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  • 151.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Collby, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Planprocessen utifrån ett gentrifieringsperspektiv: En studie med gentrifiering i fokus för fyra stadsdelar i Göteborg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gentrification is a concept for the process of change that occurs in a neighborhood where people with high economic status move into an area that has previously been dominated by people with low socio-economic status. The process takes place step by step and affects, among other things, the economic, social, physical and cultural impression in the district. The concept itself is not well mentioned in urban planning or by politicians. Instead, they choose to use words such as integration in their work as it leaves a positive impression. The gentrification process can eventually give positive effects to a neighborhood if it generates growth and contributes to increased service in the area. However, the negative side of the gentrification process is more talked about. The negative effects are characterized by consequences for the residents in an area where the rents increase and they can no longer afford to live. The reason for the price increase and the fact that people are forced to move can be a consequence of the rebuilding and new construction run by the municipality and developers. The phenomenon occurs worldwide, but due to the extensive degree of development within the City of Gothenburg, the study will be based on the municipality. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the City of Gothenburg relate to the concept of gentrification and to what extent they work with its sanctions when they add new detailed plans for an area. The study is also meant to investigate the municipality's position on the concept as well as whether it is conscious or unconscious decisions that make, which in turn can lead to the re-enactment of the detailed planning area. In order to delimit the study, four areas were chosen in Gothenburg with similar conditions where a new detailed plan has gained legal force and exploitation is either started or completed. A qualitative method was used for reading material and interviews were held with the municipality and an developer to gain insight into the thinking about the design of the detailed plans and the exploitation. After completing the study, we have found that gentrification is a loaded concept, which means that politicians and urban planners also do not want to know it. In connection with the interviews carried out for the study, there was a lack of knowledge about the concept's existence, but a strong belief that their particular project would generate a positive gentrification effect for the area they project. Some interviewees also reported for some type of conscious gentrification when they felt that an increased population and variety of population groups could contribute to something positive despite the possible risk of gentrification in the exploited area.

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  • 152.
    Andersson, Jens
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lybratt, Rickard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Överklagade lantmäteriförrättningar: I Västra Götalands och Hallands län mellan år 2012 och 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates and maps the extent to which decisions taken by the Cadastral authorities have been appealed in Västra Götaland County and Halland County between the years 2012 and 2017, where the years 2013 and 2016 were chosen to be studied at a deeper level. Furthermore, the study investigates differences between KLM and SLM regarding working methods and the proportion of appealed cadastral procedures. The study was conducted by reviewing 321 rulings from the Land and Environment Court, which is all the rulings regarding appealed cadastral procedures in Västra Götaland County and Halland County during the years 2013 and 2016. All 321 rulings were categorized as following; the cadastral measure being appealed, appellant, municipality, the reason for the appeal and the outcome in the Land and Environment Court and appeal to the Land and Environment Court of Appeal. In addition, interviews have been conducted with a judge and a Technical Judge from the Land and Environment Court. Interviews were also made with five current and former surveyors with experience from KLM, SLM or both. The interviews were conducted primarily to investigate differences between working methods at KLM and SLM and to investigate whether this may have any connection with the proportion of appealed cadastral procedures. The result shows that the proportion of appeals has been on average 5 % in Västra Götaland County and 4 % in Halland County between the years 2012 and 2017. The most common cadastral measure being appealed has been property reallotments and facility procedures. Furthermore, cadastral procedure costs has been the most common cause of appeal. In almost 50 % of all the reviewed rulings, the Land and Environment Court chose to establish the decisions made by the Cadastral authorities. In approximately 25 % of the cases, the court chose to change the decisions made by the Cadastral authorities. The result also showed a difference regarding the proportion of appeals between municipalities with KLM (3 %) and municipalities without (5 %). If the statistics are related to the different working methods at SLM and KLM cannot be said with certainty. From the interviews, however, it was found that many had the opinion that personal contact with the interested party and local knowledge is two important factors in order to make a good cadastral procedure. These are things that appear to be more common at KLM.

  • 153.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Fabrication and Weldability Aspects of Ni- and Ni–Fe Based Superalloys: A Review2023In: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives / [ed] Eric A. Ott, Joel Andersson, Chantal Sudbrack, Zhongnan Bi, Kevin Bockenstedt, Ian Dempster, Michael Fahrmann, Paul Jablonski, Michael Kirka, Xingbo Liu, Daisuke Nagahama, Tim Smith, Martin Stockinger, Andrew Wessman, Springer Cham , 2023, p. 659-696Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superalloys are commonly used in structural components of aero-engines. Superalloys in general, Ni- and Ni–Fe-based superalloys, belong to an important group of materials used in aerospace applications. Fabrication and associated weldability aspects of structural components for the hot section of aero-engine gas turbines continue to be of high importance to the manufacturing industry within this discipline. Cracking and specifically hot cracking as well as strain age cracking is a serious concern during the welding and additive manufacturing (AM) of these structural components. The cracking phenomena can occur during welding, AM or subsequent heat treatment of precipitation-hardening superalloys. The cracking behaviour can be influenced by several factors, i.e., chemical composition in terms of hardening elements and impurities, the microstructure of base material, and weld zone, together with corresponding welding, AM and post-treatment process parameters. This paper provides a review of Ni- and Ni–Fe-based superalloys concerning fabrication and weldability aspects within the context of structural components of aero-engines. Also, the paper offers insight and analyses to research publication data of welding and AM of superalloys in the context of annual publication developed over the years as well as specific contributions from countries, affiliations, and specific researchers.

  • 154.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Review of Weldability of Precipitation Hardening Ni- and Fe-Ni-Based Superalloys2018In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 & Derivatives: Energy, Aerospace, and Industrial Applications / [ed] Ott, E., Liu, X., Andersson, J., Bi, Z., Bockenstedt, K., Dempster, I., Groh, J., Heck, K., Jablonski, P., Kaplan, M., Nagahama, D. and Sudbrack, C., Springer, 2018, p. 899-916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fabrication and welding of structural components for the hot section of aero-engines continues to be of high importance to the manufacturing industry of aero-engines. This paper discusses and reviews the literature on hot cracking and strain age cracking, cracking phenomena that can occur during welding or subsequent heat treatment of precipitation hardened Ni- and Fe-Ni-based superalloys. The influence of chemical composition in terms of i.e. hardening elements and impurities, microstructure of base material and weld zone, together with welding processes and corresponding parameters and heat input are discussed and related to the cracking susceptibility of different nickel based superalloys.

  • 155.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Weldability of Ni-based Superalloys2014In: 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Ott, E., Banik, A., Andersson, J., Dempster, I., Gabb, T., Groh, J., Heck, K., Helmink, R., Liu, X. & Wusatowska-Sarnek, A., John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 249-262Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Welding metallurgy and weldability of superalloys2020In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 157.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Neikter, Magnus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Welding of special alloys2023In: Welding of Metallic Materials: Methods, Metallurgy, and Performance / [ed] Fuad Khoshnaw, Elsevier , 2023, p. 279-316Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Specialty alloys are a broad group of materials providing superior properties to common materials and are therefore used for more demanding applications. Specialty alloys require sophisticated manufacturing routes, e.g., vacuum metallurgy, to account for all the alloying elements needed to finalize the specific alloy for its intended purpose. The alloys of Duplex stainless steels, superalloys, and Titanium alloys are examples of so-called specialty alloys where aerospace, chemical, and petrochemical industries are just a few areas mentioned where these specialty alloys are frequently used. Duplex stainless steel, had superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, making them a sustainable choice for a wide variety of applications i.e., petrochemical industries. The superalloys, and especially the precipitation hardening ones belong to a unique plethora of alloys commonly used in aerospace as well as land-based gas turbines which possess superb mechanical performance at elevated temperatures. However, the superalloys are unfortunately very challenging to process, not at least regarding weld cracking. With their high specific strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are favorable for numerous applications. However, they react readily with oxygen at elevated temperatures and therefore inert atmosphere must be used during welding. 

  • 158.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Jacobsson, J.
    Brederholm, A.
    Hänninen, H.
    Improved understanding of Varestraint Testing: Nickel-based superalloys2016In: Cracking Phenomena in Welds IV / [ed] Boellinghaus, T., Lippold, J. C. and Cross, C. E., Springer Publishing Company, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about the book:

    This is the fourth volume in the well-established series of compendiums devoted to the subject of weld hot cracking. It contains the papers presented at the 4th International Cracking Workshop held in Berlin in April 2014. In the context of this workshop, the term “cracking” refers to hot cracking in the classical and previous sense, but also to cold cracking, stress-corrosion cracking and elevated temp. solid-state cracking.  A variety of different cracking subjects are discussed, including test standards, crack prediction, weldability determination, crack mitigation, stress states, numerical modelling, and cracking mechanisms.  Likewise, many different alloys were investigated such as aluminum alloys, copper-aluminum dissimilar metal, austenitic stainless steel, nickel base alloys, duplex stainless steel, creep resistant steel, and high strength steel.

  • 159.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Jacobsson, J.
    Lundin, C.
    A Historical perspective on Varestraint testing and the importance of testing parameters2016In: Cracking Phenomena in Welds IV / [ed] Boellinghaus, T., Lippold, J. C. and Cross, C. E., Springer Publishing Company, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.Malmsköld, LennartUniversity West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.Hanning, FabianUniversity West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024)2024Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between those working in product development and production is essential for successful product realization. The Swedish Production Academy (SPA) was founded in 2006 with the aim of driving and developing production research and higher education in Sweden, and increasing national cooperation in research and education within the area of production.

    This book presents the proceedings of SPS2024, the 11th Swedish Production Symposium, held from 23 to 26 April 2024 in Trollhättan, Sweden. The conference provided a platform for SPA members, as well as for professionals from industry and academia interested in production research and education from around the world, to share insights and ideas. The title and overarching theme of SPS2024 was Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning, and the conference emphasized stakeholder value, the societal role of industry, worker wellbeing, and environmental sustainability, in alignment with the European Commission's vision for the future of manufacturing. The 59 papers included here were accepted for publication and presentation at the symposium after a thorough review process. They are divided into 6 sections reflecting the thematic areas of the conference, which were: sustainable manufacturing, smart production and automation, digitalization for efficient product realization, circular production, industrial transformation for sustainability, and the integration of education and research.

    Highlighting the latest developments and advances in automation and sustainable production, the book will be of interest to all those working in the field.

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  • 161.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Raza, Shahzad
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Eliasson, Anders
    KTH, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology.
    Solidification of Alloy 718, ATI 718Plus and Waspaloy2014In: 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Ott, E., Banik, A., Andersson, J., Dempster, I., Gabb, T., Groh, J., Heck, K., Helmink, R., Liu, X. & Wusatowska-Sarnek, A, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 181-192Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollha¨ttan, Sweden and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollha¨ttan, Sweden and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Repair welding of wrought superalloys: Alloy 718, Allvac 718Plus and Waspaloy2012In: Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, ISSN 1362-1718, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to weld repair three precipitation hardening superalloys, i.e. Alloy 718, Allvac 718Plus and Waspaloy, with gas tungsten arc welding, is compared in this study. Four different solution heat treatment conditions for each material were examined: Alloy 718 and Allvac 718Plus heat treated at 954uC–1 h, 982uC–1 h, 954uC–15 h and 1020uC–1 h and Waspaloy for 4 h at 996uC, 1010uC, 1040uC and at 1080uC. By metallography, the total number of cracks was evaluated in both the heat affected zone and the fusion zone, which made it possible to consistently rate the repair weldability of these three materials. Alloy 718 was significantly the best one, with Allvac 718Plus slightly better than Waspaloy. As expected, the solution heat treatment conditions only affected the heat affected zone cracking behaviour.

  • 163.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Brederholm, A.
    Hänninen, H.
    Solidification Cracking of Alloy Allvac 718Plus and Alloy 718 at Transvarestraint Testing2010In: EPD Congress 2008: Proceedings of Sessions and Symposia Sponsored by the Extraction and Processing Division (EPD) / [ed] Stanley M. Howard, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 157-169Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Chaturvedi, M.
    Hot Ductility Study of Haynes 282 Superalloy2010In: Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives / [ed] E. A. Ott, J. R. Groh, A. Banik, I. Dempster, T. P. Gabb, R. Helmink, X. Liu, A. Mitchell, G. P. Sjöberg and A. Wusatowska-Sarnek, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 2010, p. 539-554Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Hatami, S.
    Notch Sensitivity and Intergranular Crack Growth in the Allvac 718Plus Superalloy2007In: XVIII International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (ISABE): Beijing, China, 2-7 September 2007, 2007, p. n.1293-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hänninen, H.
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Espoo, Finland.
    Metallurgical Response of Electron Beam Welded Allvac® 718Plus™2011In: Hot Cracking Phenomena in Welds III / [ed] Lippold, J., Böllinghaus, T. and Cross C. E., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 415-428Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam welding of forged Allvac 718Plus superalloy has been carried out without any visible cracks in weld cross-sections. Healed cracks in the heat affected zone were, however, seen in most cross-sections with the healing as well as the cracking believed to be due to the constitutional liquation of the δ-phase. The δ-phase undergoes constitutional liquation in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and consequently decreases the ductility of the material and renders cracks in the HAZ but due to the large amount of eutectic liquid produced at the same time the healing of the opened cracks takes place.

  • 167.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Volvo Aero Corporation, Materials Technology Department, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Göteborg,Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Materials Technology Department, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Göteborg,Sweden.
    Investigation of Homogenization and its Influence on the Repair Welding of Cast Allvac 718Plus(®)2010In: Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives / [ed] E. A. Ott, J. R. Groh, A. Banik, I. Dempster, T. P. Gabb, R. Helmink, X. Liu, A. Mitchell, G. P. Sjöberg, and A. Wusatowska-Sarnek, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 2010, p. 439-454Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Viskari, L.
    Brederholm, A.
    Hänninen, H.
    Knee, C.
    Hot Cracking of Allvac 718Plus, Alloy 718 and Waspaloy at Varestraint Testing2008In: 4th International Symposium on Aerospace Materials and Manufacturing Processes: Advances in Processing and Repair of Aerospace Materials 2008 / [ed] M. Jahazi, M. Elboujdaini and P. Patnaik, Montreal: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2008, p. 401-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Varestraint testing together with DSC and SEM-EDX analyses have been performed as means of investigating the hot cracking susceptibility of Allvac 718Plus, alloy 718 and Waspaloy. The solidification sequences in Allvac 718Plus and alloy 718 were very similar to each other starting by an initial solidification of the gamma phase, gamma/MC reaction at around 1260°C and then finally ending the sequence by gamma/Laves eutectic reaction at around 1150°C. Waspaloy had the same solidification sequence, except no Laves phase formation takes place, and solidification started at a somewhat higher temperature as compared to alloy 718 and the solidification sequence ends by a gamma/MC reaction at around 1245°C. The total amount of hot cracking in Waspaloy was shown to be much less than that in alloy 718 and in Allvac 718Plus which is believed to be related to the presence of the Laves eutectic in the latter two alloys with corresponding larger solidification ranges. Hot cracking of 718Plus is slightly less than in 718.

  • 169.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Department of Materials Technology, GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, Sweden och Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology, GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, Sweden och Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viskari, L.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaturvedi, M. C.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Effect of Different Solution Heat Treatments on the Hot Ductility of Superalloys: Part 3 - Waspaloy2013In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility to heat affected zone cracking of Waspaloy has been investigated in terms of its hot ductility, measured as the reduction of area (RA). Gleeble testing with on-heating as well as on-cooling test cycles was carried out to illuminate the influence of different 4 h solution heat treatments between 996 and 1080°C. A ductility maximum of between 80 and 90%RA was found at 1050–1100°C for all conditions in the on-heating tests. Although the different heat treatment conditions showed similar macrohardness, the particle size and distribution of the γ′ and M23C6 phases differed, which significantly affected the on-heating ductility in the lower temperature test region. The ductile to brittle transition was initiated at 1100°C in the on-heating testing with indications of grain boundary liquation at the higher test temperatures. Ductility recovery, as measured in the on-cooling tests from 1240°C, was very limited with <30%RA for all conditions and test temperatures except for the 1080°C/4 h treatment, which exhibited 60%RA at 980°C.

  • 170.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden and Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden and Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viskari, L.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaturvedi, M.C.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Effect of different solution heat treatments on hot ductility of superalloys: Part 2 – Allvac 718Plus2012In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 733-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hot ductility of Allvac 718Plus for different solution heat treatments (954°C–15 h, 954°C–1 h, 982°C–1 h and 1050°C–3 h+954°C–1 h) has been investigated using Gleeble testing. Substantial variations in the microstructure among the heat treatments affected the Gleeble test hot ductility only to a very limited extent. Constitutional liquation of the NbC phase was found to be the main cause for the poor ductility at high testing temperatures in the on-heating cycle as well as at the lower temperatures on-cooling. Grain boundary δ phase was seen to assist the constitutional liquation of the NbC phase. Based on established evaluation criteria for Gleeble ductility testing, a ranked indicator for weldability is suggested.

  • 171.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Department of Materials Technology at Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology at Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viskari, L.
    Department of Microscopy and Microanalysis at Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaturvedi, M.C.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 Canada.
    Effect of solution heat treatments on superalloys: Part 1 – alloy 7182012In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 609-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hot ductility as measured by Gleeble testing of Alloy 718 at four different solution heat treatments (954°C/15 h, 954°C/1 h, 982°C/1 h and 1050°C/3 h+954°C/1 h) has been investigated. It is concluded that constitutional liquation of NbC assisted by δ phase takes place and deteriorates the ductility. Parameters established by analysing the ductility dependence on temperature indicate a reduced weldability of the material in the coarse grain size state (ASTM 3) while indicating an increased weldability when containing a large amount of δ phase due to a grain boundary pinning effect. The accumulation of trace elements during grain growth at the highest temperature is believed to be the cause for the observed reduced on-cooling ductility.

  • 172.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Vikström, Fredrik
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems.
    Pettersson, Bengt
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems.
    HIP-Densification of Alloy 718 and ATI 718Plus2014In: 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Ott, E., Banik, A., Andersson, J., Dempster, I., Gabb, T., Groh, J., Heck, K., Helmink, R., Liu, X. & Wusatowska-Sarnek, A., John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 425-436Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Andersson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    A computational geometry method for centrifugal compressor impellers2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern centrifugal compressor impeller geometry often consist of curves and surfaces with a high degree of three dimensionality. This makes the geometry of the impeller difficult to model with commercial CAD-tools. Additionally, in modern optimization processes of impellers the geometry is commonly altered, this puts high demands on the method that is used for generating the geometry. In this work a new computational geometry method for centrifugal compressor impellers is compiled. The new method is designed to be flexible and to support present day optimization processes.The new method is a compilation based upon publications regarding impeller geometry and impeller optimization. It utilizes Bezier curves and B-splines to generate geometry and supports optimization by allowing control points of the constructing curves to be relocated to change the shape of the geometry. To test the new method, a standalone application was successfully developed with the aid of the SCRUM development process. With an easy to use graphical user interface the application generates and displays a 3D model of the geometry generated with the new method.

  • 174.
    Andersson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Utvärdering och förbättring gällande Volvo Aeros tillämpning av metodiken praktisk problemlösning2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Aero develops, designs, manufactures and performs maintenance of engine and related components for civil and military aircrafts. The vision is to deliver world-leading transport solutions through continuous improvement and long term business deployment, which for the daily work means systematic problem solving through the methodology practical problem solving, whose origin is Toyota.

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine whether Volvo Aero’s approach of practical problem solving was simple, systematic and guided, which from Toyota’s point of view creates sound conditions for effective problem solving.

    Initially, Toyota’s attitude and behaviour towards problem solving was described from the point of view of The Toyota Way. Thereafter, a literature study on practical problem solving was completed. Furthermore, a pilot study was carried out where Volvo Aero’s approach to practical problem solving was applied to an organisational problem. The pilot study was evaluated and areas for improvements were identified where the methodology was difficult, indistinct and inadequate guided. Finally, improvements were proposed regarding Volvo Aero’s approach to practical problem solving, which was scientifically anchored to Toyota.

    • Defining and analysing the symptoms brings understanding for the causes of the problem
    • Quantifying the present condition and the expected illustrates the magnitude of the problem
    • Appears the root cause to be clear is probably the countermeasure obvious
    • A considerable approach using Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) provides an effective and strong tool for continuous improvement

    The improvements were proposed with purpose to simplify Volvo Aero’s methodology and to support and guide the user, which creates sound conditions for effective problem solving and provides opportunities for daily use that foster continuous improvement.

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  • 175.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av standardiserat arbetssätt och kitlådor för montering av lågtrycksturbiner2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been executed at GKN Aerospace at the manufacturing department Low Pressure Turbine (LPT), also known as LPT. The thesis presents the creation of standardized working methods for the assembly of the LPTs, that are manufactured for the aircraft engines Leap 1B and Leap A/C. The standardized work has been compiled in Job Training Documents, also known as JTD. A kit box for the material that will be assembled has been designed for each model. Due to a nonexistent standard it has led to assembly failures and quality defects in the production. The existing assembly box has been inadequate for the operators and the controllers that pack the boxes which has led to longer assembly time. The purpose of this project has been to assure the quality of the work through creating standardized work instructions. The design of the kit box has been executed in order to organize the details of the assembly in a certain structure to facilitate for the operators and controllers. An operation description with course of action was provided and used as a basis for the design of the JTDs in order not to risk deviating from the existing method. Interviews and observations of operators and controllers have also been used for the JTDs and the design of the kit boxes. Kit boxes was reused from another department and assortment boxes was sorted and structured inside in two different sizes. These were coded with different colors, marked and fitted to the size and quantity of the material so that every piece that is being assembled has its own place. The JTDs and the kit boxes was made in two versions to adapt to the assembly of both Leap 1B and Leap A/C. The boxes were tested in the production and the JTDs was reviewed of the operators before signature was made. All of the operators were not interviewed and observed as planned because of the unplanned stops in the production. The shape of the kit box was limited because the existing boxes were reused. From the results that has been developed the goals for this thesis including creating standardized work instructions and design of a kit box to organize all the pieces has been achieved.

  • 176.
    Andersson, John
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Analys av påverkan från ökad mikroproduktion och installation av laddare för elfordon i lågspänningsnät2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the number of rechargeable cars increases for every year. It is common to charge at home, for example because there is no need to wait for the vehicle to be fully charged.Charging at home takes place with low effects for longer time periods. The installation of micro production with photovoltaic systems is also increasing. Lidköping Elnät sees that the number of installations of chargers for electric vehicles and installation of micro production are increasing in the concession area and are expected to increase even more in the upcoming years. This study investigates the voltage variations that occur in an older and a newly constructed area with villas within the Lidköping urban area under normal load, as well as two future scenarios for micro production and chargers for electric vehicles. The work addresses which actions must be implemented in each area and what the actions cost.The voltage variations have been generated through calculations of the mentioned scenarios in the existing low voltage grid connected to the substation and the associated transformer in each area. Calculations on the low voltage grid at normal loads are based on consumption data take from Lidköping Elnäts’ system for debit measurement. In case of high production, a value is set for the photovoltaic systems that Lidköping Elnät considers as a normal size when a pre-registration of micro production is received. When charging electric vehicles, high consumption in the grid is assumed in the calculations. The voltage variations in the grid are added to the voltage variations occurring over the transformer to calculate the total voltage variations for the grid.Calculations of the total voltage variations in the grid for each scenario demonstrates that none of the points in the grid falls outside the limits allowed by the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate or European standard for voltage variations. At high production or high consumption the voltage increases or decreases for the weakest points fall outside the recommended limits for calculations. The high consumption scenario had the highest percentage differences form the reference voltage of 0,4 kV in both areas, which led to this scenario being used as the starting point for the development of actions.The actions developed reduce the voltage drops in both areas to be within the recommended limits of Swedenenergy, but also Lidköping Elnäts’ stricter limit for new connections. Lidköping Elnät is only obligated to implement an action if the voltage variations fall outside the limits set by the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate and the European standard or if complaints are received and poor power quality can be demonstrated.  

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  • 177.
    Andersson, Johnny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Uppstartsguide för Febdok2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts på ÅF Industry i Trollhättan. Syftet med examensarbetet är att arbeta fram rutiner och ett standardiserat arbetssätt i Febdok. Detta för att underlätta och spara tid vid användning av Febdok. Inledningsvis påbörjades framtagning av relevant teori kring den definierade problembeskrivningen tillsammans med handläggaren på ÅF. Parallellt genomfördes övningsexempel i Febdok för att gruppen skulle få en insyn i hur funktionerna fungerar. Rapportens teoridel behandlar de mest problematiska- och tidskrävande funktionerna i Febdok så som UPS:er, kortslutningsströmmar och selektivitet. Det för att ge en förståelse om bakgrunden till funktionerna. Ett beräkningsexempel på ett fiktivt nät gjordes för att kunna verifiera en överslagsräkning som används på ÅF för att beräkna ett ungefärligt värde på minsta felström. Denna minsta felström erhålls vid enfasig jordslutning och definierar utlösningsvilkoret. Maximal felström delat på tre har ansetts ge ett någorlunda korrekt värde på minsta felström. Beräkningar på maximal- och minimal felström vid olika kablage jämfördes och visade att överslagsräkningen inte är att rekommendera på grund av att minsta felström ibland bli lägre. Istället bör en faktor av minst fyra användas vid överslagsräkningen för minsta felström. I avsnitt 3 i rapporten beskrivs initiala inställningar och funktioner i Febdok med föregående teori som bakgrund. Implementering av UPS:er i Febdok visade sig kräva mer datainmatning än vad som normalt går att få tag på från tillverkare. Genomsläppt energi är data som visade sig svår att få tag ifrån olika tillverkare. Vid närmare tester av programmet och dess funktioner visade det sig att genomsläppt energi inte behövs definieras i UPS-funktionen för att arbeta med selektivitet och kortslutningsströmmar längre ut i anläggningen.

    Resultatet av observationerna i Febdok och teorin visade att tumregeln som används på ÅF inte är att föredra och säkringar i en anläggning försedd med UPS bör dimensioneras efter batteridrift. Informationen och kunskaperna som samlades under arbetets gång samanställdes i en uppstartsguide för Febdok. 

  • 178.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thyrsson, Alicia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Marklov för trädfällning & skogsplantering: Kravets omfattning och utbredning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In community planning, there are many regulations that can be made to control land use and a detail development plan is an instrument that Sweden's municipalities have access to in order to do so. In a detail development plan, the municipality may specify properties that will apply in an area, such as the protection of trees, whish this study is about. To protect trees a plan regulation is required in the plan indicating what is applicable. In the Planning and Building Act 9 chap. 12 § it is stated that the municipality in a detail development plan may decide that a land permit is required for felling trees and for afforestation. An application for a permit to felling trees and / or afforestation shall be sent to the municipality, which will examine whether the application is to be granted or refused. Entering a land permit for felling trees in the detail development plan protects trees that may otherwise be cut down without the municipality's knowledge.

    The survey aims at examining the extent to which the municipalities of Sweden use the opportunity to decide on land permits in a detail development plan. Furthermore, the municipality's motive for the protection of trees is investigated and if it is done otherwise than with the plan regulation, and whether there has been any change in how the municipalities regulate trees in 2017 compared to 1990, when the detail development plan had recently been introduced. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods to get a versatile and complete study.

    The results show that the municipalities used the plan regulation for land permit for felling trees in 60 of the detail development plans in 2017. To ensure protection of trees municipalities use other methods than land permit, for example a Plan regulation to protect trees. The motives given by the municipalities to protect trees vary widely and there are ecological, social and aesthetic reasons. In the comparison of detail development plans from 2017 and 1990, differences have been observed. More plans in 2017 with land permit for felling trees have been observed as well as more and more varied motivations. Plan regulation about afforestation has been found only once in a total of 1 353 detail development plans.

  • 179.
    Andersson, Jonathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Birgersson, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    IPv4 vs. IPv6: Vilket ska du surfa med?2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report addresses latency and response-time comparisons between the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. These protocols are necessary to deliver data to the right recipient on the Internet as it is the TCP/IP model that is used. IPv6 is a newer version of IPv4 and was created in the late 1990's because the IPv4 addresses will not be enough for all devices that will come to need it. In association with the transition to IPv6, an opportunity was taken to optimize the protocol with fewer fields in the header and thus try to increase the latency and response times over IPv4.

    The report shows similarities and differences in latency and response times between IPv4 and IPv6 when browsing popular websites, a relevant use case that occurs daily. Measurements are made by downloading the web pages with the http protocol with both the IPv4 and the IPv6 protocols and then analyzing the different response times between them. This is done for three different internet providers: Telia, Bahnhof and Sunet. Telia also uses a different IPv6 solution than the other two, which will be another factor in the analysis.

    The results of the measurements show that IPv4 performs somewhat faster for all internet providers but does not make a directly noticeable difference for an end user. The traffic takes largely the same route regardless of which of the two protocols is used. The time for DNS lookups takes considerably longer for Sunet as an Internet provider than for the other two. The difference in route choice depending on which protocol is used is most noticeable for Bahnhof. 6RD performs a better average time than Sunets native IPv6.

  • 180.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Carmesund, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Handläggningstiden vid bygglov: En studie kring kravet i PBL 9:272015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With Swedish planning and building act (PBL) of 2011 a new demand was adopted for handling time before permits and advance rule, called PBL 9:27. Following PBL 9:27 an application for permits shall be processed promptly and the applicant shall be informed of the decision within ten weeks from the moment a complete application has been submitted to the local building committee. Previously this demand had not been included into Swedish law. The purpose of this demand was to speed up the handling time and to reduce differences in handling time between municipalities. When this demand was adopted a decision was made not to connect it with any form of sanction, should the demand not be met. The argument being that a more effective handling time would be met even without sanctions. Following several notifications to the legal ombudsman one may conclude that in several cases, municipalities do not meet the demand for a handling time within ten weeks. While there are no sanctions connected to the demand municipalities, may without any risk, take as much time they fell needed for the handling of each case. Thereby one of the key purposes of PBL 9:27, that is, reduced differences in handling time between municipalities is counteracted.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether handling time in building permit cases are in compliance with PBL 9:27. In order to answer this question building permit cases were examined thoroughly in seven municipalities in Västra Götaland County. The study has focused cases from 2014 and cases pertaining to construction of buildings. The collected information was compiled in one data matrix for each municipality. Beside of the information compiled in the data matrix each municipality answered a questionnaire focusing workload. The purpose of the questionnaire was to relate the results from the investigation of handling time to a possible explanation, that is, the workload of employees during 2014.

    Out of 436 examined cases 44 did not meet the demand of handling tie within ten weeks, or approximately 10 % of the cases. Of these 44 cases that did not meet PLB 9:27, 32 were real estates that were located within areas regulated by detailed municipal plans and twelve were located outside of planned areas. Out of the 32 real estates located within planned areas 13 accounted for a minor deviance from the detailed municipal plan while 19 were in compliance with the detailed plan and

    regulation areas.

    The results indicate that municipalities need to speed up their handling time for building permit cases regulated by PBL 9:27. An additional result of this study is that several municipalities have flaws in relation to documentation of significant dates. Also, municipalities tend to make different assessments of when an application is considered complete. This study suggests that clearer guidelines are adopted pertaining to documentation of cases and the demands for how to assess if an application is complete.

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  • 181.
    Andersson, Kristian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jason, Evelina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beskrivning och vidareutveckling av en modell för beräkning av övertoners fördelning i distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe and develop a model used to determine demand permissions regarding power quality on behalf of Vattenfall Distribution. The purpose of the model is to calculate the level of current harmonics allowed for different types of energy subscriptions by studying how harmonics spread in a power grid and how subscribers affect each other. This model needs to be described seeing that the documentation of the original model was lacking. The model also needs to be further developed to increase the flexibility and its ease of use.

    Harmonics are a phenomenon that occurs on the power grid and are generated by non-linear loads like EV-chargers and photovoltaic systems. If the harmonic distortion level is too high, grid connected electronics can experience issues or stop working.

    There are a number of standards, reports and regulations regarding emission rights considering harmonics. This report summarizes three of these as a background to how emissions are regulated today (2018). Two of these papers focus on voltage harmonics levels which is also the case for Vattenfall Distributions governing documents. Vattenfall Distribution needs to develop a new method to determine these current harmonics emission levels, and the model is a part of that process.

    A thorough analysis and mapping of the model were made to produce the documentation for the model. The model was then further developed to allow for more flexibility and could be simplified compared to the original model.

    The original model is considered to fulfil its purpose and therefore no structural changes have been made. The changes that have been made have been implemented to make the model as flexible and user friendly as possible. To help the user to understand the model, a flowchart was made to describe the structure and internal workings of the model.

    The authors believe that a thorough and detailed documentation of the model has been produced and that the model fulfills the purpose of producing representative values to determine demand permissions regarding power quality. The model has been restructured and is now perspicuous and easy to use. However the result from the model is highly dependent of the input data and it's important that it is of good quality.

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  • 182.
    Andersson, Leon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En undersökning om Linux förmåga att hantera processer som överkonsumerar minnet2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Minneshanteringen i operativsystemet Linux för processer som överkonsumerar minnet kan variera beroende på vilken Linux baserad distribution som används. Detta innebär att systembelastningen av ett minnestungt program kan ha olika effekt på olika system. I denna rapport presenteras två typer av systemlösningar med avsikten att hantera scenarion då minneskonsumtionen är ohållbar för att undersöka och jämföra respektive systems agerande och betydelsen detta har för det fullständiga systemet. En lösning agerar i kernel space och en som agerar i user space hos systemet. Av dessa agerar user space lösningen som ett komplement till kernel space lösningen. Inte alla Linux distributioner använder denna konfiguration. Genom att skapa ett program som medvetet överkonsumerar systemets minne testas båda lösningar. Programmet agerar som ett stresstest där resurskonsumtion berörande programmet samt totala systemet undersöks. Resultat indikerar att user space lösningen komplimenterar kernel space lösningen på ett noterbart sätt genom att agera proaktivt och förebyggande genom att förhindra överkonsumtion av systemets minne. Medans kernel space lösningen enbart agerar som en nödlösning när systemets totala minnesresurser har förbrukats.

  • 183.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Hansson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    LOU:s tillämpning på PBL 6:402015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By the beginning of 2015 a couple of new articles in the Swedish Planning and Building Act (PBL) were introduced. For the first time in history there are specific sections that regulate Swedish development agreements. The purpose is the political will to create a faster and simpler planning process. Among other things it is about creating transparency and an openness in the procedure so that a constructor can calculate in advance their costs for a certain project. At the same time it is also about giving the municipality and its residents awareness of the consequences of the agreement. The purpose of this study is to straighten out how to interpret the notion "to institute" in PBL 6:40. The method used was both quantitative with a conducted survey and qualitative with interviews. The survey was sent to all 290 municipalities in Sweden and got a responserate of 57 %. Interviews were made with four persons in the trade and seven municipalities.

    The results show that a majority of the Swedish municipalities construct public areas with municipal mandatorship, when the municipality does not own the land, with a public procurement according to the Swedish Act on Public Contracts (LOU). A couple of the municipalities admit that they make exceptions for contracts with minor monetary values. At the end of the day the civil servants of the municipalities are dubious about changing their work procedures, to one where the developer is allowed to construct, because the legal position is uncertain. The results also clearly show that there is, in general, a great insecurity and confusion about the notion "to institute" and its interpretation among both civil servants and persons in the trade. It appears that a public procurement should always be used when the trigger value is transcended or when there is a cross-border interest. In other cases the legal position is unclear and it seems that PBL 6:40 and LOU collide, even though these legalisations should exist in harmony. For that reason a clarification about how the interpretation should be done is needed in the law.

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  • 184.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Wagerland, Rebecca
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Gestaltningsprogram kopplat till detaljplan: Gestaltningens påverkan på hållbarhetsdimensionerna2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the planning process, municipalities work with spatial design. In order to specify and justify the design of the built environment, the municipality can choose to create an spatial design program in connection with a detailed development plan. Spatial design programs have no legal effect, but should be used as a guiding document when, for example, building permit approval are carried out. This can be done by the municipality itself or in collaboration with a developer. Through spatial design, municipalities can achieve the national goals for sustainable community building and the proposition Politik för gestaltad livsmiljö.

    It can be difficult for municipalities to comply to a detailed development plan that is legally binding and using a spatial design program without legal effect can create uncertainty about how the documents can be used together. This study is based on investigating whether a spatial design program should be made more legally binding or not and what impact a more legally binding spatial design program would have on social, economic and ecological sustainability. In order to examine how municipalities work with design in practice and how they view the possible legal effects of the spatial design program, the municipality of Lilla Edet was used in the study.

    The results of the study present how the municipality relates to governing documents, laws and guidelines. It appears that it is not legally correct to link design programs with a detailed plan. Today, design needs to be described directly in the planning regulations to become legally binding. Furthermore, it is presented that spatial design has a great impact on the sustainability dimensions in the long and short term. Making spatial design programs legally binding could help to ensure good spatial design, which means a good balance between social, ecological and economic sustainability.

  • 185.
    Andersson, Marielle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Localisation and improvement of production processes2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Company X develops innovative machines mostly for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry, where they assemble and test the machines in their production department. When a machine is sold a certain amount of hours for mechanical and electrical assembly is offeredand Company X has seen a trend of these hours are being exceeded. Company X is then forced to bear the cost of the exceeded hours which decreases the financial profit.

    The purpose of this study is to locate activities within the production department regarding mechanical and electrical assembly processes that add no value to the final product, define the root causes of why these problems exist and find a way to improve them. The following questions this study is to answer are: 

    • How are the processes currently executed?

    • Which factors work less well in the processes?

    • What can be done to increase the performance of the processes and make them more effective?

    Data from these processes have been collected through interviews, observations and reading deviations reports. The processes are analysed to locate the greatest issues regarding the assembly process, the root causes are then found and examined. The issues selected for improvements are those that affect the employees in the production department way of working.

    A brainstorming session was executed and suggestions for improvement were presented for the employees working in the process, where they could come with inputs to form the best possible solution. The final solutions are presented more in detail and were chosen because of their impact to solve the problem and prioritised due to their simplicity to implement.

    The conclusions that were made is that if the suggested solutions are implemented it will take time for the employees to adjust to the change and it is of great importance the employees are open and devoted to making the change happen. It is also important to constantly improve the solutions and find new solutions on how to improve the employee's way of working. To accomplish this it is suggested the employees have continuous improvement meetings.

  • 186.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Säkerhetsanalys av interna IT-säkerheten på ett mellanstort företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about a security analysis of a company's use of IT and their internal network security. The company is a midsized with about 100 employees and half of them use IT in their daily work. The company is active within industrial manufacturing and is located in western Swe-den. They want to develop in IT and are curious about how secure their network is today.

    A review of the layer 2 network security and computers used in the daily work was performed and evaluated. Anonymous interview of employees were made to find out how IT is used at work. A risk analysis was filled in by the responsible employees at the company to get an overview of how they think about risks and vulnerabilities in the use of IT. All this was done to bring recommendations to the company about how they can improve their security compared to what it is today.

    The results from the analysis of the network indicates weaknesses in the layer 2 security and that no security features are currently used to stop attacks from the inside of the net-work. The company has no high demands on the network or the security on the in-side but has given priority to flexibility and physical security.

  • 187.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Andreasson, Kristofer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Parameterization of a B-pillar2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been performed at Benteler Engineering Service in Gothenburg in cooperation with Benteler Aluminium System Norway AS in Raufoss. Since the requirements on a product are changed several times during a product development process in the automotive industry, the desire to develop parts faster has increased. Components with complex geometries can take a large amount of time to design and when requirements on the design are changed the CAD-model has to be remade. A model with a complex geometry, which often is exposed to changes, is the B-pillar in the car. To achieve a more time efficient process for the B-pillar, an investigation was made to see if parameterization of the CAD-model could be made to save time in the development process. The result of this has shown that if the model is supposed to be changed more than three times parameterization is something that should be considered.

    Different strategies for parameterization that could support the development process of the CAD-model of a B-pillar have been compared to investigate which strategy that was best suited for this project.

    The goal to create a CAD-model of a generic B-pillar as a showpiece where parameters control the geometry and where changes of the main dimensions can be implemented faster than in a model without parameterization, has been fulfilled.

  • 188.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Hägerström, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Sammanställning av utbildningsmaterial om reservkraft med inriktning dieselaggregat2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is composed of a constant energy dependency to get all functions of the modern society to function, a power failure can be devastating. Even though Sweden has a strong power grid, the requirement to always have access to electricity has opened up a market for back-up power. The aim of this work was to create material that could be used in educational purpose and for the reader to get a basic understanding of back-up power with focus on diesel generated power. The course material consists of recommendation of content in the form of page references from sources that fit well in the compilation ofeducation material in the form of a compendium. The compendium is supplemented with a layout of a PowerPoint presentation that can be used for educational purposes. By studying the relevant sources, we have deepened in our topic diesel generated power and have picked out page references, in accordance with the agreement regarding the school copy law, which we consider to be a good fit for the creation of a compendium. We have also created a foundation to a PowerPoint that can facilitate the creation of lecture material. This report explains the structure of a diesel power generator and what is important to consider when sizing a power system. The report also discusses recommended maintenance as well as the requirements placed on a diesel power generator.

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  • 189.
    Andersson Novela, Adam Xavier
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Westerlind Novela, Elsa Maria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Enterprise servers' operating system performance during DoS and Slow DoS attacks2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Three different servers running three different server operating systems were subjected to the denial-of-service (DoS) attacks; UDP flood and Slow HTTP. Computers running Kali Linux were used as the attackers and the tools hping3 and Slowloris were used to perform the attacks. The first round of attacks was performed by one computer and the second round was performed by four computers simultaneously, this was to simulate DoS attacks and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks respectively. Results were recorded both before and during the attacks, to then be compared. The three Operating systems in question were Windows Server 2019, Ubuntu Server 19.10 and CentOS 8 Server, they all had the web server software Apache installed. The servers' average CPU usage and average memory usage were measured, these results were then compared and if any increase had occurred during the attack it would be deduced that the attack was impacting the server negatively, a higher increase meant a higher impact. During the Slow HTTP attacks the web servers were checked for availability, if it was not available then the attack was successful.

    During testing it was found that the Windows server had the worst performance during both attacks, showing the highest increase in hardware usage and the lowest uptime of the web page when being attacked.

    The Ubuntu server performed the best when looking at the CPU and memory usage, with little to no change from its baseline results and a higher uptime of its webpage than the Windows server.

    CentOS recorded less of a change in hardware performance when being attacked than the Windows server but more so than the Ubuntu server, it was, however, the server with the most uptime of the webpage when being attacked.

  • 190.
    Andersson, Oliver
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Stenvold, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Förprojektering av ett lokalnät i ett landsbygdsområde2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the preparatory design of the local network in a rural area on behalf of Vattenfall Distribution in Sweden. The project includes the replacement of 16 substations, 33 km of high voltage (10 kV) cables, 16 km of low voltage (0,4 kV) cables and the demolition of overhead lines for both low and high voltage.

    The work involves two lines from a distribution station. One of the lines is new with an area of 240 mm2, it aims to take over the load in a newly built area with too high voltage drops that are currently fed from another distribution station. The newly built area has a voltage drop of 9% at present, with the new line the voltage drop will be 3.4%. The purpose of the second line with the area 150 mm2 is to replace the existing overhead line network with ground cables and connect network stations on the road. Because of difficult conditions the high voltage cables on part of the route are located in a lake. The network stations to which it is connected are updated because they are congested or do not have a divert option. 

    The low voltages overhead lines that are connected to the affected substations are replaced with ground cables. The quality of the distributed electricity is analyzed at the connected low voltage customer by checking pre impedance, selectivity and voltage drops. 

    Compensation of capacitive earth fault currents occurs on both cables, compensation is done with Petersén coils that are placed in substations.The cost calculation is based on a P1 level from EBR cost catalog and amounts to 36.8million SEK.

    The cost was higher than expected due to several aggravating factor such as a higher number of substations and longer overhead lines than expected, and difficult ground conditions for the cables. 

  • 191.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Production Engineering and XPRES, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fahlström, Karl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Swerea Group .
    Melander, Arne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Production Engineering and XPRES, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiments and efficient simulations of distortions of laser beam-€“welded thin-sheet close beam steel structures2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 233, no 3, p. 787-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, geometrical distortions of steel structures due to laser beam welding were analyzed. Two 700-mm-long U-beam structures were welded in overlap configurations: a double U-beam structure and a U-beam/flat structure. The structures were in different material combinations from mild steel to ultrahigh-strength steel welded with different process parameters. Different measures of distortions of the U-beam structures were evaluated after cooling. Significant factors of the welding process and the geometry of the structures were identified. Furthermore, welding distortions were modeled using two predictive finite element simulation models. The previously known shrinkage method and a newly developed time-efficient simulation method were evaluated. The new model describes the effects of expansion and shrinkage of the weld zone during welding and material plasticity at elevated temperatures. The new simulation method has reasonable computation times for industrial applications and improved agreement with experiments compared to the often used so-called shrinkage method. © 2018, IMechE 2018.

  • 192.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Clasborn, Oliver
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Förstudie och design av transportutrustning för rymdmunstycke till Prometheus raketmotor2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis initiated by GKN Aerospace with the aim of developing transport equipment for a nozzle for the Prometheus rocket engine. GKN is about to start production of the nozzle and needs packaging that meets the cleanliness requirements specified by the customer. Currently, GKN does not have packaging that meets these requirements and, therefore, needs to develop a new packaging solution.

    A packaging concept is developed through a concept development process described in Ulrich and Eppinger's book "Product Design and Development”. In this process, customer requirements are identified and compiled into target specifications that the concept should fulfill. Solutions are developed based on these target specifications, and several different concepts are generated, each aiming to meet the customer's needs and requirements.

    A final concept is chosen, specified, and described in more detail. A supplier is contacted during the project, offering expertise in the field. The supplier also provides their version of the packaging and a cost estimate. A rough life cycle inventory is conducted to compile the carbon dioxide emissions of the packaging to present the environmental consequences.

    The developed concepts address all the issues presented and offer the company several different solutions to choose from

  • 193.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Flödesförbättring för processkedja på GKN2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace is a world leading supplier of aerospace components. The Aerospace segment that Trollhättan is part of has a total of 35 plants on four continents and employs at the time of writing over 12,000 people. The products produced are made in materials that are difficult to process and the accuracy requirements are extremely high.

    The case study has been carried out at GKN in Trollhättan and aims to identify disturbances in the initial part of the process chain for the products LM2500 and 3-9C. The objective of the work will lead to proposals for action which is intended to smooth out the flow and create conditions to keep the given cycle time of eleven hours.

    Since GKN has been working with Lean production before it is also the basis for the theoretical framework. The main method of data collection was collection of data in the business system that has been supplemented with interviews and observations in the factory.

    An important part of Lean is to eliminate waste. Therefore, the eight wastages is the basic structure for the results section. Based on the chosen structure several types of waste could be identified. By analysis underpinned by theoretical framework and data collection this leads to recommended measures where the most important are:

    • Review maintenance practices when machine stop causes many hours of waiting and causes unpredictability in the production.

    • Equalize the production flow through the introduction of new operations and smooth the process times. 

    • Work towards initiating a one piece flow by separation operations that are currently carried out in the same machine.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automated Surface Inspection of Cross Laminated Timber2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood, such as Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), has increased over the last years in the construction of buildings. CLT is primarily considered a structural component inside walls, floors, and ceilings. But, when the design specifies an exposed surface of the CLT, where the wood surface will be visible in the finished building, there are requirements on the visual appearance of the CLT. To fulfil the requirements visual inspections of wood defects of the surface are conducted, before the CLT-panel is shipped to the construction site. Human inspectors are not consistent evaluators of products, and their accuracy depends on factors such as expertise, motivation, and fatigue. This study proposes a solution to automate the inspection, where captured images are analysed by an object detection model, based on deep learning. The model Faster R-CNN has proven to be successful in medical image processing and for object detection. A challenge with deep learning models, such as Faster R-CNN, is the number of test images needed to train the model. Also, there are a limited number of suitable test images of wood defects available. By using a pre-trained Faster R-CNN model and adapt the model's skill to detect wood defects, instead of the model's intended objects, the model can be trained with a relatively small number of test images. This study relies on images of planks, similar to the ones used in CLT, and the number of test images in the study is very limited. To improve the results, the model needs to be trained with more test images of CLT-panels. Nevertheless, the model can locate the defects in the CLT-panel and identify the type of defect to a high degree. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to automate the inspection of wood defects on the CLT surface.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Peter
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bilderna som räknas: En kvalitativ studie om upplevda skillnader i bilder från renderingsmotorerna Arnold, Cycles, LuxCore och Renderman2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many options available for path-tracing render engines today. This study aims to investigate differences between images produced by different path-tracers that all use the same 3D data. This was done through the creation of a 3D-scene including an everyday object that was rendered by four different engines: Arnold, Cycles, LuxCore and Renderman. The resulting images were presented to six test subjects, three with previous knowledge in 3D-graphics and three with no previous knowledge in 3D-graphics. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in order to examine whether the test subjects experienced any differences between the images, with special emphasis on depth of field, noise and attractiveness of the images. The render times for the different engines were compared.

    The results show that the test subjects experienced great differences between the images. Experienced and non-experienced alike had no difficulty pointing out differences between the images, on some observations they all concurred, on some they expressed different opinions. The render times differed greatly for the different engines even though they all used the same number of samples. The conclusion of this paper is that, because the different engines work in slightly different manners, they produce pictures that are perceivably different even when they use the same 3D-data.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av styrdokument för elanläggningsinnehavare2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A control plan is a document that makes the maintenance work more efficient. These documents can for instance be used on a power plant to maintain routines and inspections on the electrical equipment. It is the plant owner's responsibility to ensure that the plant and its associated equipment is checked continuously to ensure the safety of the plant. The frequency of the inspections and what needs to be checked is not mentioned in any laws or regulations. It is thereby up to the owner to decide the ranges and the need of which inspections that are implemented on the plant. This study has been made to simplify the decisions that the owner must take when developing the routine and inspection plans.

    The developed control plan is taken from literary studies and two interviews from two separate companies. Through a comparative study data has been produced that describes what should be performed during a visual inspection and functional controls on a power plant. The study is limited to equipment that is generally occurring in a restricted access area. The produced result is two control documents – one for patrols and one for functional controls. The documents show what type of inspection that should be performed during a control, while the report describes how often these routines should be implemented. The time intervals are produced from a comparison of four companies' routines. Two of the companies has been interviewed while intern documents at two other companies have been reviewed.

    The study has given insight into the inspections that are implemented in a restricted access area and the responsibility that power plant owners have on the plant. The sources are considered relevant to the study and the interviews have been made with persons that possess knowledge in the field of study.

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  • 197.
    Andersson, Robin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Jämförelse av riktade reläskyddsfunktioner i impedansjordade nät2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes how different values on a neutral grounding resistor and an uncompensated power distribution network affect the zero sequence current and the zero sequence voltage. If the neutral grounding reactor in the power distribution network is too overcompensated or undercompensated, the directional earth-fault relay may not work. The purpose of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of two different earth-fault functions. The two earth-fault functions that will be compared are an admittance-based earth-fault protection and a directional earth-fault protection with angle calculation between the zero sequence current and the zero sequence voltage.

    The capacitive earth-fault currents have increased in the distribution stations because the overhead lines are replaced with underground cables. The capacitive current must be compensated since the capacitance can cause an overcompensated or an undercompensated network. An uncompensated distribution network may cause the zero sequence current and voltage becoming too low so that the earth-fault protections do not detect an earth-fault.

    After the comparison of the two earth-fault functions it can be concluded that there is a minor difference between the both functions. There are some deviations in the test results conducted in a laboratory environment. It is not possible to state which one of the functions that is the most suitable to use in real power distribution networks, since no such tests have been conducted in this study.

    The authors of this thesis have presented some advantages and disadvantages of the two earth-fault functions

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  • 198.
    Andersson, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Mänsklig faktor: hur kan man få den svagaste länken inom IT-säkerhet starkare?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today´s IT environments, the role of the users becomes more important. In 2016 there were 200,000 crimes in Sweden that could be linked to social engineering attacks. These attacks are targeting the users and it is therefore important that users are aware of what they look like. This report is conducted in cooperation with a municipality in Västergötland, Sweden, and investigate four different methods to use when sharing IT information to their users. The methods differ not only in implementation but also in difficulty in the choice of words and expressions. The first method is a document of information taken from the municipality´s intranet. The second is also a document but is rewritten to simplify for the users. The third method is a video presentation and the fourth was made as a lecture with the possibility of interaction between the lecturer and the users. To evaluate these four methods two surveys were conducted. The first survey was performed before the users received IT information to create a baseline. After one and a half month the second survey was made. The surveys are compared to see how much the users remember and which method was most effective. The results indicate that the information on the municipality´s intranet is difficult to understand for the users. The other three methods provide a greater positive change in the user’s questionnaire response, indicating that users need a different form and structure when information is to be provided for them.

  • 199.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    802.1X, Cisco ISE och FortiAuthenticator: Autentiseringsmetoder för Ethernet i ett kommunalt nätverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When people connect to the network in the main building of a municipality in Västra Götaland they get an IP address from their administrative network.

    The municipality want to be able to separate the staff from the guests. In the current situation, their older servers are on the administrative network and therefore represents a security risk, as some of the servers do not have a firewall in between that can stop malicious traffic.

    The report will include the possible security risks that the municipality in the current situation can be exposed to and therefore three different authentication methods will be compared. The authentication methods that will be compared in the report is FortiAuthenticator, Cisco ISE and 802.1X with RADIUS. The reason these have been selected are because the municipality in the current situation is using FortiGate firewalls, Cisco devices and RADIUS. The report also includes dynamic VLAN as this can be used with 802.1X.

    The result that has been developed is that FortiAuthenticator and Cisco ISE has many similarities, however there are a few things that set them apart. In the implementation of 802.1X there are advantages and disadvantages to be considered. However, all three methods work well in the municipal network.

  • 200.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Studie av nyblivna skogsägares värdering vid köp av sina fastigheter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensjobb handlar om skogsköparens resonemang och värderingsåsikter om sin köpta skogsfastighet. Jag har tagit reda på hur köparna resonerar med hjälp av intervjuer gjorda via telefon. Utbildningen jag gått är lantmäteriingenjörsprogrammet (120p) på högskolan i Trollhättan. Genom att sammanställa alla intervjuer och dra slutsatser av dessa hoppas jag kunna bidra till förståelse för vad man tycker är viktigt som skogsköpare i västra Götaland. Resultaten hoppas jag ska kunna få en praktisk betydelse för arbetet med värdering och försäljning/köp av rena skogsfastigheter.

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