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  • 151.
    Kopka, Mathias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av dagvattenhantering i detaljplaner: en studie av tre kommuner inom Skåne2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with exploitation in new areas the storm water management is an essential matter to deal with to always avoid causing damage on the environment. Storm water is momentarily existing water masses that runs off hardened surfaces, examples of storm water is snow, rain and hail. Hardened surfaces are roofs, walls and other constructions. Storm water symbolizes that it is temporary existing, therefore does not lakes count as storm water because it is permanent.

    In natural conditions rainwater penetrates green areas, but when it falls on hardened surfaces for example storm water cannot penetrate a car road, then it starts flowing along the road in a quicker pace then it normally would do in green areas.

    The purpose of this study is partially to get an overall image of how storm water and storm water in zoning plans. And to compare survey storm water information from zoning plans in the three communes in Skåne county and to produce altitude maps for the chosen communes.

    To get additional knowledge about storm water a lot of time has been been laid on literature studies. The study has chosen 20 random zoning plans from each municipality that has been taken directly from their map portal. To get a realistic answer as possible in the study zoning plans older than 1995 are excluded.

    In the municipal of Malmö, it shows that 85 % of the zoning plans contains information about the management of storm water. Second is Lund where it contains information about storm water management in 55% of the zoning plans. Helsingborgs zoning plans only have 40 % of the zoning plans that contains information about storm water management.

    To get a clearer image the author produced simplified altitude maps that shows how the altitude levels causes problems and where the development is mostly concentrated. After looking on Malmös altitude map it gets clear why they need to be in the leading edge of storm water management, their altitude levels are less than ideal.

  • 152.
    Kristensson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rämsvik, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Herrelösa fastigheter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A stray property is a property that lacks a rightful owner with the ability to represent it. In 2004, the National Land Survey carried out a survey on behalf of the government to find out how many stray properties there were in the country. After a comparison between the Swedish Tax Agency's organisational register and the Land Survey, they concluded that there were then 365 stray properties. The study was carried out in connection with the development of new legislation that would facilitate the problems caused by the properties. Since then, no further investigation has been carried out and official statistics on the situation are missing today. The regulation that would facilitate handling and reduce the emergence of the number of new stray properties came into force on 1 April 2005. The purpose of this study is to investigate what the situation with stray properties looks like today and whether the legal regulation introduced in 2005 works as it was supposed to. The most common reasons why properties become strays are that they are abandoned during bankruptcy proceedings or that they are formed by applying the opt-out in Chapter 3. 9 § FBL in the case of real estate formation. However, stray properties can also arise in other ways, suchas unshifted estates. When property is abandoned by a bankruptcy estate, it is called abandonment. There is currently no explicit legal regulation on abandonment, so at present the procedure is being exercised on the basis of a controversial case-law. The study can show an alarming result, these properties appear to have increased in number and in addition, the municipalities testify that the number of darkness is high. The report deals with several examples of problems caused by these ownerless properties, as well as the different situations and circumstances faced by authorities, municipalities and their residents. At the same time, the possibilities that can be found for accessing and handling of stray properties are presented within the framework of Swedish legislation. Is possibly a stray property the perfect object for occupation?

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  • 153.
    Källman, Elin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Larsson, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Vikten av att inkludera barnens perspektiv i ett tidigt skede i samhällsplaneringen: Testar bild-workshop som arbetssätt i Trollhättans Stad2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a big part of the citizens in a municipality. Despite that, they do not have the right to vote in political elections and are in many ways excluded from spatial planning. When the Convention on the Rights of the Child became incorporated into Swedish law the children's right to participate enhanced. For the municipalities this meant that they needed to consider the children and their best interest in their planning processes. This study will show how the children's point of view is represented in spatial planning in Trollhättan and in other selected municipalities. Today the children's point of view are considered mostly when it comes to places where the children usually spend their time, such as playgrounds and schools. Children spend their time in all parts of the city and should therefore also have the possibility to be considered in other places than the ones that are meant for them.

    The purpose of this study is to see how Trollhättan considers the children's point of view in their spatial planning today and how it could be possible to develop their work and make it even better. To do this, several interviews were conducted with professionals from Samhällsbyggnadsförvaltningen and Utbildningsförvaltningen in Trollhättan. The interviews showed that Trollhättan in some ways considers the children's point of view in their planning through different methods such as questionnaires and dialogues. They are also working on developing new methods to be able to reach more children.In this study a picture-workshop methodology was tested, the method was chosen based on inspiration from other municipalities and the methods they are using.

    The purpose of this was to see if Trollhättan could use a method like this early in their spatial planning. The picture-workshop showed that children do have a lot of opinions about their city, even when it is about places that are not directly intended for them. It also showed that children can contribute with different things than adults because they look at things differently. This fact makes it even more important to let the children participate in spatial planning. By increasing children's participation in spatial planning Trollhättan could achieve their ambitions to create a city for everyone.

  • 154.
    Käpynen, Heidi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rydell, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Arbetssätt kring värdeflödesanalys för tillverkning av marina båtmotorer på Volvo Penta2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta has been producing boat engines since 1907 and are world leading in this seg­ment. They have today an extended range and also sell industrial power stations. Quality, safe­ty and environmental care are three core values for Volvo and together they strive to give their customers the right product with the right quality.

    Volvo has developed a production system named Volvo Production System, VPS, and one of the pillars is continuous improvements. Within this pillar you can find value stream map­ping, which is used to analyze the value stream through the process. This tool gives a wide perspective and helps to keep focus on the entire process instead of just parts of it.

    Volvo Penta in Vara has earlier done value stream mapping but without good results since they didn’t take set-up times and imbalances in account. Therefore Penta wanted a guide for how they should proceed the process in the future. For that reason this thesis work’s goal is to provide work instructions on value stream mapping for Penta.

    To approach the goal studies of value stream mapping and three interviews with com­panies were done. These factors resulted in work instructions which were tested in a case study. To develop the work instruction, operators from the process joined to give inputs and to help out in the discussions for improvements. Before the final work instruction was set, a connection to Cost Deployment were completed.

    The final results of this thesis work were a checklist with a manual, a toolbox and a note template. These tools were handed over to Volvo Penta in Vara with recommendations for future work. Some of the recommendations were that they should implement the work instruction as a standard and test it on different value streams.

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    Arbetssätt för värdeflödesanalys
  • 155.
    Lagrell, Lovisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Attefallshus: Som komplementbostadshus2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation of imbalance in Sweden's housing market makes it difficult for several social classes to find housing. The amendments to the law in PBL, in 2014 and 2020, concerning building permit-exempt measures would contribute to a more efficient system for housing construction that would result in more housing. PBL section 9: 4 a was amended and allowed a building area of 30 square meters for ancillary buildings and ancillary residential buildings. Complementary house has been given the popular name attefallshus after Stefan Attefall.It was the construction of attefallshus, as an ancillary residential building, that would contribute to a reduced housing shortage since it can be used as a permanent dwelling. This study examines the start and final decision of complementary housing in Västra Götaland county in the years 2017–2020Between the years 2014 and 2020, 366 applications were received by the building committee, where 305 were approved, the rest were written off or rejected. One of the cases that was denied a start decision had not been reported in drawings for the use of kitchen and hygiene. The municipalities that stood out were Orust and Gothenburg, which accounted for 65% of the total granted start decision. Lilla Edet municipality was alone in not having any startdecision at all. The conclusion was that big cities and coasts is more attractive places to build attefallhus as a complementary housing.With regard to the final decision, 116 of 117 cases were granted. Gothenburg and Orust municipality were at the top. But the number of final notices is low compared to initial notices, which may be due to people applying for start decision but for various reasons do not complete the construction. One reason may also be that the knowledge among the inhabitants is low, the municipalities' routine is lacking, which results in the final decision being missed.A questionnaire was sent out to the municipalities about the approach to the final decision. Several mentioned that a certificate is required which shows that the start decision and control plan are followed according to conditions. Only one municipality answered the question that if no final decision is received, a reminder will be sent out to applicants with an attached start decision. Such a routine should be done in all municipalities to reduce the risk of missing the final decision. Of Västra Götaland County's 49 municipalities, 15 answered, of which 10 contributed with material to the study.

  • 156.
    Lans, Lisen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Stridh, Karolina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Byggstopp 2013?: Vilken betydelse och påverkan har kontrollansvarig2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ett byggstopp skulle kunna inträffa 2013, på grund av införandet av det nya begreppet kontrollansvarig. För att få en realistisk bild av frågeställningen genomfördes intervjuer och en enkätundersökning.

    Problematiken uppstod när den nya plan- och bygglagen (2010:900) (PBL) trädde i kraft den 2 maj 2011. Då infördes det nya begreppet kontrollansvarig för att stärka kontrollen och kvaliteten i byggprocessen. Lagen kräver certifierade kontrollansvariga och detta har gett upphov till vissa problem.

    Enligt Boverkets statistik gällande certifierade kontrollansvariga, kan man konstatera att det finns en risk att det uppstår en brist på sådana framöver. Nuvarande antalet certifierade är cirka 1500, dock uppskattar Boverket behovet till 4000 – 8000, för att undvika ett byggstopp. Baserat på dessa siffror, skulle det från och med idag behöva certifieras 15-30 kontrollansvariga per dag fram till 1 januari 2013.

    Med anledning av denna problematik skapades övergångsregler, som endast gäller fram till den 1 januari 2013. Våra respondenter upplever dock inte lilla antalet certifierade som finns idag, som ett så stort dilemma med tanke på övergångsreglerna som löper fram till och med årsskiftet 2012/2013.

    För att undvika ett byggstopp krävs att antalet kontrollansvariga ökar radikalt i den närmaste framtiden eller att en ändring av lagen, i detta avseende, sker. I studien presenteras dels olika förslag som framkommit under intervjuer samt vår uppfattning hur problemet skulle kunna lösas. En av de viktigare lösningarna skulle kunna vara en kombination av att införa arbetsansvarig samt en lättnad på kravet för vilka byggnader som kräver kontrollansvarig. En lättnad på kraven är endast möjligt om man i stället låter ansvarsbördan falla på entreprenören genom arbetsansvarig. Vidare framhävs byggnadsinspektörers, entreprenörers, kontrollansvariga och andra sakkunnigas åsikter i olika frågor som hjälpt oss komma fram till vår slutsats. Respondenternas svar tillsammans med övrig bakomliggande information har hjälpt oss fastställa en viktig slutsats; om ingenting händer kommer med all säkerhet ett byggstopp att inträffa.

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  • 157.
    Larm, Christina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Länsstyrelsen överklagar lantmäteribeslut2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the year 2017, the local guidelines for consultations, and recommendations for the handling of property formation cases were phased out. By a new decision that included all counties in Sweden, the 21county administrative board´s would use the same guidelines, avoiding local deviations that had been previously approved and thus reducing the number of consultations. In Värmland and Västra Götaland counties, the guidelines called “Gröna Häftet” were removed, which had been used as a support in deciding surveying. By contacting the respective county administrative board and requesting judgments for the period 2016 to 2018, where the county administrative board has appealed against land survey decisions regarding property formation cases an investigation has been done concerning whether appealed cases have increased or decreased. 

    The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and land registration authority handles property formation cases relating to beachfront areas through a surveying service that the county administrative board then reviews. Property formation means the conversion or regeneration of properties. This process includes property regulation in connection with subdivision, splitting or merger of a property. The handling of these cases can take place at a municipal surveying authorityor at a state surveying authority. If there is any disagreement in the case, the county administrative board can appeal the decision to the Swedish Environment Court. This can only be done if the ordinance takes place outside the detailed planning area. If the ordinance applies to a detailed planning area, the county administrative board has no rights to appeal. In cases where the Swedish Environment Court find that the Land Survey authority has made an incorrect or flawed decision, the Swedish Environment Court may refer the case back to the Land Survey. Once the Land and Environment Court has ruled, one of the owners of the case can appeal if it is deemed that the judgment is wrong. The appeal must be submitted within a three-week period to the Swedish Environment Court, which in turn forwards it to the  Swedish Environment Court of Appeal, which takes a decision on the appeal.

    In the survey sent out to the Swedish 21 county administrative boards, 14 responded, which corresponded to 67%. Of these 14, 13 responded to the survey, one abstained. When asked if the county administrative board's appeal against survey decisions had increased, 8 replied that there had been an increase. The other 5, had neither noticed an increase or a decrease. 

  • 158.
    Larsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Särskilt skäl för strandskyddsdispens: Kan övergivna hus och tomter utgöra ianspråktagna områden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze how special circumstances in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code (miljöbalken) is applied in practice. What factors contribute to shore protection (strandskyddet) reinstatement so that home privacy protection (hemfridsskyddet) no longer applies, and when a claimed property (ianspråktagen tomt) is considered abandoned. This study is based on the following questions: 1. In what condition should a building and its yard be in order to grant a shore protection dispensation (strandskyddsdispens) in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. the Swedish environmental code? What determines most; the condition of the building or the yard? 2. Where does one draw the line between a claimed property and an abandoned property? 3. What factors contribute to an existing building no longer having a home privacy protection zone (hemfridszon)? To answer these questions, a survey was directed to 75 different municipalities in Sweden as well as an analysis of five different legal cases. The methods used in this study are a qualitative method and a legal method. The theoretical part of the study presents what the legal situation looks like today, which especially must be regarded in the issues of shore protection dispensation as well as a description of the background and objectives of the article of law that is this study’s focus. The result of this study shows a summary of the responses to the questionnaire and case law analysis. In the analysis, the questions were answered by municipalities based on their rationale and case law. The analysis shows that the building’s condition is the most important factor in the assessment, that public perception of the area is of great importance and when the building was last considered inhabitable. What is also important in assessing whether there are special considerations for shore protection dispensation is that the plot demarcation (tomtplatsavgränsningen) should be given, what the type of building is on the site and if the area closest to the shoreline ensures free passage for the public. The conclusion shows that the study subject area is complex and that the problem is in the interpretation and assessment of individual cases, based on current legislation. The study indicates that there is not a specific answer as to how exactly the assessment takes place, because it depends on the situation in individual cases. The study’s discussion features interesting rationale as well as an idea which might facilitate the assessment if there are special circumstances for a shore protection dispensation in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code.

  • 159.
    Larsson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sundahl, Amelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Markåtkomst för järnvägstunnlar – hur säkerställs det?: En sammanställning av statistik och motiv från år 2004 till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2004 it is possible to form three-dimensional properties in Sweden. One of the purposes of the new legislation was to enable ownership of tunnels. Tunnels can be used for many different purposes, including railway. The Swedish railway needs improvement regarding the capacity. When the railway is expanded and rebuilt, it may sometimes be suitable to build a tunnel. This may be the case when the railway is passing a city or built in a hilly landscape. Unlike when the railway runs on the ground, where the rail holder owns the land in very long real estate, the land access for the tunnels has traditionally been solved with easements. The changes in the legislation in 2004 makes it possible to own the tunnels in the form of three-dimensional properties. In this bachelor thesis, the authors investigate if the actors concerned are using the new legislation and, if so, when, how and why. In the thesis, all railway tunnels whose cadastral application have been submitted between 1 January 2004 and 20 May 2018 or whose railway plan has become final before 20 May 2018 was investigated regarded the land access. This includes 27 railway tunnels, from Malmö in the south of Sweden to Umeå in the north. The data was divided into two periods to investigate if any change occurred regarding how the land access was solved during the period. The result displays that this is the case. In the first time span, easement was clearly the dominant choice, while three-dimensional properties was the main pick in the second. However, as the study shows, easement is still sometimes used as a choice. Five interviews have been carried out in the thesis, four of which are related to two current projects, the new railway tunnel in Strängnäs and Västlänken in Gothenburg. The purpose behind the interviews was to find different motives regarding the choice of land access. The two interviews with the cadastral surveyors reveals that both three-dimensional property formation and official easement are suitable solutions and that the choice in between de facto lays with the applicant. The two interviewed land negotiators at Trafikverket shared the motives on which the choices were based. Both official easements and three-dimensional property formation have pros and cons, meaning that the choice must be decided for each tunnel apart.

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  • 160.
    Lindevall, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jäverby, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommunal finansiering av allmän plats: Tillämpning i förtätningsområden som genomgår en omvandling från fritidshus till permanentbostäder2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become common practice to plan by densifying and several municipalities have stated in their comprehensive plans that growth should arise through densification. When densifying vacation home areas, a conversion from vacation homes to permanent residences can occur and these areas are named densification areas in this study. A consequence of increased land development and a changed living situation in these areas is that refurbishment or establishment of new municipal facilities may be necessary. In detailed development plans with municipal mandate, the municipality is responsible for ensuring the construction of public spaces and that completion is coordinated with other developments.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how Sweden's municipalities fund the development of public spaces in detailed development plans with municipal mandate in densification areas. The study examines why a municipality practice a specific procedure and if there are other factors that interfere with the method to fund public space. To fulfil the study's purpose a quantitative analysis was used to answer how the municipalities are funding public areas and four interviews were held to find out why they are choosing a specific way of funding.

    The results show that the choice of financing vary, as it is based on the landowner situations in densification areas. There are always individual landowners in addition to other landowners. It is common for a municipality to combine several methods for financing public space. When there are only individual landowners in a densification area the common method is using street costs or taxes. When a municipality owns parts of the area in addition to individual landowners, most municipalities use real estate sales and taxes. When a land developer owns part of a densification area the majority of municipalities settle an agreement that the land developer renders a contribution to the municipality which is equivalent to the cost of public space, or the land developer build and transfer public areas free of cost.  The population of a municipality has a greater influence for the choice of financing public space than the geographic location of a municipality.

    It is evident that politics plays a part in the choice of funding. There is however no relation between a municipality’s political party or ideological direction, and a municipality’s choice of funding. Municipal officials reckon that economic sustainable development steers the municipality’s choice of funding, but the authors believe that all dimensions of sustainable development are relevant.

  • 161.
    Ljung, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Widell, Gill
    Seafarers´ working career in a life cycle perspective: driving forces and turning points2014Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Lund, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vallebrant, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lagen om allmänna vattentjänster: Avgränsning av verksamhetsområden i 6 §2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Public Water Services Act came in to effect. According to the sixth paragraph in this law, all municipalities shall arrange water supplies and sewerage in a "wider context" if it is necessary with respect to human health or the environment. But sometimes, municipalities choose not to connect certain areas to the operational area even though they should do so according to the sixth paragraph in the Public Water Services Act. These areas are commonly referred to as § 6 areas which means that these areas fulfill the condition "wider context" in the Public Water Services Act, but are outside the operational area. What does it mean that the municipalities shall ensure water supply and sewerage in a "wider context"? The term "wider context" is not defined in the legal text, but preparatory work to the law states that 20 to 30 properties can be seen as a guideline. This amount can be reduced if there are special reasons for it. But how do the municipalities interpret the term? This is the first question that this study answers. The second question that has been answered is why the municipalities choose to not connect some certain areas to the operational area, despite the fact that the conditions for "wider context" in the sixth paragraph are fulfilled. The study concerns the following municipalities: Lerum, Lysekil, Svenljunga, Skövde and Vänersborg. In order to gain information and to find answers to the questions, a combination between legal methodology, a quantitative and a qualitative method has been used. The municipalities VA-plans, which are guiding for municipal VA planning, have been reviewed and interviews have been conducted to supplement the VA-plans and provide a deeper understanding of municipal decisions. The study shows that it varies from municipality to municipality how the term "wider context" is interpreted as the number varies from eight to twenty properties included. Some of the municipalities also use the terms "assembled dwellings" and "assembled built environment" from the Planning and Building Act (2010:900). As for the second issue, there is a connection between how the municipalities have assessed these areas. The reason why some areas not are connected to any operational area is because they have a low priority based on a need and possibility assessment.

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  • 163.
    Lundqvist, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rydsmo, Elvira
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bostäder och strandskydd: Skilda kommunala förutsättningar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with the shoreland protection legislation and the current investigation from 2020. The shoreland protection legislation counteracts the development for smaller municipalities that need being able to exploit attractive locations. The inquiry aims to differentiate shoreland protection legislation by making it easier to build in rural areas and more restrictive on the exploited coast. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the shoreland protection legislation is interpreted differently in municipalities on the Bohuslän coast and municipalities with mainly rural areas in Dalsland, and to find out whether the municipalities see any change if the inquiry's proposal is implemented. The study was conducted with a qualitative method through semi-structured interviews and with a legal dogmatic method to establish the municipalities' interpretation of applicable law. The conclusion shows that the municipalities make different interpretations of the legislation, which means that the county administrative board has an important role to equate the results for those who apply for an exemption for beach protection. Although some municipalities consider the regulations to be strict, they agree that the legislation is significant for sustainable community building. There is a need for differentiation of the regulations for municipalities that are struggling with depopulation related challenges. We find that the rural municipalities consider that the inquiry's proposal does not provide sufficiently differentiated legislation. The proposal does not significantly affect the coastal municipalities, but nevertheless agrees that it will not lead to any major change. While the proposal will not massively impact the coastal municipalities, the municipalities on the coast agree that the proposal will severely affect inland municipalities.

  • 164.
    Löfberg, Johan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Lundkvist, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Solcellsanläggningars varaktighet vid etablering på jordbruksmark: Hur ser gällande praxis och lagstiftning ut idag?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a Swedish context the study aims to shed light on the legal situation that prevails when establishing solar cells on agricultural land. The report focuses on mapping the regulations and reasons on which the County Administrative Board and the court base their decisions and judgements.

    The question focuses on describing the problems surrounding solar cells on agricultural land. The legislation, judgements and decisions from the County Administrative Board were examined to gain an understanding of what it looks like in the current situation. The judgment were supplemented with decisions from the county administrative board because there are no prejudicial judgements.

    The study focuses on legislation concerning the use of agricultural land. The County Administrative Board has a key role in this aspect because they are the authority that handles matters concerning the establishment of solar cells on agricultural land. The process is handled in a consultation with the support of Chapter 2, Section 6 of the Environmental Code. The County Administrative Board's task in the consultation is to consider the interests of the community but also to determine whether there is a change in land use.

    In the event of a change in land use, Chapter 2, Section 6 of the Environmental Code applies, which means that Chapter 3 Section 4 of the Environmental Code shall also be applied. The regulations mean that usable agricultural land may only be used for the essential interests of society.

    xThe approach to clarify the legal situation for the area uses a legal dogmatic method. The study describes the current legal situation and how the County Administrative Board handles the area. The lack of practice in the area has resulted in the study being supplemented with interviews with administrators from the County Administrative Board and industry profess–ionals.

    The results of the interviews provided a picture of how the two largest county administrative boards work with the issues and the difference between their approaches. They were also given the opportunity to share what can be improved to facilitate understanding between companies and the County Administrative Board during consultations. As a result, all parties considered that building permits should apply to solar cell parks or that they be included in Chapter nine of the Code on environmentally hazardous activities.

    The legal situation and how the County Administrative Board should behave is not always obvious. There are no rulings from higher courts to establish practice in the solar cells area. The two appealed judgements that currently exist will not solve the whole problem of establishing solar cells on agricultural land. More judgment with different conditions and locations will be required to create a case law on solar cell parks on agricultural land.

  • 165.
    Maars, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Thomsson, Patric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    När ”påbörjas” en detaljplan?: en kartläggande studie om begreppet ”påbörjad”2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    1st of January 2015 some changes were made in the Planning and Building Act. This was made because of the Swedish government wanted to make the planning process easier. The law changes include the planning process and the development contracts for detailed development plans. The transitional provisions, however, made a reservation to regulate the situations in which older legislation would be used. The regulation is that older legislation should be used if the detailed development plan were initiated prior to 1 January 2015. The purpose of this study is to investigate when a detailed development plan is initiated.  The study is based on current legislation and its application, this will be investigated using various methods. To interpret the law about the concept, legal dignity approach has been used through different interpretation methods. In order to gain an understanding of how the law is applied, a legal sociological approach has been used. This was done by conducting a questionnaire survey, where all the municipalities in Sweden were asked how they interpret the concept.  This has shown that the term is unclearly defined, as evidenced by the varying answers received from the municipalities in the survey. However, the majority of municipalities interpret the concept "initiate" according to the definitions that the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the government have formulated. What is also evident from the study is that the differences in the different legislation are large and that the municipality's conditions change significantly depending on when a detailed plan is "initiated". The study also shows that the units within the municipality interpret the term in a generally similar manner. The result of the legal interpretation and compilation of the survey shows that National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the government's definitions of "initiated" detailed development plan are unclear. And that the existing definitions are in need of clarification for the application of these transitional rules by similar municipalities.  

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  • 166.
    Magnusson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bolundare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On Mars 1st 2020 a law change was performed in Sweden's Planning and Building Act (PBL) 9:4 a. The change made possible for the constructor to build an accessory dwelling with an area of 30 square meters without a planning permission. All you need is an approval from the municipalities that you can start to build. Before the law change you could build a small house that could be up to 25 square meters and the building could be either an accessory dwelling or an accessory building (garage, storage, guest house) without a planning permission. The new law changes do not involve the accessory buildings, it only involves the accessory dwellings so that they can be 30 square meters. The accessory building can still only be 25 square meters. The change has caused some trouble, which municipalities and construction companies have noticed. There is a greater interest in building a 30 square meter garage instead of housing. Individuals find it difficult to understand the new regulations, which means that the municipalities spend a lot of time explaining the building rules for the individuals. In this study the 30 square meter accessory dwelling is called bolundare and the 25 square meter accessory dwelling is called attefallare. This study investigates the view of the 30 square meter accessory dwelling that the municipalities and construction company have. It also investigates which rules that apply when an individual want to lease their bolundare and how many starting clearances municipalities have given. The purpose with this law change was to allow bigger accessory dwelling to lessen the housing shortage that we have today. In this study we saw that the municipalities did not think that bolundare will affect the ability of permanent housing. The construction companies were more positive, even if one of the companies did not think that bolundare will be a quick fix in the housing market.The result shows that the municipalities are not completely satisfied with the changes in the law and that the rules are complicated to the individuals. It also emerges what difference it is between a bolundare and an attefallare. The result also shows that individuals have difficulties understanding the rules that refer to when an individual want to lease their bolundare. There is already a proposal from the Committee on Civil Affairs to change PBL 9:4 a one more time this year. More specifically august 1st 2020. The proposal says that all accessory buildings and accessory dwelling should be allowed to be 30 square meters without a building permit. If it will be allowed remains to be seen.

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  • 167.
    Marklund, Julia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Solberg Spång, Hanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Vilken betydelse har översiktsplanen vid prövning av förhandsbesked och bygglov?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the counties has monopoly on the planning on usage of land and water within their geographical borders. The Swedish system of planning is statued in the Planning and Building Act (2010:900), and consists of the regional plan, comprehensive plan, detailed development plan and area regulations. The comprehensive plan is an important political document of guiding long-term planning, meant to ensure economic use of land and water and for protecting the public interests. It is also meant to guide in trails of building permit and advance notice, mainly in areas that lack detailed development planning. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the legal situation on the comprehensive plan and its significance in matters of building permits and advance notice, to be able to account for points made in legal practice, and if any change in the matter has taken place over time.

    When deciding appropriate use of land and water individual and general interests according to chapter 2. in the Planning and Building Act always needs to be taken into consideration. The comprehensive plan gains its meaning in trails of building permits and advance notice through this chapter by its presentation of general interests. Depending on the level of detail of the plan, the guiding effect varies. It is however never the comprehensive plan itself that decides if a measure can be allowed at a given place, but how the measure will affect the general interests that the plan is presenting. Owing to the precedent NJA 2021. s. 321 clearer guidelines on how to apply the comprehensive plan in trails of building permits has been made. It is also clear that the significance of the comprehensive plan is depending on whether the trail is located inside or outside an area of detailed development plan.

  • 168.
    Melin, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Marthinsson, Malin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En studie om att förbättra registerkartan med mätning och transformation2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har gjort en studie om hur vi kan förbättra registerkartan med hjälp av mätning med GPS och transformation i området Tobyn i Årjängs kommun. Arbetet innehåller fastighetsbildning förr i tiden och även om hur fastighetsbildning går till i dag. Vidare har vi skrivit om olika mätningsmetoder och fakta om GPS-systemet, exempelvis NRTK, fasmätning, absolutmätning och kort om olika transformationsmetoder. Vi har också skrivit om hur vi gick tillväga när vi först mätte och sedan transformerade. Till detta har vi olika bilagor med jämförelse mellan inmätta och transformerade punkter och kartor som visar hur mycket som skilde mellan transformerade gränser och den befintliga registerkartan. Det finns också en bilaga med flygbild över Tobyn som visar något av hur mätförhållandena är. Vår slutsats är att det gick väldigt smidigt att mäta och transformera och tidsåtgången var inte så stor. Det skilde upp till 75 centimeter mellan transformerad och inmätt punkt på vissa ställen. De största avvikelserna fanns i utkanterna av området Tobyn.

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  • 169.
    Mogren, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Jonny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Fritidshus i plan- och bygglagen: undantaget från tillgänglighetskraven2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Planning and Building Act (PBL) 8 chap. 6 § 2 there is an exception for holiday homes so that they do not have to meet ordinary accessibility requirements. Holiday homes do not have to be accessible and useful for people with reduced mobility or orientation. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the exemption in the legislation is used by applying for a building permit for holiday homes with the intention of escaping the requirements of the PBL. The study also examines how the building committees handle building permits for large holiday homes and the criteria used to separate holiday homes from permanent houses. Large holiday homes are being investigated, as a generalization could show that the chance is greater that such a home has been built to take advantage of the exemption.Through a legal dogmatic study, information is collected about the current legal situation, which is then compiled with a forensic sociological study. There are uncertainties in the forensic sociology survey as a limited proportion of the municipalities in Västra Götalandincluded in the survey, responded to the interview form.To live permanently in a holiday home, neither a building permit nor registration is required. According to the legislation, those who live permanently in a holiday home must still ensure that the house meets the requirements for accessibility and usability. The responses from the municipalities nevertheless show a tendency for the exemption to be utilized to a certain degree. There is no definition for holiday homes in PBL and in practice a large holiday home could just as easily be a permanent home. When the municipalities handle building permit applications, they still must distinguish between the different forms of housing, what determines is what is stated in the application.It is difficult to prove that property owners use the exemption to escape accessibility requirements. It also entails certain disadvantages to state holiday homes in the application if the intention is to live permanently. It can mean a higher cost to adapt accessibility afterwards, there may also be some problems if the municipality introduces area regulations.From a long-term perspective, a proportion of the population is excluded from the holiday home market when a significant proportion of properties are not built adapted to accessibility.

  • 170.
    Molander, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Emanuelsson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hållbar utveckling och den biologiska mångfalden: En studie om kommunernas förhållningssätt till hållbar utveckling i arbetet med den biologiska mångfalden i samhällsplaneringen.2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By Sweden signing the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and Agenda 21, the country undertook to both preserve and sustainably use biological diversity, and to strive for sustainable development. Global commitments are usually realized at a local level, which means that the municipalities become an important player in environmental and sustainability work, not least through community planning.

    Through urbanization and that we become more inhabitants in the country, it is required that more homes are built to counteract housing shortages. At the same time as this housing requirement exists, there are also requirements that the biological diversity and other natural values must be preserved to achieve sustainable development. Even though there are environmental quality goals and sustainability goals, only one of sixteen environmental quality goals is considered to be met. Furthermore, the municipalities themselves can also choose which environmental quality goals they want to work extra with depending on the municipalities' conditions. A reduced biodiversity leads to a lack of nutrition, reduced well-being and an increased risk of erosion. In community planning, it therefore becomes important to think from a holistic perspective.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate in which ways the two selected municipalities Linköping and Örebro consider the biological diversity in community planning and whether this is done from a sustainability perspective. The purpose is also to investigate whether the municipalities relate to the government's strategy for living cities regarding green infrastructure and whether ecological, economic, and social sustainability regarding biodiversity is followed in the municipalities' general plans. The study has been carried out through a qualitative document analysis of the selected municipalities' general plans and associated strategic documents that deal with biological diversity. This with the aim of examining concrete measures that the municipalities intend to carry out to preserve the biological diversity in the city and urban areas.

    Although the general plan is not legally binding, it is highly indicative in the municipalities' community planning. The overview plans show the municipality's direction for subsequent planning. When planning in urban environments, it is especially important to plan for green infrastructures, including designated high natural values where all aspects of the concept of sustainable development are considered, both social, economic, and ecological sustainability. When planning in detail, it is important that the municipality and the developer consider the designated natural values and the green infrastructure that exists within the area to be planned in detail. 

    The results of the study show that the municipalities work relatively equally with each other with the biological diversity about sustainable development. The municipalities have stated in the general plans that the cities will be densified with existing cohesive buildings. In the municipalities' nature conservation programs and nature plans, the municipalities have set concrete goals for working with the conservation of biological diversity and strategies for achieving these goals. Furthermore, the master plans with accompanying documents showed that green infrastructure was of great importance within the municipalities' districts. From the selected detailed plans, the results showed that the municipalities took biological diversity into account to a great extent. The municipalities planned new buildings near existing buildings to be frugal in paving natural land that has a negative effect on biological diversity. Furthermore, hatch plots are avoided by planning cohesive buildings as it reduces the risk of fragmentation of natural land.

  • 171.
    Mustakangas, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tallheden, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Upplåtelse av allmän plats för enskilt ändamål2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities have the plan monopoly which means that they have the exclusive right to produce and adopt detailed plans. A detailed development plan regulates how land and water areas should be used and granted. The plan regulates which land that should constitute a land for public space and an area for building sites. Public space is for example land as parks, nature, squares or roads that are made for the public's needs. Public spaces are usually not allowed to be leased for private interests as they are made for public interests. The use of the site's must be reported in the map for the detailed plan, with associated plan regulations that both are legally conclusive. The public spaces should, among other things, also be available for emergency vehicles. Property formations should compliance with the current detailed plan. Minor deviations from the detailed plan can be made if the deviations are compatible with the purpose of the plan, according to the Real Property Formation Act 3:2. It has been questioned if it´s allowed to lease public spaces for private interests. Certain municipalities mean that the purpose with the public spaces disappears if it is leased for a private interest, but other municipalities think that there is a need. The selected authorities' reasons for the leases are minor deviation from the detailed plan, that the purpose of the detailed plan is not counteracted and that the public place's accessibility to the public is not affected that much. This thesis clear that land which is leased temporary regulates in the Order Act of Sweden and is leased with a police license. Permanent leases regulate in the Code of Land Laws forms part of the Statute Book of Sweden as well as in the Property Formation Act and make the leases with a use agreement or an easement. In this thesis public spaces definition that specifies in the Planning and Building Act and the corresponding definition in the Order Act of Sweden. The purpose of the thesis is to describe the legal situation concerning private leases on public places. The study is supposed to describe how four municipalities and two land survey authorities deal with the issue. The study also intends to clarify the underlying motives that the selected authorities have for their decisions. There are several rights to apply for private interests in public spaces. The authors of this thesis have defined to only investigate whether it is possible to grant land for private interests through easements or rights of user. After completing the study, we can conclude that there are shared opinions about whether the legislation should be clarified or changed. The authors of this study can see that the issue of granting public space should be dealt with early in the planning process. To start setting the issue up early, the authorities can avoid a time-consuming and expensive change of plan. We also can see that there is a need to change or clarify the legislation.

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  • 172.
    Nielsen, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ovik, Anja
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Dagvatten: Vem har ansvaret?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's climate change means warmer temperatures and annual precipitation is expected to increase by 20-60 %. The increased rainfall means more stormwater on the ground. This water must be taken care of in a long-term sustainable manner, otherwise it can lead to problems. Therefore, society must adapt to the climate change that occurs. The study aims at investigating who is responsible for handling the water and clarifying the legal conditions for local stormwater treatment. The study also examines how water management looks like in the detailed plans in Västra Götaland County. The study focuses on looking at and how responsibility for stormwater is distributed in the detailed plan documents as well as the planning rules that are used for water treatment. The method we used is a combination of a qualitative and quantitative as well as a legal method.The study answers the following questions: o Who is responsible for the disposal of stormwater? o How does the municipalities distribute the responsibility of stormwater in the detailed plans? o Are there any plans for regulation of stormwater, which? o What is the distribution of responsibility in the plan descriptions? o Do municipalities have a legal basis for the use of local stormwater treatment, how do legal conditions look? The study results show that 28 % of municipal plans for stormwater are about local stormwater treatment, which is an illegal plan. Local stormwater treatment does not have the support from Chapter 4 Planning and Building Act required for a plan regulation to be used. The conclusion is that the municipalities should take responsibility for the discharge of stromwater if it is within the municipality's area of activity. Nevertheless, only in 16 % of the plans that the real estates are connected to the stormwater network.

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  • 173.
    Niklasson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hagström Russell, Christopher
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med kombinerade ändamål: En studie av gällande rätt och fastigheter bildade i Västra Götalands län år 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 1991, the general suitability conditions in FBL 3:1 was revised and the statements in the preparatory work made it possible to form larger properties for housing with additional ground suitable for other purposes than housing, such as ground for smaller animal retention or cultivation. According to prior practice in the field, properties purposed for housing was limited to only containing enough ground to cover the space needed for buildings and gardens. This thesis applies the scientific method of legal dogmatics in order to examine the applicable law. The method includes analysis of preparatory work, court cases, and doctrines that is relevant to understanding how the general suitability condition should be applied in cases where large properties for housing with additional ground for other purposes in rural areas are formed. Based on the different sources of analysis some parts of what could be viewed as a framework for the law has been defined. The study shows that there are three typical cases when it is allowed to include forest land in properties for housing. Furthermore, it shows that the ordinary areal size of properties with the sole combined purpose of retention is considered to be 3,5 hectares. It can also be concluded that forming properties within the general protection area of beaches must be done with great restrictiveness and lastly it is allowed to form properties that consists of more than one unit as long as the units has a functional connection in relations to each other. The applicable law seems to vary from case to case depending on the many factors that must be considered when the general suitability condition is applied. Therefore, it has been difficult to draw more detailed conclusions from this part of the study. This thesis also contains a legal sociologic study in which the documentation from the creation of multipurpose properties in Västra Götaland, Sweden, has been converted into statistics and compared with the results of the legal dogmatics study in order to determine how the law is applied in reality. The study showed that a total of 269 properties had been created in the year 2018. The properties have been created in every council except two, the areal mean is 4,5 hectares and the most ordinary combined purpose is retention. Most properties are created as one sole unit and lastly there are 48 properties that are created within the general protection area of beaches. The legal sociologic study was concluded with five cases where the creation of multipurpose properties which had been appealed to the land and environment courts. They were studied in order to determine what the county government considers to be a property that does not conform with the general suitability conditions.

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  • 174.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Josefin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Att arbeta proaktivt med leveransförseningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed because Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB in Trollhättan wanted to work more proactively with delivery delays at various levels in the company. They found it difficult to achieve its goals regarding delivery reliability from their suppliers and therefore it was a current issue. The study's purpose was to show how a company and its suppliers are working with delivery delays today and to offer suggestions on how they can work more proactively with this. It was a qualitative study and information was gathered primarily through semi-structured interviews. During the study, a literature study within the following areas was performed: supply chain, purchase, supplier relationships , communication and Lean.

    Parker's purchasing activities are divided into strategic purchasing, operational purchasing and ordering. When comparing the empirical data against the theory it was discovered that delivery monitoring was not included in neither job descriptions nor process maps, but the ordering personnel does it spontaneously anyway. Parker also has a routine that says everything must be raised at a material management meeting called "12:45 meeting", which is not consistent with the actual working method.

    The group examined how Parker suppliers Tunnelstam AB and Nothav AB are working with deliveries to Parker today. Tunnelstam AB has a delivery reliability to their customers of approximately 95 percent even though they only have a delivery reliability from their suppliers of approximately 80 percent. Nothav AB are working to educate their employees to enable them to work on more workstations, to thereby increase Nothav AB's flexibility and reduce the risk of delivery delays.

    During the study, four areas for improvement was identified and each area consists of a number of suggestions for improvement. Following are the four areas; delivery monitoring, standardized documentation outside "12:45 meeting", proactive approach to strategic sourcing and visit ordering personnel and suppliers. The group recommends Parker to consider all proposals for improvement because the proposals will improve Parker's ability to work proactively with delivery delays

  • 175.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kan exploateringsavtal bli för gamla?: En rättsdogmatisk och rättssociologisk studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land development agreements can be established between a municipality and a developer in order to regulate rights and obligations to accomplishing detailed development plans when the municipality does not own the land to be exploited. The agreements are based on civil contract rights and on the principles such as contractual freedom and contractual obligation.

    Several factors may complicate the establishment and accomplishment of a land development agreement. The agreement regulates juridical as well as technical questions and typically has a relatively long term. Several parties with different interests are also involved in the process which means that activities and decisions need to be coordinated. For these reasons, accomplishment of the land development agreement can be a protracted process and parties may not fulfil their obligations in time.

    The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate whether obligations in land development agreements can expire due to a long period of times passed and if there have been any problems or controversies in connection to this. To achieve the aim of the study, laws and literature have been studied and a survey has been sent to all 290 Swedish municipalities, where answers were received from 122 municipalities.

    The juridical study proves that more or less all obligations in land development agreements can expire due to statue of limitation. Moreover, two relatively new verdicts from the Swedish supreme court show that obligations can expire already before statue of limitation occurs due to one party neglecting to enforce the obligations of the other. Furthermore, later occurred circumstances can, as a consequence of long time elapsed, result in adjustment or annulment of obligations provided that the circumstances reach the level of excessiveness described in Contracts Act 36 §.

    The result of the survey indicates that there is uncertainty among Swedish municipalities around the question of whether land development agreements can expire due to a long period of time passed. Approximately 33% of the respondents deem that the agreements can expire due to a long time passed while 39% deem the contrary. Further, the survey shows that only a few of the municipalities experienced troubles with a protracted exploitation process. Also, in those cases, there has not been any major controversy between the municipality and the developer over the issue of whether the land development agreement is current or not.

  • 176.
    Nilsson Sparf, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Josefin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Riktvärdet på tomtmark: En jämförelse mellan lantbruk och småhus som visar orsaker till värdeskillnaden2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, all properties are assessed every three years (except industrial and electricity production properties that has every six years) with either a general or simplified property assessment. A team consisting of persons from Skatteverket, Lantmäteriet and a valuation company works together with the preparation work for a tax assessment where all properties are mass valued and different tables, benchmarks and value factors are established.

    A comparison of farm rateable values in 2017 and single-family houses in 2018 showed that there were differences in the benchmark of plots of land of farms compared to land for detached houses in rural areas. The benchmark for farms was higher in many value areas in Sweden, which they should sometimes be due to different underlying reasons, but when such reasons are missing, Lantmäteriet wants an explanation for why these differences in the benchmark have arisen.

    The aim is to investigate the underlying reasons why the guide values on plots of land can separated as much as they do in many places in Sweden. The aim is to clarify whether the geographical location of the value areas has any impact and connection with each other. Furthermore, it is hoped that the result will contribute to a more equal valuation in the future and reduce geographical differences. The study has been limited to comparing the counties with the most value areas with value differences, which was the counties of Västra Götaland, Stockholm and Skåne. Further delimitation has been made by only include value ranges that have a difference of 20% or more. The methods used are a combination of archival study, interviews and mapping.

    Many possible reasons for differences in the benchmark are based on how the assessment system is structured, how the valuation is carried out by the different property types and how the geographical situation affects the differences in value. These are reasons such as the assessment of so-called 'horse farms', the small local price material for farms, the reliability of the assessment data, a lack of local knowledge, the different methods used, the impact of aid tables and the different training and specialisation of valuation techniques. The location in Sweden, close to urban- or beachfront locations and the often high locations of farms also play a role in the valuations and can be a cause of differences in the value of the benchmark on the plot of land. 

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  • 177.
    Nyblom, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Justerade bygglov2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Land and Environmental Court intended in a decision in 2020 that minor adjustmentswithin existing building permits could be granted. The wording about minor deviations indicated an adjusted outlook among The Land and environmental Court that in a decision from 2015 stated that the Planning and Building Act (2010:900) does not allow for adjustments of a building permit but instead referred to a new building permit. The Land and environmental court’s decision in 2015 also established that a new building permit demands the neighbors’ opportunity to remark on the measure.The purpose of the study is to investigate how the local building committees interpret adjustments in terms of a building permit decision. The following issues are treated: what articles are being reviewed by the local building committees in a situation of an adjusted building permit and how is the question of right for the neighbors to give one’s opinionbeing dealt with in a situation of an adjusted building permit. Furthermore, is the term minor deviation being reviewed and how it interprets in a building permit matter, and also how The Land and Environmental Court interprets adjustments of a building permit.Juridical method has been applied for the study. All 49 counties within Region Västra Götaland was contacted with a request of five building permit decisions from 2017 or 2018. 14 building permits had relevance towards the study. Three interviews were conducted with building permit administrators that are active in the Region Västra Götaland.

    An analysis of the collected building permits displayed among other things that adjustments of placing was processed in most cases. Respondents replied in interviews that relocation of the residence placing were a common deviation from building permits. The reviewed buildings permit act consisted of adjustments compared with prior building permits which yields that reviewed building permits consists of measures that are not tolerated within the prior granted building permit.

    The conclusions of the study includes established law of building permits are being complied by the local building permit committees but the study lacks basic data to evaluate whether local building permit committees relate to the latter decision by the Land and Environmental court regarding minor adjustments of building permits. The expression minor deviation in building permit validation is being managed restrictive according to the respondents.

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  • 178.
    Odby, Christina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tobiasson, Margaretha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En kartläggning av befintliga och planerade vindkraftverk i Västra Götaland2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt examensarbete är ett arbete vi gjort åt Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götaland och syftar till att kartlägga befintlig och planerad vindkraft i länets 49 kommuner. Västra Götaland är det län som har den största ökningen av antal verk i landet. Syftet med denna rapport är att ge länsstyrelsen i Västra Götaland en bättre översikt av vindkraftsläget i länet. Energimyndigheten gör en liknande kartläggning av hela Sverige och vi har fått i uppgift att förmedla den information vi samlat in även till dem. I och med att energimyndigheten föreslagit regeringen nytt planeringsmål att öka vindkraftsproduktionen från idag 1,99 TWh till 30 TWh år 2020 ger man tydliga riktlinjer på hur man ska satsa på vindkraften i framtiden. Den svenska politiken styrs också av EUbeslut där mål för förnybara energikällor utgör en stor del. Kartläggningen ligger också i linje med det nya EU-direktivet Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe 2007 (INSPIRE) som syftar till att öka tillgängligheten av geografisk information för allmänheten och även mellan myndigheter. I vår kartläggning har vi gjort en enkät till kommunerna där vi bland annat fick uppgifter om koordinater, fastighetsbeteckning och vilket ansökningsskede de olika verken befinner sig i. Resultatet på detta presenteras i rapporten. Vi kan idag redovisa för 287 befintliga verk och cirka 1450 planerade vindkraftverk i länet. Eftersom vi inte har fått fullständig information från alla kommuner ännu så är undersökningen inte ännu komplett. Arbetet med detta kommer att fortsätta hos Länsstyrelsen, Västra Götaland.

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  • 179.
    Olsson, Victoria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Qvist, Moa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bostadsfastigheter med kombinerade ändamål på landsbygden: En rättsociologisk studie om lämplighetsprövning, strandskydd och hållbarhet i Västra Götaland2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the nineties a change was made in the third chapter of FBL, toenable properties for housing on the countryside to add additional ground forcombined purposes, such as retention or smaller farming purposes. When forming these properties for housing with additional grounds for combined purposes, the land surveyor must investigate the prerequisites according to the third chapter of FBL, including the suitability of the new property and if the measure collide withother legislations and regulations in the area. The purpose of the study is to find out how the land surveyors and county government relates to the applicable law. To get answers to the questions at issue, a qualitative method has been used. The study relies on a right sociological survey in terms of interviews. Secondary data has mainly been obtained through preparatory works, applicable practices, The Swedish National Land Surveys guidebook and one prior study on which this studyis based upon. Secondary data has been an important base to create the questions of issue who also serve as the study's primary data. Every property is unique with different prerequisites and the combination of very few or little practice around properties with additional grounds for combined purposes can make it difficult for the land surveyor to make the right decision according to the law. The result of the study showed that there is not possible to establish a general acreage for properties with additional grounds for combined purposes, but a crucial part in the suitability assessment was the acreage fitting the purpose of the property. The zoning of the property also had a big impact in the assessment of the suitability. When forming a property under the general protection of beaches, the land surveyors agreed that the public access and conserving the nature was the most important aspects. The county government who oversees public interests are particularly restrictive of forming properties in areas under the general protection of beaches, because of the high risk of privatization that comes with properties for housing with additional ground for combined purposes. In example, the newly formed property is sold to a wealthy buyer with more utilization in mind than the former owner. Consultation with the county government in these cases can be a winning method for the land surveyors in avoiding appeal. High workload at the county government can aggravate the possibility for consultation, which also can be a contributing factor to why some ordinances are appealed, and others are not.

  • 180.
    Oresten, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mir, Tara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Building loss: en metod för effektivare resursanvändning och minskad klimatpåverkan2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent studies show that 30-40% of climate impact on a global level is from the real estate industry. According to IVA there is a risk of that number rising to 50% by 2050. In 1993 John Gray developed a method to calculate how much of the floor area in an office space that is actually occupiable. The purpose of the studiy is to develop Grays method so that it includes area efficiency, climate impact and costs (we call this addition Area, Cost, Environment, ACE). The method is relatively unknown in Sweden and, therefore, the second purpose of the study is to raise awareness of the Building Loss method and concept.

    The new method is developed from a study case, office space Svea. Svea is chosen to represent the most common type of office in Sweden. Grays method is also translated to Swedish and thoroughly explained. The climate impact is calculated from average values of district heating regarding carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, dust and particle emissions

    The cost for Svea is calculated for operation and maintenance during one year. The costs are based on Repab Fakta books that publishes updated key figures for operation and maintenance in office spaces every year.

    Two interviews have been held with people who have great knowledge in the real estate industry and is considered to benefit from a method like in this study. The interviews gave answers to what need they thought existed for a method like this.

    The study's results have been analyzed and discussed from different points of view. The result shows that there is a lack of knowledge about Building loss today in Sweden. The large consequences that Building loss results in demonstrate that there is an unspoken need for this type of method in Sweden. Furthermore, it has been established that Sweden may need to introduce Building loss as a standard like ASTM in Canada and the USA for the previously mentioned reasons, but also to prolong the service life of a building.

  • 181.
    Oscarsson, Josefine
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Åström, Erika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kommuners tillämpning av Boverkets föreskrifter (2020:8) om planbeskrivning: Fallstudier av sju kommuners praktiska tillämpning av 2 kap. 1 och 3 §§ BFS 2020:82023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the municipalities have the exclusive right to decide on and adopt detailed development plans. The detailed development plan is a legally binding document stipulated in fourth chapter of the Planning and Building Act (PBL) and regulates the use of land and water, buildings and construction works within an area. Planning regulations specify how the land is to be used and how the development is to be carried out. The detailed development plan always consists of a plan map with plan regulations and a plan description. The plan description, which, unlike the plan map, is not legally binding, describes how the detailed development plan is to be understood and implemented and plays an important role in interpreting the detailed development plan, for example when examining building permits.

    On January 1, 2021, Boverkets regulations (2020:8) on plan description came into force, which contain legally binding rules that specify the content of the plan description. Previously, such rules had only existed on an overview level, cf. ch. 4. PBL, which, among other things, has given rise to difficulties in interpreting detailed development plans.

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate how selected West Swedish municipalities apply Boverkets regulations on plan description against the background of the regulations in ch. 2 §§ 1 and 3 BFS 2020:8 which regulate the requirements for reporting the purpose of the detailed development plan and reporting the reasons for the individual regulations.

    The result is based on case studies of seven municipalities' way of applying the new regulations when producing detailed development plans. In the case studies, a detailed development plan for each municipality has been studied, which has then been supplemented with interviews of relevant plan architects. The results show that the municipalities' presentation of the purpose of the detailed plan and the motives for the individual regulations to varying extents are consistent with Boverkets intentions with the regulations. As far as the municipalities' way of reporting the purpose of the detailed development plan is concerned, they mainly correspond well with what is expressed in the regulations. However, there are greater differences in how the municipalities report the motives for the individual regulations. 

    The conclusion of the thesis is that the municipalities mainly report the purpose of the detailed development plan in accordance with the regulations and Boverkets example. However, there is potential for development in how some municipalities formulate the motives for the individual regulations in the detailed development plan. 

  • 182.
    Parianos, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Dahlqvist, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    En utredning av tekniken "mobile mapping" i kommunal verksamhet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is intended to analyze whether the municipalities has a need for the new technology of mobile mapping.

    Mobile mapping consists of the technologies of laser scanning, photographing and positioning of streets and roads in city environment and in the countryside. When these technologies are operating together a georeferenced three-dimensional image model is created, which has specific coordinates that states its position on the surface of the earth. Thanks to the laser scanning process even measuring can be performed in this model.

    The municipal sector consists of many different departments which use visual spatial information. These departments are an interesting target group for this system. Specific departments within the municipal sector, which we considered were the most suitable, have been selected. Individuals within these departments have replied to a questionnaire where several statements were given. The statements are constructed so that the replies that are received as much as possible describe the need for this new technology. In addition to the questionnaire a number of telephone- and in-depth interviews have been done in purpose of creating a basis which is as solid as possible.

    The results that have been obtained indicate that there is a rather considerable demand for the technology. The majority of the asked professions have given replies which hint that they would appreciate visual measurable spatial information in accurate and detailed 3D-models. The telephone interviews have pointed in this direction as well.

    Since a municipality is organized of a large number of departments which each have a need for the technology, a reference can be made to the expression “many a little makes a mickle”. In other words, the municipal need for the technology is considerable since many different units find their own uses for mobile mapping.

    We have after this investigation obtained a result which implies that mobile mapping would be a good investment for the municipal sector.

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  • 183.
    Patriksson, Carola
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tibell, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    God bebyggd miljö med avseende på friyta på skol- och förskolegårdar2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that the physical environment is of great importance for children's health and learning. In order to enable a "well-built environment" and promote social sustainability, the design of school yards and pre-school yards can be an important part of community planning. Different laws concern the design of children's school environment and many politicians, authorities and other stakeholders stress the importance of a good outdoor environment for children. Nevertheless, the design of existing school and preschool centers does not seem to be a priority. In the case of new construction, however, the requirements for the layout of the free space are made visible in the approvement of the building permit.This means that the quality of school yards and pre-school yards can differ greatly within the same municipality.

    The report focusses on how Swedish municipalities relate to and interprets 8 chapter 10 § of the Planning and Construction Act. The paragraph specifies requirements for existing plots and how they can be imposed or forced on free space on existing school yards and preschool yards. The area should be large enough to fit playing and outdoor activities. The aim of this study is, among other things, to review how municipalities work with quality on existing school yards and preschool yards and how they ensured that PBL 8:10 is complied with. A nationwide survey has been conducted in which the municipal education administrations or equivalent administration answered questions regarding working methods and guidelines for existing school yards and preschool yards. The results are also based on various interviews, including responses from experts.

    The results show that more than half of Sweden's municipalities lack their own guidelines for size and design of existing school and preschool yards. Four percent of the municipalities do not know whether they have guidelines or not. The survey also shows that municipalities generally focus on the size of the free space, while if it is suitable for play and outdoor activities is in many cases secondary. Before 1987 the legislation did not state requirements for the contents of the free space, only that an area must be made available. The General Council of the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, explains how the law should be interpreted, and shows examples of what the municipality should consider when planning a free space for appropriate activities. This means, according to the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, that the free space can be used for play, and recreation, as well as physical and educational activities.

    The results also show that the paragraph is rarely applied and that officials interpret the paragraph in different ways and seem to have problems to interpret its intention. Not everyone seems to know that the requirements of the paragraph are active, even though no action is taken on the plot. Further on the results shows that control and assessment rarely take place based on the paragraph at hand. The responsibility lies with the Building Board, which only makes an evaluation when someone complains.

  • 184.
    Pauli Bock, Emelie
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothia Forum for Clinical Trials, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, and University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (SWE).
    Jansson, Per-Anders
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg (SWE).
    Wijk, Helle
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, and University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE); Quality and Patient Safety Unit, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (SWE);Division of Building Design, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE); Centre for Healthcare Architecture, CVA, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE) .
    Alexiou, Eirini
    Center for Ethics, Law, and Mental Health (CELAM), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE);Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (SWE) .
    Lindahl, Göran
    Division of Building Design, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE); Centre for Healthcare Architecture, CVA, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Berghammer, Malin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Degl'Innocenti, Alessio
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothia Forum for Clinical Trials, Gothenburg (SWE); Center for Ethics, Law, and Mental Health (CELAM), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Literature Review: Evidence-Based Health Outcomes and Perceptions of the Built Environment in Pediatric Hospital Facilities.2021In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 61, p. e42-e50, article id S0882-5963(21)00118-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: The current knowledge of evidence-based design for adults is not always implemented when hospital buildings are designed. Scientific data are sparse on the effects of hospital design in pediatric settings on health outcomes in children, parents, and staff. The objective of this review is to determine the evidence-based impact of the built environment in pediatric hospital facilities on health outcomes in children, parents, and staff.

    ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: A systematic literature review was carried out on the electronic databases Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and CINAHL from the period of 2008 to 2019. The review considered studies using either quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methodologies.

    SAMPLE: Out of 1414 reviewed articles the result is based on eight included articles.

    RESULTS: Two of these eight articles included health outcomes. The other six articles presented results on measures of perceptions and/or satisfaction for children, parents or staff with the built environment when transitioning to a new or renovated facility. These were generally higher for the new compared to the old facility.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the small number of studies addressing the question posed in this review, no firm conclusions can be drawn.

    IMPLICATIONS: The review illustrates the need for more research in the pediatric setting assessing the evidence-based health outcomes of aspects of physical environmental design in pediatric hospitals or units in children, parents and staff.

  • 185.
    Pedersen, Josephine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Sahlin, Josefin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jordskredsövervakning över en begränsad del av Göta Älvdalen med hjälp av terrester laserskanning2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landslides are a natural phenomenon that wreak havoc and cause major economic consequences for society. Göta Älvdalen is one of Sweden's most avalanche-prone areas where quick clay is widespread in some places. The quick clay has a good strength, but in the event of vibrations or other disturbances it becomes liquid like sour milk. The Swedish Geological Institute, SGI, has mapped the entire river valley where the most exposed areas have been pointed out and one of these areas is Lilla Edet's urban area. Part of the preventive work is monitoring of the river valley area to be able to take measures at an early stage to prevent landslides from occurring.

    The purpose of the study is to take a closer look at the possibilities of using terrestrial laser scanning, during a short measurement interval, for landslide monitoring in Göta Älvdalen. The area selected in Lilla Edet's urban area is directly adjacent to the river and was scanned on three occasions at one-week intervals. Spheres and tennis balls are used for georeferencing, this part was performed in Trimble's software Real Works and the three point-clouds were compared in the software Cloud Compare.

    The examined result does not show soil movements in the area, but since the last scan was performed after leaf cracking, it led to the vegetation posing problems. The same problem regarding vegetation is highlighted in several other studies in the literature review. Terrester laser scanning is most likely a useful method for this type of study but requires the right conditions and the right preparation

  • 186.
    Persson, Edmund
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Svanberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmän plats: En studie av hur olika samhällsaktörer upplever enskilt huvudmannaskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perception of the arrangement between the county and the property owners, of when the county puts the responsibility of managing and maintaining the public areas within their residential area on the property owners. The study has focused on when this arrangement is made solely in a whole county like the island Orust. The study explored how the officials in the municipality, the politicians in the municipal government and also the community associations managed their interests and how this arrangement affected their work. The study also explored how the communication between the parties was perceived and what their opinion were about that the property owners had this responsibility. What the study wanted to investigate was where there possibly could be any problems and also possible reasons for them.

    The method applied was qualitative and the empirical material was acquired through semi-structured interviews. Those who were interviewed were two officials in the municipality, two politicians in the municipal government and also six board members from various community associations located on different places on the island Orust. The result that emerged was discussed and analyzed against what emerged from the other interviewed parties, in order to obtain an overall picture regarding the consequences of this arrangement.

    The result showed that there were conflicts between the municipality and the community and also that there were ambivalent perks from both sides. The community associations were happy with the opportunity they had gained to influence and they had also built good relationships with their neighbors. But they still felt that they should not have this responsibility and that the municipality should help with the responsibility in a better way. And on the other side is the municipality who succeeded in renouncing their responsibility to maintaining and also the cost thereof, but they did also lose their right to influence the area. Even though they had lost their right to influence they still tried to do so.

  • 187.
    Ramanathan, Prabhu K.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Autonomous Driving Cars: Decision-Making2021In: Internet of Vehicles and its Applications in Autonomous Driving / [ed] Gupta, Nishu; Prakash, Arun; Tripathi, Rajeev, Springer, 2021, p. 31-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an overview of autonomous cars and also the challenges faced in the field of autonomous cars. Recent advances are being made in the field of planning, perception, and decision-making for autonomous vehicles. This has led to great improvements in functional capabilities; several prototypes are already on roads. The challenge is to obtain the safe execution of vehicles in all driving situations. In this study, we will see recent methodologies for vehicle control using kinematic and dynamic model, collaborative autonomy, decision-making system for autonomous vehicles using convolutional neural network, path planning for autonomous vehicles using model predictive control, real-time decision-making for autonomous city vehicle using world model and driving maneuver system, and intention-aware autonomous driving decision-making using hidden Markov model and partially observable Markov decision process.

  • 188.
    Regnér, Susanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Wasberg, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Implementering av stadsgrönska och ekosystemtjänster i urbana miljöer: från start till mål2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the process chain for implementing urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments. This is done from the time the assignment is given by the government to the relevant authority, the continued work there, on to the work out at the municipalities and other relevant actors.

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that we humans receive indirectly and directly by nature. We are dependent on the ecosystems continuing to produce services that are vital to human health, well-being and for our entire existence. Commonly work and careful use of our resources are needed to ensure ecosystem services. Preserving, developing and innovating urban and green areas can result in great social benefits and integrating ecosystem services into physical planning is a step in the right direction.

    Two stagegoals were developed in 2018, where one goal means that the municipalities should have access to a developed method regarding the integration of urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments by 2020. The second goal means that a majority of the municipalities must use and integrate urban greenery and ecosystem services by 2025 at the latest, in planning, construction and management.

    The study result is based on how far the municipalities have come to work on the two stagegoals, as well as Boverkets work behind the developed method and with reaching out with the information to the municipalities and other concerned. The result also includes the work in conjunction with Naturvårdsverket when the assignment would take place in collaboration with them. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods, through interviews and questionnaires.

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  • 189.
    Sabelsjö, Emanuel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kunskap driver ständiga förbättringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be a competitive and successful company over time it is not enough to have a good product. Factors such as adaption, flexibility and innovation are required to survive and be successful. In order to obtain these factors, a certain characteristic is required: the ability to learn. Calling a company for a “learning organization” is the biggest recognition that can be given. To be a learning organization, continuous improvements are required. In order to reach the level required to learn and improve, a number of steps must be passed on the road. To begin with, there must be a will. After that, skills and knowledge are required, which are then translated into actions. Of these actions, learning and improvement are then achieved. In order to reach the top, a stable foundation is required. The first step, will, is a prerequisite that must be. The next step is competence. So to be successful with continuous improvement, it is a prerequisite to have relevant knowledge. The purpose of this thesis is to identify key areas of knowledge in the work with continuous improvement and to link the knowledge with the success of the improvement work. Thus, it is thought that the results will show which areas make companies successful with the improvement work. The thesis has been done at C2 Management, a consulting company in Stockholm, which helps companies to establish continuous improvements. C2 Management uses an internet based improvement management system, System C2™. There, customers can handle all types of improvement issues such as complaints, customer opinions and deviations. As a first step in the work, a literature study was performed in which six important areas of knowledge linked to continuous improvement were identified. In addition, a case study was performed to identify the impact of the different areas on the improvement work. The case study included interviews with improvement managers on six different units within the same business. The interviews consisted of open questions and questionnaires with predefined answers, where the units were able to rank the knowledge skills in different areas. To see the units status in the improvement work, statistics from System C2™ were analyzed, as the units are customers to C2 Management. The patterns that were distinguished when the statistics and the knowledge rankings were studied is that the areas leadership and way of working are the areas that are most important to possess high competence in, in order to be successful with the improvement work. Date: May 23, 2018 Author(s): Emanuel Sabelsjö

  • 190.
    Saldert, Hannah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Kortsiktig byggbudget ger segregerat boende: Forskarkommentar2023In: Forskning & Framsteg, E-ISSN 2002-5076Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Sandberg, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vad överklagas i en detaljplan?: en fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a big debate today about the fact that the amount of housing built in Sweden is to small. Several municipalities report to Statistics Sweden that they have a housing shortage. Stakeholders from the industry point out several reasons why it is so, among other things, that the planning process is inefficient. The government has, however, started investigations in order to streamline the planning process. One of them has examined the appeal process; " Efficient and legally secure PBL appeals." One result of the inquiry is to change the instance scheme by removing the County Administrative Board. The measure is intended to shorten the appeals process with about four and a half months. The study also reported that it is mostly individuals who complains but does not account for what the appeal against.

    This bachelor’s thesis will examine the appeal filings with the County Administrative Board to try to identify what the appellant submits as a reason when they complain against building plans. The study is delimited to the Västra Götaland region, and appeals belonging to so called administrative appeal.

    The goal is to categorize the reasons appellant argues when they appeal building plans. Further, the study will examine whether the results can identify any gaps in the planning process or if it’s possible to obtain interesting connections in the appeal process.

    Data were collected using a quantitative method. In order to structure the complainant's reasons, a categorization model was established. Files were selected at random by a representative from the County Administrative Board. The result shows that it is mostly private people that complain, about seventy-five percent. The municipality with the most appeal acts in the study sample is Gothenburg and most frequent reason for the appeal is the view of building development location and design. The results also show that the appellant has opinions on the traffic situation; both its design and that traffic will generate noise.

    Examples have been found in the study that may point to a flaw in the planning process. A municipality has delegated the adoption of a plan to a committee, which should have been adopted by the City Council under the criteria of the planning and building law.

    This can lead to a suspended plan and the plan takes longer time to complete.

    Some reasons cited at times involve a dual review of the same subject but from different perspectives. To see whether it is possible to remove the right of individuals to rely on substantive issues that the County Board shall consider by law can lead to a shorter appeals process

  • 192.
    Sandersson, Eric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Smids, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rätt Rättelse i Rätt Situation: Rättelse enligt FBL & FL2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom lagstiftningen 15 kap. 10 § FBL och 36 § FL är det möjligt för Lantmäteriet att rätta ett förrättningbeslut till följd av en uppenbar felaktighet, fel, oklarhet eller rättsosäkerhet i fastighetsregistrets allmänna del. Studien avser att undersöka vilka situationer som rättelseinstitutionen i FBL samt FL kan tillämpas. Rättelse enligt FBL och FL är fakultativ vilket innebär att LM har ensamrätt att tillämpa paragraferna. Det finns vägledningen i förarbetena till hur 36 § FL ska tillämpas, medan förarbetena till 15 kap. 10 § FBL saknar någon egentlig vägledning för vilka situationer lagen ska tillämpas. I och med detta uppstår en problematik hos Lantmäteriet i fråga om vilka situationer lagstiftningen egentligen kan tillämpas. För att klargöra vilka situationer som 15 kap. 10 § FBL samt 36 § FL kan tillämpas har en rättsfallsanalys genomförts i studien där 14 rättsfall rörande FBL och 8 rättsfall rörande FL valts ut efter relevans och har därefter analyserats. Av de rättsfall som undersöktes har det i studiens resultat delats upp i olika kategorier för att urskilja de situationer från rättsfallen där rättelse enligt respektive lagstiftning är tillämpbar:

    15 kap. 10 § FBL

    ● Undanröjning eller återkallelse

    ● Rättelse av fastighetsbildning och fastighetsreglering

    ● Rättelse av övrigt material i fastighetsregistrets allmänna del

    36 § FL

    ● Rättelse av ersättning eller andra kostnader

    ● Rättelse av GA och andelstal

    ● Rättelse av gräns och areal

    Av studiens slutsatser framgår det att om 15 kap. 10 § FBL ska vara tillämpbar krävs det att något av tre följande rekvisit ska vara uppfyllda: fel, oklarheter eller äventyra fastighetsregistrets tillförlitlighet. Det redovisas även författarnas exempel på situationer där rekvisiten fel samt äventyra fastighetsregistrets tillförlitlighet uppfylls. Dessa situationer baseras på rättsfall som inkluderats i rättsfallanalysen. Gällande 36 § FL redovisas en situation som uppfyller rekvisitet uppenbar felaktighet. Det beaktas även att det inte är möjligt att dra generella slutsatser om vilka situationer som rättelse enligt FBL kan tillämpas utifrån de studerade rättsfallen, eftersom varje rättelsesituation är unik. 

  • 193.
    Seraj, Adam M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Logistikoptimering med 3PL-Integration2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background – Essity, a prominent player in the hygiene and health industry, faces challenges regarding the logistics flow for consumer products from its production facility in Lilla Edet to customers in Denmark. The current logistics process involves internal transportation with company-owned trucks to external warehouses. In this context, ensuring swift and cost- effective deliveries while maintaining customer satisfaction is of utmost importance.

    Purpose – The project aims to analyze and optimize Essity's current logistics flow for consumer products. The focus is on identifying potential improvements to ensure smooth and efficient deliveries to the Danish market. A central part of the investigation also involves considering the integration of a third-party logistics partner (3PL) to further enhance the logistics structure.

    Method – A comprehensive methodology has been employed, analyzing both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Through interviews and observations, data has been collected to gain a holistic understanding of the current logistics flow and potential alternative solutions.

    Results and Discussion – The extensive analysis of Essity's current logistics flow reveals crucial insights. The existing method, involving internal transport to external warehouses, proves to be economically advantageous, especially when considering contracted costs for external warehouses and other project-related expenses for the year 2023. It is worth noting that the economic data for an alternative solution from a potential 3PL provider applies to the year 2025. To understand possible changes in costs over time, considerations have been made for the potential increase in costs for the existing method. The discussion also includes environmental aspects, where different solutions are considered to identify the most sustainable and profitable strategy for Essity's logistics. Solution 2, involving the construction of a new warehouse (green warehouse) and the use of electric vehicles and HVO-driven trucks, presents itself as a sustainable approach that can reduce CO2 emissions and contribute to Essity's overall goal of reducing environmental impact.

    Recommendations for Essity – Based on the results of the analysis, Essity is recommended to conduct a more in-depth benchmarking to explore offerings from other potential 3PL providers. Negotiations with the current external warehouse to improve the price structure should be considered, especially considering the significant total costs for both solutions. Finally, Essity should contemplate making a strategic investment in building an expanded manual warehouse near the existing one, enabling increased flexibility and cost-effectiveness over time.

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  • 194.
    Shabo, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    El-Boustany, Georges
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    10 år med expropriationslagens nya ersättningsregler2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society is constantly evolving. For this to occur, land can sometimes be required through eminent domains. The Expropriation Act (SFS 1972:719) specifies who can expropriate and for what purpose. The Expropriation Act went through a reform on the 1st of August 2010 and was the first reform since the introduction of the law. One of the purposes of the reform was to strengthen the rights of private property owning. The most significant change of the law was in the fourth chapter. The third paragraph (rule of presumption) was abolished and new compensation provisions were introduced to the chapter. The newer remuneration supplement was based on compensation for the land access plus an additional 25 percent. The government considered that the changes in the reform would contribute to a stronger ownership and the thesis aims, among other things, to investigate whether the ownership has been strengthened and how the reform has affected practitioners of the eminent domains.The study focuses mainly on analyzing the two biggest changes in the reform based on an interview study in which respondent's opinions shaped the results of the survey. Selections of interviewees were based on knowledge and expertise within the Expropriation Act. Eight representatives were mainly chosen to be interviewed as they somehow apply the Expropriation Act in their daily work. After processing the interviews that were held, conclusions were drawn about the introduction of the remuneration supplement and the abolition of the presumption rule.The compensation provisions that applies today have strengthened the individual ownership from an economic perspective. The municipalities that were interviewed expressed that it was reasonable that property owners in present time receive an extra 25 percent caused by the effects of the eminent domain that occurs. Although the remuneration supplement and the rule of presumption were forecasted to affect the municipalities´ financial position for land access, implications show that there were no significant inconveniences due to the reform.

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  • 195.
    Sjögren, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Strömgård, Frida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Naturen som arena: En studie i markåtkomstregler för orienteringssporten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The right of public access is not defined in Swedish law but is based on custom and ancient traditions dating back to the Middle Ages. However, the right of access is mentioned in the legal text, in RF 2 chapter 15 § 4 pcs. as well as in MB 7 chapter 1 §. There are laws that define the utmost limits of the right of public access, such as the rules of brottsbalken such as åverkan, hemfridsbrott, tagande av olovlig väg and egenmäktigt förfarande. However, the right of public access does not define that everything that is not illegal is permitted, and the right of public access requires that respect is shown. Chapter 2 of miljöbalken, Allmänna hänsynsregler m.m. set limits for what all those engaged in activities in nature must follow. In terms of organized outdoor activities, which orienteering is classed as, the right of public access is even more complex. All participants in an event can be within the limits of the right of public access, but it does not mean that the entire event can be held solely based on the right of public access if the damage or disturbance done by all participants is too high. The study intends to investigate what is required for an orienteering event to be conducted based on the right of public access, how organizers today secure access to land for their events and how the level of knowledge regarding the right of public access and current law is today. A survey was sent to 87 associations in southwestern Sweden to investigate how associations secured access to land in connection with their activities and arrangements, which laws, guidelines and policies used by associations in connection with their activities as well as on education in the right of public access are in the association. The survey showed that the level of knowledge in some respects is low among the associations. The associations are good at conducting consultations prior to arrangements, but far from all associations contacted landowners, usufructuaries and owners of hunting rights prior to the making of orienteering maps. Also, only 8% of the associations teach members in right of public access. Contact was taken with authorities and federations to hear how they look at organized outdoor activities. Those who were contacted were the Swedish Orienteering Association, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the County Administrative Board and the Federation of Swedish Farmers. The results obtained from this showed that there are several interpretations on how the right of public access is applied. The Swedish Orienteering Association claims that the right of public access is applicable to all events and that no formal permission is required from the landowner, but consultation with the landowner, any usufructuaries and gamekeeper should always be held. The Federation of Swedish Farmers also says that consultation with the landowner, any usufructuaries and owners of hunting rights always is necessary and that they can deny access if the event has any risk of damaging or disturbing either the nature or the landowner’s interests. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in their assessment said that it is not possible to generalize when the right of public access is applicable, without individual assessments at every individual situation. The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that the right to public access is quite complex and to lay down concrete limits for when the right of public access applies and not applicable in connection with orienteering events is difficult. Different land types are affected to a different extent when people pass, and what may be allowed impact in one area may not be allowed on another. Landowners shall not receive or incur material injury or inconvenience for the event to be covered by the right of public access, and what is material injury is also difficult to define.

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  • 196.
    Skoglund, Anneli
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Malin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Detaljplanering: planbestämmelsers användning i praktiken2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 197.
    Sogn, Bim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Bostadsnära odling i Göteborg: social hållbarhet i stadsplanering2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay examines what cultivation close to housing is, what connection there is to social sustainability and how the city of Gothenburg works with cultivation close to housing inthe planning process. The study shows how the city works with residential cultivation in projects and planning, and how this compares to planning- and sustainability theory. In combination with literature studies on the subject, a qualitative study of the city of Gothenburg's own work to promote urban cultivation from a sustainability perspective is carried out, as well as semi-structured interviews with hobby growers in the city. The study takes part in both those who carry out the planning work and produce the city plans, those within the city who work for development in the area as well as practical practitioners of cultivation in the city.

    The study has shown the benefits but also difficulties that can come from a city's work with cultivation close to residences, and a unanimous view from those interviewed on the direct positive effects cultivation in the city has. The essay shows a clear conclusion that cultivation close to housing in urban environments is an important part of people's well-being and the creation of social belonging and community involvement. In order to achieve as good a result as possible, the planning of the city's areas can advantageously include areas for cultivation and actively work to capture citizens' initiatives.

  • 198.
    Stark Olsson, Amelia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Oscarsson, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Åldersvänlig stadsplanering för äldre: Med fokus på den offentliga utomhusmiljön i Göteborg samt Jubileumsparken2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's elderly population is expected to become an increasingly large proportion of the country's inhabitants, and in the coming years more are expected to be born than to pass away. This will be the first time in history the amount of elderly people will outnumber the quantity of children. Therefore, cities need to be adapted to the older generation, which is what this essay will examine. The purpose of the study is to analyze the spatial planning of the public outdoor environment in Gothenburg and Jubileumsparken from an elderly perspective. The vision is to broaden the knowledge about goals and approaches of age-friendly urban planning, with a focus on the elderly people.

    The method which has been used is based on a qualitative literature and document review which was supplemented with empirical evidence from interviews and a participant observation. The essay has also been based on a case study of Jubileumsparken in Gothenburg. The results of the study show how the elderly generation are taken into account in urban planning. It also shows how the work involving the elderly is implemented. Regarding Jubileumsparken, it appears which actions have been taken or could be taken to promote the elderly generation.

    A conclusion that can be drawn is that the work for age-friendliness in Gothenburg is done from different directions and through different methods. The cooperation between the municipality and the elderly through various pensioners' councils is seen as positive from both sides, but an improvement would be desirable for the planning and design of Jubileumsparken. Suggestions are also given for actions that could promote the elderly in Jubileumsparken.

  • 199.
    Steen, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Svensson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Kartläggning av invasiv trädart med satellitbaserad fjärranalys: Klassificering och identifiering av Pinus Contorta2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive plants are an increasing problem in society and pose a major threat to our ecosystem, infrastructure, health and biodiversity. The high cost of controlling the spread of invasive plants is a fact and modern satellites can provide the data needed to map the presence of these invasive plant species. Previous studies for mapping invasive plants have used classification methods such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF) and texture analysis algorithms. Information on whether more simple classification methods can be used to perform a similar classification of vegetation is limited. Likewise, studies for mapping only the invasive tree species Pinus contorta. This study relies on the use of both pixel-based and object-based classifications to identify and classify the contorta pine. Which form of classification method is appropriate varies as all plants have different spatial and spectral characteristics. A method that works for classifying one species does not necessarily mean that it will be applicable to another species. The data used in the study are satellite images from 2018 collected by Sentinel-2 with a resolution of 10 x 10 meters. The data was then processed in ArcMap 10.8 software during all stages of the analysis. Four different forms of classification were performed to find the most appropriate method for classifying the contorta pine. The classification results were validated against the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) raster map of contorta stands in the selected study area located north of Härnösand and showed inconclusive results. Each classification was compared to SLU's mapping and with the help of a critical success index (CSI) that shows the performance of the classification model successful hits (A), overestimated (B) and miss (C), the results could be more easily analyzed and interpreted. The methods used in the classification model of Pinus contorta showed 0.5-0.9% correct classification. 

  • 200.
    Strandberg, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Vajizovic, Victor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Industritillbehör: en föråldrad tillbehörskategori?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay gives an account of what can today be categorized as industrial fixtures according to the law. It brings attention to several problems with current law concerning industrial fixtures and presents a suggestion for changed wording which is considered to be more appropriate. The suggestion is based on a broader categorization of what should belong to the range of industry fixtures which was presented in the bills which lay as the basis to the current law. The change is partly motivated the same way as the previous suggestion since it is thought to have been justified already then and partly by support of the new circumstances of today which further exposes the necessity of a range as broad as was originally suggested.

    Such as the law is designed, the range of industrial fixtures is limited among other things to only include equipment used in “industrial business”, a term which only is applicable for businesses which deal with the manufacture of products. It was not thought to be necessary to include a broader range of businesses, because equipment of the applicable kind was judged to exist mostly in factories. With the technological development which has happened since then similar and sometimes even identical equipment has come to be used in several businesses which do not deal with the manufacture of products. The old arguments for why such businesses equipment should not constitute industrial fixtures is therefore no longer justifiable.

    This essay presents “industrial or there with comparable business” as a suggestion for changed wording in 2:3 JB, which is taken directly from the original bill. It would have been appropriate to let the law read this way from the beginning, but it appears as especially appropriate today. The range of industrial fixtures should be expanded mainly so that more businesses can be able to use valuable equipment to strengthen credit for real estate mortgage. An expanded range of industrial fixtures would probably also clear away some problems concerning demarcation.

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