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  • 151.
    Pereira Ferreira, Rafael
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Maranhão, Department of Mechanic, Barra do Corda (BRA) ; Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia ( BRA).
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Federal University of Uberlandia, Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Uberlândia (BRA).
    Concept of a Novel Path Planning Strategy for Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing of Bulky Parts : Pixel2021In: Metals, E-ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1-20, article id 498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative trajectory strategy was proposed and accessed for wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), applicable to different and more complex geometries, rather than being a single solution. This strategy, named Pixel, can be defined as a complex multitask procedure to carry out optimized path planning, whose operation is made through computational algorithms (heuristics), with accessible computational resources and tolerable computational time. The model layers are fractioned in squared grids, and a set of dots is systematically generated and distributed inside the sliced outlines, resembling pixels on a screen, over which the trajectory is planned. The Pixel strategy was based on creating trajectories from the technique travelling salesman problem (TSP). Unlike existing algorithms, the Pixel strategy uses an adapted greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) metaheuristic, aided by four concurrent trajectory planning heuristics, developed by the authors. Interactions provide successive trajectories from randomized initial solutions (global search) and subsequent iterative improvements (local search). After all recurrent loops, a trajectory is defined and written in machine code. Computational evaluation was implemented to demonstrate the effectof each of the heuristics on the final trajectory. An experimental evaluation was eventually carried out using two different not easily printable shapes to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed strategy.

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  • 152.
    Perumal, Balasubramanian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Optimal Path planning by RRT* and automated energy computation: Path optimization and Energy calculation2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall idea of this thesis is to implement a sustainable path with the shortest distance for the ABB robots and to compute the energy of the obtained path automatically. Thus, motion planning for robotics enhances the productivity, efficiency of the manufacturing industries. In fact, the Industry 4.0 focuses on the smart manufacturing and commissioning. In the view of addressing the above fact, path planning is presented in this work. Path planning algorithm and energy calculation have been developed through C# language in Microsoft Visual Studio. The developed RobotStudio Addin file has been imported in ABB Robot Studio® software, where simulation of ABB robots will be performed. It has been implemented in ABB IRB120T and ABB IRB4400. Thus, an optimal path for the given start and goal point has been developed and demonstrated through simulation, which is distance efficient.

  • 153.
    Pham, Clara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Robot motion tracking in additive manufacturing of metal components2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing is a process that is commonly used nowadays and is at the origin of the industry 4.0. This process is mostly used in industry because of its multidisciplinary aspectand various advantages that 3D printing represents.

    The process of tracking the motion of the robot is common and essential for industrial robots. Therefore, various standards and techniques have already been implemented. However, most of them deals with the general aspect of tracking the motion of the robot but few of the techniques consider the parameters and the conditions of 3D printing.

    In this thesis the accuracy of a robot is studied. The measurements are done during a simulation of 3d printing process using different parameters such as the weight of 5 kg put on the end-effector of the robot, the height of 1 mm of a layer, the distance and angle of the end-effector from the base frame of the robot. To know if the robot is accurate, the robot performs a linear trajectory programmed offline on the software RobotStudio above an angle plate depending on the above parameters. For a specific choice of parameters, it is called configuration. The main goal is to measure the deviation of the online trajectory by using two axes: the y-axis and the z-axis and compared it to the offline robot path. Through the method called path comparison method, two laser distance sensors are used as a tool and are fixed on the end-effector of the robot and point at the y-axis and the other one on the z-axis. These ones display on MATLAB, graphics and raw numerical data that show the distance between the end-effector and the angle plate. The values are used to compare the online trajectory from the offline one. Also, it should be possible through various experiments to measure the influence of the above parameters on the accuracy of the robot.

    In the results part, the path accuracy is studied through some graphics representing the average of 30 tests per configuration. These average graphs allow to make some conclusions about the impact of the parameters on the accuracy of the robot. Moreover, the criterion of repeatability is studied in order to check if the robot can repeat the same path. Finally, the path positioning accuracy is calculated.

    From the experiments, it is possible to see that the weight and the angles of the end-effector compared to the base of the robot impact the accuracy of the robot. However, about the global accuracy of the robot, it is not possible to conclude due to a gap of value between the online and offline results. The main reason is the uncertainties caused by the set-up.Therefore, even if it is not possible to conclude about the accuracy of the robot using this method, this method can give some hints about potential errors. An error caused by the definition of the target points has been discussed. For each configuration, an adjustment of the position of the target points is to be made so that the start position coincides with the offline position. About the path positioning accuracy, it is possible to conclude that there is a path positioning accuracy of +/- 0.072 mm for the y-sensor and +/- 0.078mm for the z-sensor compared to the planned path.

    Thus, for further studies, it would be interesting to study more thoroughly the reasons of the inaccuracy. It would also be interesting to use other devices such as cameras to check the accuracy of the robot in the context of additive manufacturing.

  • 154.
    Pranav Kumar, Nallam Reddy
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Temperature Measurements During Robotized Additive Manufacturing of Metals2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing has brought about substantial benefits to the manufacturing industry due to the numerous advantages it provides, at the same time there are factors that can be improved upon. Temperature control is an important parameter during the build process as it affects build quality. The main objective of this thesis project was to investigate what sensors could be used for monitoring the temperature during the additive manufacturing processand to compare and evaluate their performance.

    This involved implementing two 2-color pyrometers and a short-wave infrared camera to monitor the temperature of the area behind the melt pool and then visualizing the respective data. Initial issues arose during test runs in the form of noise in the pyrometer data, this was solved by implementing a smoothing filter to the signal. Multiple runs were conducted to capture the required data as images produced by the camera were overexposed and out of focus during initial runs. This was solved by changing the camera position and exposure settings. Reading the temperature values from the images involved interpreting the Average Dark Units (ADU) values of the region of interest and then comparing those values to a reference chart. The data gathered with the help of LabVIEW software and the proprietary imaging software of the camera showed that the selected sensors were in fact suitable for the intended task and could be used in conjunction with each other. This data could then be used to create a closed-loop system in the future (not in the scope of this thesis work) and thus enable the increase in the level of automation for Robotized Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing.

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  • 155.
    Puppala, Naveen Krishna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Updating digital twin of an automation cell2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is carried out in the field of digitizing physical entities as part of Industry 4.0 for the company GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden with the aim to update digital twin of an automation cell. The purpose of this thesis is to quickly replicate physical entities into virtual environment in the form of 3D models. The goal is to assist manufactures keeping track of the changes made in their workspaces and equipment within their facilities and replicate old machinery virtually which does not have any 3D digital model. Finding an optimal scanning technique which could efficiently scan the automation cell. CloudCompare with its various built-in tools is used process point clouds and compare them to identify the changes. The identified changes are then converted to 3D mesh model using surface reconstruction method. The proposed method is implemented in an integrated manner by testing the existing techniques in the method and finding quick and user-friendly method. The output results are projected into simulation environment for visualization.

  • 156.
    Purohit, Ashutosh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    A robust Optimizer using Discrete Event Simulation of Multi-Tasking Automation Cell as Environmen2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Job Shop Scheduling has been considered as one of the major challenges in industrial manufacturing setups. Conventional and advanced methods have attempted in various research directions to solve such problems. This work is strongly related to the featured multitasking manufacturing cell which is to be designed to produce more than one product. Previous version of this thesis aimed only on the production flow involving one product. But simultaneous operations in the manufacturing cell poses a lot of challenges in terms of design, scheduling, and energy consumption. This study conducts an experimentation utilizing current framework of Reinforcement Learning developed by previous work, for achieving better results in manufacturing two products by same resources. An objective for this optimization scheduling problem is mainly minimizing the total makespan and energy consumption. The model of an integrated cell is built in Plant Simulation Discrete Event Simulation software for realizing the results obtained from training. Various production disturbances have been studied and at least one is tried to incorporate in the experimentation. This thesis is conducted as a part of joint project between University West and Volvo group trunks operations.

  • 157.
    Queniart, Blaise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    The virtual commissioning contribution to education course: The case of Emulate3D2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technical advances in the industry, the Internet of Things, communication systems, and computers have enabled new modern industrialization methods such as Virtual Commissioning to develop, test, and implement new solutions to the actual industry. These disciplines will continue to develop as progress continues in hardware and software to upgrade the systems of controls of unique robot cells or whole assembly lines. In this thesis, the virtualization of the PTC assembly line is developed based on virtual commissioning methods. The project is carried out in particular on Emulate 3D, VC software designed by Rockwell Automation. The idea is to find out how effectively achieved VC to implement a flexible solution of the assembly line in the virtual world. The logic of the PLCis handled by TwinCat3 and the robot code is written in RAPID on RobotStudio.

    Communication notions are also studied as the OPC UA server connection between the TwinCat and RobotStudio to perform a bridge between the data using OPC Expert. These two systems communicating with each other will have to communicate with Emulate3D asit will stand for the virtual world of the emulation.

  • 158.
    Rajabhatrachar, Abhinandan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Discrete Event Simulation of Automated Guided Vehicle, Routing & Scheduling in factory Environment2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's world, simulation is becoming increasingly significant because of the necessity to create or improve projects more quickly and effectively without incurring any financial risk. Autoliv Thailand, with vision of Saving More Lives and Mission of Providing World Class Life-saving Solutions for Mobility and Society, manufactures and delivers airbags, seatbelts, and steering wheels to all the automotive industries in the world. The goal of this research is to improve the flow of materials at Autoliv in Thailand. By first analysing the current system's flaws and providing improvements that may be adopted, this has been accomplished. In addition, the goal will be achieved using previous research and in the direction of the research questions. Adding AGVs (Automated Guided vehicles) to their internal logistics system is part of an effort to keep up with the most recent industrial technology advancements while also lowering long-term operating costs, improving material movement and worker’s safety as part of their Lean manufacturing strategy. In addition, they plan on using simulation in their projects to get this data more correctly and quickly, as well as to improve their working methods.This thesis relies on prior research and publications to learn about the implementation of AGVs, the most recent varieties of AGVs. To determine the top AGVs, a market study was undertaken, assessing the primary aspects of each manufacturer. By using Tecnomatix plant simulation to simulate plant operations using AGVs since it gives excellent results in an easy to-use manner. For this reason, the simulation results were compared to actual operational data to determine if the simulation produces accurate and reasonable interesting data that can be used by the firm. Material flow, storage, and retrieval system issues have been identified, and solutions such as AGV deployment, AGV simulation software, and automated storage and retrieval systems may be used to enhance the production flow. By following established implementation steps, a model for improving wasteful processes and enhancing production flow may be implemented in this study. To make it easier for businesses to apply it, it includes three distinct stages. The study is carried out in the production facility of the case company and disregards the other facilities of the company. Also, the study revolves around the existing process flow of the assembly floor and infrastructure changes required to implement the AGV System. Furthermore, the study will focus specifically on AGV Selection, Vendor selection criteria, practical solutions as per the process. In addition, the authors will study the movements and calculate the cycle times of manual operators and compare with the digital model simulation. Furthermore, the advantages of simulation are touted as a potential solution for next initiatives by the business.

  • 159.
    Rajagopalan, Prashanth
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Robot cell for Akerstedts2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Akerstedts is an industrial fan company which manufactures different kinds of fans like axial fans, radial fans and chimney fans. Since the company's mode of welding fans is manual and its disadvantages pose major threats to the safety of the humans working with it, the welding process needs to be automated to eliminate the disadvantages and ensure safety and quality. In this thesis, a number of solutions have been proposed to design cell layouts. These designs of cell layouts have been created using off line programming with the help of a software called Robot Studio. To design each cell layout every component of it like the robot, fixture, welding gun, peripherals, safety systems etc. have been carefully analysed and selected depending on what is exactly required. Also each cell was optimized to give the best possible output in terms of total cost, pro-duction rate and time, total surface area occupied by the cell and safety. Later these as-pects for each solution were analysed to pick out the best solution suitable for the com-pany. The various solutions have been visually shown through pictures and simulations and the analysis have been shown graphically.

  • 160.
    Rajeh, Haya
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Discrete Event Simulation of a Sawmill for productivity improvements: A simulated model for a sawmill to improve the production efficiency2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation for this thesis work comes from a desire to improve the production of the Södra sawmill. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is a commonly used technology in the industry for modelling real-world factories and changing variables to improve production flow. Concerns about bottlenecks are a critical issue in enhancing production flow efficiency of the most important issue in all industries is locating and examining bottlenecks. This thesis focuses on a sawmill at Södra where they want to investigate solutions for reducing bottlenecks and improving production efficiency. As a result, a DES model was created to find bottlenecks and apply different scenarios to improve production efficiency. 

    This study aims to respond to a specific investigative question. The question will be present throughout the activity and will be addressed at the conclusion. The thesis will investigate how discrete event simulation can increase production efficiency at the Södra sawmill.  

    Tecnomatix Plant Simulation was used to create a simulation model. With 98.4% accuracy, the model matches the actual sawmill output. The model was shown to be accurate and can be used to test strategies and scenarios for boosting sawmill production efficiency. This MSc project will show a flexible sawmill model that can be updated and modified according to the needs of the investment study. The simulation model was used to identify the bottleneck, and various options for enhancing production efficiency will be discussed. 

    The research topic of the study was addressed by running three different scenarios through the simulated model. The first scenario involves increasing the dryer sets' capacity by 20%. The first scenario resulted in a 2.4% increase in output efficiency. The second scenario increases the capacity of the dryer sets by 20% and the efficiency of the dryer by 20%. The second scenario increases the efficiency by 4.5%. The third scenario was to apply Scenario 2 and add more working days. The simulation model estimates an increase in output of 37.4%. The final and best scenario includes the first scenario with more working days for the stations. The output increased by 35.8% when the fourth scenario was examined.

  • 161.
    Rajgopal, Shyam
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Kitting Demonstrator based on a Plug and Produce Concept: Implementation of Multi-Agent System to simulate a flexible kitting system2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study delves into the implementation of Plug and Produce as a flexible kitting operation, comparing its advantages with conventional methods that utilizes a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Plug and Produce is a pioneering concept aimed at minimizing software and hardware reconfigurations in a system, leading to significant reductions in setup time and costs. Unlike centralized control systems found in traditional setups, Plug and Produce adopts a Multi-Agent System (MAS), empowering resources with equal control and seamless communication interfaces.

    The kitting process is governed by agents programmed through AgentEditor software, and the simulation is demonstrated using ABB RobotStudio. Data transfer between the two software is achieved through REST API, enabling bidirectional communication for position data and robot control signals. Synchronization is ensured through continuous updates of robot commands in the physical space, communicated to AgentEditor via REST API, ensuring a smooth execution as the robot awaits the next command.

    The advantages of the Multi-Agent Concept for Just-In-Time (JIT) kitting simulation include: (1) dynamic determination of the number of parts in the kit based on user input and order requests, (2) easy adjustment of offset values between successive part’s drop-positionas needed, and (3) faster reconfiguration to add or remove part agents or resource agents from the kit. The paper also presents the steps required to reconfigure the system for the addition of a new part agent. Additionally, differences between MAS and PLC systems in terms of certain Key Performance Indicators are highlighted.

  • 162.
    Ram, Gokul
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Comparison of Laser Scan and Vision System for Quality Inspection of Nail Gun Tool2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is done with the intension of automating the nail gun tool for the company Essve which produces tools and solutions for the prefab industries. The company had a set of specifications which had to be achieved while automating the system. The company also wanted to test how reliable the system is and how much the tool can handle before it wears off. This report focuses on the quality inspection part of the project and the means to find the suitable inspection system that would help in validating and testing the system based on the company specifications. As a part of quality inspection, camera and laser systems are used to inspect the nailing quality and the best system is chosen. Also, HMI is made for visualizing the process and for documenting the quality results. The components are basically mounted to the tool, provided for testing by the company, and the tool is mounted to the robot's endeffector with the help of CAD models and 3D printers. The test experiments and output result documentations are done with the help of robot and PLC programming. The results of the testing show that the desired system can be obtained with minimum errors. The camera system is best suited for selecting the layout of the patterns rather than using it for inspection purpose. Whereas, the laser system shows a prominent result in determining the quality of the nailing process by using laser profiles. The IO configurations helped in communicating all the outputs from all the sub systems to the robot controller and PLC through which the monitoring of the process is made possible with the help of an HMI screen. The presented product's design and testing gives a perfect example of the application of robot systems in the automated industrial environment and helps in understanding the procedures of testing and validation of the product tool before it is actually used in a real manufacturing sector.

  • 163.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Zhang, Xiaoxiao
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automated Path Planning for Plug Produce in a Cutting-tool Changing Application2019In: 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2019, p. 356-362, article id 8869398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a path planning algorithm is designed and tested with a real robot for a Plug & Produce demonstrator. The demonstrator is divided into modules that can be connected and removed. Modules are used for various processes like tool change and storage. This paper focuses on the process of cutting-tool change for the production industry. The Plug & Produce demonstrator uses a multi-agent system where parts and resources are agents. A part agent, e.g., a cutting-tool, can request a robot to perform skills like transportation. This requires the robot to be autonomous. The aim of this paper is to automate the path planning for industrial robotics in a Plug & Produce system. This is done by implementing a sampling based RRT algorithm combined with a collision detection function in RobotStudio. With various real time scenarios, the path planning execution time is observed and presented in the paper.

  • 164.
    Ranc, Quentin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Path planning algorithm for levitating multi agent system2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Beckhoff XPlanar is a new revolutionary motion system that transports movers with items on its top, using magnetic levitation (produced by certain tiles, creating a workspace).

    The operating area (which is produced by a collection of electromagnetic plates known as tiles) is usually occupied by numerous movers.

    However, it may be necessary to relocate these movers out of the way of production in order to verify their payload or even repair them.

    As a result, Beckhoff suggested in this Master’s thesis to combine a path planning algorithm with collision avoidance to gather all movers at any state in shape. Through this project, a simulation of the XPlanar system has been developed in order to test the algorithms without using the real system, and a series of multi agent path planning scripts have been studied, written and tested to solve the implementation of a fleet controlling algorithm using the A* logic. Moreover, the path planning algorithm is coupled with a deadlock solving algorithm, allowing multiple robots to work in cooperation in complex scenarios where Xplanars could become obstacles for other movers.

  • 165.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Recompetencing: Coping with Digital and Robotic Agents at Work2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing use of digital and robotic technology in the workplace, the trend toward adopting automation is on the rise. The widespread automation, in turn, impacts the organizing of work, forms of required competences, and models of learning at work. The purpose of this dissertation is to first attend to changes in competences in the main and by association to work and learning from two vantage points. The first is work-as-doing, which asks what work is in practice rather than regarding it in terms of job titles and occupational labels. The second is technology-in-use, which maintains adapting to the physical realities of technological development as well as new realities created by the digital world. Against such a backdrop, this dissertation problematizes what we mean by a competent workforce by dissociating competent work from routine, habitual, or imitative practices in the face of advanced digital and robotic solutions. Insights are drawn using a qualitative method from two empirical settings. The first settingis an example of the digital transformation of the profession of communications. The second setting covers a change process of a small manufacturing plant from a manual assembly line to an assembly line equipped with automatic robotic systems. The theoretical concept of material agency is combined with historical examples to highlight the breadth, depth, and significance of using digital and robotic solutions in the workplace. Investigations reveal new insights on digitalization and robotization as two closely-related, yet distinct technological phenomena. The findings then provide new perspectives on conceptualizing competence in relation to digitalization and robotization. By examining the effects of digitalization and robotization on skills and competences, this dissertation provides detailed insights about the evolution of competences in response to new materialities and the intentionality argument that frequently surfaces in attempts to explain material agency and competence.

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  • 166.
    Rapp Farnes, Jim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Robotic pre-drilling of CLT panels2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry and processing of timber have a long tradition in Sweden and the Swedish forest industry plays a significant role in the country's economy and exports. Wooden apartment buildings are on the rise in Sweden, and the technology and production methods for the construction of multi-storey apartments are in place. Cross-laminated timber (CLT), a wood product made of glued cross-laid boards of sawn timber, is a construction material proven to be effective for the construction of wooden multi-storey buildings. Swedish wood products industries need to transit from manual labour to automated production lines to remain competitive in the global market. Södra, an association of forest owners is a manufacturer of CLT panels and sees the need of implementing a new automated process for pre-drilling of CLT panels. A concept for a robotic pre-drilling application is developed through a general process of product development. A robotic application consisting of a stationary robot with dynamic material placement is selected as the best concept for the robotic pre-drilling application. The CLT panel is repositioned by a conveyor so that the robot can reach the drilling positions. For the concept to be effective, it is necessary to synchronize both the conveyor and the robot to coordinate and work together. The robotic pre-drilling application is modelled, programmed, and simulated in RobotStudio. In the simulation, an IRB 7800 robot is used, and 24 holes in angles of 30° - 90° relative to the surface normal are drilled in the CLT panel. The cycle time of the operation is three minutes.

  • 167.
    Ravi Bavani, Gokulaprasath
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Development of Graphical Representation of Sequence of Goal Chart for Configurable Multi-Agent System2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work described focuses on developing a sequence of goals chart for a configurable multiagent system (C-MAS). The purpose of this is to enable flexible automation systems in manufacturing by providing a digital configuration approach instead of high-level programming. The goal is to assist manufacturing companies in easily adapting to customized production with their in-house knowledge. C-MAS is a framework used to model and simulate complex systems composed of multiple interacting agents. In C-MAS, agents are divided into two categories: part agents and resource agents. Part agents represent the components or entities within the system that have specific goals to accomplish. These goals can vary depending on the context of the system being modeled. For example, in a manufacturing system, part agents may represent individual products or components that need to undergo certain processes to be completed. On the other hand, resource agents represent the resources or entities that are required to accomplish the goals of the part agents. These resources can be physical objects, machines, or even other agents with specific capabilities. The sequence of goals chart for C-MAS represents the manufacturing goals and enables flexible automation systems. It helps in specifying the sequence of actions or tasks that need to be executed by the part agents and the dependencies between them. This chart allows for the modeling of complex workflows or procedures within the system. 

    The results of the thesis work include the development of a Python script capable of generating a sequence of goals chart. This script achieves this by reading the configuration data of the product. By analysing the specific configuration data provided, the script generates a visual representation of the sequence of goals, allowing users to understand the order and dependencies between different goals.

  • 168.
    Rex, Marco
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    The influence of beam shaping on laser beam welding: Image processing and analysing cross sections, melt pool and gap width of butt joints2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the influence of beam-shaping on laser-beam welding. By image-processing the cross-section geometries and melt-pool areas, the effects of the different beam shaping profiles on them and how measurements of top-surface areas, widths and other image features are influenced by them are determined. Based on a data collection, both qualitative and quantitative analyses are carried out, which show that, depending on the case, beam-shaping can have a major influence on the welding process. The image processing of the gap-width before the welding is also described, so it can be determined which image features are showing the change in the gap-width between the plates to be welded.

    It turns out that beam-shaping has a very large influence on the laser-beam welding process and produces different qualities when evaluating the welds. Furthermore, the estimation of the gap-width has been made possible, so a model can be developed in the future based on this work, which implements estimation of the gap-width during the welding process in a closed-loop system and makes the laser-beam welding process more efficient with high quality weld-seams.

  • 169.
    Rhén, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science,SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Örtengren, Roland
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde,School of Engineering Science,Box 408, SE-541 28, Skövde, Sweden.
    Keyvani, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Virtal Methods and IT, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg.
    Hanson, Lars
    Industrial Development,Scania, Scania CV,SE-151 87, Södertälje, Sweden;University of Skövde,School of Engineering Science,Box 408, SE-541 28, Skövde, Sweden;Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Ergonomic risk assessment in DHM tools employingmotion data: exposure calculation and comparisonto epidemiological reference data2018In: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 31-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) allows ergonomic risk assessment to be performed at early stages of design and development. Such assessment is typically based on observational methods, which do not take advantage of the potential of DHM tools to provide precise posture and motion data. This paper describes and illustrates an alternative assessment approach employing DHM tools, inspired by risk assessment based on direct measurements. A literature survey established a reference database of epidemiological associations between exposure and wrist-related disorders. This approach is illustrated by a DHM simulation of a car assembly task. Wrist posture and motion were simulated and compared to the database, predicting the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on the basis of direct measurements

  • 170.
    Rydholm, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Implementation proposal of pick and place task using machine vision2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As new products are developed and technology of both software's and equipment's evolves over time, robot cells will eventually need to be improved and updated to fulfil new requirements. This thesis work tackles an old S4 robot cell with the task of washing and hanging water valves to a conveyor. The robot cell needs an upgrade to be able to process a new product group. This is a common work task for a robot engineer and this thesis work will guide the reader through the process of breaking down a rapid program code in pieces to find where and how to implement the changes. Machine vision are a common tool for pick and place tasks to enable picking and placing at correct orientation and positions. This thesis work presents an introduction to machine vision and how to use an industrial standard software to build vision programs that cooperates with the robot. Illumination techniques and how to use lighting to enable machine vision are also investigated.

    Since this thesis work is performed at a factory the main objective is to help them improve their process, a case specific implementation proposal is proposed together with an upgraded work flow of the process and updated robot program that fulfils the requirements of the new robot cell. Even though the thesis work is applied on a specific case, the approach taken to complete the task and the fundaments of the implementation proposal are general and may be applicated for similar problems.

  • 171.
    Sabir, Hewr
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Robotized deburring2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the amount of industrial robots increases in the manufacturing industry, the developments in the area of automation of finishing methods has been attracting more attention. This thesis work introduces an automated system, performing deburring operations. A robot integrated with force control sensor holding a workpiece and a spindle engine holding a brush rigid within the working envelop of the robot.

    This work explores the approach of programming the robot and the force control sensor using offline programming in Robot Studio and online programming in direct contact with the robot. The advantages and disadvantages using the both methods is also concerned. The important part in order to automate the operation is the use of force control sensor which is introduced and programmed. The work is aiming to explore the importance of using force control and its functions during a deburring operation. Experiments of both including and excluding force control sensor is performed to analyse the ratio between force and distance. Instead of applying force on a workpiece during the operation is distance the workpiece being pushed into the brush emphasised. The experiments and results showed that it is possible to use only one force control sensor to analyse the ratio between force and distance for a specific tool. The calculated data can further be implement on other robots to only use distance as an input value and exclude force control sensor. The presented approach can be implemented in a manufacturing company applying this kind of operation to decrease the amount of force control sensors to only one and gain the same results and an economical benefit.

  • 172.
    Sahl, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Flexible cobot system for inspection of complex aerospace parts2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To address the need for flexible solutions with regards to inspection processes, the suitability of using a MIR200 Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) to position a UR10e robot equipped with visual inspection equipment was evaluated. It was shown that the positional repeatability of the system was higher than the stated repeatability of the MIR200 docking station. The inherent drawbacks of the introduced flexibility were also explored. Namely the loss of stability of the robot, requiring more time a movement command to become stable. Finally, computer programs to perform automatic visual inspection of an aerospace part was created and demonstrated in conjugation with the AGV/Robot image capture setup. Complex geometrical feature of an aerospace component was inspected using an optical area camera. Images acquired with the camera mounted from multiple angles were combined for the inspection task. Machine vision tools was used to determine component position and to evaluatethe component features with image processing tools. The inspection processes with toolsdeveloped within the scope of the thesis were demonstrated successfully and defects segmented based on image data from real components.

  • 173.
    Salih, Jim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    An Adaptive Communication Method for an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) in a production line: using RFID in a production line2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aggregate using of a flexible automation system in the industry area is gaining increasing attention from researchers in the last two decades. The most important factors influencing the automation system are the interaction techniques and the communication facilities used at the production line. There are different interaction techniques that have developed rapidly over the recent years within different manufacturing area for the sake of improving performance and quality of product.

    Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) has been used as a flexible goods transportation tool at fac-tories. This work is aiming to test and introduce an adaptive communication technique be-tween an AGV and a production line's components using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, which can be used in the manufacturing area.

    In this report, related works and titles to understand and achieve the goal has been discussed. As a background, AGV, RFID and communication techniques have also been discussed.This project provides a solution on how AGV communicates with the robot in a production line by using RFID systems and sensors. The proposed solution has been imple-mented and tested in order to get applicable results. The implementation phase is done us-ing an AGV, robot, RFID system (RFID reader and tags) and raspberry pi (RPI). In addition, the software used to make this components work includes AGV program (to control the AGV), RAPID program (to program the robot) and C program (is used in the RPI to receive the data from the RFID reader and resend it to the robot).

    The first test is conducted to determine AGV's accuracy, i.e. positioning accuracy or stop position in front of the robot. The importance of accuracy test helps in avoiding damage of goods and other unexpected consequences that can be caused by the lack of accuracy of the robot. Other tests aim to determine the suitability of the system and that the RFID, as a communication technique, is functioning properly.

    Some major benefits of the provided solutions include testing and proving that RFID can be used as a communication tool in the production line especially in the transportation of goods between different worksites and the capability of using RPI as a coordinating tool instead of ordinary computers. This fact can contribute in increasing the flexibility of production lines.

  • 174.
    Sanderson Gull, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Augmented Reality-based assistance in changing orders at Husqvarna AB2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When new tools are admitted to Husqvarna production, the tools are measured in a changing of orders process. This measurement process uses a Zoller machine, and the steps required change depending on the type of tool holder. Because this task occurs infrequently, measurements have come out incorrectly and additional attempts are required at the procedure to procure a correct measurement. AR HMD devices are state-of-the-art technology that areincreasingly being used as an instructional tool for industrial applications. AR provides instructions by overlaying virtual elements over the real-world environment, including using text, images, animations, audio, and other techniques. New advancements in HMD hardware allows for recognition of the real-world environment, and therefore AR software can make decisions for the user.

    This thesis presents an AR application using HoloLens 2 to provide instructions to Husqvarna operators when a new tool requires measurement. The AR HMD software uses visual cues and textual instructions to guide the user to complete the necessary steps properly. The software is designed to be used with operators of varying experience, allowing experienced users to select an expert mode. Image recognition is used to align the virtual elements to real-world objects used by the operator, as well as determining if specific tasks are completed successfully. Due to a lack of standardized guidelines for instructional AR development using HMDs, guidelines were formed during the prototyping phase of this project to help design future AR applications for industry. These guidelines can also be used to evaluate if instructional AR HMD software maximized the potential of HMD hardware, to better determine the performance of the software during field testing. The software provided to Husqvarna AB is evaluated using an open-ended questionnaire and NASA-TLX to determine the functionality using operators with various experience in the tool measuring procedure and AR HMDs. The user experience was positive, but the AR application failed to meet certain guidelines, which caused increase mental workload and effort from the participants.

  • 175.
    Savvidis, Georgios
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    A smart tool for optimal energy use of AGVs in the manufacturing industry: Modelling and optimizing the energy use of SimplexMotion SH100 motor2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation behind this thesis stems from potential gains that are to be made by optimizing the movement profile of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) in an industrial setting. By minimizing the energy consumption of an AGV we can achieve increased range, larger recharging intervals, and possibly financial benefits. We built our work on a case at hand at Volvo Group and specifically on the use of Simplex Motion SH100B BLDC motor on AGV in the production line. Previous research has shown that high acceleration rates can have a negative impact on the average energy consumption of an AGV, while different opinions can be found in research on optimizing the cruising velocity.

    Using two such identical motors, a test rig is built where one motor acts as a driving motor (DUT, Drive Under Test) and the other as the Brake. The test rig is also equipped with an Arduino microcontroller and an ACS712A current sensor through which power measurements at different rotational speeds and torques. Rotational speeds and torques are provided by the integrated controllers of the two motors. The data collection is automated using Modbus interface with a laptop which runs with python code. From the collected datapoints power models for the cases of the motor being used as a driving motor (e.g.,during AGV acceleration and cruising) or as a Brake motor (during the deceleration phase).

    After developing the power model, we then proceed to create custom Python classes that represent both the motor and the AGV. These classes have been equipped with attributes and methods so, jointly, they can be used in bigger simulation experiments to estimate the power consumption of an AGV with custom mechanical characteristics and equipped with any number of motors. Both classes have been written so they can be easily used to represent different motors (with different power models) or AGVs with various mechanical attributes. We demonstrate the use of the classes in trial run with a hypothetical AGV (based largely on rough parameters provided by Volvo) in various cruise velocities, accelerations, and decelerations and at different loads. We then demonstrate how python optimization libraries can be used to estimate the optimal cruise velocity, acceleration, and deceleration for a trapezoid AGV movement, (the most frequently considered profile although the AGV class support also S-curve acceleration and deceleration). Finally, we explore the relationship between AGV load and optimal acceleration and deceleration.

  • 176.
    Sebastian, Gabriel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automation and integration of AGC and Portal Crane: Automation of Portal crane for kitting operation2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The future component and assembly systems will need flexible automation solutions to sup-port operators in the tasks they do best – e.g. the value-adding work to make the assembly operations. That means that other tasks, for example, material handling and logistics is cho-sen for automation. The introduction of the cyber-physical system and Industry 4.0 (I4.0) will enable these systems for data collection, independent decision making and working to-gether with multiple systems. I4.0 is the trend towards smarter automation and communica-tion between machines in the industry. It also includes cyber-physical systems and Internet of Things (IoT). Thanks to the connectivity of multiple systems through IoT, systems com-municate information with each other, which enables them to make smart and automated decision. IoT also enables communication of manual station with automated platforms, to make a better collaborative environment.Volvo GTO Research & Technology Development is developing a new lab to test and demonstrate new technologies that are relevant for ongoing and future projects. The new lab is called Volvo Group Smart Factory (VGSF) where new technologies can be tested and evaluated in automation systems and system integration. This project will be working on the creation of this testbed and make it available for demonstration and training.The thesis project is to develop a solution for the integration of portal crane and AGV in a collaborative way to work together with manual assembly station. The thesis project will comprise of developing a solution for the kitting operation with the portal crane, an auto-mated ordering system for the parts using the concepts of I4.0 and IoT. By interconnection of multiple resources, the process will be able to achieve an automated system in kitting application. Tasks involved in the project is designing a solution for automated kitting oper-ation. The programming is done using Codesys provided by Festo, the operation can be programmed either using soft motion (CNC operation) or by axis movement. Another task involved is to develop a solution for material handling in the portal crane. The solution will investigate how the raw materials sent to the portal crane is handled. The process is planned to be done with a vision system or by a vibration platform or by manual loading of the buffer stations. Another task is to design an ordering system to handle the request for work in an automated system. Ordering process is the system which will initiate the order of parts from the manual station using an HMI screen or by using sensors for a complete automated sys-tem. Designing the Admin HMI for the portal crane which will be connected directly to the portal cranes PLC is also part of the task for the project. This HMI is used for manual control of the portal crane and monitoring the status of the Automated Transport Vehicle (ATR) and Inventory.

  • 177.
    Segedal, Kevin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automatic inspection of a part with GOM equipment2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project aimed to automate the scanning process of a printed AM part by mounting a GOM ATOS CORE 80 3D scanner onto an ABB robot. The GOM Scanner was to be connected to the PLC network to automate the scanning process. Due to hardware limitations, the scanner could not be connected to the PLC, so the scanning process was done manually. A 3D-printed robot tool was created in AutoCAD to mount the GOM scanner onto the robot. Two software was used to scan the part and inspect the scanned images. GOM scan is used to operate the scanner and the scanning process, and GOM Inspect is used to inspect the scanned image and filter out unnecessary information. During the thesis,two scans were completed. These scans were compared against each other to compare quality of the scans. The scans were also compared to the CAD model of the part to identify the deviations on the printed AM part

  • 178.
    Selvamoorthi, Kishan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automated Deployment of Robot targets in RobotStudio to a Plug & Produce system2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multiagent systems are becoming highly important in flexible manufacturing systems in research and industry due to the increasing demand for custom product design. To tackle this problem, university west has developed a Configurable Multi-Agent System (C-MAS). The agents can be configured through a configuration tool without programming as like in PLCs.The configuration tool has all the information about agents which helps to control agent behaviour. Till now the agent positions are entered by users manually from computer system to configuration tool. In this thesis, a software named robot extractor is created to extract targets from Robotstudio simulation software and the idea to deploy the target into platform server is discussed

  • 179.
    Serholt, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Division of Learning, Communication and IT, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Interaction Design, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Trouble and Repair in Child-Robot Interaction: A Study of Complex Interactions With a Robot Tutee in a Primary School Classroom2020In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 7, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     View references (31)Today, robots are studied and expected to be used in a range of social roles within classrooms. Yet, due to a number of limitations in social robots, robot interactions should be expected to occasionally suffer from troublesome situations and breakdowns. In this paper, we explore this issue by studying how children handle interaction trouble with a robot tutee in a classroom setting. The findings have implications not only for the design of robots, but also for evaluating their benefit in, and for, educational contexts. In this study, we conducted video analysis of children's group interactions with a robot tutee in a classroom setting, in order to explore the nature of these troubles in the wild. Within each group, children took turns acting as the primary interaction partner for the robot within the context of a mathematics game. Specifically, we examined what types of situations constitute trouble in these child–robot interactions, the strategies that individual children employ to cope with this trouble, as well as the strategies employed by other actors witnessing the trouble. By means of Interaction Analysis, we studied the video recordings of nine group interaction sessions (n = 33 children) in primary school grades 2 and 4. We found that sources of trouble related to the robot's social norm violations, which could be either active or passive. In terms of strategies, the children either persisted in their attempts at interacting with the robot by adapting their behavior in different ways, distanced themselves from the robot, or sought the help of present adults (i.e., a researcher in a teacher role, or an experimenter) or their peers (i.e., the child's classmates in each group). In terms of the witnessing actors, they addressed the trouble by providing guidance directed at the child interacting with the robot, or by intervening in the interaction. These findings reveal the unspoken rules by which children orient toward social robots, the complexities of child–robot interaction in the wild, and provide insights on children's perspectives and expectations of social robots in classroom contexts. © Copyright © 2020 Serholt, Pareto, Ekström and Ljungblad

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  • 180.
    Shetty Udyawara, Saurabh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Executing a Path Planner Algorithm in Parallel Robotics Simulators for Improved Performance2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An algorithm is often developed with sequential operation in mind. The Robot path planning algorithm (based on the Informed RRT star algorithm) which executes tasks sequentially has a high processing time when executed in a single computer on a single core of the computer due to the inadequacy of the processing resources. Multi-coreprocessor architecture in a computer is leveraged to reduce the processing and computational time of the algorithm, by designing the algorithm to run on multiple cores of a single computer or multiple computers if several computers are used. Parallel execution of the parts of the program significantly reduces the processing and computing time of the overall program. The algorithm also checks for collision by simulating a Robot in a Virtual environment in the software ABB Robotstudio. Multiple, parallel robotstudio simulations are carried out that is coupled with the designed parallel program (algorithm). The performance of the parallel path generation algorithm over the sequentially operating algorithm is statistically analysed w.r.t the processing time.

  • 181.
    Simonsson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Virtual Commissioning with a Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems design2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As processing power, networks and graphics evolve in industry 4.0, the industry is given more and more powerful tools to perform simulations and testing in a digital environment for robot cells and their control systems. The simulation of production cells together with their intended control systems has opened a discipline called virtual commissioning (VC) that has become more popular as hardware and software are getting increasingly better. In this thesis a production cell already commissioned, and running are investigated. The company Graniten AB produces automated packaging cells, they have wishes about being able to benefit more from virtual validation of intended solutions. One of the company's unique selling points is that they make packaging cells that are extremely fast, which leaves little room for change as it affects the takt time in the cell. To see if VC is possible for Graniten AB, the work will be carried out using RobotStudio for robot-simulations and Twincat for the PLC-Control program. The experiment compromises of attempting full VC of the cell using a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) approach. This is to see if it is possible to validate the PLCcontrol-program and verify takt-time in. The results are that some programs in the PLCcontroller are not possible to simulate in the simulation-tool used. Using the RMS-approach proves useful as but future time-gains when it comes to future recommissioning needs to be investigated.

  • 182.
    Sinha, Shubhrajit
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automatic generation of obstacle free trajectories for AGV’s2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is carried out in the field of motion planning of AGVs for the company AGVE with the aim to automate the obstacle free trajectory generation process. The process of manually generating splines in AutoCAD to achieve obstacle avoidance is replaced by the automatic generation of paths by running a python script. Artificial potential field algorithm is implemented in the python script to achieve obstacle avoidance. Clothoid curve is used to create feasible trajectories for obtaining obstacle free paths. The developed program is tested and proved suitable on three scenarios including a real-life problem encountered by the company. The output obstacle free path can be manipulated using three factors which are alpha, moving the neighbours and manipulating the scaling factor for potential fields in the APF algorithm.

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  • 183.
    Solomon, Gugsa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Extraction of CAD data as input to a configurable multi-agent system: Process and Planning2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Todays’ flexible automation can be any category of automated production that shows some sort of "flexibility". Most often that this flexibility has a capacity of producing different products in a minimal period frame. This includes producing variety of products within a higher digree of changes or customization. These sorts of methods are currently geared in the direction of modular production approaches notably to get a manufacturing system that's in changeover to become flexible and demand-oriented. The requirement for bulk product personalization also paves the way for its debut of advanced approaches to become incorporated to a manufacturing approach. This really is a result of the elevated demand for a manufacturing system to become flexible and manage a higher level of changes. Manufacturing systems that are built to cope with these changes enable a system to have dynamic properties and hence to evolve according to changing requirements.

    One of the most interesting result found by this thesis is the ability to customize a prefabricated wall under or before production. The production is based on a multi-agent system run by university west and called Plug&Produce. This thesis proposes a tool that extracts CAD (Wall Design) data as input to a configurable multi-agent system. The proposed tool has two forms: processing of CAD drawing by running scripts within CAD application and passing on the data from the CAD application to a configurable multi-agent system using JSON file format.

  • 184.
    Soron, Mikael
    et al.
    ESAB Welding AB .
    De Backer, Jeroen
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Ilar, Torbjörn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    A local model for online path corrections in friction stir welding2010In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ADVANCES ON FRICTION STIR WELDING AND PROCESSING. Program.http://www.polytech-lille.fr/IMG/pdf/program.pdf, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has always been associated with high forces and rigid machines Today’s trends towards joining of more complex structures in e.g. the automotive and aerospace industry, the applications require machinery with increased dexterity and flexibility, which cannot be achieved with the traditional FSW systems. But the introduction of more flexible machines, with more complex workspace capacity, will lead to undesired tool path deviations and in worst case a weld seam with inferior quality. In this study an industrial robot system is used to emphasise the need to compensate for the deviations caused by the high lateral forces resulting from the FSW process. A local model to compensate for such deviations is implemented, evaluated and compared to uncompensate welds in terms of quality and reliability.

  • 185.
    Sundara Raju, Prasanna Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Assembly Line Improvement by using Discrete Event Simulation Method: A Case Study at Autoliv, Thailand2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation software is becoming an increasingly important tool for manufacturing industries. This is a case project from Autoliv company, and the work was carried out at Autoliv in Thailand, they are producing different products for automotive applications such as Airbags, seat belts, Steering wheels, and Buckles. Currently, Autoliv in Thailand uses a lean production flow approach (i.e, Industry 3.0) and aims to implement a new side airbags Assembly line in the future (to have more automation in production).

    For this project, two cases were presented.

    Case1: Autoliv in Thailand already used the traditional line balancing method for their pre-existed SAB assembly line, and they successfully achieved the customer demand in the existing SAB assembly line. In this thesis work, this same case has been analyzed with the DES method, and the results of the simulation solution are compared with the real environment output.

    Case2: This case analyses the assembly flow of the upcoming new SAB assembly line with the help of plant simulation software. The Purpose of doing this analysis is to predict the throughput efficiency and make improvements to the assembly line before implementing it into the real environment. For this, a simulation model was created with different manpower scenarios and analyzed. In that, the best solution was presented in this thesis.

    With all the collected data, the simulation model is presented and analyzed for three assembly lines. The software used for this project is Siemens’s Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. By using this simulation method, In the first case, the simulation results achieved 90-95% same as the real environment output and prove a simulation method is a good tool for balancing the assembly line. In the second case, throughput has been predicted and made improvements to the upcoming new assembly line by reducing the number of workers from 5 to 3 in the simulated environment.

  • 186.
    Sundelin, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Guidelines for implementing collaborative robots in industrial application2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using collaborative robots (cobots) in industrial environments are a steadily increasing trend.The main idea of cobots is to eliminate the surrounding safeguards that is usually required in standard robotic systems. This enables the operator and cobot to share the same workspace safety without harming the operator or the surrounding environment. The effect of this leads to a higher space utilization on the factory floor and reduced investment costs, which makes it more affordable for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in their way towards an automated production. However, currently there is a lack of knowledge within SMEs of how to proceed after considering investing in cobots and buying external integration service can be costly. Further it can be difficult to evaluate if the cobot is the right choice in the intended application and if it is really true that cobots are not requiring additional safeguards.This thesis has for this reason examined the procedures that should be considered from the initial phase to a functioning operating cobot cell and proposed general guidelines to assist SMEs or inexperienced cobot users in the deployment process. The guidelines are mainly based on international standards regarding safety combined with general deployment strategies. Parts of the guidelines where later tested in a real case sanding application to examine the ability and validity in a practical context and evaluate the cobot capabilities. The founding is that guidelines can counteract wrong decisions and prevent manufacturers from using cobots in unsuitable applications. Cobots are application dependant and are especially suitable for simple tasks, which is related to the safety aspect, where greater complexity often entails additional moving parts and additional risks. With an uncomplicated system, the cobot may more likely be used without safeguards, but a risk assessment must be performed to validate this.

  • 187.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    A Simulation-Based Optimisation Method for PLC Systems2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuning of process parameters such as time constants, cam values, velocities and robot paths, in order to increase capacity utilisation, is today a challenging manual on-line task in many automated manufacturing systems. On-line methods interfere with production and will cause unwanted downtime, which indeed reduces capacity utilisation. The literature offers virtual manufacturing and simulation-based optimisation as an approach, but without handling time-synchronised control functions, e.g. motion and feedback control.

    This thesis presents a simulation-based optimisation method for PLC systems, able to handle time-synchronised control functions. A programmable logic controller (PLC) is a commonly used type of industrial control system that is capable of handling all control functions in a manufacturing system. The approach presented in this thesis is, however, independent of the type of control systems used. Hence, PLC is used as a general name for all control systems, managing all discrete event, continuous feedback, motion, supervisory, as well as safety control functions.

    A generic simulation-based method for tuning of process parameters has been formulated.  Various goals are attainable by a multi-criteria optimisation approach. The idea is to use a time-synchronised hardware-in-the-loop simulation including real PLCs. By this approach, the method provides a distinct advantage as it involves all complex control functions by using the real PLC code. An additional benefit is that all tuned process parameters can be directly transferred to the PLCs in the manufacturing plant.

    To achieve a feasible simulation-based optimisation method for PLC systems, a new Combined Lipschitzian and Simplex (CoLiS) optimisation algorithm has been established. Complex control functions in industrial manufacturing systems cause conditions such as highly non-linear functions with multiple local optima, a considerable number of parameters and long evaluation times. All these conditions are managed by the non-gradient global CoLiS algorithm. The CoLiS algorithm starts with a global search and then switches over to local convergence. Additionally, all local optima determined during the global search are selected and then constitute starting points in separate local optimisation instances.

    To verify the formulated method’s suitability in industrial applications, and the effectiveness of the new CoLiS algorithm, an optimisation case study has been performed. Improved production performance, both in terms of increased production rate and smoother robot motions, was reached in an automotive sheet-metal press line.

  • 188.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    A new Combined Optimisation Algorithm for Sheet-Metal Press Line Tuning2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS12: 6th-8th of November 2012 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Mats Björkman, Linköping: Produktionsakademien, The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, p. 479-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how a new combined optimisation algorithm can improve the efficiency in simulation-based parameter tuning of sheet-metal press lines. In automotive tandem sheet-metal press lines there are a number of critical interactions between moving parts to consider during the loading and unloading motions. All these interactions, both within each station and between the stations, are time-critical and must be synchronised to reach high production rates and avoid collisions. This cause conditions such as a highly non-linear objective functions with multiple local optima, considerable number of parameters, and long evaluation times. It is a great challenge to obtain an efficient direct search algorithm for global multi-criteria optimisation fulfilling all these conditions.

    The new combined algorithm starts with the Lipschitzian algorithm DIRECT as global search and then switches over to the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm for local convergence. Furthermore, during the switch over, the algorithm determines all local candidates of the set of points evaluated by DIRECT, and starts multiple Nelder-Mead local searches in each of these.

  • 189.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Improving Performance in Flexible Manufacturing by a P-sop Approach2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a Part oriented Sequence of Operation (P-SOP) approach that address flexibility, robustness and deployment in manufacturing cells up to plant level. A P-SOP description language has been formulated where the control strategy based on actual circumstances easily can be defined. Furthermore, a P-SOP multi-agent generator has been created that compiles the strategy description to multi-agents that control the manufacturing. Deadlock free IEC 61131-3 PLC code are directly generated from the description language. The code is not optimised for a specific scenario since the general description contains all possible routing paths and all resources available.

  • 190.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    An efficient algorithm for press line optimisation2013In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 1627-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated manufacturing processes such as automotive tandem press lines include time dependent complex control functions. All motions and critical interactions between moving parts must be synchronised to avoid collisions and reach high production rate. It is even for a skilled operator hard to optimise these processes on-line. Therefore, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation including real industrial control systems and its control code establish an essential tool for optimisation. Additionally, an efficient optimisation algorithm is required to reach a useful simulation-based optimisation method. This paper proposes a new optimisation algorithm starting with the Lipschitzian algorithm DIRECT as global search and then switches over to the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm for local convergence. During the switch over, the new algorithm determines all local candidates of the set of points evaluated by DIRECT and starts multiple Nelder-Mead local searches in each of these. An optimisation study for an automotive press line shows that the proposed algorithm combines the benefits of the Lipschitzian and the simplex algorithms in an efficient way. The importance of multiple local searches from all local candidates found is also shown in the study. Based on the same number of function evaluations, it is also shown that this algorithm reaches improved press line performances compared to the stochastic differential evolution algorithm.

  • 191.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Nia, Nima K.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Sheet-Metal Press Line Parameter Tuning using a Combined DIRECT and Nelder-Mead Algorithm2011In: The 16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation: Toulouse, France, September 5-9, 2011, 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a great challenge to obtain an efficient algorithm for global optimisation of nonlinear, nonconvex and high dimensional objective functions. This paper shows how the combination of DIRECT and Nelder-Mead algorithms can improve the efficiency in the parameter tuning of a sheet-metal press line. A combined optimisation algorithm is proposed that determines and utilises all local optimal points from DIRECT algorithm as Nelder-Mead starting points. To reduce the total optimisation time, all Nelder-Mead optimisations can be executed in parallel. Additionally, a Collision Inspection Method is implemented in the simulation model to reduce the evaluation time. Altogether, this results in an industrially useful parameter tuning method. Improvements of an increased production rate of 7% and 40% smoother robot motions have been achieved.

  • 192.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Nilsson, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    P-SOP Agent Generator for Flexible Manufacturing2013In: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364, Vol. 7, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a flexible manufacturing industry the production planner may need to make an updated description of the control strategy every day. The description contains all possible routing paths and is based on actual circumstances. It varies depending on, e.g., rebalancing due to market changes, scheduling of available operators, introduction of new parts, and rerouting due to a machine break down or planned service. A Part oriented Sequence of Operation (P-SOP) description language has been formulated to assist the production planner to be able to handle these flexible manufacturing scenarios. Multi-agents to control the manufacturing are automatically generated from the P-SOP description language. The P-SOP agent generator creates IEC 61131-3 PLC code that can be executed on standard PLC’s. An agent consists of a head, a communicator and a body. The head and the communicator are the automatically generated part with a predefined interface against the physical body, e.g., the mechanical/electrical structure of a robot. This feature eliminates the need for an external expert in PLC programming. The head contains many small sub-sequences for all operations that are defined for the specific body. The purpose of the communicator is to communicate with surrounding neighbour agents to form a multi-agent system. The formulated language and the P-SOP agent generator has been successfully tested and evaluated in an industrial environment.

  • 193.
    Takeuchi, Kalle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    A user-friendly configuration tool for a multi-agent system2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CMAS (Configurable Multi-Agent System) is a multi-agent-based plug-and-produce system being developed at University West. As the name implies, being configurable is a significant feature of the system. In this degree project, a user-friendly configuration tool requirement specification and prototype software were developed based on graphical user interface design principles and a workshop.

    The specified configuration tool has a tabbed interface and a tree view for navigation. Charts are used to get a better overview of the configuration. Input controls that limit user inputs were selected to lessen the risk of input mistakes.

    The CMAS system includes a concept called process plans. They are used to program the skills of the software agents and to create plans for reaching an agent’s goal. A visual programming interface based on dynamic forms was created to make the tool more approachable for users unfamiliar with programming and to reduce syntax and logical mistakes when configuring process plans.

    To ensure that the configuration tool is useable, the prototype software was used to create a configuration from a test scenario.

  • 194.
    Timmerman, Mattijs
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Optimization methods for nesting problems2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nesting problems have been present for as long as mankind exists. Present days these problems occur in many different industries, e.g. textile, paper, wood, metal and glass industry. These industries produce massive amounts of products to answer the global demand. To minimize the material waste making these products, a good cutting and packing layout is beneficial. The last three decades, researchers have focused on developing methods to solve these problems through computing, instead of solving them manually. Many possible solutions have been found, each method focusing on the specifications of the problem. This thesis had two sub-objectives. The first one was to find the best method for nesting optimization, by doing an intensive literature study. The second sub-objective was to work with a previous made program that is capable of doing optimization tests, containing a nesting optimization method, and try to improve this method to get better results, using the literature study. At a certain point in this project, based on the progress of the literature study and knowledge acquired on the in-house developed program, a decision had to be made either to continue with the previous developed method or to try a new method. A lot of ideas from the literature where used and implemented to improve the method leading to improving results. Hence, the choice was made to continue working with the previous developed method. A new placement strategy was introduced in the program. Additional program code to improve stencil evaluation was added. A proper user interface was created. At the end of this project, a nesting optimization method was obtained, capable of producing a feasible solution when solving a nesting problem, within a reasonable amount of time.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Optimization methods for nesting provblems
  • 195.
    Tobisková, Nicole
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Malmsköld, Lennart
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Pederson, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Multimodal Augmented Reality and Subtle Quidance for Industrial Assembly: A Survey and Ideation Method2022In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 13318 LNCS, p. 329-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial manual assembly is a relatively established use case for emerging head-mounted Augmented Reality (AR) platforms: operators get visual support in placing pieces depending on where they are in the assembly process. However, is vision the only suitable sensory modality for such guidance? We present a systematic review of previous work done on multimodal guidance and subtle guidance approaches, confirming that explicit visual cues dominate. We then outline a three-step method for generating multisensory guidance ideas intended for real-world task support based on task observation that led to identification of 18 steps in truss assembly, brainstorming AR guidance approaches related to assembly and maintenance, and mapping of brainstorming results to the observed task. We illustrated the use of the method by deploying it on our current mission in producing AR guidance approaches for an industrial partner involved in designing and assembling wooden trusses. In this work, we went beyond the standard visual AR guidance in two ways, 1) by opening for guidance through auditory, tactile, and olfactory sensory channels, 2) by considering subtle guidance as alternative or complement to explicit information presentation. We presented a resulting set of multisensory guidance ideas, each tied to one of the 18 steps in the observed truss assembly task. To mention a few which we intend to investigate further: smell for gradual warning about non-imminent potential hazardous situations; 3D sound to guide operators to location of different tools; thermos-haptics for subtle notifications about contextual events (e.g., happening at other assembly stations). The method presented helped us to explore all modalities and to identify new possibilities. More work is needed to understand how different modalities can be combined and the impact of different modality distractions on task performance. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 196.
    Tullock, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Concept and simulation of robotized assembly application2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Assa OEM is a manufacturer of locks and fittings for windows, doors and cabinets. To be more competitive, automating the production is an advantage. Assa assembles six different types of left and right reversible hinges. One product stands for 80 % of the assembly time on the line. For this product Assa wants to implement a robotized assembly solution in one of the three assembly stations. The remaining 20% still needs to be assembled manually. The aim of this study is to investigate three assembly stations, select one assembly station to automate, give three concepts at half-time of the project for the selected assembly station and simulate one final automated concept. The assembly line produces approximately 2000 reversible hinges each day. For the stations in the assembly line the cycle time is around 16 seconds. In the three assembly stations the assembly tasks are similar, it is the number of rivets or parts that differ. In assembly station three there is one additional task that is not included in the first two assembly stations. In this task the arm is lifted and turned 180 degrees, and then placed over three rivets. This is more complex for a robot to perform and will require more equipment. There are similarities between assembly station one and two and therefore concepts for both stations will be given. Three layout concepts are presented for the first assembly station and for the second assembly station one concept is presented. Also, two concepts of combining assembly station one and two are presented. On April 17th, 2018, a meeting at Assa was held to discuss the different concepts and layouts. The discussion led to the conclusion that a further investigation on implementing a robot will be carried out for the concept in assembly station two. The main result is that the cycle time of 16 seconds is difficult to accomplish. The path must be well planned to achieve this with a collaborative robot. To attain the cycle time the end-effector must be designed so that no tool change will be necessary. The rivet is small and therefore a gripper would have difficulty gripping the rivets. Therefore, other methods such as ferromagnetic or vacuum are recommended. The feeder system of the rivet is suggested to have a vibrating bowl feeder due to the orientation of the rivets. The frames’ feeder system needs to be designed for the purpose in assembly station two. The frame that is to be assembled on to the fixture exposes a risk for an operator if working beside the robot. To minimize the risk area from the frame, relocation of the frame feeder and planning the path differently is suggested. The layout will require safety equipment and the suitable safety equipment depends on the flexibility Assa requires.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 197.
    Tumkur Sampathu, Shashishekar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Offline programming for 3D printing using ABB robot: Automatic path generation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing is one of the additive manufacturing process in which product is created layer by layer. In almost all 3D printing first computer aided drawing (CAD) model is generated then it is coveted into Standard Tessellation language (STL) file format after that it is sliced to generate the toolpath for printer. In the thesis process planning for 3D printing using industrial robot is identified and verified. 3D printing is performed by industrial robot using feeder tool which feeds the plastic through the nozzle. The wire which is fed for 3D printing is controlled by Arduino Uno. For generating the path for 3D printing an add-in called RMD is used in process simulate. Add-in RMD is developed by University west.

    First goal of thesis is to find process planning steps for the robotics 3D printing which involves all the process starting from CAD to final product and verify all the steps. The other goal is to find the process parameter which affects final products. Process planning steps from CAD to final product is identified and verified. The process planning step involves modelling, layer and manufacturing all these steps are verified and final product is produced. In modelling step the part that is to be manufactured is modelled. In layer step the pre-processing like converting 3D solid CAD model into layers that in turn is converted to robot code is done. In manufacturing step the downloaded robot code is loaded to real robot and the part is manufactured. Next is to find the process parameters which affects the final product. The process parameter which affects the final products are found. Since there are many parameters which affects the final product so only three process parameter like layer thickness, speed of robot and path to path width is selected based on literature. In order to verify this parameter experiment was designed according to Taguchi method at three levels then the surface roughness of 3D printed sample are measured using surface measuring instrument. According to analysis of S/N ratio and analysis of variance layer thickness was found to affect the final product more than the other two parameter. After layer thickness speed deposition has more effect on final product.

  • 198.
    Turan, Kaan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Process Data: Application For Production Support System2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing and production capacities are expanding exponentially in today’s world. Automatization of production lines is an essential part of manufacturing. As production lines are getting expanded, it is crucial to have a production monitoring and support system. Spectra Premium AB needed such support systems to keep track of production lines. The main aim of the support systems is to establish fast communication within production teams, providing a general overview of production and reporting the production data automatically. Therefore, it is planned to establish a desktop application that can handle multiple tasks such as, live production data monitoring, andon system implementation, report generations, and automatic e-mailing. Production, maintenance, and quality departments were involved in the project. Required production data is generated with unique function blocks in PLCs. Generated data is collected with C# based Sharp7 from PLCs data blocks. Collected data is stored in the Postgre SQL server. Moreover, collected data is processed within the application and used for reporting functions. HMIs are also programmed in order to establish the andon system. As a result of the work, the application, Process Data, is created.

  • 199.
    Vallet, Benjamin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Robot automation of laser texturing2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following document presents the work performed over the course of this degree project. It first includes background research performed to solve the objectives of the degree project, namely, a review of thermal spraying, abrasive blasting, laser texturing, and the safety concerns raised by their respective use. It then mentions a preliminary exploration of possible safety features of the final cell, at multiple levels: hardware, software, maintenance, and visual warnings, as well as the international regulations and standards they must comply with. The second part of this report draws guidelines for the choice of external components with constraints imposed by the context of the LaTex project in mind. An exploration of algorithmic tools applicable is proposed and a snippet of simulation code is provided. Finally, the document discusses limitations of the findings and future work to be performed.

  • 200.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Linn
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Walter, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Towards effective flexibility: learning through co-work with robots in healthcare2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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