result mostly indicates the dividend irrelevance theory where the investors do not need to concern about the company dividend police, hence they have an option to sell their stocks if they want. The research result shows that the dividend yield hasn’t an effect the stock return in Bangladesh stock market because of practicing speculative activities within the market, where investors mostly focus on share price changes rather than dividend yield.

  • 173.
    Larsson, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dahlborg, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Är Sveriges hyressättningssystem lösningen på bostadsbristen?: En studie fokuserat på nyproducerade hyresrätter och dess hyressättningssystem.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what factors affect rent of newly build tenancy's on the housing market, and if so, what to extent.

    Based on previous research and a review of the Swedish housing market, variables have been identified, such as, Utility-value rents, Production cost, Income, and Fee of tenant owned apartments. These factors have a clear impact on rents of newly build tenancy's. Area-based data has been obtained for year 2004 and 2015 in order to find relationships and compare results between the two periods through cross-sectional regressions. Intended to analyze the decisions from the government to stimulate the production market.

    The result shows that the variables have an influencing effect over the rent and shows the changes in combination over the governments introduction of presumption agreements.

    It can be concluded that the raised rents are explained by the introduction of presumption agreements which leads to that companies can freely agree on higher rent and that changes in tenancy market will give a contributing effect co-operative apartments market. This affect the lowest- and middle-income earners worst as their ability to pay is limited and the lack of tenancy's still remain to a certain extent.

  • 174.
    Larsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Zuna, Amila
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigrationens påverkan på Sveriges BNP per capita2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to investigate how immigration effects the Swedish GDP per capita in both short and long term, and if so, how and to what extent. The study exams the time series from 1990-2014 to cover the major waves of immigration due to the war of Yugoslavia and Iran/Iraq. This also covers the financial crises in the 20th-century and the immigration from the middle-east, that has been and still is a topic of debate. Similar studies have been done for Germany, The Netherlands and Canada. The researchers all agreed about one main factor that is the key to successfully growth in the economy, which is the integration of immigrants. The study is based on short and long term regressions from a slightly modified model created by Muysken and Ziesemer (2011). As Muysken and Ziesemers results for The Netherlands, the conclusion of this paper for Sweden is that immigrants affect the GDP per capita positively in the short and long term. The variable to be explained is the GDP per capita and the explaining variables are total gainful employment-level of immigrants, total gainfully employed and education of immigrants, which are the main factors the study is based on.

  • 175.
    Larsson, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wiklund, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur skuldkvoten påverkas av förändringar i reporäntan och bostadspriserna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes and investigates how the debt ratio has been affected by various macroeconomic factors, with the main focus being on housing prices and official bank rate. Since housing prices have risen extremely much in recent years and interest rates have been at an historically low level, we consider this subject to be interesting and exciting.

    We have chosen to investigate this by doing both a literature study and an econometric time series analysis from 1997 to 2017 in Sweden. We have also investigated whether factors such as financial savings and inflation also had a connection to the growing debt ratio.

    Based on our studies, we have found that housing prices have had the largest impact on the debt ratio. The increased debt ratio has been affected by the sharply risen housing prices in the recent years.

  • 176.
    Lilja, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Den svenska elmarknaden: Vilka faktorer påverkar Nord Pools spotpris?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how several factors influence the spot price on the Nordic electricity exchange market Nord Pool for the period 2005-2015. We have used a multiple regression and estimates parameters with OLS. In the regression we have the spot price on Nord Pool as dependent variable and price in fossil fuels, nuclear power, hydropower, temperature and price in emissions right as independent variables. All data are calculated on monthly basis and are collected from the databases SMHI, Statistiska Centralbyrån, Svensk Energi and Nord Pool. The results from this study shows that the price changes on Nord Pool can be explained by 33 % on the basis of the factors analysed during our time period. The results showed that nuclear power and hydropower, which are the largest electricity production in Sweden, either had only a small effect on the spot price or was not significant. While natural gas, which has a small part of Sweden's produced electricity had a bigger influence on the spotprice. We can conclude that Sweden is part of a larger market and the fact that marginal pricing is applied on Nord Pool, that there are several external factors that affect the Swedish electricity prices in addition to the factors we examined. This is because other countries' electricity prices and production, within and outside the Nord Pool has an impact on Sweden's electricity.

  • 177.
    Lind, Robin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Dennis
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Testing Okun's law for the Swedish economy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to examine the relationship between unemployment and GDP from a perspective of Okun's law in the Swedish economy, between the time periods 1994 - 2014 with quarterly data, and also analyze what impact a labor market reform has on the relationship between unemployment and GDP. For analysis of the short-term relationship, Okun’s (1962) gap version along with the Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP) for trend estimation is used. And to investigate stationarity of the data we use an Augmented Dicky-Fuller test. The long-term relationship is analyzed by utilizing an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to see if potential GDP is dependent on the natural rate of unemployment at a significant level. Our study shows that there is a negative relationship between unemployment and GDP in the short run, and also that a labor market reform that affects the flexibility of the market has a negative impact on the relationship. For the long run we can conclude that there is no relationship between the variables as potential GDP is not affected by the natural rate of unemployment.

  • 178.
    Lindell, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lenders behavior in the online lending platform Kiva: A study to see how gender affects the time and possibility to get a funded loan request2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with current study were to analyze if female borrowers within the online lending platform Kiva got their loan requests funded faster than men, mixed groups and nonspecified genders, and if women were less likely than men and mixed groups to get their loan request expired. The data was downloaded from Kivas website where snapshots with data were available. By taking 1% randomly my sample contained 15,782 funded loans with individuals and groups and 773 expired loans. Among the funded loans there were some loan requests that hadn´t specified their gender. The study was made by making hierarchic regression analysis and consist of six different regressions. In the first three regressions the dependent variable ln_TimeUntilFunded was used while in the last three regressions the variable Expired was used as dependent variable. The independent variable was in all six regressions gender (Femaledummy). It has been controlled for loan amount, picture, monthly repayment, sectors and countries. The result of the multiple regressions show that women get on average their loan requests funded faster than men, mixed groups and non-specified gender, when everything else is hold constant. And that women are on average less likely than men and mixed groups to get an expired loan request, when everything else is hold constant. A conclusion can thereby be done that women seems to be favored among Kiva lenders when choosing who to fund.

  • 179.
    Littke, Hélène
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, avd. Urbana och regionala studier.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Foss, Olaf
    Norsk Institutt för By og Regionalforskning.
    Services of general interest and regional development in the European Union2013In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, no June 15, p. 88-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at comparing the scientific literature and key EU policy documents on the impact of services of general interest on regional development. The study proposes to answer two questions: (1) how do the scientific literature and EU policy documents differ in terms of which services of general interest are seen to have an impact on regional development and (2) why do they identify different services of general interest as important for regional development? The method used is qualitative discourse analysis.

    The results indicate that services of general interest have a rather different assumed impact on regional development in the scientific literature and in the key EU policy documents. Eight out of the fourteen services of general interest analysed in this study are either not mentioned at all or are only indirectly touched upon in the studied EU policy documents. The EU policy documents consider the drivers for regional development to be transport, ICT and telecommunications, electricity, education and health.

  • 180.
    Loewe, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ryttersson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Random walk hypotesen: En empirisk studie av OMXS302015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines if rate of return on the Swedish stock market follows a Random Walk, in accordance to a hypothesis that is about predictability of profits. The Random Walk hypothesis is closely related to the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis, which says that you can´t make a future forecast of how share prices will move, only with the help of historical data. The analysis is performed on the OMXS30, an index representing the 30 most traded shares on the OMX Stockholm. Furthermore, the analysis is performed on the stock price´s daily and weekly returns during the years 1990-2015. To test the hypothesis, we are going to do two statistical tests. The first test is the Durbin-Watson, which is a first-degree autocorrelation test. The second is an Augumented Dickey-Fuller which tests if there are unit roots in a time series. The final results of both tests show that the share prices seems to satisfies the weak form of market efficiency over the entire period because it has not been any autocorrelation in the timeseries. This allows the conclusion that prices on the OMXS30 have seem to be unpredictable in the tested periods and thus tend to confirm some of the criterias for the hypothesis of a Random Walk.

  • 181.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Axell, Caroline
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutvecklingen på småhus i stor-Malmö: En kvantitativ granskning av faktorer som påverkar småhuspriser i stor-Malmö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research study intends to examine the development of house prices during the years 1998 to 2018 in Malmö with surrounding area. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the variables income, population, mortgage interest rate and employment rate have an impact on house prices in the chosen area. The research question is answered by applying a quantitative study with a deductive approach. By applying an Autoregressive Distributed lag model, the authors interpret the result and then draw the conclusion that we have a low degree of explanation. Which shows that the study had to include more explanatory variables in order to achieve a higher degree of explanation. Furthermore, the result shows that income is the only statistically significant variable, which means that it probably affects the house price in Malmö with surrounding area

  • 182.
    Mark, Sarah
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Henriksson, Beatrice
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    De svenska hushållens sparande: Vilka faktorer påverkar det privata sparandet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's private saving rate have increased in recent years, and according to previous studies on the subject, there are several factors that have shown an impact on increased savings. This paper investigates the development of saving rate in Sweden for the period 1995 to 2015. The variables selected are based on the researcher Sebastian Edward's model presented in 1995. The method used is cointegration and error correction techniques to analyz the long-run and the short-run determinants of saving rate. The result shows that the variables that directly or indirectly lead to a higher income for the individual will contribute to a higher saving rate, which also supports the life cycle hypothesis that is the theory upon which the study is based.

  • 183.
    Markusian, Siran
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Azizi, Zubair
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Påverkande faktorer på prisbildning: en studie av Göteborgs bostadsrättsmarknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today it is increasingly being built condominiums and the high demand together with the low supply continues to push up housing prices. Each condominium is unique and differs from others with its specific properties. The prices of condominiums in the same area can differ considerably and therefore it is interesting to investigate the factors that have an effect and how they affect the sales prices on condominiums. The study aims to investigate how different apartment-related characteristics affect the final price of condominiums in Gothenburg using the hedonic model. The study is based on 108 observations from sales of condominiums in Gothenburg during 2014. The calculations of the prices and the independent variables were made with a multiple regression analysis where the independent variables have a function to explain the dependent variable, in this case the selling price. The study had an explanation rate of 21%, in other words, the independent variables had its impact on the dependent variable price by 21%. It was found that the factors that had the greatest impact on the price was the number of rooms, elevator and renovated kitchen.

  • 184.
    Melker, Ronja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Berglund, Hampus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vilka faktorer har bidragit till hushållens rekordhöga skuldkvot?: En studie på Sverige år 1986-20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The debt of Swedish households seems to be a subject that never becomes irrelevant. Lending is a great benefit for the economy but high lending can also cause major problems for the individual households and for the entire economy. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question; what factors affect the Swedish households average long-term debt ratio? To do this, quarterly time series data for the period 1986 – 2016 have been quantitatively analysed using an error correction model, with the goal set to provide long-term debt ratio information.We use previous studies and theoretical papers on the subject in order to select the factors to be analysed. The analysis shows that property prices, the disposable income, share of the population within the age 18-30, share of the population whom retired and "the mortgage cap"-law are the factors which in one way or another affect the long-term debt ratio. Other factors discussed in this paper is the repo rate, unemployment and share of the population with a higher education. These are included in order to get a model that properly reflects the debt ratio to the issue that the essay addresses.

  • 185.
    Nehls, Eddy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Becoming a sustainable tourism destination: Theoretical concepts to work with and things to consider2013In: "Innovation and value in experience-based tourism": Book of Proceedings / [ed] Lindberg, Frank, Bodø: Handelshøgskolen i Bodø , 2013, p. -140Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Nehls, Eddy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Becoming an Innovative Tourism Destination Theoretical Concepts for Sustainable Growth in the Tourism Industry2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 76-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is investigating some concepts that can be used to address the issue of economic growth in the tourism industry. The goal for this work that I promote in the article is to make destinations both prosperous, sustainable, entrepreneurs friendly, and engage as many people in the process as possible. The take on the issue is strictly theoretical, and the aim for the chapter is to develop concepts to think with, that can be used also outside of academia. 

  • 187.
    Nehls, Eddy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Becoming an Innovative Tourism Destination, Theoretical Concepts for Sustainable Growth in the Tourism Industry2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium  12–14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2014, p. 609-625Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Niklasson, Frida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Forslund, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar Tysklands arbetslöshet?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors that influences the unemployment in Germany between 1992 and 2013. Germany is the strongest economic country in Europe, although the unemployment has continued to fluctuate. The explanatory variables on unemployment has been studied in both short and long run. Stationary and cointegration has been controlled in order to proceed regression tests with the yearly data. In short run all variables affect the unemployment but in different ways and different levels. Although in the long run only wages, GDP and inflation affects the unemployment, this result emerged after excluding investments from the model. The only variables that influences the unemployment in both short and long run between 1992 and 2013 are wages, GDP and inflation. Therefore these variables may be considered as a strong explanation to changes in unemployment, even though the variables vary in different stages. Since several variables affect the unemployment, we can also draw the conclusion that Okun's law and GDP are not sufficient for explaining the unemployment in Germany.

  • 189.
    Nilsson, Anton
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Halldin, Rasmus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bitcoin: En diversifiering mot svenska marknaden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The flow of cash in Swedish society decreases for each year, swedes rely on digital payment solutions, such as credit cards and Swish. At the same time, a new type of currency has also been introduced, crypto currency. The interest in crypto currencies and specifically Bitcoin has never been greater. Crypto currencies are created as means of payment but have taken the role of investment in a speculative market. It has been done several studies on how Bitcoin correlates with other assets, and most agree that Bitcoin correlates weakly with traditional assets, which means it is a very suitable candidate for diversification.

    In our essay, we aim to find out if Bitcoin can be used to diversify a portfolio consisting of two risky assets, OMXS30 and Bitcoin. We use the mean-variance optimization model to see which weighting of these assets that optimizes our portfolio by minimizing the standard deviation in the portfolio, but we also search for what weighting that maximizes the risk-adjusted return without considering the risk-free rate. Course-data has been retrieved for both assets from January 2015 to April 2018, giving 826 observations spread over 3.28 years. In this study we have conducted a covariance and correlation analysis between Bitcoin and OMXS30 to determine how the diversification possibilities look. Then we have used a portfolio optimization model based on two risky assets to find our two different variants of investments that optimize the portfolio. We find that Bitcoin has a weak positive correlation with the OMXS30 during the period we investigate, which increases its potential as a diversifier. To minimize variance/standard deviation in a portfolio of assets we chose to work with, according to our calculations the portfolio should consist of 5.16% Bitcoin and to maximize the risk-adjusted return it shall consist of 80.97% Bitcoin.

  • 190.
    Nilsson, Axel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Åkesson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prispåverkande faktorer vid bostadsrättsförsäljning i Kungsbacka kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A real estate transaction is often described as the biggest transaction in an individual’s lifetime. It is therefore of great important that the real estate agent makes a correct evaluation that reflects the markets price picture. When doing a value evaluation on a condominium it is important to know which features it possesses and how they affect and influence a potential buyer´s willingness to pay. This paper uses 1542 empirical observations of condominium transactions between the year 2009-2014 to examine what characteristics that influences and to which extent. The hedonic model is used to implicitly examine the housing buyers’ preferences and to map the price picture of condominiums in Kungsbacka. A linear regression analysis was used for the above and beyond general constructural variables a location variable was developed and also a mortgage interest rate variable. Price was also analyzed to examine if it tends to be higher at any certain seasons. The result demonstrates that the living space was the variable that had the greatest positive impact on price in Kungsbacka. Location had a negative effect and also the monthly fee. Noteworthy from the results was that elevator had a negative effect on price and balcony had a significant positive effect.

  • 191.
    Nordin, Lukas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Stability of the Money Demand Function: Empirical Evidence from Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the stability of the money demand function for Sweden between 1993Q1 and 2016Q4. The demand for money is expressed as a function of a scale variable and an opportunity cost variable. The money measure used is M3 while GDP from the expenditure side is used as a proxy for the scale variable and the interest rate on the 90day Swedish government bond is used as the opportunity cost variable. After a theoretical discussion about the importance, and implications, of a stable money demand function is provided, the paper empirically test the stability of the function. Johansen cointegration technique is employed and one cointegration equation between the variables is found. An error correction model is estimated and subject to CUSUM and CUSUMQ stability tests. The results indicate a stable money demand function for the given variables.

  • 192.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Destination Development with Focus on Strategic Use of Inland Water Areas as Experiencescapes2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 10-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in exploration and (re)development of waterways sites with surrounding areas used for leisure, recreation and tourism. The aim of this study is to explore selected Nordic destinations with focus on the strategic use of inland water areas as ‘experiencescapes’ to promote destination development.Competition among destinations has escalated, hence also the need for well-coordinated tourism offerings. At many destinations a large number of various stakeholders from private, public and voluntary sectors interact. Earlier tourism studies show that coordination of networks is crucial since successful destinations are based on interrelated stakeholders that understand the concept of the destination and are committed to cooperate in offering a holistic experience to visitors. The data collection includes a combination of different methods: observations, interviews with destination stakeholders, and collection of documents related to the selected destinations and regions. Findings show a varied mix of elements and dimensions in the studied ‘experiencescapes’. The variety in applied approaches for co-ordination of offerings, collaboration and management of destination stakeholders in inland water areas is discussed. 

  • 193.
    Olsson, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Widenbäck, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur skiljer sig den könsfördelade löneskillnaden åt mellan kommuner?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under en lång tid har Sverige uppvisat en trend på att lönegapet minskar mellan könen. Trots detta finns det en löneskillnad inom alla kommuner i Sverige. Lönegapet ses som ett problem då det i många sammanhang ses som ett utryck för ojämlikhet och diskriminering. I anknytning till denna ojämna fördelning finns det en bristfällig forskning för att kunna tackla det på en regional nivå. Tidigare forskning tenderar att granska löneskillnaden ur ett nationellt perspektiv istället för att fokusera på individuella skillnader i Sveriges olika kommuner. Därför är det oundvikligt att inte ställa sig fråganhur skiljer sig den könsfördelade löneskillnaden åt mellan kommuner? Med makrodata insamlad från Statistiska Centralbyrån, Försäkringskassan och Sveriges kommuner och landsting från 2009 och 2015 har vi utfört en serie OLS-regressioner. Vi har även använt oss av interaktionseffekter för att undersöka individuella skillnader mellan kommunerna. Utifrån faktorer som enligt teori påverkar löneskillnaden mellan könen studerar vi skillnader mellan kommunerna med befolkningsmängd och befolkningstäthet som utgångspunkt. Dessa variabler som är kopplade till humankapital och yrkessegregation utgör basen för studien. Resultatet påvisar att de faktorer som har störst effekt på lönegapet i kommuner är en högre yrkessegregation och genomsnittslön. Utbildning däremot är en variabel som minskar löneskillnaden. Denna slutsats ger en möjlig indikation på att den del av löneskillnaden som inte kan förklaras av variablerna kan vara en följd av diskriminering.

  • 194.
    Olsson, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Mörk, Emil
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aktiv eller passiv fondförvaltning?: Är det värt att betala för Active share?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays when you hear of senior citizens not being able to pay for basic things in order to survive and the state are about to make people work for even longer, when all you want to do is live out your last years in peace. In order to do that the question of saving money yourself and early in life is more important than ever. The modern way of saving for ordinary people is through stocks and funds, while traditional bank deposits is becoming more and more outdated. However ordinary people might not have the knowledge and hence the trust in themselves to choose stock on their own, then funds are a great way to save money and get return. But what is the best choice of funds, should you choose the actively managed fund with a higher fee or the index fund with low fee.The aim of this study is to define whether it is more profitable to choose the actively managed funds or to choose less active funds with lower fees. This paper will put special emphasis on what's called "active share" and what distribution of active share will give you the possibility to get the highest return after fees.The study covers Swedish funds that are both actively and passively managed for the period April 2014 to April 2019. We have used a quantitative methodology to collect data and the data has then been analyzed in Excel and spss through correlation tests and regressions to see whether there is a relationship between the return of a fund relative to its benchmark and the funds active share. The result shows that there is no direct positive linear relationship between a fund's activeshare and its return compared to its index after fee. However, if you divide the funds into different groups with different active share, it turns out that those with the most activeshare generate more in return than the rest and the group in the middle is worst. If you are going to have a chance of beating the benchmark not just by chance, then you will have to invest in the funds with the most active share of 80% to 100%. The worst you can do is to choose the funds in the middle of 40% to 60% active share, where the managers charge a lot for not very much return.

  • 195.
    Oredsson, André
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jakobsson, Jacob
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Index kontra aktivt förvaltade fonder: Är det värt att betala fondavgifter?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in mutual funds is becoming increasingly popular in Sweden. This thesis analysis the performance of Swedish actively managed funds compared with the SIXPRX-index. The time period under study is between 2005-2017 and includes 17 mutual funds that invest the vast majority of its capital in Swedish equities. To be able to analyze the performance the weekly percentage net return will be used in a CAPM-model. Main theoretical framework being used is the Jensens Alpha, Treynor ratio and the Sharpe ratio. These ratios together with the net return were chosen since it's the most relevant measurements from an investor point of view. As many other similar studies have shown, there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of actively managed funds and the benchmark. The average return was lower for 16 out of 17 funds compared to the benchmark. Although 16 out of 17 funds showed positive alphas, none of them were statistically significant. When the Sharpe ratio was observed every fund except for one had a lower ratio. The Treynor ratio was the only measurement where the funds reached a higher result, which could be explained by their low betas. As many studies have shown, the result indicates that investment in index funds gives a higher risk adjusted return compared to actively managed funds with fees.

  • 196.
    Palmén, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wiksten, Alexander
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Optimalt invånarantal för en svensk kommun: Genom undersökning av svenska kommuners lägsta kostnader per person utifrån stordriftsfördelar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we examine economies of scale in the Swedish municipalities to see whether there is an optimal population quantity for a municipality. By optimal quantity we mean the amount that means the lowest costs per capita in the municipality. We examine both a cross-sectional analysis for the year 2017 and a panel statistics for a longer period of time between 2000-2017. Both for the cross-sectional and panel data analysis, we have two regressions, the first includes the variables total population and population in square, the second regression in addition to the previous variables, including population density and population density in square shows results that indicate economics of scale and therefore we have the possibility of developing a U-shaped cost curve and thus the ability to calculate an optimal population. The significant result persists until we have a number of four new control variables and therefore in this regression, we can´t calculate an optimal population. Because we use the population density as an independent variable, we need to implement a density division of municipalities to find out if economies of scale in reality are density benefits. In cross-sectional analysis, we conclude that we don´t know whether there are economies of scale or if there are actually densities of scale. In panel data analysis there is three out of four density groups that support disadvantages for economies of scale, while in the fourth, we can´t know whether there are economies of scale or if there are actually density advantages. The results when we divide the municipalities according to population density do not therefore indicate significant support for economies of scale and therefore we cannot calculate an optimal population.

  • 197.
    Persson, Josefine
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ferraz-Nunes, Jose
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlberg, Ingvar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Economic burden of stroke in a large county in Sweden2012In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 12, no 341, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke remains to be a major burden of disease, often causing death or physical impairment or disability. This paper estimates the economic burden of stroke in a large county of 1.5 million inhabitants in western Sweden. Methods: The economic burden of stroke was estimated from a societal perspective with an incidence approach. Data were collected from clinical registries and 3,074 patients were included. In the cost calculations, both direct and indirect costs were estimated and were based on costs for 12 months after a first-ever stroke. Results: The total excess costs in the first 12 months after the first-ever stroke for a population of 1.5 million was 629 million SEK (€69 million). Men consumed more acute care in hospitals, whereas women consumed more rehabilitation and long-term care provided by the municipalities. Younger patients brought a significantly higher burden on society compared with older patients due to the loss of productivity and the increased use of resources in health care. Conclusions: The results of this cost-of-illness study were based on an improved calculation process in a number of fields and are consistent with previous studies. In essence, 50% of costs for stroke care fall on acute care hospital, 40% on rehabilitation and long-time care and informal care and productivity loss explains 10% of total cost for the stroke disease. The result of this study can be used for further development of the methods for economic analyses as well as for analysis of improvements and investments in health care.

  • 198.
    Pettersson, Helena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Settefelt, Amanda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bättre att avslöja än att bli avslöjad: En empirisk studie om karteller och eftergiftsprogram i fem av Europeiska unionens medlemsländer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to investigate whether leniency program has been effective in five of European Union member states, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Germany and Austria, within the time interval 1996-2009. This has been done through an empirical efficiency model based on the collection of data and where the values of the variables are then tested in a regression analysis. To see how effectively a leniency program has been in an industry explores how the dependent variable, competitive intensity, affected in relation to the independent variables. After careful consideration, variables such as gross domestic product, product market regulations, import share and export share selected because they are considered to have a major impact on the competitive intensity. The results of the various countries´ leniency programs has proved, in certain industries, have the effect of what Antitrust Authority asking for. When the dependent variable has had a negative impact on the PCM, ie, measure of competitive intensity, it means that the leniency program's purpose has been achieved, more cartels have been detected and fewer cartels concluded.

  • 199.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Integration, entreprenörskap och hållbar samhällsutveckling2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 200.
    Sandblom, Anneli
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andrésson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svenska aktiefonders prestation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in mutual funds is one of the most common forms of savings in Sweden, in fact almost all Swedes have some form of savings in mutual funds. Equity funds are those who represent the largest fund category, both in terms of the number of funds and in fund capital. While savings in mutual funds has increased, the debate about fund fees and the administrations significance for the fund's performance has gained more space in the society. The purpose of this study is to examine actively managed equity fund performance relative to the benchmark index, both before and after management fees were taken into account. With the study's purpose in mind a selection of thirteen actively managed equity funds has been reviewed, thenceforth the risk-adjusted performance measures Sharpe ratio and Jensen's alpha where calculated and then compared with a benchmark. The results of the study showed that actively managed funds can generate positive alpha before management fees were taken into account, but after the management fees were taken into account the majority of the funds generate a negative alpha. The conclusion is therefore that actively managed equity funds does not generate a higher risk-adjusted return in the Swedish market.

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