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  • 151.
    Albinsson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Faktorer som påverkar skuldkvoten hos de svenska hushållen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the determinants of the Swedish debt ratio for the period 1996-2016. The model that this project is built around is made by Meng et al (2011) where the dependent variable is debt ratio for swedish households and the explanatory variables are GDP, real interest rate, HPI (House Price Index), number of new constructed houses, unemployment ratio and change in inflation. This essay uses cointegration test and Error Correction Model to investigate the short run and long run determinants of the Swedish household debt ratio. The final result after an Error correction model shows that HPI, GDP and unemployment are the variables that affects the debt ratio for Swedish households the most.

  • 152.
    Albinsson, Lina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Niemi Thelén, Mathilda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    “Det är lättare att skriva elaka kommentarer om man ser att någon annan har skrivit först”: En kvalitativ studie om ungas kommunikation på sociala medier, kopplat till begreppen näthat, nätkärlek och digital kompetens2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the subject of young people's communication on social media linked to the concepts of cyberbullying, cyber-love and digital competence. With qualitative methods, focus group interview and interview, four children, two parents and a teacher were interviewed. In the essay, their reflections and perspectives on how they view young people's communication that takes place on socialmedia are highlighted. Previous research shows that the concept of digital competence is difficult to define and there are different interpretations of what the ability to have good digital competence actually means. Research shows that there are tendencies to generalize that all children and young people can handle digitalisation, just because they are born into a time where digital and social media characterize everyday life. The results show that cyberbullying and cyber-love take place in social media. The children surveyed learn to handle communication on social media on their own. To some extent,children have strategies for dealing with online hate and the use of social media, but not to the extent needed. The results also show that both the surveyed parents and the teacher express that there is a need to develop more digital competence and adult participation plays a role in children's development of digital competence.

  • 153.
    Albinsson, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningssystemets effekt på personalens trivsel och gemenskap: En fallstudie inom en säljorganisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's globalization has framed the market and increased the competition among com-panies. Investing in the staff has therefore become more important to maintain the com-pany on the market. With a reward system the company can motivate their employees to perform better. A reward system can be mixed, which means that it consists of group- and individual rewards and goals, and financial- and non-financial rewards. We already know that people are motivated by different factors, that is why it is interesting to study how different kinds of rewards can affect the employees comfort and companionship.

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding on how a mixed reward system influence the employees' companionship and their individual well-being in a sales organ-ization. To fulfill this purpose a theoretical framework has been filled with what a reward system is and how it appears in a sales organization, and primarily what the advantages and disadvantages are of using the different types of rewards. A review about work mo-tivation, job satisfaction and companionship has also been presented.

    The study has been qualitative where interviews have been conducted on a company with a well-developed reward system. We received a wide comprehension of what the sellers thought about the reward system and how it affected their companionship and their indi-vidual well-being. This has been represented in the empirical part to therefore discuss theories and empirics in the analysis part.

    We have increased the understanding that group goals and group rewards improve the companionship, but at the same time individual rewards are required to support the per-sonal development despite that these promote competition among sellers. The financial rewards are used in the short-run but it is important to give sellers something substantial for their work effort. While the non-financial rewards needed to praise, encourage and strengthen the individual satisfaction both in the short- and long-run.

  • 154.
    Albinsson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sahlsten, Jessica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Personlighetstest vid rekrytering: En kvalitativ studie ur ett arbetsperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personality tests for recruitment context is a common selection method for companies. In the recruitment process personality test are used as a tool to find the right person for the right place. The purpose of this qualitative study is to find examples of how this is used as a selection method in the recruitment of managers and the function tests have been in the recruitment process. To achieve the aim and answer the questions semi-structured interviews were carried out, to illustrate the respondents' perceptions, sensations and experiences on personality tests in recruitment. This was studied from two angles, namely with HR and store managers at ICA Special. The respondents interviewed were two women from ICA Specials HR department and four store managers, a man and three women from ICA Maxi stores. Respondents were aged from 35-60 years. Interview guides were divided into two parts, one interview guide for HR and one interview guide for store managers. The interview material was analyzed based on a thematic analysis. In the result, it was seen that a personality test has the function of a complement to discern candidates, to verify what the hiring manager sees, hears and feels during the process, but also as a self-reflection of the store managers who have performed the test. Moreover, it emerged in the results that the feedback of the candidate's profile is considered one of the most significant steps in the recruitment process and that respondents felt this should be related to the candidate in the form of a call. Finally, HR uses the communicative competence in the feedback of the candidate's profile as they relate to the profile, to get the candidate to gain a better understanding of their profile content.

  • 155.
    Albinsson, Michaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mujezinovic, Emina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hur framställer läraren laborativt material i matematikundervisningen?: Årskurs 4-62020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Skolverket (2003, s.39-40) menar att elevernas lust till att lära avtar inom matematiken i de högre skolåren. Vi kan se att ämnet blir svårt och komplext när eleven inte förstår. Eleverna behöver hitta mönster och lösningar med matematiken för att finna motivationen. Vi stödjer vår forskning på John Dewey och hans lärandeteori pragmatismen. "Learning by doing" är ett centralt begrepp inom pragmatismen, Deweys mål var att undervisningen skulle syfta mer på att lära sig genom görandet för att göra det mer konkret och tydligt för eleverna (Liedman 2014 s.239).

    Syfte Studien syftar till att undersöka lärares arbete med laborativt material och hur eleverna får ta del av laborativt material i undervisningen.

    Metod För att undersöka lärares arbete med laborativt material och hur eleverna får ta del av materialet i undervisningen valde vi att kombinera två metoder, intervju och observation. Vi arbetade med semistrukturerade intervjuer och ljudupptagning, fyra stycken lärare som var behöriga i matematik intervjuades. Sedan observerade vi dem lärarna som vi har intervjuat under en matematiklektion där de använder sig av laborativt material.

    Resultat Studiens resultat visar på vilket sätt eleverna får ta del av det laborativa materialet och hur läraren arbetar med det. Vi kunde se hur lärarens instruktioner kan lägga grund för hela lektionen och elevernas motivation. I vår undersökning kunde vi också se hur laborativt material stöttar elever med matematiksvårigheter och vilken betydelse placeringen av laborativt material har för användningen av det.

  • 156.
    Albinsson, Michaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mujezinovic, Emina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hur synliggörs lässtrategier för eleverna?2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Läsförståelse är en viktig del i samtliga ämnen i skolan vilket gör att läsningen blir en av decentrala delarna eleverna behöver behärska. Enbart avkodning ger inte eleverna det resultat som behövs för att nå kunskapskraven i skolan utan lärarna behöver arbeta aktivt med läsutvecklingen hos eleverna. Undervisningen behöver fokusera på att ge eleverna en meningsfull undervisning kring läsningen och stötta eleverna med rätt verktyg för att utveckla lässtrategier.

    Syfte: Studien syftar till att undersöka lärares arbete med lässtrategier i klassrummet och hur elever får ta del av dessa i undervisningen.

    Metod: I vårt arbete använder vi en kvalitativ metod där vi använder oss av semistrukturerade intervjuer vilket innebär att vi konstruerat intervjufrågor utifrån vårt syfte och frågeställning men friheten ges till respondenterna att formulera personliga svar och samtalet styrs utifrån det. Genom vår kvalitativa forskningsmetod ligger fokuset på tolkning och förståelse utifrån människorsupplevelser.

    Resultat & Analys: Utifrån vår studie har vi sett vikten av lärarens undervisning för elevens förståelse avlässtrategierna. Lärarens sätt att undervisa om lässtrategier påverkar hur eleverna tar till sig verktygen och använder dem i sin läsning. Majoriteten av lärarna i vår studie talar inte om strategierna specifikt utan gör det mer undermedvetet och anser att det stora grundläggande arbetet för strategier ska ske i lågstadiet.

  • 157.
    Albohtori, Eman
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the Returns In the Airline Industry for Developed and Emerging Economies2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The corona virus 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic has impacted businesses differently with many industries recording negative trends. Travel restrictions are seen as a solution to contain the spread of the virus, and these have impacted operations in the airline industry. This research uses an Events Study approach to investigate if the efficient market hypothesis holds for the airline industrystocks, following the announcements of three COVID 19 related events: declaration of COVID 19 a global pandemic; announcement of financial relief packages; and announcement of vaccination rollout. Using a sample of 46 airline stocks in 10 countries, empirical results suggest that the efficient market hypothesis does not hold when there is excessive information flowing in the market and that events with confounding effect lead to semi-efficient market hypothesis. 

  • 158.
    Albulena, Sadiki
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Grujoska, Stefanie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Vinnande marknadsföring: För rekryterings och bemanningsföretaget Jobbakuten2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie var att hjälpa Jobbakuten med deras marknadsföringsstrategi då de inte visste hur det skulle marknadsföra sig på bästa sätt. Jobbakuten är ett rekryterings och bemanningsföretag som funnits i branschen i 15 år och är därmed det äldsta företaget. För att hjälpa dem att utforma en marknadsföringsstrategi har vi tagit hjälp utav teorierna relationsmarknadsföring, då deras kunder tyckte detta är det bästa sättet. Sedan har vi även gjort en SWOT-analys för att på så vis ha en bättre insikt över vad det är som är företagets styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och hot. Förutom detta så har vi även använt oss utav marknadsföringsmodellerna AIDAS-F, DRIP och gått igenom olika marknadsföringskanaler, för att på så vis hitta det som passar Jobbakuten bäst.

    För att kunna göra en marknadsföringsstrategi så har vi även valt att göra en enkätundersökning, som vi riktade till allmänheten för att på så vis få med mer synpunkter. Vi har även telefonintervjuat tio av företagets kunder där vi ställde frågor om företaget, vad de tyckte om företaget och hur dem anser de bör marknadsföra sig. Dessa undersökningar bidrog till att vi anser att Jobbakuten bör trycka på relationsmarknadsföring för att på så vis trygga sin plats hos sina kunder, då det uppskattades mycket utav kunderna

  • 159.
    Alburquerque, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    En kvalitativ studie om fritidshemmets arbete i en mångkulturell skola2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Anledningen till det valda ämnet är den ökande problematiken i mångkulturella skolor där många elever inte når kraven som ställs på dom. Samtidigt upplevs ett utanförskap som strider emot fritidshemmens värdegrund och mål.

    Syfte:

    Syftet är att få ökad kunskap kring hur fritidspedagoger på ett mångkulturellt fritidshem arbetar för att främja varje elevs utveckling. Fokus ligger på gemenskap och inkludering, språket samt föräldrasamverkan.

    Metod:

    Jag har utfört en kvalitativ studie genom intervjuer med fritidslärare och observationer på plats i fritidshemmet i en mångkulturell skola. Materialet har sedan bearbetats utifrån arbetets syfte och frågeställningar.

    Resultat:

    Resultatet visar att det fortfarande finns många utmaningar men även fördelar med att arbeta i ett mångkulturellt fritidshem. Det finns grupperingar och oenigheter dagligen och kommunikationen brister i många fall. Tillgången till olika erfarenheter är dock stor och utbytet sker dagligen, vilket ökar förståelsen för varandra.

  • 160.
    Alchahin, Carin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kristiansson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Empati: Utifrån civila brottsutredare, poliser och kriminologistudenters perspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the concept of empathy is widely used where people are considered to have different definitions of the concept. Civilian investigators, police officers and criminologists come, in their professional role, in contact with people who are suspected of crime. This makes it of critical importance to investigate whether these occupational groups find it difficult to assess if a person have empathic ability.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate what characterizes empathy for people and what characterizes empathy in situations where a good or bad deed is done to another person.

    The study was carried out based upon a qualitative research approach, with a thematic analysis, and consisted of 52 participants in respective groups of civil crime investigators, police officers, and criminology students.

    The results show that the concept of empathy had a similar meaning for all participants involved. They described it as being able to relate to other people's lifeworld, lived experiences and feelings. However, it can be defined differently based on other people's life experiences. Most people considered it difficult to judge whether a person has empathy since it is difficult to know what someone else is thinking and feeling.

    Furthermore, psychological violence was described as harming someone through lies, deceit and insults, while physical violence meant harming another person physically. Both mental and physical violence, according to the participants, could be seen to be a defense mechanism to protect themselves from being mentally or physically harmed. Furthermore, the participants considered that empathy included such things as helping someone in need, being humane when necessary. This makes the study fall in line with previous research on the concept of empathy.

  • 161.
    Alchahin, Jean
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Van Nguyen, Phuong
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Typ II-fel ur ett nytt perspektiv: en kvalitativ studie som kartlägger konkursförvaltares intryck av typ II-fel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines Type II errors from the bankruptcy administers' perspective. It aims to give auditors an insight into why Swedish bankruptcy trustees perceive the proportion of Type II errors as high. Type II errors occur when the accountant in the audit reports does not consider the uncertainties that are threatening the client's ability to stay as a going concern, and the company thereafter applies for bankruptcy. The auditor is considered to operate as an independent intermediate, with the task to confirm to accounting users that the Board's management of the annual report, in line with the Annual Account act, demonstrates a true and fair view. However, recent research emphasizes that auditors continuously do not issue going concern warnings. This auditor behavior results in more challenging corporate bankruptcies, which eventually charge the bankruptcy trustees who have the assignment of administrating the bankruptcy estates, with a higher load of work. Since the bankruptcy administrators will become key players, in relation to Type II errors, this study, hence, aims to identify Type II errors from their point of view. In order to fulfill the purpose, our research question was formulated to illustrate if the bankruptcy administrators are experiencing Type II errors, and if so, to identify the factors that are considered to be a part of the core problem. Five bankruptcy administrators, who have administrated hundreds of bankruptcy estates, were given the opportunity to answer the research question. As this thesis aims for a deep understanding, it has been conducted using qualitative personal interviews. Meanwhile, recent research illustrates the proportion of Type II errors as high, in line with the fact that the non-issued going concern warnings have been linked to several underlying factors. Our interviewed bankruptcy administrators, however, gave an expression of a much higher complexity when the Type II errors were highlighted to occur to a greater degree, and the auditor behavior was considered to be linked with other additional factors. Based on the analysis, the conclusion drawn was that Type II errors occur and that the auditors' non-issued going concern warnings are based on the accounting assessment problems, clients, auditor characteristics, articles of association and the bankruptcy processes. Another issue is that new circumstances occur while the auditor is reviewing the audit reports.

  • 162.
    Alchahin, Maria-Arbil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Karim, Shahla
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ett nytt land: En kvalitativ studie om syriska emigranter i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times there has been a lot of debate on Syrian refugees who have immigrated to Sweden. The armed conflict in Syria is now in its fourth year. At least 120 000 people have died. The conflict has forced 9 million Syrians to flee and out of them 6.5 million are IDPs.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the integration process of the Syrian immigrants, who have lived in Sweden for at least two years. We wanted to find out how they had experienced their first time in Sweden, how they perceive the support from the Swedish society and the factors that have had an impact on their wellbeing.

    In this essay we have used a qualitative method. Data was collected through interviews which dealt with the integration process based on Syrian immigrants´ perspective. To our interviews, we used an interview guide and we picked out three women and two men between the age 20 to 45 years.

    The theoretical basis was based on Bourdieu's habitus, Olkiewiczs (2008) assimilatory and nostalgic groups and Franzens (1997) constructive and destructive patterns.

    Our results showed that the first time in Sweden was considered as a very difficult period for our informants. This was partly because of the fear of not being offered a Swedish residence permit, in turn this caused feelings of uncertainty in the refugee camps. They told us that the economy has not been a major problem, however, they were unhappy with that lack of consideration about their mental illness after the terrible experiences in their past. Some important aspects of feeling part of the community participant in the community were language skills, knowledge of Swedish culture and access to employment.

    Through our results, we can draw the conclusions that social and political measures must be taken with regard to the integration process. The first thing you should do is to improve immigrants´ access to psychological treatment, since mental illness has had the biggest impact on their integration. At the same time we concluded that our informants need support from the community, in order to facilitate the conditions that they believe will improve their well-being. Successful integration should be built on the interaction between society and the immigrant, in order to be able to adapt to the society, and this is a fundamental condition for promoting the immigrants´ roles in society.

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  • 163.
    Aldhagen, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie i lojalitet inom högintensivyrken: En kvalitativ studie inom den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staff turnover has a natural variation depending on industry and organisation. Although high turnover rates are common in high intensity industries, such high rates can also indicate a problem within the organisation and its leadership. The purpose of this study is to examine management’s perspective on empolyee loyalty in order to achieve the desired level of employee retention. The study aims to examine the tools management use to proactively establish loyalty amongst the employees in order to control the company’s staff turnover. The Swedish real estate agent industry was chosen as a high intensity industry, and four in-depth interviews were conducted as a qualitative method for this study in order to collect the empirical data. All four respondents have leadership positions in the real estate business; three are franchisees and one is a human resource manager. The results show three companies in three different stages in growth; the small company with no employee policy, the mid size company with resources but lack of tools for the structured HR work needed to increase in growth, and the big company that has succeeded in a stabile, long term growth, much as a result of a solid personnel policy and the recruitment of a competent and experienced HR manager. The empirical data also shows a lack of interest, knowledge and experience for HR work amongst business leaders within Swedish real estate agencies, which makes recruiting a competent HR specialist a necessity in order to meet the needs of the employees and for the HR work to function. The study concludes that staff retention and loyalty evolves alongside the company’s HR work and simultaneous growth, which concludes that a well developed HR management is required in order to maintain growth, hence a proactive approach on buildning employee loyalty, particularly with an HR representative, is to be recommended.

  • 164.
    Aldjamali, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekrytering av säljare: Vad är det som efterfrågas hos en säljare?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile communications industry is growing, several companies are launching new mobiles, and the number of mobile resellers is increasing. The competition in the mobile reseller industry is tough, where service is in focus. In the service that mobile resellers offer their customers, the sellers are in the spotlight, the frontface of the company. Finding good sellers is therefore an important part for mobile resellers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics and core competencies that a recruiter needs from a sales person who works in mobile resale at the store, as well as investigate which recruitment methods are suitable for use in connection with recruitment. The study strives to help new companies in the sales industry increase their chances of being established by recruiting the right sellers. Through six qualitative interviews with in total nine respondants, I have collected empirical evidence that has been compiled and analyzed on the basis of a theoretical reference framework, which includes relevant previous research. Qualifications and core competencies to be sought when recruiting are mainly communication skills, but also motivation and loyalty. Companies need to be clear in their needs, especially among companies with limited financial resources. During the recruitment process, communication between recruiters and candidates plays an important role, and the recruiter should implement recruitment methods in which the recruiter will be able to observe the candidate's communication skills. Both communication and education play an important role in a recruitment process.

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  • 165.
    Alebro, Linnea
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Musik som innehåll och metod för de yngsta barnen i förskolan: En studie om förskollärares resonemang kring lärande om, i, medoch genom musik2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Musik har en lång tradition i förskolans verksamhet. Ur ett historiskt perspektiv har musikens roll i förskolan setts på olika sätt: som uppfostringsmedel, kommunikation, lärande och barnets rätt. Den rådande läroplanen, Lpfö 18, betonar estetikens och musikens roll i barns lärande och utveckling. Musik ska både vara ett innehåll och en metod, där barn ska ges möjlighet till stimulans och att uttrycka sig och kommunicera genom musik. Forskning visar dock att musik i förskolan främst används som en metod för att utveckla kunskaper inom andra ämnesområden.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att få ökad kunskap om hur förskollärare resonerar kring musikens syfte och roll i undervisningen med de yngsta barnen på förskolan.

    Metod: Denna studie undersöker förskollärares erfarenheter och beskrivningar av musik i förskolan. Detta med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. På grund av tidsbegränsningar användes ett bekvämlighetsurval. Totalt deltog sex förskollärare som arbetar eller har arbetat med de yngsta barnen i förskolan.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att musik används både som metod och innehåll för att främja utveckling och lärande samt för att skapa rutin och stämning. Förskollärarna uppfattar musik som ett verktyg som väcker barns intresse till deltagande. Särskilt betonas att musik möjliggör lärande inom språkutveckling, socialisation och identitetsutveckling. Språkutveckling uppnås genom sång och ramsor, vilket enligt förskollärarna främjar uttal, ordförråd och ordförståelse. Musik underlättar socialisation genom att erbjuda olika ickeverbala uttryckssätt och främja gemenskap. Slutligen bidrar musik till identitetsutveckling genom att uppmuntra barn att ta plats och öka sitt självförtroende. Förskolans musikaliska miljö beskrivs som en plats där barn spontant engagerar sig i musik, med tillgång både till inspelad musik och olika instrument. Förskollärarna väljer musik baserat på arbetsområden och/eller barnens intressen. Trots musikens omfattande närvaro i verksamheten uttrycks en osäkerhet kring inommusikalisk undervisning, som primärt innefattar instrumentkännedom, rörelse till musik och viss kunskap om musikens byggstenar.

  • 166.
    Aleke, Sophie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lättläst skönlitteratur: Lärares resonemang kring den lättlästa litteratur för vuxna andraspråkselevens läslust2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skollagen (2010:800, kap 20, 4§) uttrycker att elever med svenska som andraspråk ska ges möjlighet att utveckla en språklig kompetens inom svenska språket vilket följas av förmågor inom både läsandets och skrivandets konst. Lärarens uppdrag är att ge eleven verktygen till att skapa och utveckla dessa kompetenser som behövs för att eleven ska kunna delta i det demokratiska samhället.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka och belysa SVA lärares resonemang i anknytning till den lättlästa vuxenlitteratur, samt lyfta upp olika faktorer som påverkar elevens läsande och hur lättlästa böcker kan inverka på elevens läslust.

    Metod: Studien tillämpas en kvalitativ analysmetod genom sex intervjuer med SVA lärare från SFI upp till slutet av SVA grund. Intervjuerna görs både via digitalt Zoom och intervjuer på plats. Studien sammankopplas med Krashens Input hypotes och Furhammars teori om de fyra tillvägagångssätten.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat är att läsarna är samstämmiga om den lättlästa litteraturens kriterier och hur den påverkar elevens läslust och läsande. Däremot är lärarna oense om synen på litteraturen och uttrycker sig både positivt och negativt om den. Det visar sig att lärarna är eniga om att det ska användas en gemensam bok i undervisningen för att underlätta diskussioner och frågeställningar på litteraturen. Dessutom tas det upp olika strategier i intervjuerna som kan ha en inverkan på elevens förståelse av litteraturen.

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  • 167.
    Alenius, Filippa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Ejerhed, Sofia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "De prioriteras inte då de klarar sig själva": En diskursanalys av hur fem lärare talar om särskilt begåvade elever i matematik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att synliggöra hur lärare i årskurs 4–6 identifierar och beskriver den särskilt begåvande eleven i matematik, samt att se om det går att urskilja olika diskurser kring särskild begåvning i matematik. Vi ämnar också undersöka hur lärare talar om att utforma undervisningen efter en likvärdig utbildning och de särskilt begåvande elevers behov.

    De frågor som ligger till grund för studien är:

    • Vilken bild av den särskilt begåvade eleven framträder i lärarnas samtal?

    • Hur talar lärarna om att synliggöra särskild begåvning i matematik?

    • Hur uppger lärarna att de utformar undervisningen utefter uppdraget om en likvärdig utbildning?

    • Går det att urskilja hur olika diskurser kring särskild begåvning i matematik används, och i sådana fall vilka?

    Analysen är baserad på kvalitativa intervjuer som gjordes med fem legitimerade lärare i matematik. I resultatet framkom att lärarna inte hade en entydig bild av den särskilt begåvade eleven. Beskrivningar varierade och eleverna beskrevs bland annat som duktiga, självgående och högpresterande. Tre av lärare talade om att den särskilt begåvande eleven utmärkte sig i matematiken genom att svårigheter att redovisa svar, i övrig skilde sig svaren åt. Ett par lärare nämnde att elever med särskild begåvning är svåra att tillmötesgå, då de enbart vill arbeta med uppgifter som går fort. En annan lärare understryker deras behov är att bli sedda och rätt bemötta. Begreppet en likvärdig utbildning tyckte majoriteten av lärarna var svårt att definiera. Samtliga uppgav att de anpassar sin undervisning på olika sätt vilket bland annat kan innebära att ge eleverna extra uppgifter eller annat material. Det framkom tre olika diskurser kring särskilt begåvning som vi sammanfattar under rubrikerna "hög prestation", "självständighet" och "svårigheter kring likvärdig utbildning".

    I diskussionsavsnittet diskuteras resultatet utifrån vår teoretiska referensram som är socialkonstruktionism och diskursteori. Resultatet ställs även mot tidigare forskning och våra egna tankar som uppkommit under studien gång lyfts fram.

  • 168.
    Alenius, Filippa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Ejerhed, Sofia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Extramural engelska: en kvalitativ studie i årskurs 42017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka extramurala aktiviteter som elever i årskurs fyra ägnar sig åt, samt skapa en förståelse för deras syn på kunskapen de inhämtar genom engelskundervisningen. Vidare ämnar vi också att undersöka lärarens kunskap kring de extramurala aktiviteterna och skapa förståelse för hur läraren anpassar undervisningen utefter denna aspekt. Vi utgår från följande frågeställningar:

    - I vilka aktiviteter möter eleverna engelska på sin fritid? - Hur ser eleverna på den kunskap de inhämtar genom engelskaundersvisningen?  - På vilka sätt upplever läraren att den extramurala engelskan påverkar elevernas kunskap? - Hur anpassar läraren undervisningen för att ta till vara på den informella aspekten av kunskap om elevernas extramurala engelska?

    Vårt resultat är baserat på kvalitativa intervjuer som gjordes med fyra lärare och tolv elever i årskurs fyra. Resultatet visade att samtliga elever kom i kontakt med engelska på sin fritid, majoriteten av dem kom i kontakt med engelska genom utlandsresor eller kontakt med släkt och vänner som talade engelska. Intresset för engelska varierande bland eleverna, vissa tog tillfället i akt att lära sig engelska när tillfälle gavs, medan andra undvek det. Många av eleverna uppger att de känner ett obehag inför att prata engelska i skolkontext men inte utanför. Orsaken till detta, som de uppgav, var rädsla för att göra fel inför sina klasskompisar och på så sätt skrattas åt. Vissa elever nämner att de tycker att de lär sig svårare ord på fritiden och en mer vardaglig konversation, till skillnad från i skolan där de får lära sig enstaka ord och fraser. Lärarna uppger att de ser effekt av den extramurala engelskan, genom att de elever som ägnar sig åt sådana aktiviteter bland annat har bättre uttal och bredare ordförråd. En negativ effekt som två av lärarna nämner är att de tycker sig kunna se att eleverna har svårigheter med att producera eget material. Samtliga lärare har god insyn i vad deras elever har för intressen, men alla tar inte in den aspekten i undervisningen. I diskussionsavsnittet resonerar vi kring några utvalda delar från vårt resultat, utifrån vår teoretiska referensram. Vi tittar på det utifrån ett barnperspektiv; hur stort inflytande eleverna har i undervisningen, vilket visar sig vara bristande. Ur en sociokulturell teoribildning tar vi bland annat upp den proximala utvecklingszonen, då många elever nämner att de tar hjälp av en förälder eller lärare när de inte förstår. Avslutningsvis diskuterar vi våra egna reflektioner och tankar som har dykt upp hos oss under arbetets gång. Bland annat reflekterar vi över de utmaningar som kan dyka upp när lärare ska integrera extramural engelska i undervisningen.

  • 169.
    Aleniusson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Benjaminsson, Julia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Motivationsfaktorer och främjandet av arbetsmotivation: En studie om medarbetares erfarenheter och hur ledare arbetar med att främja arbetsmotivation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work life today is constantly evolving, not least in grocery stores that are experiencing a major digitization. Therefore, work life motivation and the factors preceding motivation are highly relevant to study. We have used a qualitative method where ten interviews were conducted, three leaders and seven employees within three supermarkets located at the Swedish west coast. Our purpose was to make a greater understanding of the employees' own opinions and values regarding hygiene- and motivational factors. We also gained understanding for how the employees experience that the leaders work to promote work life motivation and how the management actually works around the subject. The collected material has been analyzed using a directed content analysis. The most important findings are that the employees value the hygiene factors the most. In general, the respondents also experience a lack of leaders' promotion of work motivation. The findings have been discussed together with previous research and our main conclusion is that every individual is different, which means that managers must know their employees to know what motivates each and everyone.

  • 170.
    Aleryd, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Almgren, Marika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Fonologisk dyslexi i årskurs 1–3: Speciallärares tankar kring och uppfattning om fonologisk dyslexi i grundskolans årskurs 1–32021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pupils with dyslexia have difficulties in developing their reading ability. These students may have difficulties with word recognition, spelling and decoding skills. In the case of phonological dyslexia, the difficulties arise in the phonological awareness of the pupils. Pupils with dyslexia often need adapted teaching, which often takes place in consultation between special teachers and class teachers. The special teacher can contribute with different working methods, for students in need of special support, when the class teacher's knowledge is no longer sufficient. The aim of the study has been to examine how some special teachers’ reason about the work with students who have phonological dyslexia in primary school. We also want to examine special teachers' views on collaboration with class teachers for students with phonological dyslexia. The study is a qualitative study where we have conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 different special teachers in Sweden. The analytical method we have used to process our empirical data is a thematic method of analysis. We have analyzed excerpts from our empirical data using our theoretical perspectives. The results of our study have shown what extra adaptations and special support special teachers use in the work of students who have phonological dyslexia. The informants have told us that they use, among other things, digital tools for reading development, phonic faces, phonics, and the Bornholm model to support the students in their reading development. It has also emerged in our study that intensive teaching regarding phonological awareness is important for students with phonological dyslexia. The results also show that special teachers work both segregating and inclusive in their instruction, depending on the individual and individual needs, which can be assumed to be both a relational and categorical way of working. The informants told us that they work closely with the class teacher and that they have regular reconciliations to discuss and plan the teaching for students in need of support.

  • 171.
    Aleryd, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Almgren, Marika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter i årskurs F-3: Lärares arbetssätt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det är viktigt att kunna läsa och skriva i vårt samhälle och forskning har visat på olika faktorer som skulle kunna ligga till grund för att utveckla läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Vi har ute på fält sett elever som har svårigheter med att läsa och skriva och utifrån den litteratursökning vi har gjort har vi inte kunnat hitta forskning som visat hur ett förebyggande arbete kan se ut i form av arbetssätt vilket vi kommer att undersöka vidare i.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka hur några lärare i årskurs F-3 resonerar kring arbetet med elever som har läs- och skrivsvårigheter, vilka arbetssätt lärare använder sig av samt hur lärare anpassar sin undervisning för elever som har läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Studien kommer också undersöka hur lärare uppmärksammar elever som har läs- och skrivsvårigheter.

    Metod: Studien är en kvalitativ undersökning som har genomförts med semistrukturerade intervjuer där vi har intervjuat nio lärare på tre olika skolor i Sverige.

    Resultat: Studien har bland annat visat vilka arbetssätt som lärare använder sig av varav det mest centrala var olika sätt att undervisa i bokstavsinlärning och ljudningsmetoden. Studien har även visat hur lärare anpassar sin undervisning till elever som har läs- och skrivsvårigheter där respondenterna individanpassar läsläxor, använder sig av intensivläsning samt fonomix i samråd med speciallärare. Vidare har studien visat hur viktigt det är att variera sina arbetssätt för att motivera eleverna. Hur lärare uppmärksammar läs- och skrivsvårigheter är beroende av lärarkompetens och respondenterna uppmärksammade läs- och skrivsvårigheter på olika sätt där ett sätt var att titta efter olika varningssignaler och genom kartläggningar. Ett sätt för respondenterna att motivera sina elever var uppmuntran och att ge beröm.

  • 172.
    Alexandersson, Adina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Uka, Lindon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Political leaders in the face of a global crisis.: A comparative case study of Boris Johnson’s and Stefan Löfven’s framing of the second outbreak of COVID-192021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to identify and analyze the manner in which Prime Ministers Boris Johnson (UK) and Stefan Löfven (Sweden) frame the matter of the Covid outbreak in light of its second onset in 2020. By examining these two actors, we wish to contribute to the already existing literature on political leaders’ crisis rhetoric and to add content to the novel subject of pandemic rhetorics. By utilizing critical textual analysis and framing theory, this thesis identifies and examines themes and patterns of rhetorical structure surrounding the subject of Covid-19. The framing analysis is structured by three analytical points; problem definition, suggested causes and remedies, it will also be analyzed through the scope of integrative complexity theory. The three points will be assessed with measures that indicate in what manner the subject is framed; problem definition - positive or dire. Suggested causes - exogenous or endogenous. Remedies - restorative or reformative. The data for this study consists of 26 speeches made by the two political leaders, four from Löfven and 22 from Johnson. The results show that Stefan Löfven and Boris Johnson frame the outbreak through similar concepts, yet show difference in the variety and extent of integrative complexity; Löfven showing significantly higher levels through keeping a neutral and inclusive standpoint in the three variables, whereas Johnson maintains a more inclined approach with lower levels of integrative complexity by presenting less alternatives and variety in his framings.

  • 173.
    Alexandersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Broberg, Martina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Butikskommunikation inom modebutiker: En observationsstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stores need to be competitive in the current environment where big shopping centers are emerging and customers are increasingly demanding a better shopping experience. Studies indicate that customer decisions are mainly made during the store visit. This means possibilities for shops to influence the customers buying process during the store visit by use of a suitable in-store communication that influence, reminds and inspires customers. Retailers should therefore be aware of how the store communication looks like and how they should strive to improve it. Retailers should know what effects shop communication has to be able to perform changes in hopes to increase customers shopping experience.

    The study aim to investigate how three stores communicate with customers regarding presentation of the assortment, store layout, colors and lighting. The ambition was also to come up with proposals for changes concerning these components which would hopefully improve the shopping experience in the stores. The study was conducted with a qualitative research approach through observations in the three stores to obtain knowledge of the selected components.

    The result of the study indicated that the stores communicated to customers in similar manners regarding presentation of the assortment, store layout, colors and lighting, but it also differed on certain points. Proposition of changes for two stores were given within the components which hopefully would create a better shopping experience for the customers. Change proposal for shop A and C were given in the components which would hopefully create a better shopping experience for customers when they visit the stores. Change proposal for store A was to review the tight placement of the product range which created tight paths and created difficulties to survey the range and try to create a more open layout in the store. Both for shop A and C a propose was to use a uniform background color due to the stores colorful assortment and that store A could create a better color structure of its range. Store B was considered to have a store communication that lived up to expectations based on the theory, which resulted in that no changes have been specified for this shop.

  • 174.
    Alexandersson, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur kan organisationer arbeta för att behålla den yngre generationen: En studie om motivationsfaktorer i verkstadsindustrin2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, organizations are facing a major generational shift, where the younger generation who are more willing to change workplaces, are taking over from the older generation who are more willing to stay in a workplace for a long time. With the younger generation being described as more prone to turnover, organizations face a challenge to retain them. In the work of retaining employees, great importance is placed on motivating their employees, and organizations need to consider each individual's personal preferences in regard to what motivates them. With this as a background, the purpose of the study is to contribute knowledge about what motivates employees to continue working within an organization. As well as trying to find similarities and differences in what motivates employees of the younger and older generations. The study's theoretical framework of reference is based on three successful motivational factors, Herzberg's motivation theory, intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, and Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. Furthermore, the theory chapter raises the concept of employee retention, the work of retaining employees. The earlier research on the generational shift shows that there are large differences between the generations and that the younger generation places higher demands on the organization than the older. To achieve the aim of the study, I used a qualitative method to accomplish a survey on an organization that is facing the challenge of this generational change. Empiric evidence shows that it is mainly the motivational factors compensation and work-related relationships that are important for the employees. Furthermore, the empirical evidence shows that there are great similarities between the generations, but that the younger generation values education and recognition more than the older generation. The result of this study shows that organizations should place great focus on the factors of compensation and work-related relationships, but to meet the demands of the younger generation, organizations should place great importance on factors such as recognition and training. 

  • 175.
    Alexandersson, Ida
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Drama i förskolan: Att främja språk- och kommunikationsutveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med mitt examensarbete har varit att redogöra för förskollärares uppfattningar och erfarenheter av att använda sig av dramapedagogik i förskolans verksamhet. I studien har jag utgått från det sociokulturella perspektivet, där fokuset ligger på individens och gruppens interaktion med varandra. Med hjälp av perspektivet ges individen även möjligheten till att klargöra tankar, känslor och handlingarna som människan i det sociala samhället sammandrabbas med.

    Studien är en kvalitativ metod där jag har använt mig av fokusgruppsintervjuer. De här fokusgruppsintervjuerna har tillfört ett rikligt insamlat material som jag därefter har analyserat med utgångspunkt från den tidigare forskningen samt med hjälp av Mia Marie Sternudds (2000) fyra dramapedagogiska perspektiv som även de har tillfört en god grund till mitt analysarbete.

    Utifrån analysen har det därefter kommit fram resultat på mina problemformuleringar som studien grundar sig på. Jag har genom resultatet som framkommit fått en djupare förståelse för hur man kan använda sig av drama i förskolans verksamhet, samt hur förskollärare väljer att använda sig av drama för att främja språkutvecklingen. Det framgår även under studiens gång att det krävs både utbildning och mod från förskollärarens sida att agera i samband med drama för att det ska få en så betydande roll som möjligt för dramats utförande i förskolan.

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  • 176.
    Alexandersson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Vikten att vara en bra boendecoach: En studie om hur personal på HVB-hem arbetar med empowerment och delaktighet för att förbereda ensamkommande ungdomar till ett självständigt liv.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har i avsikt att undersöka hur personalen på HVB-hem arbetar för ensamkommande ungdomar och hur personalen förbereder dem för ett självständigt liv, med hjälp av empowerment och delaktighet. För att få en djupare förståelse utifrån personalens perspektiv valde vi att använda oss av kvalitativ metod, där vi gjorde fem semistrukturerade intervjuer av anställda på tre olika HVB-hem. För att analysera empirin utgick vi från Lindgren (2015) analysmetod "the constant comparative method". Resultatet som gestaltas visar på att personal lägger stor vikt vid relationer till ungdomarna, samt att motivationsarbete och delaktighet finns i det mesta som görs. Genom att använda empowerment ökades ungdomarnas självständighet genom motivation och stöd. Dessutom med hjälp av delaktighet som verktyg kunde man få ungdomarna bli aktiva och på så vis bli mer självständiga i vardagliga arbetssysslor. Vi drog slutsats om att genom delaktighet fick man empowerment och vice versa. I resultatet kunde vi även se att personalen fungerade som en pålitlig och trygg vuxen i ungdomarnas närhet. Vi fann dessutom ett samband mellan självkänsla och självständighet, kunde ungdomen öka sin självkänsla ökades även deras självständighet.

  • 177.
    Alexandersson, Paula
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Carrvik, Marie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Personlighet och medarbetarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to find correlations between personality traits, experienced employee empowerment and job satisfaction. Employee empowerment means the sense of meaning, competence, self-determination and impact. The study examined if there was a gap between experienced and desired empowerment and if this gap could be explained by personality. The study also examined if this gap had a connection to satisfaction. The questionnaire was carried out at the Swedish Maritime Administration. To measure different personalities, the personality scale mini-IPIP6 was used and in order to measure experienced and desired empowerment, the Spreitzer’s Empowerment Scale was used. The results showed that the personality trait neuroticism correlated negatively with experienced employee empowerment, desired empowerment and job satisfaction. Extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness correlated positively with perceived employee empowerment, desired empowerment and job satisfaction. The results confirm previous research done with the well-established theory of the "Big Five, while employee empowerment is a rather new concept.

  • 178.
    Alexandersson Stamcar, Erika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Doverhäll, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Teachers’ experienced autonomy: A qualitative study of teachers’ autonomy in municipal and independent upper secondary schools2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine how teachers in municipal and independent upper secondary schools experience their horizontal and vertical autonomy to see if there are any similarities or differences between them. Describing their autonomy is done by applying a perception of teachers as street-level bureaucrats to gain a deeper understanding of the concept. In connection to the autonomy discussions, the theoretical understanding is provided in terms of horizontal and vertical influence that might affect autonomy. Those factors are reduced to three specific areas labelled as grading, teaching content and layout of teaching to examine our main research question: How do teachers in municipal and independent schools experience their vertical and horizontal autonomy? In order to answer our main research question, the following questions are specified, (1) how do teachers experience vertical and horizontal autonomy in the fields of grading, teaching content and layout of teaching? (2) what similarities or differences, if any, in respect to vertical and horizontal autonomy exist between teachers in municipal and independent schools? An interpretivist view forms the basis for this study and a qualitative approach is used to conduct a small-n comparison in order to answer those questions through semi-structured interviews. The result show that there is a relatively consistent view of vertical influence, where both the municipal and independent schools receive a high level of vertical autonomy. What is significant, however, is that due to loosely composed governing documents, there is rather a desire to reduce the vertical autonomy. In the horizontal respect, teachers in independent schools are more vulnerable, where guardians and students try to break into the vertical control and thus break the chain of command. 

  • 179.
    Alfredsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Olsson, Ida
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Kroppsspråk, skrämselretorik och retoriska argument: En observationsstudie av den retorik lärare använder sig av i grundskolans tidigare år2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Vi har valt detta ämnesområde då vi under våra verksamhetsförlagda utbildningsperioder iakttagit att de lärare vi följt använt sig av olika retoriska tillvägagångssätt i sin undervisning. Vi vill därför studera hur det ser ut i grundskolans tidigare år mer generellt, vilka olika retoriska tillvägagångssätt lärare använder sig av. När vi började läsa in oss på ämnet retorik fick vi tidigt upp intresset för de tre retoriska argumentationssätten; logos, ethos och pathos. Att det dessutom saknas mycket forskning om hur lärares retorik bidrar till undervisningsområdet har gjort att uppgiften att berika detta fält blir alltmer angeläget.

    Syfte:

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka vilken retorik lärare använder sig av i grundskolans tidigare år. Med grundskolans tidigare år avser vi förskoleklass upp till årskurs 5. Retorik kan vara alltifrån hållning och gester till användandet av retoriska argumentationssätt.

    Metod:

    Vi har valt att använda oss av observationer i vår studie eftersom detta tillvägagångssätt ger oss möjlighet att studera tyst kunskap, till exempel i form av kroppsspråk och gester. Vi har observerat tio stycken olika lärare i deras elevgrupper. Vi presenterar resultat och analys av sex stycken av dessa.

    Resultat:

    Vi har kommit fram till att retorik är en stor bidragande faktor i hur väl lärare lyckas fånga sina elevers engagemang och intresse i undervisningssituationer. Med hjälp av goda retoriska verktyg kan läraren ge elever möjlighet till ett bättre lärande. Majoriteten av de lärare vi observerade använde sig av ett tydligt kroppsspråk och flertalet gester i sin undervisning. Det argumentationssätt som var mest frekvent förekommande var logos. Ethos förekom inte lika frekvent som logos gjorde och pathos användes endast av ett fåtal lärare vid sporadiska tillfällen. Vid de tillfällen när dessa tre argumentationssätt användes var eleverna engagerade i undervisningen genom att ställa frågor samtidigt som ljudnivån i gruppen var svag. Vi har även kommit fram till att skrämselretorik påverkar undervisningen negativt då den hämmar elevernas initiativförmåga till att delta aktivt i undervisningen

  • 180.
    Alfredsson, Annika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    ”Du behöver inte uppfinna hjulet – det är redan uppfunnet”: en kvalitativ intervjustudie om lärares uppfattningar av Singaporemodellen2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Singapore modellen är en matematisk undervisningsmodell med ett problemlösande förhållningssätt som grundats i hur Singapore lägger upp sin matematikundervisning. Ett naturligt intresse för hur Singapore undervisar har växt tack vare deras kontinuerligt höga resultat i nationella undersökningar såsom TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) och PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment). Undervisning efter Singaporemodellen samt det tillhörande läromedlet Singma ökar i Sverige, dock har modellen som internationellt kallas ”Singapore Math” ej forskats på i någon större utsträckning.

    Syfte: Studien syftar till att belysa grundlärares uppfattningar om matematikundervisning efter Singaporemodellen.

    Metod: Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie där nio lärare som arbetade efter Singaporemodellen intervjuats efter en semistrukturerad intervjuguide. Alla intervjuer utom en utfördes via zoom (videosamtal). Den intervjun som utfördes med ett fysiskt möte spelades in via audio, de övriga spelades ljud och bild in på videosamtalen. Intervjuerna transkriberades och i studien analyseras de tematiskt. 

    Resultat: Lärarnas uppfattningar om hur de arbetade med Singaporemodellen sammanföll på flera vis. Alla lärare beskrev en undervisning som grundande sig i problemlösning och hur de arbetade efter läromedlet Singma. Lärarrollen beskrevs som med utforskande och lösningsfokuserad. Lärarna var enhälligt positiva till modellen i helhet, de utgick även från och visade full tillit till modellens tillhörande läromedel med argumenten att det var ett välbeprövat och forskningsbaserat material. Det beskrevs hur Singaporemodellen möjlig gjorde att eleverna blev utforskande och resonerande och att all ny kunskap introducerades med hjälp av olika representationsformer. Utmaningarna lärarna uppfattade var färre men sammanföll dock väl med varandra. Majoriteten beskrev hur arbetet med modellen krävde ett högt tempo där lärarens traditionella genomgångar nästintill uteblev. Det beskrevs även hur det vid införandet av Singaporemodellen krävdes ansträngning av lärarna att förändra sitt förhållningssätt och syn på lärande. Flera lärare vittande även om utmaningar då arbetet med konkret material ökat, vilket bidrog till en stökig situation i klassrummet där lek i stället för lärande förekom.

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  • 181.
    Alfredsson, Annika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Matematik utan lärobok: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur lärare beskriver och motiverar sin matematikundervisning utan lärobok2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den svenska matematikundervisningen är starkt baserad av läroboken (Skolverket, 2012) och. elever beskriver sin matematikundervisning som ett enskilt arbete i en lärobok (Sumpter, Blomqvist & Elamari, 2012). Konsekvensen blir ett fokus på proceduruppgifter och att leverera rätt svar. Eleverna får ej en varierad undervisning och möjlighet till utveckling av alla matematiska förmågor, vilket de har rätt till. Studier på matematikundervisning utan lärobok är få, större fokus har i forskningen varit att belysa vikten av en kvalitetssäkring av läromedel. Dock har det visats hur matematikundervisning utan lärobok kan innebära ett fokus på den matematiska förståelsen och strategier snarare än rätt svar (Thunholm & Bergehed, 2001).

    Syfte: Studien syftar till att undersöka uppfattningar om matematikundervisning utan lärobok.Studien begränsar sig till lärare undervisande i matematik utan lärobok i årskurserna F – 3.

    Metod: I denna kvalitativa intervjustudie har sju lärare, som vid intervjutillfället arbetade eller hade arbetat i årskurs F – 3 utan lärobok i matematiken, intervjuats efter en semistruktureradintervjuguide. Samtliga intervjuer genomfördes via Zoom (videosamtal) där ljud och bild spelades in. Resultatet analyserades och presenteras tematiskt samt med ett teoretiskt ramverk, MCRF (Mathematical Competencies Research Framework) av Lithner, Bergqvist, Bergqvist,Boesen, Palm och Palmberg (2010). Ramverket utgår från hur elever genom utveckling av matematiska förmågor uppnår matematisk kompetens.

    Resultat: Lärarnas beskrivningar av sin matematikundervisning och anledningar till att undervisa utan lärobok sammanföll väl med varandra. Undervisningen centrerade kring ett gemensamt utforskande med en variation av uppgifter och arbetssätt. Elevers tankar och idéer var i centrum och genom dessa ansåg lärarna att de kunde styra undervisningen till önskvärda kunskaper. Problemlösning och öppna frågor var ledmotivet för majoriteten av lärarna vilket upplevdes ge eleverna möjlighet att utveckla flera förmågor och kunskaper inom flera matematiska områden samtidigt. Ett stort motiv beskrev lärarna för att arbeta utan lärobok var att de ville ha lärandet och förståelsen i centrum. De önskade ej fokusera på att eleverna skulle räkna ett antal sidor i en bok på ett korrekt sätt. Detta upplevdes ej främja någon lust för lärande utan kvantitet premierades i stället för kvalitet och lärande. Det motiverades även för att arbeta utan lärobok då det gav möjlighet att differentiera för att nå alla elever och planera undervisningen efter kursplanen i matematiks innehåll.

  • 182.
    Alfredsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Nej, här bestämmer vi tillsammans!!: Maktpositioner i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Makt är något som sker överallt, t.ex. i leken, i arbetslaget, mellan barn och vuxna och det kan ske mellan vilka personer som helst. Att vara i en grupp kan vara en utmaning för både barn och vuxna då alla har olika viljor och meningar. För barn kan detta vara extra svårt då de har lite kunskap om vad makt är. Makt är alltså något man kan se i barngrupper och detta behöver uppmärksammas betydligt mer. Om alla skulle bli mer medvetna om makten som sker mellan barn och barn samt barn och vuxna skulle man kunnat arbeta med det på ett annat sätt. Om arbetet kring makt hade utmanats så skulle barn känna att förskolan är en säkrare miljö.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att synliggöra makten som uttrycks i barngruppen. Jag intresserar mig även för de olika formerna av makt som kan framkomma i olika leksituationer.

    Metod: Jag har valt att genomföra denna studie genom kvalitativ metod där jag har observerat samspelet mellan barn i olika gruppkonstellationer i stora barngruppen och små grupper. Jag valde att observera två timmar om dagen i fem dagar för att få syn på olika grupper och konstellationer då alla 20 barn inte är på förskolan samtidigt, och om de då skilde sig beroende på hur gruppen såg ut.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att makt pågår hela tiden oberoende av gruppens storlek. Barn hittar olika sätt att utöva makt på, verbalt och icke verbala handlingar. Man kunde även se att personalen utan att själva reflekterar över det, har makt över barnen. Oftast syntes det om barnen inte lyssnade.

  • 183.
    Alfredsson, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens konsumtion: En kvantitativ studie om makroekonomiska faktorer som påverkar hushållens konsumtion i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of Swedish households represents two-thirds of Sweden's total GDPgrowth and can therefore be seen as the engine in the Swedish economy. Changes in consumption can therefore be of great importance to the country's economy and are important to analyze. The purpose of this study is to analyze how macroeconomic variables affect the consumption of Swedish households. The macroeconomic variables that will be investigated are: disposable income, inflation, interest rate, and wealth, consisting of financial and real assets. In order to facilitate understanding of the consumption behavior households, the most well-known consumption theories will form the basis of the study, which are: Keynes Consumption Theory, Life Cycle Hypothesis and the Permanent Income Hypothesis. A quantitative study is performed which means that the relationship between selected variables will be examined by the time period from 1986 to 2017 by an econometric model. Based on previous research and collected data sets, an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ADL). The results of the study indicate that there is a relationship between changes in consumption and changes in the explanatory variables disposable income, inflation and housing wealth. The impact of the the variables on consumption over time is very difficult to identify because of lack of significance in the time lags.

  • 184.
    Alfredsson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andersson, Jesper
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Flerdimensionell styrning inom offentlig sektor: Effekter på chefers motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One method to ease the implementation of strategy and improve performance which has come to grow strong in the public sector is contemporary performance measurement systems (CPM). CPM is a system which comprises the use of financial as well as nonfinancial performance measures. To have a motivating effect according to earlier studies CPM have to be in line with the basic targets of the organization, and the managers should have the possibility to affect the performance measures. performance measures also have to be challenging but still accessible. Earlier studies also indicate that performance measures which is linked to meaningful rewards, and a strong cause and effect relation between the financial and non-financial performance measures has a motivating effect. This study aims to examine how CPM affects managers motivation in the public sector. To do so a number of interviews has been held with managers in the public sector. The results of the study indicate that CPM has the possibility to increase managers motivation, and this could be connected to several factors. One factor which has the possibility to increase motivation is if the performance measures is connected to meaningful rewards. The results also indicate that CPM isn’t necessary to make the managers feel motivated cause they already have a sort of basic motivation, but CPM could contribute to increase motivation further. The reason for this motivation is that they get a confirmation of how good their performances are, and they get clear signals of what is expected of them. PM within a CPM could also motivate the managers to act in a way that is not always optimal for the organization. The competition in the municipal organizations can encourage manipulation of performance measures to get better results than competing organizations. Within the public sector there is also a risk that CPM motivates the managers to focus on performances which is measured, while performances which is not measured gets out of priority. 

  • 185.
    Alfredsson, Samona
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Thai, Vong
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kvinnors karriär i en mansdominerad bransch: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnors upplevda karriärmöjligheter i ett It-företag2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar utveckling är något som alltmer kommit att hamna på tapeten och som numera anses vara avgörande på många sätt. FNs Agenda 2030 fastställer ett antal hållbarhetsmål som rör ekologiska, ekonomiska och sociala aspekter som samtliga medlemsländer uppmuntras att eftersträva.

    Gällande den sociala aspekten ligger jämställdhet mellan könen som ett delmål som regeringen arbetat fram en jämställdhetspolitik utefter, inom vilket bland annat kvinnors karriärmöjligheter står i fokus. Detta till trots råder det fortfarande idag en stor o-jämställdhet på arbetsmarknaden där kvinnor tenderar att halka efter i männens karriäravancemang. Tidigare forskning kring jämställdhet på arbetsplatsen påvisar komplexiteten inom området genom att belysa olika faktorer såsom kön, könsfördelning, tokenism, glastak och intersektionalitet som några exempel på bidragande faktorer som spelar roll för kvinnors karriärutveckling. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka möjligheter och begränsningar kvinnor upplever deras möjligheter till att göra karriär. Den teoretiska referensram som tagits fram som grund förstudien utgår från tidigare forskning och vetenskapliga artiklar, där teorin grundar sig i Edgar Scheins teori om organisationskultur. Med den teoretiska referensramen som grund genomfördes insamling av empiri genom en kvalitativ metod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta kvinnor på ett It-företag. Studiens resultat visar att de anställda upplever att organisationskultur är något som bidrar till de värderingar som finns i en organisation, att kulturen styr hur personer väljer att förhålla sig till sin omgivning. I resultatet framgår det också att de anställda upplever att karriärmöjligheterna är goda och att alla oavsett kön har möjlighet att komma till tals. Vi kan också konstatera att företaget värdesätter vikten av kompetenta medarbetare, genom att erbjuda kontinuerlig kompetensutveckling och karriärmöjligheter. Detta signalerar att företaget satsar mycket på att rekrytera kvinnor in till organisationen, vilket kan anses vara positivt ur ett jämställdhets- och hållbarhetsperspektiv, inom vilket bland annat kvinnors karriärmöjligheter står i fokus. Denna studie kan bidra till att ge en ökad förståelse förhur kvinnors karriärmöjligheter inom mansdominerade branscher ser ut idag samt belysa de eventuella problem som fortfarande återfinns på många arbetsplatser, kopplat till organisationskulturen. 

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  • 186.
    Algers, Anne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Skara, Sweden.
    Lindström, Berner
    University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-based learning through negotiated projects: Exploring learning at the boundary2016In: Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning, ISSN 2042-3896, E-ISSN 2042-390X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 2-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    More collaborative and open learning models are suggested as part of the paradigm shift in the way knowledge is produced, distributed and used. This paper aims to explore a work-based learning model, based on systemic negotiations between actors from the three parties: The academy, the industry and the students. The purpose is to investigate how teachers, supervisors and students value negotiated work-based learning as a boundary activity and to enhance the understanding of the learning potential at the boundary.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Activity theory is used as a lens to analyse the results from a survey to the three stakeholder groups and interviews of students. The four learning mechanisms are used to explore learning at the boundary between the two activity systems.

    Findings

    Diversity and mobility in education and work addressed by the notion of boundary crossing are associated with both challenges and a learning potential. There is a constant dynamic between structure and agency, where structure, the negotiated model, influence the individual agency. When gradually removing scaffolding students can as boundary crossers engage behaviourally, emotionally, and cognitively and have agency to handle contradictions at a local level. However, they did not seem to prioritize both systems equally but instead they were gradually socialised into the activity system of the industry.

    Originality/value

    When work-based learning is framed by a negotiated partnership it can manage and customize inherent conflicts of interest and enhance individual learning opportunities at the boundary and can be conceptualized as an open learning practice.

  • 187.
    Algotsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Jonasson, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Samspelet mellan 2D och 3D: 3D-CGI:s inverkan på stämning och perceptuell realism i animen Attack on Titan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attack on Titan (2013) is a popular anime that has been widely distributed around the world. The anime is a prime example when it comes to using 3D Computer Generated Imagery (3D-CGI) combined with traditional 2D animation. This essay is a case study that explores how 3D-CGI impacts the building of atmosphere and tension as well as the perceptual realism in the anime. This has been done in the form of a content analysis where we take a closer look at a selection of scenes. These are establishing, in-depth, or climax, and have further divided them into battle scenes and non-battle scenes. The 3D-elements are divided into three categories, 3D-scenography, 3D-character, and virtual camera. The results show that there are no significant differences in the use of 3D-scenography and virtual camera in the different types of scenes. However, the use of 3D-characters can only be seen in in-depth scenes and battle scenes, respectively. The world of Attack on Titan has many similarities with our reality when it comes to respecting the laws of physics. 3D-CGI contributes with a flawless perspective that increases the sense of distance and speed, however, the use of 3D-characters seems to be largely an economical and time-efficient choice. Nevertheless, the creators have taken advantage of the possibilities that a 3D-character brings by creating tension-inducing imagery.

    3D-CGI has been a contributing factor to the series' perceptual realism mainly because of its use of 3D-scenography and virtual camera, and it has also been a contributing factor in the building of tension and atmosphere mainly with its use of 3D-character.

  • 188.
    Algotsson, Simon
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Öhlander, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Uncertainties in the Innovation Process: The Impact of External Uncertainties2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about How External Uncertainties Affect the Innovation Process. Written during the spring term of 2020 by Simon Algotsson and Johan Öhlander. The thesis main goal is to generate knowledge about the properties and sources of external uncertainties and create an understanding of how they can come to affect an innovation process. This research encourages organizations that are planning to participate, or currently resides in an innovation process to give it a read. Anyone who seeks a deeper understanding of the impact of external uncertainties may use our findings as a source of inspiration. The research question we have answered is: How do external uncertainties affect the innovation process? As the title and research question shows, innovation and uncertainties are the two most common denominators in this work. Presented in the theoretical framework is previous research done concerning the innovation process, and what it consists of. As well as how other researchers describe different types of uncertainties. We have also constructed our own model of how external uncertainties can give rise to internal uncertainties. For this type of research, a qualitative method has been selected, since it enabled us to go in-depth in one specific innovation process. We have conducted two interviews with the CEO and CFO of a company referred to as Gamma. They have both shared their own perspectives of the innovation process their company has gone through. The data collected from the interview has been transcribed separately and is later presented in the empirical evidence. The final sections of this thesis include the analysis and the conclusion. In these chapters we draw parallels between the research presented in the theoretical framework and Gamma's innovation process. The process we have investigated for this thesis encountered several uncertainties, both internal and external. In the analysis we present the authors own model of how external uncertainties came to affect Gamma's innovation process. The conclusion discusses the significant findings of the research such as how Gamma's innovation turned into a 'black hole' for the profits generated by the company.

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  • 189.
    Algotsson Wiklund, Åza
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Strinne, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Nio pedagogers uppfattningar av samlingen som fenomen2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Att barn lär sig i samspel med andra barn är något som ett flertal teoretiker påtalat i sina studier i flera år. Det sociala samspelet tillför mycket i barns utveckling, de tränar sig på att samarbeta samt att lära sig förstå andras behov och önskemål. I en samling lär sig barnen enligt Rubenstein Reich (1996) även att träna den språkliga medvetenheten, vilket de kan göra genom sånger och lekar. Vårt urval av relevant litteratur med fokus mot förskolans samling som fenomen, har varit ett underlag och viktig ram i vår undersökning. Detta har gett oss en djupare förståelse för vårt empiriska material när vi bearbetat vår analys och resultat.

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår undersökning är att vi vill studera pedagogers uppfattning av samlingen som ett pedagogiskt verktyg.

    Metod

    Vårt empiriska material består av kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio förskollärare på tre olika verksamheter i en mellanstor kommun i Västra Götaland.

    Resultat

    Vi har utifrån våra semistrukturerade intervjuer kategoriserat fyra kategorier. Dessa kom att bli

    miljö och organisation, pedagogens uppfattningar av samlingen som begrepp, samling som lärsituation och barnens involvering i planering och genomförande av samlingen. Det framgår i studien att de intervjuade pedagogerna var överens om att samlingen har förändrats över tid. Från att ha varit en så kallad "traditionell" planerad samling, till att de nu "fångar lärandet i stunden".

    Genom vår analys och sammanfattning kunde vi urskilja ett mönster där det framgick att ett flertal pedagoger hade en uppfattning av att de var styrda av bland annat läroplanen, men att de ändå kände en frihet till att planera sina samlingar som de önskade. En annan uppfattning som framkom från några av pedagogerna var att samlingarna på förskolan sågs som en förberedande inskolning till skolverksamheten.

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  • 190.
    Algsten, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Agardius, Isabella
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Här knackar vi inte längre: En kvalitativ studie om skolpersonalens upplevelse av sin arbetsmiljö på Kronan skola2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how school personnel have reacted in regard to their mental, physical, and social working environments one year after the Kronan School attack in Trollhättan. The study's results are based on semi-structured interviews with five staff members. The qualitative method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (I.P.A) has been used to analyse the material. The results show which factors the staff members have considered to be the reasons for their recovery and setbacks when returning to work after the event. Five comprehensive themes presented themselves as being the most prominent after analysis. The comprehensive themes are based on the interviewees' experiences of social support, security, the lost meeting place, social strains, and mental processing. The results present how important the component's safety, security, and social support has been for the interviewees' processing of the traumatic event, as well as their return to work. The conclusion emphasises the interviewees' experience in a workgroup, where solidarity has developed and strengthened after experiencing crisis.

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  • 191.
    Al-Hasbani, Sally
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Noura, Melissa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarskap hos män och kvinnor: Har ledarskap ett genus?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have chosen to study leadership in reference to the gender perspective, by studying earlier made researches on this subject and comparing it to the empirical part through interviews with leaders. The underlying interest in the chosen subject was highlighted when we compared the number of male leaders with women, through statistics. This showed that there is gender imbalance in the number of leadership positions. Therefore, we chose to investigate in this subject area from several aspects in order to create a vision of the underlying reason why male leaders possess more leadership positions than women. There are numbers of research on differences between male and female leadership, what distinguishes this report from the rest is that our main focus is on leadership in men and women to examine whether leadership has an underlying gender or not. This by studying leadership with regard to the gender perspective, where we emphasize gender equality, leadership, characteristics, power positions but also female and male leadership roles.

    In this study, we are using a qualitative method through interviews. This is due to the fact that we consider this method as relevant for the report as we strive for deep and comprehensive data. Furthermore, we present previous research and theories in the form of scientific articles and dissertations under our theoretical frame of references. Themes that are highlighted in the theoretical part are leadership, leadership styles, male and female leadership, gender perspective on leadership and stereotypes. In addition to that we also present in the empirical part our collected data from the interviews that are conducted on six different managers, whereas three are men and three are women. There the respondents share their previous experiences and perceptions about the subject. After studying previous research and the responses from the interviewed leaders, we discuss in the analysis and interpretation part the theory and the empirical data. Through this, we compare, interpret and emphasise our own opinions about the chosen subject area. This will lead us to a result that can answer our research question.

    After examining leaders' experiences and perceptions in relation to previous research, we conclude that leadership does not directly have an underlying gender. It turns out that leadership is based on personalities rather than gender, because it differs in characteristics, values and attitudes. This because we are different as individuals and we value differently. Furthermore, to strengthen this conclusion it has been presented that both male and female leaders use qualities that are classified as either masculine or feminine, with that said they use each other'squalities. However, we cannot deny that men for biological reasons have a body language and characteristics that creates the picture of male dominance in leadership, unlike females.

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  • 192.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    et al.
    Special Education Department, Hashemite University, Zarqa (JOR); Abu Dhabi Early Childhood Authority, Abu Dhabi (ARE).
    Duell, Natasha
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (USA).
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC (USA).
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC (USA).
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Liu, Qin
    Department of Maternal and Child Health & Adolescent Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (CHN).
    Long, Qian
    Global Health Research Center, Duke University, Kunshan (CHN).
    Oburu, Paul
    Department Of Educational Psychology, Maseno University, Maseno (KEN).
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Department of Psychology, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Rome (ITA).
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC (USA).
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Department of Psychology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (SAU).
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Department of Family Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (THA).
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Department of Psychology, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellin (COL).
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Department pf Psychology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (THA).
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Department of Psychology, Ateneo de Manila University, Manila (PHL).
    Bacchini, Dario
    Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (ITA).
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Adolescent Health and Human Development, UNICEF, and Institute for Fiscal Studies, Bethesda, MD (USA).
    Chang, Lei
    Department of Psychology, University of Macau, Macau (CHN).
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA (USA).
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Department of Psychology, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Rome (ITA).
    Parents’ learning support and school attitudes in relation to adolescent academic identity and school performance in nine countries2024In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important question for parents and educators alike is how to promote adolescents’ academic identity and school performance. This study investigated relations among parental education, parents’ attitudes toward their adolescents’ school, parental support for learning at home, and adolescents’ academic identity and school performance over time and in different national contexts. Longitudinal data were collected from adolescents and their parents in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). When adolescents were 16 years old, their mothers (N = 1083) and fathers (N = 859) provided data. When adolescents were 17 years old, 1049 adolescents (50% girls) and their mothers (N = 1001) and fathers (N = 749) provided data. Multiple-group path analyses indicated that, across cultures, higher parent education was associated with better adolescent school performance. Parents’ attitudes toward their adolescents’ school and parent support for learning in the home were not associated with adolescents’ school performance but were associated with academic identity. The findings suggest somewhat different pathways to school performance versus academic identity. Implications for helping parents and educators in different countries promote adolescents’ academic identity and achievement are discussed.

  • 193.
    Ali, Abdifatah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    A qualitative study of the importance of leadership and organisational conditions regarding the working conditions for social workers.: An employee perspective.2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sick leave due to stress has almost doubled and now there is a severe shortage of social workers in many municipalities. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency recently presented figures on sick leave among employees in Sweden. The results revealed that sick leave due to stress has dramatically increased. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency indicates that the worst group that had a high sick leave related to stress were social workers that work in social services. Social workers sick leave due to stress has nearly doubled between the years 2010-2014. The report indicates that the situation is alarming and that it is hard to find new social workers. Many social services in Sweden are trying to recruit social workers but, it is hard to find social workers (SVT, 2016). The purpose of this study was examining the importance of leadership and organisational conditions for social workers and their working conditions. This study was desired to find out the employees (social workers) perceptions of the importance of leadership and organisational conditions for their working conditions including their health. The objective of the study was to increase the understanding of importance of leadership and organisation conditions for social workers and their working conditions including their wellbeing. It is important to mention that the study’s focal point was to examine the social workers and their working conditions from Swedish context. The purpose of the study was to answer the following research questions:

    1- How does leadership affect employees (social workers) working conditions?

    2- How do organisations conditions affect employees working situation and their health?

    To answer the research questions, six semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed with the help of the theoretical frame of reference. The study found out that there is a need to improve several areas within social service to provide a better and health promoting workplace for social workers. The study found out that there is the need of more health promoting activities, better working environment, honest leaders, good communication and better organisational conditions to improve the working conditions of social workers. Leadership plays a great role to improve the working conditions of social workers and therefore there is the need of cooperation and commitment from employees and organisations to make this possible.

  • 194.
    Ali, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Alam, M. Ashan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Role and Performance of Microcredit in Pakistan2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit provides small loans to poor people and small enterprises. It is the best solution of removing poverty. This research provides an overview of the role and performance of microcredit in Pakistan. The major objective of the study is to show the microfinance sector performance and impact of the microcredit on the different poverty levels. This study is based on both quantitative and qualitative methods in order to answer the thesis questions. The result of the study was that microcredit helps in the poverty alleviation of different categories of poor people and has the positive effects on their living standards. It was found that there is a high interest rate on micro loans because of the administrative cost. We discovered that there are three types of organizations that provide services of microfinance in Pakistan. The government takes interest and supports the microfinance sector and of their main initiative is microfinance ordinance 2001. It was observed that there is improvement in the microfinance sector in the recent years in terms of investments, active borrowers, branches and personnel.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 195.
    Ali, Fatima
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Personalekonomisk redovisning och dess nyckeltal: Poängen med personalekonomisk redovisning som lyfter fram personalnyckeltal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the value of staff in terms of resources has gained increasing attention in staff-intensive companies. During the 1990s, a bill from the Work Environment Commission came about that all organizations should draw up a staff accounting report. But the bill was rejected because most organizations have already volunteered to introduce such accounts. This study shows if organizations use staff accounting and, if so, to what extent. The purpose of the study is to gain an understanding of how the personnel-economic key figures in an enterprise's accounting affect the business and how the choice of certain staff key figures are determined. Staff key figures that are part of the staff report are highlighted through staff issues. By managing staff issues and maintaining communication between employees effectively, it has resulted in a good workplace environment for both employees' well-being and for the company's profitability.

    The qualitative research effort of the study consists of previous research highlighting the importance of human resources and its accounting and its key figures. This is stretched by two interview surveys of the staff in two industry sectors. Based on the theoretical frame of reference and the collected empirical, four factors have been discussed in the analysis section, explaining why they use human resource accounting and key performance indicators. These four factors are organization, interest, skills and developed systems.

  • 196.
    Ali, Foos
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Egal, Ikram
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sweden Democrats and Islamophobia: A qualitative study of how the Sweden Democrats construct Islam in their ideology2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to describe and examine how the Sweden Democrats construct Islam and if there are any Islamophobic elements in their ideology. We have chosen to examine the Sweden Democrats from the period before the election in 2009, when they entered the Swedish parliament in 2010 up until 2017. The Sweden democrats have developed the way the party construct Islam in their rhetoric from the period before the party got elected and the period after. We found it interesting to further look at the period when the party explicitly criticized Islam and when it became implicit. In this way we shed a light on how the Sweden Democrats might have used the creation of fear of Islam in order to gain voters. However, the problem in our question is although to see how they construct Islam and if there are any Islamophobic elements in their ideology. Based on the ontology of social constructivism and theories connected to Islamophobia, a qualitative analysis will be conducted to describe the Islamophobic elements that might exist within the party. We will present a further explanation of the concepts in the theory chapter and will also be used in the conduction of an analysis of the party's ideology. The three main areas of interests which are religious, cultural and political differences will be connected to the definitions of Islamophobia and will be analyzed separately. By doing so, it became clear that the party developed their way of expressing concerns of immigration and assimilation of Muslims in Sweden. Our results show that the Sweden Democrats are not Islamophobic regarding all our main areas. Rather, the party has only shown clear Islamophobic elements in the area of cultural differences and problems that occurs with immigration of Muslims during the time before the election. These types of messages are hard to find within the party today.

  • 197.
    Ali Hassen, Yasin
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Role of ICT for the growth of small enterprises in Ethiopia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises strive to survive and grow in the business they are involved. They makeefforts to utilize different resources and technologies available to this end as long as it isaffordable and productive. Information Communication Technology or ICT and e-commerceare among those technologies that take the front line. This study asks the question ‘howmuch are Ethiopian small enterprises responsive to ICT and the internet and how much ofthe benefits have they utilized for their growth?’ It takes five small enterprises involved inimport and export business to perform case study research on the issue and examines theirutilization level of the technology. The findings show that small enterprises in the countryare on a very low level of utilizing ICT and e-commerce due to several reasons among whichare scarcity in infrastructure development and expertise in the area coupled with barriersfrom government policy and bank regulations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    MA Thesis
  • 198.
    Ali, Hussein
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Al-Habobi, Ahmed
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svenska molnleverantörers perspektiv på säkerhetsrisker vid användning av molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of the cloud has contributed to a remarkable change within the IT industry. The outstanding functionality of using the cloud is the possibility to access data from a variety of sources regardless of its geographical location. Today different users around the world utilize the cloud, users from a broad range of businesses and backgrounds. However, there are also downsides to the cloud that might lead to severe negative consequences if not taken into consideration. This study identifies the security risks that could occur by using the cloud. These security risks have been identified and analyzed, in order to minimize them. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the risks of using the cloud in order to minimize security risks and to achieve an increased security when using the cloud. The research question was answered using a scientific methodology based on the collection of qualitative data. The qualitative data was collected through interviews. More specifically, multiple interviewees from different suppliers in Sweden, all whom contributed with relevant information to this study. The result of this study shows that the amount of security risks is dependent on the supplier providing the cloud and the type of cloud infrastructure. Hence, the risks in the cloud could vary depending on which supplier that offers the service. Today it is almost impossible to eliminate the security risks that the cloud entails. However, this study shows that the potential to minimize these risks are found within the set agreement between supplier and customer, risks that both parties agree on are acceptable to the customer. 

  • 199.
    Ali, Lana
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Ghotbi, Arezo
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Konsultchefers upplevelser av relationsskapandet med sina konsulter: En vardag präglad utav samledarskap2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consultant managers have several important relationships in their business, such as the relationship with their customers, the consultants, and their own managers. By having many professional relationships and many tasks at the same time, consultant managers have a lot on their plate. In this study, the purpose will be to discuss the consultant manager’s experiences of difficulties in being able to create relationships with their consultants in connection with the co-leadership they have with their clients. In order to get the answers for this study's purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 consultant managers from the staffing industry. The results are presented as main themes and sub-themes with an associated analysis. Three main themes were identified: Physical presence, communication, and co-leadership. The consultant managers' lack of presence with their consultant was identified. They felt that their lack of presence affected their communication between them. Another theme was co-leadership and the consultant managers felt that the co-leadership had an impact on the relationship between the consultant managers and consultants. Most felt that their lack of time resulted in them not being able to create close relationships with their consultants and in several cases the consultants were more drawn to the clients as they were more present at their workplace. 

  • 200.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work–integrated informal Learning (WiiL) Adopting Social Networking as Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning usually focuses on student's practical knowledge and learning duringthe education, while a student after completing the institutional period is still a student at workplace ass/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only the formal training and educationof the employees, but also an informal process of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices, and norms, as well as the social ties among the persons.The use of social networking site within the organization enables a new work integrated methodof learning and communication among the colleagues from different disciplines, encouraging both personal and professional informal knowledge sharing inside the organization. Our analysis ofemployee's behavior and acceptance of social networking as an informal way of learning was performed by a descriptive case survey research.The respondents providing the empirical data for survey consisted of 105 out of 180 targeted employees from a private IT organization in Pakistan. The questionnaire results present that the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in the hierarchical levels of the profession within the organization. Their motivation in using social networking includes sharing personal and professional experiences with co-workers and advancing their career.This paper illustrates the power of social networking as a Work Integrated Informal Learning (WIIL) tool that contributes significantly to increase the gain of interdisciplinary knowledge within the organization

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