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  • 151.
    Hallström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Olofsson, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Förslag på utformning av en monteringscell för att öka produktionskapaciteten: för VP1-pumpar på Parker Hannifin AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been carried out at Parker Hannifin in Trollhättan and is describing concept work for design proposals of an assembly cell in which a hydraulic pump is produced. The current assembly cell does not have a high enough capacity to meet a rising demand. The aim of this work was to propose a balanced assembly cell whose capacity increases with increase in the workforce. The goal was to present a model of an assembly cell that can achieve a production capacity of at least 200 pumps per week.By observing the current assembly, and study the various operations time duration, different time balancing charts were created. Unlike the current time balancing charts the operations for calibrating and controlling the pumps functions in a test rig were now included. Various concepts were created and discussed with stakeholders and were followed by revisions of the concepts before a screening. The concepts were screened down to two concepts, which were modeled in full scale to allow for evaluation according to the working method Production Preparation, 2P. After that, a concept point matrix was created and the concepts were rated with the use of the evaluation of the models.The concept recommended to Parker is called "Two-sided assembly" and is a concept where the majority of the sub-assemblies for building a VP1 pump is made on one side and then transported on a roller conveyor to the other side where a smaller amount of sub-assemblies is made to be followed by the final assembly.The concept with the examples of time balancing charts results in a production capacity of 227 pumps per week. The concept is flexible and can be adapted to several workflow standards and there is potential for further development if the concept is deemed suitable to implement by Parker.

  • 152.
    Halmsjö, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hansen Andreasson, Karl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Påläggssvetsning av kylturbulatorer med kall metallöverföring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery in Trollhättan, Sweden, manufacture combustion chambers for gas turbines. One of the most important products is the combustion chamber of the SGT-800 gas turbine. Cooling ribs are currently machined out of the combustor casing. Their purpose is to cool the construction by generating turbulence from the air flow.

    Siemens want to investigate the possibility of replacing the current manufacturing method with an additive manufacturing method. This study focuses on investigating the possibility of utilizing Cold Metal Transfer technology (CMT). CMT is derived from MIG/MAG and offers a lower heat input and splatter free welds. An implementation of CMT-technology would theoretically lead to reduced lead- and transport times as well as cost savings.

    A quantitative study involving CMT-welding was carried out at PTC, Trollhättan. The aim was to create welded ribs of a certain geometry and size. Factorial design of experiments was used. Regression models of how welding parameters influenced the height, width, angle, penetration and heat transfer of the welded rib were created. The regression models were based on the results of the experiments. Optimization of the process led to ribs with good metallurgical properties, free from cracks and lack of fusion. The dimensions were within the required limits. The optimized process was used to weld a zigzag pattern, which is believed to enhance the level of cooling. All experiments were limited to flat surfaces 

  • 153.
    Hamatuli, Cliff
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Skräddad mikrostruktur av gadolinium zirkonat baserade värmebarriärbeläggningar som utsätts för termisk cyklisk utmattning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is the standard ceramic top coat material used for TBC application. Above 1200°C, issues such as CMAS (Calcium Magnesium Alumino Silicates) infiltration susceptibility, phase instability and high sintering rates limits its long durability. Therefore, new materials which can overcome these challenges without compromising the other requirements for TBCs are highly desirable. Gadolinium zirconate is one such material which has shown promising results for CMAS infiltration resistance. In this work, a relatively new TBC processing route, suspension plasma spray (SPS) has been employed to deposit gadolinium zirconate based TBCs. The primary aim of this study was to deposit two different coating systems (layered and composite) of gadolinium zirconate and YSZ composition using SPS technique and evaluate their thermal cyclic fatigue life performance. The layered system was a triple layered TBC with YSZ as the base layer, relatively porous GZ as the intermediate layer and dense GZ as the top layer. The blended TBC system comprised of a thin YSZ layer, an intermediate GZ+YSZ thick layer and dense GZ top layer. In the thermal cyclic fatigue test at 1100°C and 1200°C, it was observed that blended TBC had a lower thermal cyclic life than the layered TBC. It was shown that SPS is a promising technique to deposit columnar microstructure TBCs. 

  • 154.
    Hamid Elamin, Hamed
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Mohammad Taher, Handrin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Utveckling av en skopkonstruktion med lägre produktionskostnader2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the development of a bucket design; intended for a range of excavatorbuckets consisting of four different types, but has only been implemented on the cablebucket. The work has been performed on behalf of a company that develops, produces andsells construction equipment for excavators and wheel loaders. At the present, the company'sexcavator buckets have high production costs, but the vision is to get into the low-costmarket. The goal of this work has been to develop a bucket design that reduces the company'sproduction costs.After a meeting with the company it became clear what needed to be achieved. The collectedneeds were interpreted in terms of customer requirements. A QFD was made, and thecustomer requirements were translated into product specifications for a successful bucketdesign. Particular focus has been put on simplifying the assembly of the bucket and adaptingits design for robot welding. Some essential factors have been to design interactingparts and to consider the accessibility for welding. The concepts were generated throughinternal and external searches, where methods as brainstorming and competitor analysiswere used.Concept selection was made by using Pugh's decision-matrix. A relatively optimal conceptwas selected for further development. During the development, various verification methodswere used, as for example risk analysis, finite element analysis (FEA) and cost estimate,to verify that the selected concept meets the set requirements for the excavator bucket.Several potential improvements were identified during the verifications phase and theseimprovements were implemented on the selected concept, which resulted in an even betterconcept than before.The final concept obtained a reduced production cost, with a more efficient assembly, reducedmaterial use and welding as well as a better performance than before.

  • 155.
    Hansson, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Detection of tool wear in drilling based on axis position signals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting operations are important and commonly used operations in the field of manufacturing. Automated machining is today commonly used in CNC-machines. One common drawback with automated machining is that the tool condition is challenging to predict which leads to a conservative tool replacement times. This leads to a low utilisation of the tool economical lifetime and an unnecessary high number of tool replacements. Methods for indirect continuous monitoring of the tool wear exist but usually require retrofitting of external sensors that can be both costly and also interrupt the machine operation due to the additional wiring. It is therefore of interest to investigate the possibility to use the, often high resolution, sensors already fitted in a CNC-machine to extract valuable data that can indirectly give an estimation of the tool condition.

    This thesis work has, with attention to the X-, Y- and Z-position sensors, resulted in development of algorithms that show relations between tool wear and data acquired from these sensors. The algorithms operate in the frequency domain to determine changes in the dynamic response over the time of tool degradation.

  • 156.
    Hansson, Hedvig
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Review of stable gas and its safety applications2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at Autoliv Sverige AB in Vårgårda. The purpose of the thesis was to increase Autoliv’s knowledge regarding stable gas and its safety applications. To achieve this, a literature study, eight interviews and patent searches has been performed. To broader the understanding further, a concept study of an inflatable life buoy has been made. This idea was presented during a brainstorming session with nine employees at Autoliv. There are some certain characteristics that differentiates gas from solid and liquid substances. The first characteristic is that gases does not have a specific shape or volume. The volume is determined by the size of the container. Another property of gas is that it could be compressed to decrease its volume. The last characteristic is that a contained gas obtain pressure against all walls in the container. If the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well. In this thesis, stable gas is defined as gases that not react with other gases when it is let out in the air. An unreactive gas means that the valence shell is full and that no electrons are missing or needs to be bound to another molecule. This corresponds to stable gases, for example the noble gases that is presented to the far right in the periodic table of elements. There are several safety products on today’s market that uses stable gas. This thesis includes a screening of three variants of inflatable vests, a bicycle helmet and a lifeboat. These products activate in different ways, both automatically and manually. The purpose of the life buoy was to do design a product that is easier to throw and takes less space than a traditional life buoy. Thus, demonstrate how stable gas can be applied in a real-world scenario. A complete solution has not been developed in this thesis due to the limiting time factor. Basic constraints, such as pressure and volume were calculated to show the necessary requirements on the buoy and the cylinder. The concept study of the inflatable life buoy resulted in a buoy of 35 litres with a cross section diameter of 1.6 dm. To be able to inflate this volume, a cylinder containing 90 ml is required. The dimensions of the cylinder have been calculated to minimize the use of material which resulted in a height and diameter of 50 mm. One of the conclusion of this thesis is that stable gas is useable for safety applications. The choice of gas depends on the specific product and its conditions and requirements. Therefore, a specific gas cannot be considered as the most optimal.

  • 157.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Integrated Management Systems – advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13thToulon-Verona international quality conference. 2-4 sept, 2010: Organizational Excellence in Service, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 158.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality and Environmental Management.
    Sustaining quality management implementation in small organisations: Experiences from quality award recipients2008In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Hansson, Mattias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Palmgren, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Product Development: Steering solutions for Easy Boating2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis consists of a product development project performed for Volvo Penta's transmissions department. In line with Volvo Penta's vision of Easy Boating, the problem description entailed, to make boating easier by developing concepts for the steering of boats. The goal was to develop three concepts which suited the requirements provided by the project owner. The bachelor's thesis was preceded by a study, in the form of a concept generation process. The project was initiated with a concept generation process, in parallel with a requirement analysis. This concept generation was performed with the assistance of tools from the Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch (TRIZ) methodology. Utilised parts from TRIZ are tools for identifying free resources, finding and resolving undesirable contradictions and predicting the next step of development of a system. In accordance with the methods of Set-Based Engineering, the generated concepts were not chosen for their merit, but instead eliminated based on requirements and developed knowledge. To accomplish this, the requirements were collected from the identified stakeholders of the project and ranked based on their respective weight. The requirements were used in the elimination of the concepts which was performed in three stages: pruning of concepts, concept screening and ultimately, concept scoring. These three stages were based on the literature and chosen because of their ability to incorporate the requirements in the elimination. As a result of the elimination process six concepts of two different product categories, addons to existing solutions and complete new systems, were presented to Volvo Penta in combination with a product development plan. The result of six concepts was obtained since none of the concepts categories could be eliminated by the requirements collected in the process and therefore it was decided to present tree from each category.

  • 160.
    Hansson, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Skogsberg, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Comparison of stress behaviour in thermal barrier coatings using FE analyses2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis project was to compare the stress behaviour in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with FE analyses in both 2D and 3D. The main focus was to analyse the vertical stresses in the topcoat (TC) and how they varied in relation to different thicknesses of the thermally grown oxide (TGO), spraying methods of the bondcoat (BC) and the topography of the BC.

    For the 2D simulations six samples were used; three with BCs sprayed with high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and three sprayed with atmospheric plasma spraying. The samples had been exposed to isothermal heat treatment at 1150 °C for 0, 100 and 200 hours. Five images of each sample were taken with a scanning electron microscope, resulting in a total of 30 images. FE simulations based on these 30 images were done simulating a cooling from 1100 °C to 100 °C.

    The 3D simulations were based on surfaces created from coordinates measured with stripe projection technique on three samples consisting of only substrate and BC. Three domains of each sample had been measured and three CAD models based on randomly selected surfaces of each domain were made, resulting in 27 CAD models. The CAD models were used in the 3D FE simulations also simulating a cooling from 1100 °C to 100 °C.

    The results showed that the 2D simulations corresponds to published assertions about a stress inversion after TGO growth and that cracking will propagate from one peak to another, presuming the roughness of the TGO can be expressed as a wave. No conclusions of differences between spraying methods of the BC could be drawn.

    The stress inversion phenomenon was also found in the 3D simulations. By inspecting the TGO/TC-interface profile in different sections of a 3D model, difficulties in predicting the stress behaviour in a TBC with 2D were explained. No differences in stresses in relation to the BC roughness could be stated.

  • 161.
    Haraldsson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Christian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ersättning av skruvförband till VE152012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fordonsindustrin strävar efter ständiga förbättringar på transmissionssystem inom exempelvis hållfasthet och viktminskning. För att reducera vikten på växellådshuset (VE15) har alternativ till det befintliga skruvförbandet granskats. Målet med examensarbetet var att välja två olika fogningsmetoder, en inom svetsning och en inom limning. De valda fogningsmetoderna jämfördes med det befintliga skruvförbandet utifrån bland annat viktminskningspotential och hållfasthet.

    Information inom svetsning, limning, skruvförband och aluminium införskaffades med hjälp av kvalificerade databaser, vetenskapliga artiklar samt rådfrågning av sakkunniga inom respektive område. Utifrån de valda fogningsmetoderna, friktionsomrörningssvetsning (FSW) och epoxi, idégenererades utformning av flänsen.

    Vid användning av FSW som fogningsmetod reducerades vikten på VE15 med 13,7 % och med epoxi var viktminskningen 25,5 %, i jämförelse med skruvförbandet. Då mekaniken i växellådan genererar krafter på flänsen är hållfasthetsegenskaper hos fogningsmetoderna viktiga. Epoxi, FSW och skruvförbandet klarar belastningarna med god marginal. Med avseende på bland annat hållfasthet, vikt och miljö/hälsopåverkan valdes FSW som potentiell ersättare av skruvförbandet på VE15. Valet utfördes med en konceptvägningsmatris.

  • 162.
    Harati, Ebrahim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Malek Ghaini, Farshid
    Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran.
    Torkamany, Mohammad Javad
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran.
    Microstructural Analysis of Laser Cladding of Stellite 6 on Ductile Iron2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Johan Stahre, Björn Johansson,Mats Björkman, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stellite 6 alloy in the form of powder was deposited on a ductile cast iron substrate using a low power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The effects of process parameters on the resulting microstructure and hardness were studied with emphasis on the single and multi-track deposits. The results revealed that the cladded layers consist of carbides dispersed in a Co-based solid solution matrix with a dendritic structure. Multi-track cladded layers have coarser dendrites compared to those of single-track cladded layer due to a longer exposure time at high temperature and slower cooling rates as more layers were deposited

  • 163.
    Harati, Ebrahim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Effect of HFMI treatment procedure on weld toe geometry and fatigue properties of high strength steel welds2016In: Procedia Structural Integrety, Vol. 2, p. 3483-3490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment procedure on the weld toe geometry and fatigue strength in 1300 MPa yield strength steel welds were investigated. In this regard first the effect of three or six run treatments on the weld toe geometry was evaluated. The fatigue strength and weld toe geometry of as-welded and HFMI treated samples was then compared. Fatigue testing was done under fully reversed, constant amplitude bending load. When increasing the number of treatment runs from three to six, the weld toe radius and width of treatment remained almost constant. However, a slightly smaller depth of treatment in the base metal and a somewhat larger depth of treatment in the weld metal was observed. HFMI treatment increased the fatigue strength by 26%. The treatment did not increase the weld toe radius significantly, but resulted in a more uniform weld toe geometry along the weld. A depth of treatment in the base metal in the range of 0.15-0.19 mm and a width of treatment in the range of 2.5-3 mm, were achieved. It is concluded that the three run treatment would be a more economical option than the six run treatment providing a similar or even more favourable geometry modification.

  • 164.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. saeid@termisk.se.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    Linköping University.
    Wren, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Thermal non-destructive testing: modeling, simulation and experiments for improved localization of hidden defects2014In: The 12th International Conference on Quantitative Infrared Thermography, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, a substantial amount of research and practical work has been conducted on non-destructive testing of materials using thermography. The performed studies elucidate the potential of various types of thermal non-destructive testing (TNDT) for different materials and applications, including various types of defects. This paper presents a method for detecting in-depth defects in metallic materials and a simulation model for the heat transfer in the material. Experiments are performed on a test specimen with artificial defects (flat-bottom holes). The detection method exploits spatiotemporal analysis in order to find deviations from a model of normality, and shows novel results. Thermal modelling is performed in order to have a base-line simulation model enable us to (a) investigate affecting parameters without repeating the experiments and (b) generalize the results and extend their validity to other cases. Results show that there is an acceptable compliance between simulated and measured thermal data. 

  • 165.
    Henriksen, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lööf, Rebeca
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Fält, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Verksamhetsmodell för införande av nya produkter2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a thesis work performed at GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan. The goal of this thesis has been to improve the process for new product introduction with focus on reducing lead time, cost and quality issues. To describe the work methodology regarding manufacturing preparation and production ramp-up, a proposal for a new business model was created.

    The thesis work has been based on a product development perspective. Information was gathered from interviews with GKN Aerospace employees and literatures about different work methodologies.

    To define final requirements for the business model, customer needs was identified and weight relative each other. As the final requirements were defined, a number of concepts were created and end one of them was selected for further development.

    The thesis work resulted in a new business model where work methodology and instructions are documented in a handbook. The handbook describes the different phases of the business model and a short presentation of the involved functions along with input and output. The purpose of the handbook is to be used as a tool for project managers and employees in the start-up of new products.

    For further development and implementation of the new business model, a document was created where potential risks have been analyzed and recommendations regarding implementation of the new business model are described

  • 166.
    Heralic, Almir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Towards full Automation of Robotized Laser Metal-wire Deposition2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal wire deposition by means of robotized laser welding offers great saving potentials, i.e. reduced costs and reduced lead times, in many different applications, such as fabrication of complex components, repair or modification of high-value components, rapid prototyping and low volume production, especially if the process can be automated. Metal deposition is a layered manufacturing technique that builds metal structures by melting metal wire into beads which are deposited side by side and layer upon layer. This thesis presents a system for on-line monitoring and control of robotized laser metal wire deposition (RLMwD). The task is to ensure a stable deposition process with correct geometrical profile of the resulting geometry and sound metallurgical properties. Issues regarding sensor calibration, system identification and control design are discussed. The suggested controller maintains a constant bead height and width throughout the deposition process. It is evaluated through real experiments, however, limited to straight line deposition experiments. Solutions towards a more general controller, i.e. one that can handle different deposition paths, are suggested.

    A method is also proposed on how an operator can use different sensor information for process understanding, process development and for manual on-line control. The strategies are evaluated through different deposition tasks and considered materials are tool steel and Ti-6Al-4V. The developed monitoring system enables an operator to control the process at a safe distance from the hazardous laser beam.

    The results obtained in this work indicate promising steps towards full automation of the RLMwD process, i.e. without human intervention and for arbitrary deposition paths.

  • 167.
    Hermansson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergström-Kvidén, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning och effektivisering av externa transporter på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Trollhättan2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor’s thesis has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan (SIT) and has treated mapping and visualization of external transport, which arises in connection with external manufacturing operations regarding the combustor model SGT- 800B. Furthermore, the working group conducted an environmental review associated with these transportations.

    To carry out the bachelor’s thesis both the use of unstructured and semi-structured interviews but also data collected from SAP. The collected data was the basis for an article register where data from the interviews and SAP was entered. These were in the form of: weight, distance, loading meters and transportation cost. The environmental review was founded on material collected from the truck transports overall emission levels and the total mileage found in the article register.

    The work resulted in a number of different historgrams which demonstrated: transport cost, mileage, transportation cost per metric mil and the most frequently used transfer companies. Two pareto charts was created in order to identify the transportation cost and mileage on the article level, to visualize what articles that are the major cost and mileage carriers. The environmental review gave a table of data on total emissions caused by transportations to external manufacturing operations.

    When calculating SITs total transportation costs no regards have been taken to groupage traffic or loop runs which would have reduce the transportation costs. It also emerged that SIT had a cost reduction potential from their current transportation costs.

    The conclusions of the bachelors thesis is that transportations performed by transportation company A is the largest transportation cost carrier. SIT should primarily be working with transportation company A to reduce this transportation cost, because this provides the potentially largest transport cost reduction within a two years period

  • 168.
    Hermawatia, Setia
    et al.
    Human Factors Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham.
    Lawson, Glyn
    Human Factors Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham.
    D'Cruz, Mirabelle
    Human Factors Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham.
    Arlt, Frank
    Adam Opel AG – General Motors Company, Rüsselsheim, Germany.
    Apold, Judith
    Adam Opel AG – General Motors Company, Rüsselsheim, Germany.
    Andersson, Lina
    VOLVO Group, Gothenburg.
    Gink Lövgren, Maria
    VOLVO Group, Gothenburg.
    Malmsköld, Lennart
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. Volvo Technology.
    Understanding the complex needs of automotive training at final assembly lines2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 46, p. 144-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automobile final assembly operators must be highly skilled to succeed in a low automation environment where multiple variants must be assembled in quick succession. This paper presents formal user studies conducted at OPEL and VOLVO Group to identify assembly training needs and a subset of requirements; and to explore potential features of a hypothetical game-based virtual training system. Stakeholder analysis, timeline analysis, link analysis, Hierarchical Task Analysis and thematic content analysis were used to analyse the results of interviews with various stakeholders (17 and 28 participants at OPEL and VOLVO, respectively). The results show that there is a strong case for the implementation of virtual training for assembly tasks. However, it was also revealed that stakeholders would prefer to use a virtual training to complement, rather than replace, training on pre-series vehicles.

  • 169.
    Hill, Richard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Solljusdriven avsaltningsanläggning Richard2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a concept for a sunlight-powered desalination system has been developed. The work has been based on an original concept that utilizes recycled PET plastic (from for example PET-bottles) and pollution free water. The plastic is shaped in such a way that, together with the pollution free water forms a liquid-filled lens. The water must be particle-free so that no particles can reflect sunlight in the wrong direction. With this type of lens sunlight can be concentrated and focused on a container with salt water, which then evaporates. The evaporated stem is then condensed back to distilled water.

    Methods used for identification of customer requirements were an interview, the study of reports, books, magazines, patents and regulatory framework for similar solar facilities. There has also been some prototype experiments conducted that contributed to the identification of further customer requirements.

    Several of today’s solar concentrating plants have been studied, their advantages and disadvantages have been identified from several literature sources. The methods implemented during the concept generation consisted of sketches, prototype tests and examinations of similar concepts. The choice of the final concept was made with the help of matrices. These showed which met most requirements, by efficiency calculations and prototype testing.

    The result consist of a four-meter long and one meter wide water-filled lens with rounded ends. The lens is used to heat a Receiver filled with salt water. When the saltwater becomes warm enough, the water evaporates into a vapor pipe which is led down through a cooling coil which is in a water tank, the same water tank that distributes saltwater into the receiver tube.

    The solar concentrating lens is made of about 100 kg recycled transparent PET plastic, collected in countries with access to non-recycled plastic debris. It is constructed of two halves which can be used as small greenhouses or as construction parts for large greenhouses. The lens is filled with particle-free water, some alcohol (to prevent the lens from freezing during the night) and a little bleach (to discourage algae formation inside).

    The effect that was calculated showed that a plant with a lens could produce about 55 liters of fresh water per hour. When calculating the manufacturing cost of a lens it was done under the assumption that it would be made in a factory in Kenya, where the recycled plastic cost 1 SEK/ Kg. The total cost became SEK 300 per lens during the first two years. The machinery were presumed to be payed for by the end of the second year, which would lead to a reduced production price and the lenses would then cost 183 SEK each. A preliminary calculation of cost per produced cubic meter of freshwater then gave a final price of 0.75 SEK per cubic meter, which is the cheapest price for desalinated water on the market today, which otherwise is 3.6 SEK ($ 0.56 in 2011) per cubic meter.

  • 170.
    Hillström, Oscar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Johannesson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Integration of a belt in a seat: Safety in autonomous cars2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world's first driverless ride on public roads was performed in 2015 by Google with their concept car Waymo. The Swedish transport agency investigated what could be expected to be seen on the market at the year of 2020. Several companies announced that self-driving cars will be produced during 2020 with "Limited Autonomous Driving".

    Autonomous driving is defined in several levels. There is no automation at level 0 and fully autonomous driving at level 4. Consequently, new cars may incorporate interior design with flexible seating positions. In order to achieve this, belt integrated seats, BIS, are a favored solution by the vehicle manufactures, because the seatbelt is mounted on the seat structure, independently from the vehicle chassis.

    Autoliv, which is one of the world's largest automotive safety supplier, were interested to gain increased knowledge about BIS, and initiated this project. The project goals were to examine regulating laws for the design of BIS and to create concepts of how a seatbelt may be integrated in a conventional seat structure. Boundaries were set to limit the research on regulations and also the number of concepts that were generated and evaluated.

    Ulrich and Eppinger's product development process was the primary applied method for the project. Experts at Autoliv and external companies were consulted for guidance and knowledge during the project to validate a more reliable outcome.

    Three regulations that the authors judged to be important in order to validate a concepts performance were the ECE R14, ECE R17 and FMVSS 301. In R14, three static loads shall be supplemented on the seat. In R17, the seat shall withstand displaced luggage which is the dynamic scenario often used to dimension seats. The FMVSS 301 is a dynamic crash test that provides a good indication on the crash performance of the seat.

    The concept generation phase was influenced by an external search consisting of benchmarking and discussions with experts about BIS, which provided a total of five unique BIS positions. The internal search resulted in 13 concepts which were evaluated with a scoring matrix during a group session with the project group and experienced experts.

    The result provides a guidance of where it may be best to implement the seatbelt in the seat structure in terms of packaging, day to day use, crash performance and comfort. Concepts with a webbing guide across the seatback were considered to less feasible due to the luggage crash test in ECE R17, compared to concepts without. Concepts in the upper seatback area received general higher score, due to the increased ride-down efficiency and comfort.

    The project managed to comply with the project goals within the specified timeframe and is satisfied with the outcome, which hopefully is shared by the customers, Autoliv.

  • 171.
    Hiuhu, John
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Shear spinning of nickelbased super alloys and stainless steel2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shear spinning of Haynes 282, Alloy 718, Alloy 600 and AISI 316L was done using several tool feeds and mandrel clearances. Multi passing of the materials was limited due to strain hardening and circumferential cracking except for AISI 316L. The effect of the tool feed and the mandrel clearance on the successful forming of the materials was established. The successfully spun samples were solution heat treated at varying temperatures and holding times to establish a range of grain sizes and hardness levels. An aging heat treatment process was performed for Haynes 282 and Alloy 718 to achieve precipitation strengthening. The micro hardness measurements were conducted for the materials prior to spinning and after spinning. The same was also done after the various heat treatment processes. Grain size mapping was conducted by the use of lineal intercept methods. Comparison of the results in terms of grain sizes and hardness values was done. The temperature ranges suitable for full recrystallization of the materials after the shear spinning were identified and the effect of the holding times on the grain growth established. Comparison with unspun samples showed that the heat treatment times required to achieve comparative hardness and grain sizes were distinctively different.

  • 172.
    Hjälm, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Jansson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Development of an All-Terrain Chassis for a Modular Platform Based Electric Vehicle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the execution of a thesis work regarding the development of a modular chassis for an electric vehicle. The work is based on a concept by Cubix Drives AB. In this thesis work, their concept has been further developed in order to ensure that it can withstand the loads that the components are subject to when the vehicle is being used.

    Throughout the work, by using CAD- and FEA-software's, the components have been designed and exposed for load cases that intends to simulate possible scenarios during off road driving. As the stresses were identified the components have been improved to keep the stress levels below the fatigue limit.

    The components have been assembled into a chassis designed to utilize predetermined components regarding the electric drives, steering mechanism and power source that should be able to withstand the loads that it is estimated to being subject for when driving in a forest environment.

    Suitable manufacturing methods, materials and surface treatments have also been chosen. Further work is required mainly regarding the brake system but also regarding adaption for the electrical wiring and control boxes. Other areas of application for the chassis have also been investigated, such as a boat trailer and a dumper.

  • 173.
    Hodzic, Irma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning och effektivisering av Oriolas inleveransflöde i centrallagret i Mölnlycke2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oriola KD Corporation is a Finnish-owned group positioned in the pharmaceutical and distribution industries. The group consists of Oriola AB and has subsidiaries such as Kronan's drug store and Medstop. Oriola AB is active in Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. In Sweden, the company is established in Stockholm, Mölnlycke and Enköping, where the central logistics business for wholesale trade is located in Mölnlycke and Enköping The purpose of the study is to map and analyse the supply flow at the central warehouse in Mölnlycke, to identify waste and non-value-creating activities. Lastly, proposals for improvement will be presented. Earlier mapping of the supply flow has been done, but since then, some changes been done and an updated analysis and mapping of the flow is required. The students have chosen, in consultation with the supervisor of Oriola AB, to define the mapping and analyze to "Product Type 1" and "Outsourcer 1".  From literature studies for instance in logistics and lean production, interviews with staff at Oriola AB, mapping of the delivery flow, measurement performed and benchmarking done on Volvo Cars in Skövde, good knowledge of the delivery flow was obtained. The focus was on identifying each waste and non-value creation time during the various process steps in the flow. This was evaluated and a potential future position was created through a future detailed process map. The future process map shows the wastages and non-value creation time which is eliminated by implementing the improvement proposals. An important conclusion is that commitment is required from both parts and it is also important to motivate the outsourcer that the changes are necessary. Lastly, this can help Oriola AB to increase the value creation time and short lead times to improve flow efficiency.

  • 174.
    Hogmalm, William
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Undersökning av visionsystem för hantering av trämaterial i automationssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    University West is involved in research in automation and production technology. One project is to investigate the opportunity of assembling wood constructions for prefabricat-ed houses with robots in an automated system instead of manual assembly. Automated production of wood constructions is an opportunity for house manufacturers to develop a more competitive assembling process with high and consistent quality. One problem that occurs when robots move the wooden parts is that the material position misaligns due to variations in the material shape. The thesis work has been focused on investigating how a vision system can be designed to provide information to the robots how the material is placed. The report gives a description of the items included in a vision system and the working methodology for the system. It has been investigated which major factors that is needed to create a successful vision application. Experimental samples have been made by using a vision camera for image acquisition when the wood material is placed on the as-sembling table. The images were then image processed and analyzed in computer to find out if the desired information can be read from them. The difficulties that occur when the images are obtained have been investigated. It has been investigated how a vision program can be designed to perform measurements in the image to determine whether a placement is correct so the assembling can be performed. The focus was to make a program that is flexible and extendable with more functions so it can be adapted in many different assem-bly steps. By using the result from the program the robots shall be able to have information of how the material shall be corrected. The investigation has shown good potential in de-veloping a vision based inspection system to correct the position and shape changes that may occur in wood handling. It has also demonstrated the challenge, in building a success-ful application, with creating a well optimized lighting that illuminates the desired parts of the images. The study has shown the opportunities in get accurate results from images ob-tained at close range, as when camera is mounted on the robot. The results have also shown that more studies are suitable to implement in order to investigate which alternative and complementary technologies that may be appropriate to use in this challenge

  • 175.
    Hui, Chu
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    A Simplified Pose Estimation Algorithm for Bin Picking: Using the convex hull of the CAD model2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The applications of robotics are becoming more and more popular. Lots of tasks in the industry like welding, painting, handling, assembly, casting and so on are handled by robots now. Currently most industrial robots on the production line are controlled by pre-teaching which is not effective and flexible. The automation of robots has been researched since the first robot introduced to the industry. The basic task like the automation of picking objects for a robot is still a challenge. University west wants to find a faster automation picking method for industrial robots. This thesis presents a simplified pose estimation algorithm for bin picking by using the CAD model of the object. The main idea is to simplify the pose estimation task by identifying all stable positions of the object and predefining a picking point for each stable position according to the data of its CAD model in advance. Then the online work focuses only on the image analysis in 2D which is simple so as to achieve a fast picking. The experimental results satisfy the requirements. First, all positions of the object are found by checking the convex hull of its CAD model. A stable position is identified as having the centre of gravity above the convex hull of the support surface of the position. Then virtual images are generated using a computed virtual camera, having the same parameters as the calibrated camera, in all stable positions of the object, seen from above. All virtual images are classified into different classes for the preparation of the online classification. Picking points for each stable position in the virtual images are predefined. The 3D data of each picking point is calculated according to the data of its CAD model in advance. Finally, the online work finds the class which the real image represents and the predefined picking point. The final pose is estimated by the position transformed from the image coordinate system to the world coordinate system using the camera position and rotation. This algorithm focuses on well-defined objects having a limited number of stable positions and only non-zero area support surfaces. Further works will be the trajectory planning which should avoid conflict by using the CAD model of the object.

  • 176.
    Hulling, Ulf
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Temperaturmätning i skärande bearbetning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är resultatet av ett examensarbete omfattande 15 hp på C-nivå utfört vid Högskolan Väst. Arbetets första del bestod av en litteraturstudie och undersökning av befintliga temperaturmätningssystem som används i skärande bearbetning. Arbetets andra del bestod av att rekommendera temperaturmätningssystem och skapa en implementeringsplan för det rekommenderade systemet i utrustning på Produktions Tekniskt Center (PTC) i Trollhättan.

    Sex stycken olika tekniker för att mäta temperatur har undersökts med avseende på lämplighet för skärande bearbetning. Varje teknik presenteras med sammanfattande tabell med egenskaper samt för- och nackdelar.

    En teknik (pyrometri via optisk fiber) har valts ut för PTC och för den finns två tekniska specifikationer. En specifikation för ett system som kan anses vara kommersiellt tillgängligt (om en i mycket liten skala, 4-5 installationer i världen). En specifikation är framtagen baserat på forskningsresultat redovisat av prof. Ueda vid Kanazawa University men anpassad för att vara generell.

    För dessa system finns en implementeringsplan framtagen för att anpassa systemet och utrustning för att fungera vid PTC.

  • 177. Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Skoog, Emil
    Eriksson K. M., Kristina M
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    A review of assembly line balancing and sequencing including line layouts2008In: Proceedings of PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comprises a literature review focused on mixed-model assembly line balancing and sequencing problems, including different line layouts. The study was undertaken in collaboration with a company to assist in mapping current state of the art. Balancing problems affect businesses long-term strategic decisions and are complex problems with regard to installation and rebalancing of assembly lines. Sequencing concerns decisions of short-term problem. Sequencing approaches include: level scheduling, mixed-model sequencing and car sequencing. Level scheduling constructs a sequence of variants to create efficient deliveries supported by the just-in-time concept, whereas both car- and mixed-model sequencing aim to minimise violations of a work station’s capacity through constructing a sequence, which alternates variants with high and low work intensity. Five layouts were considered: single-, mixed-model-, multi-model-, two-sided- and u-shaped assembly lines. These layouts were evaluated on the basis of the manufactured product(s), size and space at the production plant, economic resources, number of required operators and machinery. Following a thorough investigation of the literature, a substantial gap between academic discussions and real world practical applications was identified. The aim of forthcoming work is therefore to put this theory into practice.

  • 178.
    Håkansson, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wadstedt, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Calculation model for actuators2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of a calculation model for estimating costs of actuators in the company SKF Motions Technologies. The aim with the calculation model is to show costs that are not apparent today, e.g. Costs that occur when establishing a new supplier or creating new manuals.  SKF has a standard assortment, including and many variants of these due to special orders. The calculation model being used today does not include the total costs, which results in uncertainties in whether the price is correct or not.   The method used in this thesis includes a theoretical study, to attain understanding of cost calculation and different methods to use.  The theoretical study also included studying other projects with comparable developments. The thesis continued with a research that started with a qualitative approach where semistructured interviews were performed to map the current situation. The information from these interviews were compiled in flow charts to achieve understanding of the processes involved, and to see what generates costs in those processes. Furthermore, it continued with a quantitative research when analyzing orders, customer requirements and costs. Meetings with the company´s finance system expert aimed at understanding the current model, and the factors included. The current model has also been the basis for verifying the new calculation model. After the data collection and the current state analysis, it was clear that the company's costs are scattered and that there is more cost than manufacturing and material, which can be attributed to activities. Such costs are difficult to show in a traditional calculation, and can easily be unnoticed. The thesis resulted in a new calculation model. The model was created to handle more variables than its predecessor, to achieve an insight in how different variables affect the pricing

  • 179.
    Höglind, Jon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Andersson, Cenny
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Anpassning av kaross- och mätutrustning för sampassnings aktiviteter2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet inriktade sig på att utifrån ett antal definierade problemställningar som

    framkommit under projektarbetet, finna lösningar och förslag på hur Saab skall lyckas med

    att utföra sampassnings analys i processutrustningen. De problem som definierades under

    projektarbetet var bland annat att finna mätutrustning som är bättre lämpad att utföra

    mätningar i processutrustningen än en Faro arm och att titta på konstruktionsförbättringar

    som kan underlätta och snabba upp mätningen av processutrustningen och att med det

    förslag på mätutrustning och föreslagna konstruktionslösningar analysera om de

    ergonomiska förutsättningarna blivit bättre. När det gäller mätutrustningen så är Leica

    Absolute Tracker AT901 ett mätsystem som skulle fungera alldeles utmärkt, detta

    mätsystem skulle lösa åtkomsten för mätning av stöd och styrningar på ett ergonomiskt

    sätt. Mätsystemet klarar de uppsatta kraven i grundkravspecifikationen och har den

    mätnoggrannhet som efterfrågas. klarar en tuff arbetsmiljö att mäta i, är portabel i det

    avseendet att den är tillräckligt lätt att hantera och har en idrifttagnings tid som också är

    enligt uppsatta krav i grundkravspecifikationen. Under examensarbete framkom det att

    sidolineutrustningens leverantör ej följt Saabs TKS (standard), varken under konstruktion

    eller tillverkningsfasen. Dåligt upp märkta och placerade utgångar var några av de problem

    som upptäcktes under projektarbetet. Med dessa förslag på mätutrustning och

    konstruktionsförbättringar och att säkerställa att de valda leverantörerna av utrustningar

    följer Saabs krav så anser arbetsgruppen att sampassning i processutrustningen kan utföras

    med önskat resultat. 

  • 180.
    Ignjatovic, Jelena
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Utredning av projekteringsverktygets ROL utvecklingsbehov: En anpassning för norsk marknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rail Overhead Line (ROL) is a design tool, owned by the company Bentley Systems AB. The design tool is used by overhead line engineers at Sweco Rail to design contact line for electric railway. Sweco Rail intends to establish themselves on the Norwegian market together with their sister company Sweco A/S. Before entry into the new market, a development of ROL is required. The objective with the thesis has been to identify the requirements and the development needs, which are required to adapt ROL against the Norwegian market.The administrations Jernbaneverket and Trafikverket, which are major customers to Sweco, requires more often that Building Information Model (BIM) is to be used in their projects. The goal with the use of BIM is to lead the work to a more efficient management, as well as reduce the risk of information being lost between various stages and processes within the projects. Before entry on the Norwegian market, it is therefore necessary of Sweco Rail and Bentley to adjust ROL in order to be able to deliver 3D-models. The 3D-models have to fulfill the requirements that the Norwegian administration Jernbaneverket demands of the use of BIM in projects.To identify the development needs that are required for a Norwegian adjustment of ROL; interviews, observations and a study of governing documents was performed. Customer needs were identified and translated to requirements. These requirements led to the identified development needs.The result showed that 56 development needs have to be fulfilled before ROL can be used as a design tool on the Norwegian market. The identified development needs include actions with the intention that the design tool can be used in greater extension on the Swedish market. Sweco and their resources can rectify 22 of the 56 development needs. For the remaining 34 development needs, the owners Bentley Systems need to take responsibility for the solutions that is required to satisfy the needs.

  • 181.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology.
    National process of quality management education - the swedish example2007In: Asian Journal on Quality, ISSN 1598-2688, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 88-99Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Janssen, Edward
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Concept development of a slat in a core shaft2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A slat in a core shaft is used to lock a core that is placed over it. Five slats in a shaft are pushed outwards to provide friction between core and shaft. The problem is that the slats do not provide enough friction in combination with some core materials. This project aims to solve this problem.

    The problem was studied by looking at the current situation, doing experiments and reading friction theory.

    About thirty concepts were generated by competition analysis, going through the TRIZ databases, doing a patent survey, interviewing, brainstorming and making a combination table.

    Two concepts were selected by screening and selection matrices. One concept is a rubber slat with a different shape than the current one, the other concept a laminate with an aluminum bottom and rubber top.

    Prototypes were made for the rubber slat and they were tested, resulting in a technical drawing. This was used to order several meters of the slat so final testing can be done. A cost analysis was made.

    For the laminate concept, the necessary strength of the aluminum part was calculated and the cost was examined.

  • 183.
    Jansson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av lagersystem i däckbranschen: En förstudie utifrån tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: This study is a feasibility study of a new inventory system that a company in the tire industry has in mind to invest in. The company's inventory is currently full and they are forced to decline customers who want to store their wheels. By investing in a new warehouse system, the storage capacity is expected to increase.

    The company has a proposal for a new storage system, which is used as a base of the study. The specific case will be used as an example throughout the study where general approaches are presented. Furthermore, the result may be used for other types of studies in similar area.

    Purpose: The study evaluate the feasibility of an investment, with the aim of creating an approach that can be used in the evaluation of an investment.

    Method: A qualitative and quantitative feasibility study has been carried out, which is divided into two parts, economic and technical feasibility. The quantitative information is responsible for the economic feasibility of using profitability calculations, while the qualitative part responsible for the technical feasibility of using observational study and questionnaire. Furthermore theory about logistic and inventory management will be used in addition to the technical feasibility. The theory of profitability calculations and logistic have been collected with the help of a literature study.

    Conclusion: The investment in the case is expected to be profitable for the company, both financially and technically. The pay-back period is estimated at six years and three months. The investment is expected to generate positive effects for the workers, because the new warehouse system eliminates the hardest and most time-consuming steps in the warehouse management.

  • 184.
    Jansson, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframtagning av ett fällbart fäste till underkörningsskydd2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Säkerheten i trafiken är ett område som berör näst intill hela samhället. En typ av olycka där antalet svårt skadade har ökat sedan 1980-talet är upphinnande-olyckor. Detta innebär att två fordon som färdas i samma riktning krockar med varandra. Upphinnande-olyckor kan bli extra allvarliga i fallet när en lastbil blir påkörd bakifrån av en personbil. För att förhindra svåra skador i detta fall har kravet om ett skydd längst bak på vissa lastbilsekipage införts. Konstruktionen kallas för ett underkörningsskydd och består, normalt sett, av en skyddsbalk som monteras på lastbilsramen genom en fästanordning. I detta examensarbete presenteras en produktutvecklingsprocess som utförts för en fällbar fästanordning till ett underkörningsskydd. Arbetet genomfördes på VBG GROUP som är en verkstadskoncern inom industrisektorn vars division VBG Truck Equipment levererar utrustning till lastbilar och släp. Syftet var att ta fram ett konceptförslag som uppfyller eller överträffar de grundläggande kraven som ställs på produkten från bland annat lagar, kunder och företaget. Lagkraven innehåller även en kommande ändring för underkörningsskyddets reglemente. Processen genomgick följande moment; litteraturstudie, kravidentifiering, konceptgenerering, konceptselektering, FMEA, DFM samt CAD och FEM. Den valda metoden fungerade väl då den ledde fram till ett resultat som uppfyllde syftet med arbetet. Det resulterande konceptförslaget består av två roterande armar och underkörningsskyddet fälls upp med handkraft samt låses via handtag vid skyddsbalken. Konceptförslagen klarar, i teorin, av de krav det har testats mot. Innan konceptförslaget kan produceras behöver det dels genomgå ett mer ingående detaljkonstruktionsarbete, dels en eller flera prototyp-tillverkningar med tillhörande provning och till sist produktionsplanering och produktions-förberedelser

  • 185.
    Jasim, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Failure analysis of suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are proven to protect the hot section of components operated under elevated temperature. Suspension Plasma Spray (SPS) is an emerging manufacturing process that is used to produce TBCsI, It has the ability to deposit a thinner TBC that has finer microstructure than coatings deposited using traditional Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS). The coating spray parameters have a significant role in developing the coating properties and thereby the coatings failure. In this thesis work, the parameters such as the spray distance, the feed rate, and the surface velocity were varied to deposit six sets of TBC samples. The as-sprayed samples were analysed and next tested at different temperatures (1000°C, 1050°C and 1100°C) making thermal cyclic fatigue test (TCF) and thermal shock test also known as Burner Rig Test (BRT). These investigations aimed at trying to find an explanation for the effect of each varied process parameter on the deposited TBC. However the cases at 1100°C were not reliable enough to conclude.

    It was found that most porous coating was produced in Run 1. The porosity decreased gradually from Run 1 to the last run (Run 6) by changing the spray parameters. The failure in all cases was mainly due to the Thermally Grown Oxide (TGO) which causes cracking near the topcoat-bond coat interface. According to many cross sectional and top surface morphology SEM images taken during this work, the sintering of TBCs during thermal cycling also played a significant role in the top coat failure.

  • 186.
    Javidi Shirvan, Alireza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Modelling of Electric Arc Welding: arc-electrode coupling2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arc welding still requires deeper process understanding and more accurateprediction of the heat transferred to the base metal. This can be provided by CFD modelling.Most works done to model arc discharge using CFD consider the arc corealone. Arc core simulation requires applying extrapolated experimental data asboundary conditions on the electrodes. This limits the applicability. To become independent of experimental input the electrodes need to be included in the arcmodel. The most critical part is then the interface layer between the electrodesand the arc core. This interface is complex and non-uniform, with specific physicalphenomena.The present work reviews the concepts of plasma and arc discharges that areuseful for this problem. The main sub-regions of the model are described, andtheir dominant physical roles are discussed.The coupled arc-electrode model is developed in different steps. First couplingsolid and fluid regions for a simpler problem without complex couplinginterface. This is applied to a laser welding problem using the CFD softwareOpenFOAM. The second step is the modelling of the interface layer betweencathode and arc, or cathode layer. Different modelling approaches available inthe literature are studied to determine their advantages and drawbacks. One ofthem developed by Cayla is used and further improved so as to satisfy the basicprinciples of charge and energy conservation in the different regions of thecathode layer. A numerical procedure is presented. The model, implementedin MATLAB, is tested for different arc core and cathode conditions. The maincharacteristics calculated with the interface layer model are in good agreementwith the reference literature. The future step will be the implementation of theinterface layer model in OpenFOAM.

  • 187.
    Javidi Shirvan, Alireza
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    A review of cathode-arc coupling modeling in GTAW2016In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 821-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material properties of welds are strongly influenced by the thermal history, including the thermo-fluid and electromagnetic phenomena in the weld pool and the arc heat source. A necessary condition for arc heat source models to be predictive is to include the plasma column, the cathode, and the cathode layer providing their thermal and electric coupling. Different cathode layer models based on significantly different physical assumptions are being used. This paper summarizes today’s state of the art of cathode layer modeling of refractory cathodes used in GTAW at atmospheric pressure. The fundamentals of the cathode layer and its physics are addressed. The main modeling approaches, namely (i) the diffusion approach, (ii) the partial LTE approach, and (iii) the hydrodynamic approach are discussed and compared. The most relevant publications are systematically categorized with regard to the respective physical phenomena addressed. Results and process understanding gained with these models are summarized. Finally, some open questions are underlined.

  • 188.
    Jber, Abed Almalik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Friction Stir Welding Modelling and Simulation: Backing plate material thermal conductivity effect on temperature profile2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a FSW modelling of temperature using ANSYS APDL 16.2 (Ansys Par-ametric Design Language). It intends to predict the thermal distribution by taking into ac-count different thermal variation imposed by different backing plate material. The effect on the cooling rate, and peak temperature was studied using finite elements analysis (FEA) tech-niques. For more validity the simulation’s results were compared with temperature data ac-quired experimentally under similar conditions.

    A thermal transient modelling of friction stir welding were developed, by considering a moving heat source was considered. The heat input was obtained from the friction between the tool shoulder with the workpiece in the heat transfer analysis. The heat flux is calculated in the finite element analysis model considering the heat input generation from the tool’s shoulder and probe.

    An accurate temperature measurements during FSW process is a challenging task for ex-perimental measurements since it performed using thermocouples type K that embedded into the workpiece and the (TWT) tool-workpiece thermocouple to measure temperature during FSW.[1]. The peak temperature and cooling rate in different positions were registered for welds using different backing plate materials with different thermos conductivities.

    By the data analysis, it was verified that the backing plate material diffusivity affects the peak temperature and cooling rate. On both, simulation and experimental results, the temperatures were higher when a material with lower thermal conductive was used as backing plate. The experimental results have validated the model, in both peak temperature and the cooling rate.

  • 189.
    Jiang, Janna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Fasth, Angelica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Choi, W. B.
    Center for Thermal Spray Research, Stony Brook, NY, United States.
    Microindentation and inverse analysis to characterize elastic-plastic properties for thermal sprayed Ti2AlC and NiCoCrAlY2009In: Surface Modification Technologies XXII: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies SMT22 / [ed] T.S. Sudarshan & Per Nylen, VALAR Docs , 2009, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 177-186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Jiang, Janna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Object-oriented finite element analysis to simulate microindentation of thermal sprayed MAX-phase coatings2009In: Proceedings - 2009 International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation, ICCMS 2009, 2009, p. 337-341Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Nafisi, Mariam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    The natural process mapping phenomenon: Resource oriented vs. value flow oriented2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy has created awareness and eagerness in companies to strive to continuously improve their performance and profitability. This is usually done by improving important and influential core processes since process focus gives the right quality results as well. Thus mapping processes have become more common in recent years. Creating a visual process map is the first step for understanding and improvements.Even though many companies map their processes and try to improve them, they are not always successful.This can be attributed to various reasons, an important one being the perspective from which the process is mapped. The starting point of this paper is that novice modelers naturally model processes from their own perspective, neglecting the goal or the value that the process is meant to achieve. This is demonstrated through simple workshops, at which the participants are tasked to map the “breakfast process”. It is shown in this study that different perspective in the process mapping leads to different process maps and consequently to different process improvement possibilities. Similar experiments are needed to be applied for industrial processes, such as Product Development process or Production System Development process, before the results of the paper can be generalized.

  • 192.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje.
    Pejryd, Lars
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Consideration of market demand volatility risks, when making manufacturing system investments2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 40, p. 307-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investing in new manufacturing systems, many aspects must be taken into consideration to ensure a sustainable business. In respect to the financial aspect, both the one-off investment cost and the continuous operational cost must be analysed to ensure that the life-cycle cost perspective is appreciated. However, one detail in the cost analyses that is often overlooked is the composition of fixed and variable cost elements. These details are important to be able to better manage the risk of market demand volatility, and accordingly make appropriateinvestment decisions. This case study demonstrates that when there is a low risk for reduced market demand, investing in a manufacturing system with low variable cost is favourable. However, if there is a high risk for reduced market demand, the importance will instead be to have a low fixed cost, as this will be the dominant cost factor.

  • 193.
    Johansson, Dahniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Modulbaserad arkitektur av lyftutrustning med tillbehör2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The battery pack that supplies the cars’ electric motor with energy is, on a regular basis, assembled and disassembled to the cars chassis. A product that can aid this procedure is required. The current practice does not satisfy all the customer needs that exist when the battery pack is handled. The identification of such needs and requirements are done by study visits at NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden), study visits and benchmarking at competitors’, market research and questionnaires targeted to NEVS’ staff. During the initial identification of customer needs, more potential customers are discovered, both in the production department and in the aftermarket. As a result, customer needs increase and, in some cases, they are conflicting. Modularization is a method that enables update and variation to a product’s features without being locked into a singular product solution. The main identified customer need is positioning of a battery pack. The positioning is divided into sub-functions, which enables identification of potential modules. From these modules several concept ideas are generated. Parallel with the concept generation, European standards for machines are used to mitigate risks that invariably arise during product operation. Employing matrices, the concept suggestions for the various modules are screened according to a wide array of criteria. The conditions for combining module concepts with each other are analyzed. To minimize the risk of patent infringement, an investigation is performed with the help of the Swedish patent database. Based on the selected concepts, CAD (Computer Aided Design) models are created using Siemens NX 9. Models with critical functions are structurally analyzed by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) in ANSYS Workbench 17.2. The design work is an iterative process and when the models finally are optimized, prototype drawings are created. The drawings are sent to mechanical workshops for cost estimates. As a result, the objective of the project is met; a prototype to facilitate management of a 500 kg battery pack has been realized.

  • 194.
    Johansson, Dennis
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Strömmer, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisera lagerhållningen och införa ett beställningssystem på SI TECH AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor´s thesis has been performed at SI TECH AB located in Brastad in the municipality of Lysekil during the period January 4, 2014 to April 3, 2014. The purpose of this thesis is to create a number of proposals that could make a warehouse at SI TECH AB more efficient and also improve the material planning. To be able to achieve the purpose of this thesis, four targets were set up which was following:

     Making the layout and structure of the warehouse clearer by labeling the storage locations and create a map that shows all the storage locations.

     Create a model that will make it easier to read and view the stock balance.

     Create an appropriate ordering system by calculating the reorder points.

     Reduce the employed capital by 20 percent and thereby increase the company´s cash liquidity.

    The proposals was based on a theoretical framework which the authors received by studying literature during an early stage of this thesis. Furthermore a baseline survey was carried out at the warehouse to be studied which also worked as a foundation for the proposals. Some of the proposals were implemented practically at SI TECH AB and this created a positive domino effect which led to new proposals during the time of the project.

    The result of the proposals, and the practical work that was carried out, was that the employed capital was decreased and that the storage locations in the warehouse were labeled. Furthermore an ordering system was introduced which visualizes the stock balance as well as the reorder points in a clear way. At the same time it decreases the inventory levels as well as the employed capital

  • 195.
    Johansson, Oscar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Mandaric, Katarina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Fysisk simulator för produktionsflöden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This final year project has been carried out at the Production Technology Centre at Innovatum AB in Trollhattan. Aim of the work was to develop a prototype of a concept for a physical simulator for production flows. Based on a core idea of the demonstrator, the goal was to develop a concept in the form of a game, to be used to increase the understanding and illustrate the development opportunities and problems in production flows. Some of the main questions in the thesis are what information is desired to visualize and how can a game for visualization of production flows be built to examine different aspects of the flow. This approach was chosen to be implemented in five phases; clarify the problem, external search, internal search, explore systematic and reflect on solutions and the process. Stage two of the approach was the foundation of information and knowledge that the authors needed to build the study. The theory is based on three main areas which are logistics, Lean, and games and learning. The interviews are conducted with individuals from the private sector and the universities Chalmers University of Technology and University West.

    In the concept development has six sub-problems been identified and to each sub-problem there were a number of solution fragments. In the process of selecting the different solutions that could be used for the prototype, the authors chose to use pros and cons based on the opinions of the authors and primary stakeholders. Other methods used were intuition and favorite products. The authors tested the prototype on two focus groups, through the results the authors could make changes in the soft value and draw conclusions about the concept. A workshop was held with secondary stakeholders in order to analyze and evaluate the concept.

    The prototype is considered to be more suitable for a learning purposes with students as a target group. That is because companies are in need of a demonstrator that is designed with more complexity and opportunities. The authors believe that the concept is worth spending more time and money for to further develop. An app is considered as a good complement to the concept which could be developed and used more extensively.

  • 196.
    Johansson, Pierre E. C.
    et al.
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Enofe, Martin O.
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Schwarzkopf, Moritz
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Malmsköld, Lennart
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Fast-Berglund, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 412 96, Sweden.
    Moestam, Lena
    Data and Information Handling in Assembly Information Systems: A Current State Analysis2017In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 11, p. 2099-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Products become more complex as the general technology development reaches new levels. These new technologies enable manufacturing companies to offer better products with new functionalities to their customers. Complex products require adequate manufacturing systems to cope with changing product requirements. In general, manufacturing of this type of products entails complex structured and rigid IT systems. Due to the system’s complexity and comprehensive structure, it becomes challenging to optimize the information flow. There are improvement potentials in how such systems could be better structured to meet the demands in complex manufacturing situations. This is particularly true for the vehicle manufacturing industry where growth in many cases have occurred through acquisitions, resulting in increased levels of legacy IT systems. Additionally, this industry is characterized by high levels of product variety which contribute to the complexity of the manufacturing processes. In manual assembly of these products, operations are dependent on high quality assembly work instructions to cope with the complex assembly situations. This paper presents a current state analysis of data and information handling in assembly information systems at multiple production sites at a case company manufacturing heavy vehicles. On basis of a certain set of characterizing manual assembly tasks for truck, engine and transmission assembly, this work focuses on identifying what data and information that is made available to operators in terms of assembly work instructions and the importance of such data and information. This work aims to identify gaps in the information flow between manufacturing engineering and shop floor operations. © 2017 The Authors

  • 197.
    Josic, Petar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Järvitalo, Marko
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av analysverktyg för materialförbrukning inom motorunderhåll2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis report describes the way of creating an analysis tool for material consumption at the department of engine service at Volvo Aero Corporation. The analysis tool generates average lists and purchase lists for PW100 engine. The documentation of the analysis tool is described in seven parts.

    By using the tool the structural material planner can in an easy manner generate lists that are based on earlier historical data. Instead of creating lists manually the material planner can gain more accurate lists much faster. Previously there were no fact based results in comparison with today.

    Pre studies were made to gain a better insight of the current organization and processes at the engine service department. Interviews with staff as well literature studies in the field of storage and spare parts manage has given possibilities to create an analysis tool. Plan of requirements were created to specify the features of the analysis tool.

    The program Microsoft Access was chosen due to the amout of data to construct the analysis tool. All information was brought from the database SAP. The analysis tool was built in three integrated parts:

    1. Average list: shows the average consumption of material for selected engine and maintenance type.

    2. Stock status: checks the stock for material for selected engine and maintenance type. New and used material is selectable.

    3. Incoming material: shows incoming material that is undelivered for selected engine and maintenance type.

    By these three integrated parts the analysis tool generates a purchase list. The list contains engine type, material number, material description, quantity, price and ABC-classification. By implementing the analysis tool in the daily work purchases will be more accurate. Capital binding will decrease as well.

  • 198.
    Kalmertun, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tallheden, Henric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    G R&R-studier på manuella och optiska kontrollmetoder2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at GKN Aerospace Sweden AB (GAS) in Trollhättan. The purpose with the study was to perform G R&R-studies on manual and optical control methods to examine the methods capability, reproducibility and repeatability. The result from the G R&R studies were used to identify improvement suggestions in metrology. The thesis has been delimited to ignore variation from various parts from a batch for manual control methods. Operator variation have been ignored from the optical control method.

    The project was performed as a mapping of seven manual control methods and one optical control method. The data collection was performed through several types of measurements. The supervisor at GAS decided what control methods to examine. It was decided what measurements to analyse with consultation from the supervisor and a GOM technician at GAS.

    To analyse the distribution of measurement results through G R&R-studies all measurement results were transmitted to Excel. Nine different measurement devices were used in the study. Ten G R&R studies were performed on manual control methods and 30 on the optical control method. The studies were categorised by what geometry was measured and by what measuring device that were being used. For each category a minimum acceptable tolerance width has been calculated to identify what capability each measuring device has on a specific geometry. The minimum acceptable tolerance width was calculated by multiplying the standard deviation with six and five. The standard deviation multiplied by five gives the area with 99,7 percent of the measurement deviation. The new value is then multiplied by five to get the acceptable deviation of the tolerance width of 20 percent that GAS use. Which gives the minimum acceptable tolerance width.

    All manual control methods have a minimum acceptable tolerance width of under 1 mm while the optical control method has certain measurement results where the deviation was to big to give a reliable result. The reliable results had a minimum acceptable tolerance width of up to 7,46 mm. For the general tolerance widths that was created for manual control methods it is assumed that they can be used in the factory. That assumes that there are good conditions when the measurements are taken and that no factors that was not included in the studies affect the measurements.

    The tolerance widths for the optical control method are different depending on what geometry that is being measured. Thus it cannot be said with confidence that optical measurements can be used on all kinds of geometries. To be able to use optical measurements on more geometries there need to be more studies made with changed conditions.

    For manual control methods the deviation of the measurement results depended mostly on reproducibility. For optical control methods it is not possible to define a specific factor that affects the deviation the most. The factors that have affected the deviation off the optical control method is alignment, how shiny the part is, high concavity and camera access.

    An improvement area that was detected after analysing the G R&R results was the alignment of the part against the nominal CAD drawing. It was revealed that the alignment varied on each scan. The alignment was examined with two tests that revealed that the measurement results deviated with changed alignments.

    It is recommended to ensure that the alignment of the parts that is being evaluated with optical control methods is the same while being used for evaluation of parts or similar studies to avoid a potential source of errors. The calculated tolerance widths might be useful anyways considering that the source of error only slightly affected the measurements.

    The result from the project shows that manual control methods are more accurate than the optical control method on most of the surfaces. As mentioned earlier there are many sources of error that can affect the results from optical measurements. Thus there are potential for improvements of the accuracy for optical measurements in the future to increase the capability.

  • 199.
    Karimi Neghlani, Paria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    SLM additive manufacturing of Alloy 718: effect of process parameters on microstructure and properties2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is one type of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes as a novel technique to fabricate 3D components in a layer-upon-layer style with less need to post-processing. In the SLM process, samples can be designed by computer-aided design (CAD) software, and produced in any shape. Compared to other AM processes, SLM method presents several advantages, one of which is manufacturing of complex-shape samples with very high accuracy. In SLM process, the microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties can be controlled by changing process parameters. Therefore, SLM process can be used to manufacture many industrial components, e.g. combustion chambers, medical components, and nuclear reactors.

    In the present survey, SLM process with different process parameters is used to create 25 cubic samples from Alloy 718 with 10×10×10 mm3 dimension. The as-fabricated samples are cut into two subsets in order to study the influence of two main process parameters including point distance and laser exposure time on the microstructure and properties. The samples are hot mounted to examine the normal reference planes (parallel to build direction). Microstructural characterization has been carried out using Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Microstructure in the as-fabricated section of sam-ples illustrated highly dendritic growth parallel to build direction in the normal reference planes. The microstructures present some changes within the build direction; the top layers show coarser columnar dendrites compare to the bottom layers with slimmer columnar dendrites owing to a higher cooling rate. SEM/EDS analysis show the presence of some fine phases e.g., Laves and metallic carbides in the γ-matrix and verify the segregation of Nb element in all 25 test samples due to high cooling rate. The porosity content of samples is measured using two methods of image analysis and point counting. The effect of laser energy input, which comprises the effect of laser exposure time and point distance is investigated on the total porosity (round and irregular pores). It is observed that the round porosity content is lower than irregular porosity and the minimum amount of total porosity is around 0.07 vol. % gained at laser energy input of about 265 J/mm3. Mechanical properties is represented by measuring the Micro-Vickers hardness (HV). The microhardness of as-fabricated samples shows a dependency on the laser energy input on the normal reference plane in all the samples. The average microhardness in the as-fabricated samples varies from 291 to 339 HV0.5.

  • 200.
    Karlberg, Eric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Rickard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Kartläggning och utveckling av leverantörsamarbeten: En fallstudie på en inköpsavdelning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is performed in Serneke Bygg AB in Gothenburg. The aim of the project is to identify methods for identifying and mapping critical suppliers of Sernekes projects and identify approaches for promoting long-term agreements resolving relationships while competition between suppliers is preserved. Only suppliers who in 2016 invoiced 10 million SEK or more to Sernekes projects will be considered.

    The objectives of the project were to answer the following questions: • Identify method to categorize suppliers. • Identify the success factors for promoting supplier relationships. • Present proposals for working methods, with the aim of promoting the company's supplier relationships.

    The project has been implemented as a problem-solving, and a normative study. The study approach has begun whit literature study in relevant topics. After the data collection, has methods to identify and categorize suppliers analyzed. From the theory and data collection the result of the study was compiled. The construction industry is characterized by the purchase accounting for 60-80% of the total project costs. This relationship means that the importance of purchases has grown increasingly over other functions in the company. The company wants to work with multiple suppliers because they believe that the market is homogeneous, and they can use competition to reduce costs. The conclusions are that Serneke initially should create a plan for the segmentations process and how it will be implemented in the organization. Serneke should initially start the process of segmentation at a level that the organization believes is manageable, for the organization to see the results of the segmentation. Serneke should formulate three to five segmentation criteria that the company can use in the segmentation process. Serneke can assess suppliers scale of interaction. This by placing the supplier in an interaction model. Success factors for promoting Sernekes supplier relationships is to understand how to act against suppliers, depending on what market suppliers act in.

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