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  • 1151.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Academy in Szczytno, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Fatigue, vigor and dedication: the role of job-related emotions2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow? / [ed] Hertel, Guido & Holling, Heinz, 2013, p. 11-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine the role of job-related positive and negative emotions between acute fatigue at work and engagement. We tested two components of engagement: vigor (energetic aspect) and dedication (motivational aspect). We hypothesized that negative emotions mediate in energy depletion process and positive emotions mediate in broadening of energetic and motivational resources.

    Design/Methodology. Fatigue was measured by an index in accordance with the Japan Society for Occupational Health. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale – short version (UWES) was used to evaluate vigor and dedication (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006). Job-related affective well-being (JAWS) was used to assess positive and negative emotions (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). The study group consisted of 174 police officers (the average tenure of 10 years, range 1–23).

    Results. Baron and Kenny approach and the Sobel test supported our hypotheses. Fatigue was more negative related to vigor than dedication. We observed that positive and negative emotions fully mediated between fatigue and vigor (large effect size f2 = .36). Additionally, positive emotions fully mediated between fatigue and dedication (medium effect size f2 = .16). We confirmed these results by the Sobel test.

    Limitations. The correlational design was applied.

    Research/Practical Implications. Our results indicate that in police officers positive emotions may lead to broadening of energetic and motivational resources.

  • 1152.
    Basińska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Work Values of Police Officers and their Relationship with Job Burnout and Work Engagement2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Values represent people’s highest priorities and are cognitive representations of basic motivations. Work values determine what is important for employees in their work and what they want to achieve in their work. Past research shows that levels of both aspects of job-related well-being, job burnout and work engagement, are related to work values. The policing profession is associated with high engagement and a risk of burnout. There is a gap in the literature regarding the hierarchy of work values in police officers, how work values are associated with job burnout and work engagement in this group, and whether work values in police officers are sensitive to different levels of job burnout and work engagement. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relationships between work values and job burnout and work engagement, in a group of experienced police officers. We investigated: (a) the hierarchy of work values based on Super’s theory of career development, (b) relationships between work values and burnout and work engagement, and (c) differences between the work values in four groups (burned-out, strained, engaged, and relaxed). A group of 234 Polish police officers completed the Work Values Inventory (WVI) modeled upon Super’s theory, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The results show that police officers gave the highest priority to extrinsic work values. Job burnout was negatively correlated with the cognitive intrinsic work values (Creativity, Challenge, and Variety), while work engagement was positively correlated with the largest group of intrinsic work values (Creativity, Challenge, Variety, Altruism, and Achievement), as well as with the extrinsic work values (Prestige and Co-workers). The police officers showed significant differences, between levels of job burnout and work engagement, for intrinsic work values such as Variety, Challenge, and Creativity (large effects), and for Altruism and Prestige (moderate effects). The findings are discussed within the context of the Conservation of Resources theory, which explains how people invest and protect their personal resources, and how this is connected with preferred work values. We conclude that intrinsic work values are sensitive to different levels of burnout and engagement.

  • 1153.
    Bassem Yehia, Khaled
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Abdowod,, Vahab
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys av indikatorerna AIT, AIF, SAIDI och SAIFI i lokalnätet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (EI) is a regulatory authority for electricity, district heating and natural gas, where one of their tasks is to control the company's power distribution quality. A good electrical delivery reliability is determined on the basis of EI:s regulations and general advice in the publication EIFS 2013:1.

    Every year, the power distribution companies reports data to EI of the disturbances they have had in their networks, which is used to measure and analyse the electrical delivery reliability in the Swedish electricity grid. EI uses established indicators that describe the electrical delivery reliability of the distribution networks in Sweden. The indicators used today are named SAIDI and SAIFI, which are customer-weighted indices that describe the average interruption duration and the average interruption frequency for a specific network.

    In the beginning of 2019, EI will consider introducing two indicators to replace the current SAIDI and SAIFI indices, the indicators are being defined as AIT and AIF. According to EI, these indicators will be better than SAIDI and SAIFI as they take into consideration the customer's expected power consumption during the power outage.

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how the new indicators AIT and AIF affects the delivery reliability indicators in GENAB:s network, where these indicators are exercised on different types of networks and then compared. How the network can be made more efficient in the future by means of automation in the network is investigated based on the results on the indicators.

    From the results and investigations, it can be concluded that the transition to AIT and AIF will result in an increase of the indicator´s interruption time and the number of interruptions for customers per year in GENAB:s network.

  • 1154. Basu, A.
    et al.
    Chakraborty, J.
    Shariff, S. M.
    Padmanabham, G.
    Joshi, S. V.
    Sundararajan, G.
    Dutta Majumdar, J.
    Manna, I.
    Laser surface hardening of austempered (bainitic) ball bearing steel2007In: Scripta Materialia, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 887-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns laser surface hardening (LSH) of austempered SAE 52100 steel to enhance hardness and wear resistance. Following LSH with selected laser parameters, surface microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated by optical/scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, hardness measurement and wear studies, and thermal profile modeling. The results suggest that LSH could develop residual compressive stress and high hardness and wear resistance in this steel without affecting the bainitic core. © 2007 Acta Materialia Inc.

  • 1155.
    Battabyal, Manjusha
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Norell, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Goutier, Simon
    University of Limoges.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Comparison of microstructure in Ni-Al single splats and millimeter sized droplets2011In: Surface Modification Technologies XXV : Proceedings of the Twenty Fith International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies - SMT25: Trolhättan June 20-22, 2011, 2011, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1156.
    Batungwanayo, Guillaume
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Weld bead tracking by use of an infra-red vision system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of robotized seam-tracking techniques was conducted in preparation for a project consisting of using an infrared camera on a robot for on one side collect continuous weld images for NDT inspection and on the other one track the weld joint. The tracking system can be used to discover the position of the weld bead without previous information. The robust system is outlined, along with its merits and disadvantages.

  • 1157. Batungwanayo, Guillaume
    et al.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Weld Joint Tracking System in an Automatic Inspection Cell by Using Emissivity Variation2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermography has proven to be a suitable nondestructive testing method for automatic crack inspection of welds. However automatic weld inspection raises challenges. E.g. the position of the weld might not be exactly as the predefined weld seam, and a weld joint tracking system is needed. To reduce the number of equipment used, a solution is presented in this papers. The infrared camera in the thermography system is a carrier of information of the weld path. This is used for the weld joint tracking system. It is shown that the weld joint tracker is fast enough for an on-line automatic inspection.

  • 1158.
    Bauer, G.F.
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Center of Salutogenesis, Institute of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Prevention, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Roy, M.
    University of Sherbrooke, Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Quebec, Canada,.
    Bakibinga, P.
    Health Challenges and Systems Research Program, African Population & Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya,.
    Contu, P.
    University of Cagliari, Department of Medical Sciences and Public health, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy.
    Downe, S.
    University of Central Lancashire, School of Community Health and Midwifery, Preston, UK.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Espnes, G.A.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Center for Health Promotion Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jensen, B.B.
    Health Promotion, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Juvinya Canal, D.
    University of Girona, Faculty of Nursing, Girona, Spain.
    Lindström, B.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Center for Health Promotion Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Mittelmark, M.B.
    University of Bergen, Department of Health Promotion and Development, Bergen, Norway.
    Morgan, A.R.
    Glasgow Caledonian University, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow, UK.
    Pelikan, J.M.
    University of Vienna, Institute of Sociology, Vienna, Austria.
    Saboga-Nunes, L.
    University of Education Freiburg, Institute of Sociology,Freiburg, Germany.
    Sagy, S.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Center for Health Promotion Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Shorey, S.
    Alice Lee Center for Nursing Studies, Yong Lo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore .
    Vaandrager, L.
    Wageningen University, Department of Social Sciences, Health and Society, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Vinje, H.F.
    University College of Southeast Norway, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Department of Health, Social and Welfare Studies, Kongsberg, Vestfold, Norway.
    Future directions for the concept of salutogenesis: A position article2019In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, p. 1-9, article id daz057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aaron Antonovsky advanced the concept of salutogenesis almost four decades ago (Antonovsky, Health, Stress and Coping. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1979; Unravelling the Mystery of Health. Jossey-Bass,San Francisco, CA, 1987). Salutogenesis posits that life experiences shape the sense of coherence (SOC)VC that helps to mobilize resources to cope with stressors and manage tension successfully (determiningone's movement on the health Ease/Dis-ease continuum). Antonovsky considered the three-dimensionalSOC (i.e. comprehensibility, manageability, meaningfulness) as the key answer to his question about theorigin of health. The field of health promotion has adopted the concept of salutogenesis as reflected in theinternational Handbook of Salutogenesis (Mittelmark et al., The Handbook of Salutogenesis. Springer,New York, 2016). However, health promotion mostly builds on the more vague, general salutogenic orientation that implies the need to foster resources and capacities to promote health and wellbeing. Tostrengthen the knowledge base of salutogenesis, the Global Working Group on Salutogenesis (GWG-Sal)of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education produced the Handbook of Salutogenesis.During the creation of the handbook and the regular meetings of the GWG-Sal, the working group identified four key conceptual issues to be advanced: (i) the overall salutogenic model of health; (ii) the SOC concept; (iii) the design of salutogenic interventions and change processes in complex systems; (iv) the application of salutogenesis beyond health sector. For each of these areas, we first highlight Antonovsky'soriginal contribution and then present suggestions for future development. These ideas will help guideGWG-Sal's work to strengthen salutogenesis as a theory base for health promotion.

  • 1159.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berghammer, Malin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Lamas, K
    Umeå University, Nursing, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Facilitators and barriers for physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease2018In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, no suppl_1, p. 1120-1121, article id ehy566.P5433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A majority of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced exercise capacity and do not reach the recommended level of physical activity. A physically active lifestyle is essential to maintain health and counteract acquired cardiovascular disease. This study illuminates aspects that may be relevant for performing physical activity.Purpose: To describe facilitators and barriers for physical activity in adults with CHD.Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed individually with fourteen adults (age 19–68 years, women=7) with complex CHD. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Aspects that may enable or inhibit physical activity were found in two domains; Facilitators and Barriers, which both consisted of four categories physical, psychological, psychosocial and environmental aspects (Table 1).

  • 1160.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden; Department of Nursing, Sweden.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Gothenburg University, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden..
    Berghammer, Malin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. University of Gothenburg, Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Sweden.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Cardiothoracic Surgery Division,.
    Moons, Philip
    KU Leuven Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Belgium; Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden..
    Patient reported outcomes are associated with physical activity level in adults with congenital heart disease.2017In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 243, p. 174-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In general, adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have impaired exercise capacity, and approximately 50% do not reach current recommendations on physical activity. Herein we analysed factors associated with physical activity level (PAL) in adults with CHD by using patient-reported outcomes (PRO).

    METHODS: Patients with CHD (n=471) were randomly selected from the national register on CHD and categorized according to complexity of lesions - simple (n=172, 39.1±14.6years), moderate (n=212, 39±14.1years), and severe (n=87, 31.7±10.7years). Participants completed a standardized questionnaire measuring PRO-domains including PAL. Variables associated with PAL were tested in multivariate logistic regression.

    RESULTS: PAL was categorized into high (≥3 METs ≥2.5h/week, n=192) and low (≥3 METs <2.5h/week, n=279). Patients with low PAL were older (42.6 vs. 35.8years, p≤0.001), had more prescribed medications (51% vs. 39%, p=0.009), more symptoms (25% vs. 16%, p=0.02) and comorbidity (45% vs. 34% p=0.02). Patients with low PAL rated a lower quality of life (76.6 vs. 83.4, p<0.001), satisfaction with life (25.6 vs. 27.3, p=0.003), a lower Physical Component Summary score (PCS) (78.1 vs. 90.5, p<0.001) and Mental Component Summary score (MCS) (73.5 vs. 79.5, p<0.001). Complexity of heart lesion was not associated with PAL. The included PROs - separately tested in the model, together with age were associated with PAL.

    CONCLUSIONS: PCS and MCS are stronger associated with PAL than age and medical factors. The use of these PROs could therefore provide valuable information of benefit for individualized advice regarding physical activity to patients with CHD.

  • 1161.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine Department of Nursing.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Department of Nursing, .
    Berghammer, Malin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    It's like balancing on a slackline: A description of how adults with congenital heart disease describe themselves in relation to physical activity2018In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, no 15-16, p. 3131-3138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To illuminate how adults with CHD describe themselves in relation to physical activity.

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced exercise capacity and do not reach the recommended daily level of physical activity. With this in view, it is of immense importance to investigate how this population experiences physical activity.

    DESIGN: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were individually performed with fourteen adults (women=7, age 19-68 years) with complex CHD. Patients were purposively recruited from the clinic waiting list, based on a scheduled follow-up and diagnosis.

    RESULTS: The overall theme, It's like balancing on a slackline, illustrates how adults with CHD described themselves in relation to physical activity. This overall theme consisted of four subthemes: (1) Being an adventurer- enjoying the challenges of physical activity; (2) Being a realist- adapting to physical ability; (3) Being a non-doer- lacking prerequisites for physical activity; and (4) Being an outsider- feeling excluded depending on physical ability.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adults with CHD seem to have a diverse relationship to physical activity and it involves various aspects throughout the lifespan. The findings point out factors that might constitute as obstacles for being physically active, specific for people with chronic conditions like CHD. This highlights the importance of further exploring the hindering and facilitating factors for being physically active in order to get a deeper understanding of how to support adults with CHD to be physically active.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Given the diverse relationship to physical activity, nurses have to further investigate the patients' relationship to physical activity, in order to support a healthy lifestyle. Nurses and allied health professionals should offer individualized exercise prescriptions and education about suitable physical activities in relation to physical ability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 1162.
    Bayar, Aylin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bergman, Tilde
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Att förändra utan att förstöra: En intervjuundersökning om hur externa byråer arbetar med rebranding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are required to have the ability to be attractive because of today's intense market. They have to constantly make sure that their visual elements and graphic profile are related to the current market conditions. Furthermore the market are placing higher demands on how companies expose their brands and quite often the companies have to do a rebrand to keep their brand relevant. To do this, companies often have to hire an external party, such as an external advertising- or media agency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what causes a rebranding and how the external agencys are working with the process. The study also examines which factors the agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity and whether it's important to preserve certain core elements from the previous visual identity. This is investigated based on following questions: "What are the reasons to why a company chooses to do a rebrand?", "What do external agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity?" and "Is it important to maintain graphic elements from the previous visual identity?".

    To answer the questions, the researchers have applied a qualitative study where semi-structured interviews have been implemented. Theory is based on secondary sources and previous research that deals with the area of rebranding, visual identity and the different elements of identity.

    The reasons to rebranding can be different. The study also shows that some companies have a visual identity that does not interact with their products or services, which is the reason to rebranding. In summary, the external agencies take into account many of the aspects surrounding the design that are brought up by previous research, but the study also adds new perspectives.

  • 1163.
    Bayar, Sevinç
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Ryckenberg, Anette
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av möten med patienter från andra kulturer och deras närstående: en intervjustudie om smärta2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Many Swedish inhabitants origin from different countries with different cultures that may show pain in other ways than Swedes. The Swedish law stress that nursing care should be done individually according to the patient's capabilities and needs. Aim and Method: The aim of this study was to describe nurses´ experiences of encounters with patients from other cultures with pain, and also their next of kin. Qualitative interviews were carried out with seven nurses. The interviews were analysed with the starting point in Giger and Davidhizars Transcultural Assessment Model and the six phenomena: communication, space, social organisation, time, environmental control and biological diversity. Result: The result shows that the majority of the nurses were of the opinion that patients from other cultures express pain differently verbally and non-verbally. The next of kin was important for the patient. Fear, unknowledge and unfamiliarity sometimes made the nurses react in a way they did not want to. All phenomena, except biological diversity, were included in the result. Conclusion: Better knowledge about other cultures and patients' view of illness and disease would make it easier for the nurse to understand the patient and to encounter differences in pain expression.

  • 1164.
    Bayard, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Erixon, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Kontorslandskapet: hur påverkas kommunikationen och vad innebär det för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön?2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 1165.
    Beagan, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Brandberg, Jessica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Hälsa och lidande efter en njurtransplantation: En beskrivning av patienters erfarenheter att leva med en ny njure2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden last year 426 patients received a new kidney. As a patient you can be on a waiting list for a kidney transplantation between 1-3 years, sometimes longer. While waiting for a kidney transplantation dialysis is often required. Kidney transplantation is the renal replacement therapy of choice for more than 55 % of people with kidney failure. Despite improvements of quality of life in physical, social and psychological domains many factors influence life in a negative way.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences after a kidney transplant.

    Method: A literature-study was based on ten qualitative research articles.

    Result: Our analysis of the result emerged in two themes; "Adaption from ill to health with side-effects" and "Difficulties to make friends with uncertainty". Patients experienced a wide range of emotions while trying to adjust to life after transplantation. It is a complex task to establish normality in the shadow of troublesome side-effects and the constant risk of rejection.

    Conclusions: The kidney transplant patient often hovers between health and suffering. It is a big adjustment in life to try to live as a healthy person but along with side-effects and constant threat of graft rejection on the patients’ mind. To learn to cope with the situation and move towards acceptance the patient also needs hope. The nurse must be attentive to what the patient experiences to be able to support the patient in the process of striving towards health.

  • 1166.
    Beaubert, F.
    et al.
    TEMPO, UVHC, Campus Mont Houy, 59313 Valenciennes Cedex 9, France.
    Pálsson, H.
    University of Iceland, Sæmundargötu 2, Reykjavík 101, Iceland.
    Lalot, S.
    EMPO, UVHC, Campus Mont Houy, Valenciennes Cedex 9, France.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Bauduin, H.
    EMPO, UVHC, Campus Mont Houy, Valenciennes Cedex 9, France.
    Fundamental mode of freely decaying laminar swirling flows2016In: Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN 0307-904X, E-ISSN 1872-8480, Vol. 40, no 13-14, p. 6218-6233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A detailed study of a swirling flow in a tube is presented in the first part of the paper. A simplified analytical solution of the governing equations indicates specific modes of the tangential velocity and that the decay of the swirl effect is exponential. The problem is then solved in three dimensions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a comparison with analytical expressions shows that the CFD code is reliable in terms of accuracy. The CFD results confirm that a fundamental swirling mode is reached within a short distance from the inlet. The torque swirl number is introduced to physically estimate the intensity of the swirl. A companion value is given: it is the average deviation.

  • 1167.
    Beaubert, Francois
    et al.
    Valenciennes University.
    Pálsson, Halldór
    University of Iceland.
    Lalot, Sylvain
    Valenciennes University.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Bauduin, Hadrian
    Valenciennes University.
    Design of a device to induce swirling flow in pipes: A rational approach2015In: Comptes rendus. Mecanique, ISSN 1631-0721, E-ISSN 1873-7234, Vol. 343, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a rational approach is proposed to design a device for inducing swirling flow in heat exchanger pipes, for improved efficiency in the laminar regime. First, 2D computational fluid dynamics results lead to select, among four profiles, the blade profile with the most favorable lift to drag ratio. Then, the fluid flow in the swirler made with the selected blade profile is simulated in 3D, for Reynolds numbers ranging from 50 to 1600. Based on the simulation results, an analytic approximation of the evolution of the tangential fluid velocity is proposed as a function of the Reynolds number.

  • 1168.
    Becker Gruvstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Academy of Music in Malmö, Lund University.
    Niemi, Mariella
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Östnäs, Anna
    The first steps on starting courses in music for students with intellectual disabilities at the Academy of Music in Malmö, Lund University: Ways, means and barriers2012In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: Special Issue: A World of Potential, 2012, Vol. 56, no 7-8, p. -713Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The education system in Sweden has not yet formed a sustainable way into higher education and lifelong learning for students with intellectual disabilities. Discussions on inclusive education nationally in society are ongoing but few concrete examples have yet been implemented. This presentation will present experiences from the first attempt to organize and provide courses for students with intellectual disabilities within higher music education in Sweden. Methods: Two courses were given at the Academy of Music in Malmö, Lund University in 2010 and 2011. The content of the first course focused on the history of music, rhythm and ensemble playing. The second one focused on Opera as an art form with both process and product as means of learning. Results & Conclusions: The experiences show the students' capability to develop and enhance musical expression. However, questions concerning (a) the quality of music education currently available to students with ID, (b) pedagogical approaches in the academy, (c) rules for admission to higher education and (d) different attitudes to widening participation within the academies has emerged and need to be processed.

  • 1169.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Statens livsmedelsverk, Uppsala.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Institutionen för näringslära, Uppsala universitet.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Institutionen för klinisk fysiologi, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Hög proteinhalt i svensk mat: en hälsorik?1996In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 93, no 1-2, p. 37-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Proteininnehållet i svenskkost är relativt högt i förhållande till internationella rekommendationer. Höga proteinintaghos barn har satts i samband med ökad risk för övervikt. Hos vuxna har ett högt proteinintag,och därmed förhöjda homocysteinnivåer i serum, samtidigt med ett lågt intag av folacin förts fram som riskfaktorer förhjärt–kärlsjukdom. Det finns inga fördelar – men eventuellt nackdelar – med ett proteinintag över 15 energiprocent, eller1,5 g/kg kroppsvikt.

  • 1170.
    Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Det handlar om att kompromissa": Unga Vuxna Samtalar Om Livsval, Framtidstankar Och Hur Det Är Att Bo Och Studera I Västerviks Kommun2018Report (Other academic)
  • 1171.
    Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Exempel 10: Ung och arbetslös i Västervik2019In: Samverkansforskning: att främja barns och ungas välfärd / [ed] Lena Nilsson & Emma Sorbring (red.), Stockholm: Liber, 2019, p. 100-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1172.
    Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Re-imagining Work and Masculinity in a Postindustrial Society2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the narratives of young working-class men, living in a small town in Sweden that is located outside the regions with economic growth. As in many other European countries, the rate of unemployment among Swedish youth is disproportionally high. Based upon material consisting of in-depth interviews with unemployed young men, the paper will analyze the changed meaning of masculinity in relation to work in a postindustrial society. Since working-class masculinity has traditionally been closely connected to wage labor and to the ability to provide for oneself as well as being the breadwinner of the family, the lack of resources that unemployment implies, means that masculinity and its relational implications must be re-imagined. The young men's narratives can thereby be seen to reflect social and cultural changes that have taken place on a structural level related to the labor market, the educational system, as well as the changed conditions for the formation of social identities. The intergenerational working-class culture on the one hand and neoliberal ideas permeating activities for the unemployed, such as training- and coaching-programs, on the other – serve as reference points for the young men's experience of subordination. In many ways the situation described was marked by deficiency and vulnerability, an effect of the social division of today, where the long-term unemployed are depicted as 'abject others' and even more so if placed in subordinated categories such as (non)working-class males, living in the back country. But what also can be traced in the young men's own narratives are some critical reflections and possible alternative ways of forming social identities and masculinities. This is furthermore related to different kinds of work ethics than the familiar one they have been socialized into when growing up and the other one that they have met as jobseekers.

  • 1173.
    Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, Göteborg.
    Väntan: Etnografiskt kollage kring ett mellanrum2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about waiting. It's about what happens when an ethnographer goes into the field and asks people to fill a small and indeterminate word like waiting with thoughts, experiences and recollections. The study is primarily based on twenty qualitative interviews with thirteen interviewees in Gothenburg. The interviewees were selected from the ethnographer's own circle of acquaintances and constitute a fairly homogenous group of individuals. They are early middle-aged, were brought up in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s, belong to a relatively well-educated lower middle-class, have artistic/cultural interests and work in the public/cultural sector. In an attempt to put the interviewees' narratives into a wider context, I have collected and used supplementary material in the form of different narratives communicated, for example, through the mass media, fiction, DIY-books, popular science and art. A central point of departure in the study is that the words we use are filled with meanings that we ourselves assign to them, and that an interview is a form of narrative in which knowledge is constructed at that particular moment in time. The aim of this dissertation is to study some of the articulations of waiting. What kind of waiting is highlighted in the narratives of waiting in every day life? Which words, themes, images, characters and motifs are available to use and grapple with? What is the purpose of waiting, and which ideals, norms and perceptions connected with waiting emerge? By listening to and studying the articulations of waiting I capture a time-dimension – that is partly about an everyday perception and organisation of time and partly about a central aspect of becoming a subject at a more existential level. The aspect of time that has been captured here indicates that waiting is about change. When subjectivity is understood as something that happens, an activity, an action or a process, movement is at the core. Being or becoming a subject demands transition and change – the movement from one state to another. Fulfilling oneself means moving between the different positions that one seeks to occupy. Waiting can thus be said to capture the actual passage, which means that this state that we usually define as something stationary and uneventful is actually an important productive mechanism. This then constitutes the actual effort, attempt and charging up involved in being able to attain something else. The driving force in all these processes is different kinds of imagined needs – the need to become a subject and be fulfilled.

  • 1174.
    Beckman, Anita
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    "Jag skulle så jätte, jätte, jättegärna vilja ha ett fast jobb att gå  till": om att vara ung och arbetslös i Västervik2017Report (Other academic)
  • 1175.
    Beckman, Anita
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, Sverige.
    "Kvar vid barnbordet...": om unga vuxna utanför arbetsmarknaden2018In: Barn och ungdomsvetenskap: grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Johansson, Thomas & Sorbring, Emma, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, p. 529-543Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1176.
    Beganovic, Melissa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Sadinmaa Halttu, Sara
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Självskadebeteende: En litteraturöversikt om faktorer som påverkar mötet och bemötandet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The definition of self-harm is described as a conscious act of harm towards oneself without the intent of suicide. The hospital staffs attitudes are important in the encounter with a patient who self-harms. A negative attitude can increase the self-harm, while a positive attitude can prevent it. Factors that can influence the attitudes of staff and the encounter with a patient who self-harms include respect, understanding and sympathy. Aim The aim of this study was to illuminate factors that influence the encounter with a patient and the attitudes of hospital staff toward people with a self-injurious behavior, when being treated for self-harming or mental illness. Method The study was conducted as a literature review with both qualitative and quantitative articles. Twelve articles were analyzed with a focus on differences and similarities. This resulted in four themes. Results The overall result

    displays factors that influence the encounter and attitudes toward patients whit self-injurious behavior. The first theme discusses the lack of understanding and knowledge. The second theme underlines the staffs lack of genuine interest, sympathy and responsiveness. The third theme highlights the absence of availability and patience among staff. The final theme illuminates the staffs emotional experiences in the encounter with self-injurious patients.

    Conclusion The study reveals a lack of knowledge, education and sympathy among hospital staff towards patients who self-harm. This affects the encounter and the attitudes negatively. More education on the subject is necessary to ensure an improved and effective care

  • 1177.
    Begby, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Apelqvist, Hampus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den asymmetriska karaktärsanatomin: En jämförande analys av kroppsliga differenser vid animering av asymmetriska och symmetriska karaktärer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how asymmetrical anatomy on 3D CGI characters can be constructed and influence experiences. The paper is based on comparing symmetrical and asymmetrical characters for a given situation. The experiment contains of two character animations where both characters are walking up on a staircase. One of the character has a prosthetic leg, otherwise, both characters have identical design for the same situation. For this thesis the character with asymmetrical leg is called 'asymmetrical character'.

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and examine the effect of the differences between the characters, based on three of Disney's twelve animation principles (Frank Thomas & Ollie Johnston, 1981, s.47). The three most common, and chosen principles are: Anticipation, Exaggeration and Squash & Stretch. The comparison also include differences calculated in frames, and a discussion on considering the center of mass and the balance for figures. The aim is to create more believable characters and show how the combination of these factors can improve the reliability of the animation, and help to keep the suspension of disbelief alive.

    The results shows how the three animation principles applied to symmetrical and asymmetrical characters differs in terms of 1) usage, 2) needed frames, and 3) handling the center of gravity and obtaining balance for the characters. By interpreting the results, this study contributes to guidelines for the students interested in animation to create animation on asymmetrical characters. Since asymmetrical characters are needed for many settings, awareness about the resources required for asymmetrical characters should be clearer. Changing symmetrical characters to asymmetrical can also be common, and therefore methods and requirements for understanding the changes should be already described in handbooks and manuals used for character animations.

  • 1178.
    Begicevic, Dias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vi ses på nätet: en studie om ungdomars sätt att umgås via datorn2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When young people today tend to spend part of their leisure time in front of the computer and communicate via various internet-based communication tools may the question be asked if the communication is different from the communication that takes place in reality, and this in turn influences the ability to communicate in an empathic way with their fellow human beings. The question formulation is about if communication via the internet and in real life is different from each other, how young people look at the interaction via the internet-based communication tools, and how this affects them. The method that has been used is qualitative interviews to get as detailed answer as possible by the respondents.The survey results show that young people differ in their way to be, depending on the form of socializing utilized. The selection of social company form are based on mood, the home's rules, weather and season. Internet-based communication tools are used more as a supplement to physical meetings rather than replacing them, in spite of this there is a skepticism from the parents against Internet communication. It can be concluded that the interaction and communication via the internet is not a substitute for physical interaction with other people, but rather serves as a complement to this. An awareness that the communication over the internet can seem harsher exists and it is not used in physical meetings and that communications over the internet seems to be more intense during a short period of adolescence can also conclude that the interaction with other people in real life is not significantly affected.The work does largely agree with what previous research has shown.

  • 1179.
    Behrman, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Larsson, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    "de flesta mår ju bra, men många ungdomar mår dåligt, så är det ju": En kvalitativ studie om skolsköterskors syn på faktorer som påverkar ungdomars mentala hälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden most young people feel good, but there are some young people who are not doing well and this part is so large that it is considered a public health problem. The problems of young people’s lack of mental health are both national and local. According to the reports we have read, the self-reported experience of feeling bad in recent years has leveled off, but there are still too many who are doing poorly. Through qualitative interviews with professional nurses in Sjuhäradsbygden we have investigated the perceptions of factors affecting mental health and contribute to a better mental health. The results were analyzed inspired by a phenomenographic analysis. The school nurses' mandate is to work on health promotion and disease prevention and thus it was interesting to see their beliefs about the aim in this study. The results show that the state of knowledge of nurses about factors affecting mental health is broad. However there are perceptions of the difficulties that influence the factors that affecting young people's mental health. The factors are often described as structural problems based in young people's entire living environment and life situation. Four categories emerged from the analysis: requirements, support, habits and stability all important for important for children/young people during their formative years in order to be able to feel good and develop good mental health. We hope that this work contributes to a deeper understanding to people working with young people in schools about factors affecting their mental health. It may provide a state of knowledge that can be useful not only for the investigations on health promotion at a local level but also for forthcoming activities on public health

  • 1180.
    Beijer, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Specialist Nursing programme.
    Eng, Caroline
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Specialist Nursing programme.
    Äldre och barn sjunger tillsammans: en kvalitativ intervjustudie ur personalens perspektiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish population is getting older. Ageing can be defined from several perspectives. How elderly people experience ageing depends on a number of different factors. If the elderly can participate in social activities, it brings meaningfulness and strengthens their wellbeing and health through sense of coherence. Music and singing has previously been beneficial in regards to the care of elderly. The elderly that are living in nursing homes tend to be old and dependent on the help of others. To give person centred care is to be aware of, and see, the whole being. The advanced nurse in elderly care has a responsibility to person centred care and to help and support co-workers and nursing staff in this. Aim: To describe the staff experience of the effect singing with children has on the elderly. Method: A qualitative interview study. Results: Three major themes emerged: To sing with children gives the elderly validation, it awakens feelings in them but it also brings stressors. The elderly is validated through the relationship that forms between the elderly and the children. This also brings understanding between them. The feelings that are awakened are joy and anticipation. The stressors are related to tiredness and failing health which means the elderly cannot always participate in the activities. Conclusion: Singing with children brought the elderly joy and validation. To make meaningful activities part of nursing home care can contribute to better health in the elderly.

  • 1181.
    Beijer, Fanny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Rydbeck, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    "När jag får ångest och känner att nu behöver jag skära mig, då kan jag gå till hästen”: En studie om hästunderstödd terapi som behandlingsmetod för flickor med självskadebeteende2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have examined in which way the horse is used in Equine Assisted Therapy, and what effects the treatment staff experience and describes that the interaction with horses has on girls who self-harms. Our Empirical data was collected through qualitative methods such as interviews, participant observation and informal interviews with a total of six different informants, from five different activities with Equine Assisted Therapy for girls who self-harms. In the analysis we have assumed symbolic interactionism, a theory focusing on the human as a social being, where the self-image alters in the social interaction with other human beings. We interwove this theory with the Biophilia hypothesis, an explanatory model concerning human’s relationship to animals and nature.

    The conclusions we have found in the results are:

    • Equine Assisted Therapy is a complementary treatment comprises both horseback riding and exercises which is not based on the horseback
    • Equine Assisted Therapy almost always involves three parts, the therapist, the client and the horse. The therapist constantly interpreters the horse to get information about the clients senses tuning.
    • The horse can be especially useful for sexual abused girls. It can be used as a help for the client in relaxation exercises, and can be a help for the client in body awareness recovery.
    • Equine Assisted Therapy contributes to increased self-confidence, self-esteem and altered self-image
    • The horse has not the ability to lie, which results in a completely honest relationship between the horse and the human.
    • Both the ambient environment and just interacting with the horse can be calming and anxiolytic for the client.     

     

     

  • 1182.
    Beining Dahlgren, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Steffenburg Wennberg, Marie
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Faktorer som skapar trygga möten vid smärtsamma procedurer på barn2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Many children are visiting hospitals and health care institutes daily due to a numerous reasons. A child´s experience of pain has for long time been underestimated. Pain together with anxiety could develop mental and physical worries for future meetings with treatment institutes. To upturn the feasibility when a child meets the health care this essay was written.

    Aim:

    The aim was to enlighten factors which creates reassuring meetings for children in painful treatments.

    Method:

    The method used was a literature study based on qualitative and quantitative research. The databases Cinahl and PubMed has been used as sources. All articles has been reviewed according to Friberg.

    Results:

    The result revealed mutual factors with the three pillars in Katie Erikssons nursing theory "Tend, Play and Learn" which are the bases in the result. It's important to please, gain trust, listen, form confidence, participate, share information and utilize the parents as the comfort zone for the child in the meeting. Through distraction and coping strategies moves the interest to cooperate is activated which significant lower the level of distress and fear.

    Conclusion:

    The nurse could by focusing on the patient during the conversation benefit the child personality, resource and caring need by using the three pillars "Tend, Play and Learn". Together with the child and parents the nurse could create solid ground for a safe and sound meeting during a painful examination.

  • 1183.
    Beissinger Bart, Andres
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Soto Vallejos, Nicolas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av kabelnät i området Sjöhaga - Lerdala Gård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis describes a preparation work for Ellevio AB. The preparation work is supposed to rebuild the power grid in Sjöhaga - Lerdala in Skövde municipality with the aim to weatherproofing the local area network and increase the reliability. The project concerns all work on preparation such as contact with authorities and landowners involved in the project, in order to agree on where the new cables can be built. Field visits were conducted continuously during the project for an overview of the area and to plan possible cable stretches, as well as the best possible location for the network stations in agreement with the landowners. The preparation of the underground cable is carried out in four parts, part one is Sjöhaga - Melldala, part two is Melldala - Karlsfors, part three is Karlsfors - Dämman and part four is Dämman – Lerdala Farm. Part one will have a serial satellite network station with a 200kVA transformer and no local network preparation will take place at this stage. In part two Karlsfors will keep its current local distribution network and network station, part three will have an ELIT3 network station fitted with a 100kVA transformer. For part four, there will be an ELIT3 network station with 100kVA transformer and three cable cabinets. In addition to these parts, the possibility for a redundancy feeding between Karlsfors - Yttersöra was investigated. However, when this was perceived as not possible due to the environmental conditions, it was decided, on the recommendation of a supervisor at PSN Kraftkonsult, to be placed between Dämman - Björnsäter with a overhead cable on existing poles. The cost of the renewal amounts to 2.6 million SEK and 449 thousand SEK for the redundancy from Dämman to Björnsäter. Network stations are positioned in Melldala, Dämman and Lerdala Farm which also has three cable cabinets. The total cable length of the HV-system is 6.5 km and the LV-system is 1.70 km.

  • 1184.
    Bejbom, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Mätmetodik vid interiörmätning – kan den effektiviseras genom vidareutvecklad EDM-teknik?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines surveying with indoor surveying as main focus. Indoor surveying is used to produce plans of an existing building that is being conversed to e.g. dwellings. The study evaluates reflectorless and prism measurement with total station. The purpose with the study is to identify the problems that occur when measured surveying is conducted and establish adequate surveying methods with regards to efficiency and quality. It will also be examined if a further development of the electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) technique will enable for reflectorless measuring to phase out the use of prism. To put the purpose into practice a few question formulations were established:  What objects are today problematic when conducting indoor surveying?  Which are the most adequate methods when measuring the objects identified above with regards to efficiency and uncertainty?  What are the ratio between reflectorless measuring made with different developed EDM technique? A number of qualitative interviews with surveyors were carried out to identify problematic objects and surveying methods used today. Together with earlier studies in the field, those interviews was the basis for the design of the quantitative field examination. The problematic areas examined were; large incidence angle, outside corner, inside corner and circular objects. Each of the reflectorless measurements were carried out by two instruments using different developed EDM technique, which enabled a comparison. Furthermore prism measurement were conducted since that is the leading method this day. The examination showed that prism measurement had the largest amount of results meeting the requirement of an enlarged uncertainty < 10 mm. Prism measurement fulfilled the requirement in 34 out of 46 of the scenarios, compared to 38 out of 54 when using reflectorless measuring with the newer total station. The examination also showed that the instrument using a newer EDM technic performed better in 50 out of 54 scenarios. Hence the conclusion were made that a further development of the EDM technique may enable a phase out of the use of prism on a wider scale. To be able to make correct choices of surveying methods, the final products requirements, which instrument that are being used and the shape and placing of objects need to be taken into consideration.

  • 1185.
    Bejbom, Johannes
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Lindbäck, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Fritidspedagogen och utomhusmiljön: hur fritidspedagogen ser på naturen som en pedagogisk miljö2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera undersökningar visar att barn rör allt mindre på sig idag och allt fler sitter framför datorn och Tv: n. För vissa är idrottslektionerna i skolan den enda styrda fysiska aktiviteten som de utför. Den tredje pedagogiska miljön, utomhuspedagogiken, ger en miljö som erbjuder många utmaningar och skapar miljöer där man kan sätta in sin teoretiska kunskap. Naturen erbjuder också fysisk träning, ett miljömedvetande och en ökad socialkompetens hos barnen. Syftet med studien är att få reda på; Hur utnyttjar fritidspedagogen den närliggande miljön? Hur ofta och på vilket sätt är de ute? Vad är fritidspedagogens ändamål med att vara ute i naturen? Vi har valt att göra en kvalitativ enkätundersökning med strukturerade frågor som bygger på de tre områden som våra frågeställningar berör. Vi har sett att det finns tre olika grupper fritidspedagoger, skolgårdsgruppen, skog/skolgårdsgruppen och skogsgruppen. Dessa tre grupper använder närmiljön som ett pedagogiskt syfte på olika sätt. Den stora likheten mellan grupperna är att de betonar att barnen behöver vistas utomhus, men även att de vill tillgodose rörelsebehovet hos barnen.

  • 1186.
    Bektic, Mirsad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Hadzidedic, Amra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Mobboffers lidande: En studie om mobbning och samhällsmisslyckande2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bullying can affect the

    victims’ health and quality of life. Seven participants were studied, who had been

    subjected to degrading treatment during their schooling. The study went on to

    capture the participants' experiences concerning bullying and therefore a qualitative

    approach based on grounded theory was chosen for the data analysis. The

    participants were free to talk about their experiences of bullying in the form of a

    semi-structured interview that included the following items: their home situation,

    school situation and life during and after the bullying. The analytical work resulted

    in the core category "Societal failure". This core category is composed of five high

    order categories: "Lack of parental care", "Ambivalence of school staff”, "Social

    chaos", "Mental suffering" and "Reduced quality of life". The study showed that

    people who have been subjected to bullying often come from insecure home

    environments and they have had complex difficulties during their childhood where

    bullying is just one aspect. Today's society has no tool for preventing the bullying

    of children with special needs and the measures taken in that direction end up in

    institutional failure.

  • 1187.
    Beljic Zivkovic, Lidija
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Galle, Jessica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Attityder och och kännedom om etnisk mångfald på BUP-kliniken i Västra Götalandsregionen2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 1188.
    Bellak, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bellak, Susanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Responsiv Webbdesign: En studie av två responsiva gränssnitt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for new devices is expanding, while older devices and browsers still remains. This makes it problematic for designers and developers to know what screen size and device that is used by the visitor. Previously , this has often been handled by creating a separate mobile site , but since we are no longer limited to a few screen sizes , this becomes untenable. The designer / developer then would have to create different web pages for all devices. One popular solution to this is responsive web design, which is based on a flexible and dynamic interface that automatically adapts to the visitor's screen size. Although responsive web design has had a major impact on the web , it is still a new area which is reflected in the lack of research on the subject. The rapid development of the area has also led to that the designers and developers have had to quickly adapt interfaces and techniques as they no longer work for all user situations.

    The purpose of our study was to increase the understanding about responsive web design, and how this can be adapted to improve the usability and user experience . We have chosen to evaluate different, responsive interface to find guidelines that can be the basis for future, responsive web pages. Our research question is therefore :

    "How can responsive design be optimized for an improved user experience and greater usability?"

    The main findings in our study is partly that it is very important that the user perceives the website as consistent and recognize both the design of aesthetic elements and the interface, regardless of platform. We were also able to say that it is important for the designer / developer to prioritize the content and maintain margins and distance even on the smaller screens, allowing users to create a good overview and therefore get a better user experience

  • 1189.
    Bellani, Ervina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Kallin, Susanne
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hur använder lärare matematikboken?2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Skolverkets rapporter och granskningar av den svenska skolan framgår det att elevernas resultat i matematik sjunker. Vad orsakerna kan vara har man inget exakt svar på men skolverket belyser i sin rapport några möjliga faktorer som kan ha påverkan. En av orsakerna som lyfts både av TIMSS rapport och Skolinspektionens granskningar är lärarnas bundenhet till matematikboken och det så kallade traditionella arbetssättet. Utifrån debatten som försiggår idag kring de sjunkande resultaten väcktes vårt intresse för ämnet. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur lärarna i några skolor använder sig av matematikboken i sin planering och undervisning. Genom en kvalitativ studie baserad på intervjuer med fyra lärare försökte vi få fram en klarare bild av lärarnas syn på matematikboken och om det motsvarar det som framgår i tidigare forskning. Av resultatet framgår att det finns många likheter men också olikheter i lärarnas arbetssätt. Studiens resultat visar att läroboken spelar en stor roll i planering och undervisning. Boken ses som ett bekvämt och tryggt redskap för de intervjuade lärarna samt ger dem ett färdigkonstruerat upplägg till lektionerna. Det framgår också att den största skillnaden mellan lärarnas användning av boken är hur mycket de använder den och hur den kompletteras. För tre av lärarna är boken det mest använda läromedlet och för den fjärde är den mer som ett komplement. Lärarna vill inte se sig som styrda utan uttrycker att boken är ett stöd för dem i matematikämnet.

  • 1190.
    Bellani, Erwina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Kallin, Susanne
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Resonemangsförmågan i lärarhandledningar?: en innehållsanalys av fyra lärarhandledningar i matematik för årskurs 32016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Matematik är ett skolämne som ofta förknippas med tyst enskilt arbete i en matematikbok trots att läroplanen och den senaste forskningen lyfter fram och betonar social interaktion och kommunikation som ytterst betydelsefull för elevers matematiska utveckling. Tidigare forskning kring läroböcker i matematik har mestadels handlat om elevboken och dess utformning och betydelse. Lärarhandledningar har inte varit lika undersökta även om de är nära knuta till elevboken och att det är genom handledningen som läraren kan få stöd och en bra resurs till lyckad undervisning. Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen är att granska de delar i lärarhandledningar i matematik som behandlar aritmetik för att se vilket stöd lärare ges för att utveckla elevernas resonemangsförmåga. Vi vill också undersöka hur texterna kommunicerar med läraren.Metod: Genom en kvalitativ textanalys av lärarhandledningar ville vi undersöka huruvida texterna var bildande eller instruerande, om det finns skillnader mellan de olika handledningarna och om de motsvarar det som framgår i tidigare forskning. I utformningen av vårt analysverktyg har vi inspirerats av tidigare liknande granskningar. Resultat: I vårt resultat kom vi fram till att de olika lärarhandledningarna ofta har en liknande struktur men att de skiljer sig åt i hur texten kommunicerar med läraren och hur de kan verka som stöd och resurs. Vissa texter är som en instruktion med ett färdigt manus till läraren medan andra texter ger läraren påminnelser på svårigheter som kan uppstå, tips att tänka på samt uppmanar till diskussion. Utifrån vårt resultat anser vi att det är ytterst viktigt att som lärare göra ett medvetet val av lärarhandledning och reflektera över sitt syfte med hur läromedlet används i matematikundervisningen.

  • 1191.
    Ben Mabrouk, Amina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Maalallah, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvecklingsarbete gällande metoder för beräkning av bortkopplad last vid automatisk förbrukningsfrånkoppling2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Eldistribution wishes to compile in real time which load that is available for disconnection via AFK (Load shedding) to avoid network collapse. This is done by implementing methods on Vattenfall's operating system to get an estimation of the load available for disconnection when AFK is activated.

    The purpose of the work is to create a summarized measurement value which, in real time, indicates how much load is available for disconnection with AFK in Vattenfall's network. This is to ensure that Vattenfall Eldistribution meets the requirements of SvKFS 2012: 1 during all hours of the year.

    The work is divided into two parts; one part to produce useful methods for obtaining the desired measurement values and another part for the implementation that has taken place in Vattenfall's operating system. These goals have been achieved by carrying out analyses and calculations of approximately one hundred stations containing AFK equipment that are located in three different zones in the electricity area SE3.

    Results are presented through a final overview, which is a fictitious picture of how it looks after implementation based on the methods developed in Vattenfall's operating system. In the resulting overview image, each station containing the AFK equipment is presented with a sum of the available active power for disconnection and each station is located under respective disconnection step.

  • 1192.
    Benages Montolío, Sergio
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Robot Behaviour Monitoring in Friction Stir Welding2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Friction Stir Welding is a solid state join process in which the heat need is produced by the friction of a tool on the work pieces. The tool rotates on the surface and also applies a force against it to create the needed friction. This technology does not use any consumable and does not produce any gas, which makes it cost effective, save for the operators and clean.

    The equipment used for this technology has been changing within the years. Milling machines were adapted to it at the beginning. After, specific machines for friction stir welding were developed, providing higher down force and control systems. Nevertheless, the lack of flexibility of machines made industrial robots became an alternative. Robots have limitations in terms of stiffness. But, they can be used to weld complex geometries and they can be used in large scale applications due to their flexibility and low cost.

    This project studies the process from the robot behaviour perspective. The main objective is to achieve a better understanding of the process to contribute to the continuous development of robotic FSW. An acquisition system was developed to monitor different signals from the robot such as, forces, torque, path deviation, and vibrations. The data acquisition system developed and mounted at PTC was tested and its limitations were examined. The developed system has been used for conducting different experiments: The differences between the robot system and a system based on a FSW machine situated at TWI were studied; and, in addition, the behaviour of the robot under different welding parameters was investigated.

  • 1193.
    Benayed, Elie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jama, Issa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bitcoin: An empirical study on the future developments2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bitcoin has over the years dominated the headlines for good and bad reasons. Examples of this range from the first introduction of a Bitcoin Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to the recent attack on the Bitcoin exchange, MT Gox, where 850000 bitcoins were stolen worth hundreds of millions USD. The fundamental questions that this research answers are what Bitcoin exactly is and whom the actors are using this digital currency. Furthermore, an empirical research is conducted to highlight how actors expect Bitcoin to develop in the future.

    Bitcoin is depicted as a self-evolving system that has its own community. This research draws similarities with the traditional theory of ecosystem and the business ecosystem theory by Moore (1996). The Bitcoin ecosystem is presented as a model that consists out of internal and external factors.

    The methods that are used in this research are mostly of quantitative nature, though a qualitative way of analysing is also incorporated in this research. An electronic questionnaire was sent to users, investors and companies that use Bitcoin. These electronic questionnaires were sent to companies by email and to different Bitcoin forums to reach users and investors in Bitcoin. A total of 51 actors have completed the questionnaire.

    The empirical analysis focused on the present and the future of Bitcoin. The subjects that are covered consisted of legal, economic and technological factors that determine the Bitcoin system. The present situation shows that the main reason people use Bitcoin is that it offers the actors an alternative for fiat currencies and low transaction costs when making payments. The current drawbacks of the Bitcoin system are, regarded by scholars and actors, to be the high volatility in the value of Bitcoin and the security concerns that are caused by hackers of the system.

    Finally, the overall sentiment amongst users, investors and companies is that the future of Bitcoin is considered to be a bright one based on the legal, economic and technological factors

  • 1194.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Johansson, AnneLie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Leijon, Matti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Science, Division of Community Medicine.
    Referral to an electronic screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary health care in Sweden: Impact of staff referral to the computer2011In: International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications, ISSN 1687-6415, E-ISSN 1687-6423, ISSN 1687-6415, Vol. 918763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate whether primary health care staff's referral of patients to perform an electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for alcohol use had a greater impact on change in alcohol consumption after 3 month, compared to patients who performed the test on their own initiative. Staff-referred responders reported reduced weekly alcohol consumption with an average decrease of 8.4 grams. In contrast, self-referred responders reported an average increase in weekly alcohol consumption of 2.4 grams. Staff-referred responders reported a 49 reduction of average number of heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions per month. The corresponding reduction for self-referred responders was 62. The differences between staff- and self-referred patient groups in the number who moved from risky drinking to nonrisky drinking at the followup were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that standalone computers with touchscreens that provide e-SBIs for risky drinking have the same effect on drinking behaviour in both staff-referred patients and self-referred patients. Copyright © 2011 Preben Bendtsen et al.

  • 1195.
    Bengtegård, Dante
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mo, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Fotogrammetri och 3D-artisten: En studie om fotogrammetrin inom spelindustrin och dess effekt på branschens artister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, modelling for 3D games have strived to achieve photographic realism. The road there have historically gone through well-established traditional 3D-methods like box modelling and digital sculpting. However, in 2014 a big paradigm shift starts to happen, in 2014 photogrammetry arrives to the game industry in force. Since then the technology of photogrammetry has exploded within the game development industry and the field is now rapidly going through an arms race to not get left behind in the evolution of workflows for developing photo realistic 3D games. The purpose of this study was to understand how the implementation of this technology affects the 3D artists in the game industry. To study this, which has not been treated in previous scientific literature, we have conducted a survey study and a series of interviews. From our results we can see that the respondents, for the most part, have a positive attitude towards the change. This technology means for them a faster workflow and a shortcut towards photorealism. On top of this we cannot see a strong indication that this technology diminishes the artists creativity or causes something that can be called disruptive.

  • 1196.
    Bength, Cathrine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Edwartz, Linus
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Samband mellan drogberoende och aggressivt antisocialt beteende, sant eller falskt?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents tend to be more impulsive and more prone to take risks compared to adults, which can be related to immaturity in the brain structure. This often leads to impulsive acts without thinking about the consequences of their actions. This also means that adolescents are more prone to try new things, like drugs for example. Drug misuse often leads to antisocial behavior (that is often aggressive, but doesn't have to be), mental illness and criminality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in aggressive antisocial behavior in Moroccan adolescents who are drug dependent compared to nondrug dependent Moroccan adolescents. To answer this question a quantitative empirical study design with comparative statistical analysis was used. The result of the study showed that Moroccan adolescents with drug dependence have higher scores in aggressive and antisocial behaviors and also more prone to self-harm than those Moroccan adolescents who have no drug dependence. These results support previous findings, which have shown that adolescents with a drug dependence tend to have aggressive antisocial behavior to a greater extent compared to adolescents who do not have a drug dependence.

  • 1197.
    Bengtler, Camilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Söftling Bergstedt, Therese
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hur upplevs återkoppling på stavning av elever?: en kvalitativ studie om motivation till berättelseskrivning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Till grund för vår studie ligger diskussioner mellan forskare om huruvida lärare stärker eller minskar elevers motivation till skrivning om de rättar deras texter. Då många studier utgår från lärares perspektiv och hur de ser på rättstavning valde vi i vår studie att utgå från barns perspektiv för att låta eleverna själva uttrycka vad de känner angående stavning, återkoppling och motivation att skriva.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att få inblick i några elevers känsla för motivation till berättelseskrivning utifrån återkoppling på stavning med utgångspunkt i enskilt skrivna berättelser. Syftet är också att söka svar på hur lärare kan tillämpa elevernas uttalanden i undervisningssituationer.

    Metod: Vi har utfört en kvalitativ studie med en fenomenologisk ansats. Först skapade vi två berättelseskrivtillfällen för eleverna. Under första tillfället gav vi skriftlig återkoppling på elevernas stavfel och under andra tillfället gav vi muntlig direktåterkoppling samt observerade hur lång tid det tog för eleverna att återgå till sitt skrivande. Vi utförde sedan semistrukturerade fokusgruppsintervjuer i två omgångar med sammanlagt sju elever och samtalade om deras upplevelse av vår återkoppling och vad de anser om motivationen att skriva berättelser eller andra texter.

    Resultat: I resultatet av vår studie framkom det att eleverna delvis föredrog att få direktåterkoppling framför att få återkoppling skriftligt på sina stavfel. Det framkom också att de upplever stavning och att stava rätt som viktigt, men att det framförallt är viktigt i de vuxnas livsvärld. Deras motivation att skriva minskades inte av någon av återkopplingsformerna. Beroende på vilken skrivuppgift eleverna fick kunde vi se en liten skillnad i motivation hos dem, där de föredrog att skriva på det sätt de är vana vid och att dessa texter blev längre, vilket eleverna själva bekräftade under intervjuerna. De framförde också att båda skrivtillfällena var roliga och att de upplevde motivation till att skriva båda typerna av berättande texter. Det är svårt att säga om detta resultat har med elevernas inre motivation att göra eller om det är den yttre motivationen, att eleverna vill vara oss och/eller sin lärare till lags, som gör att de beskriver båda skrivtillfällena som roliga. Elevernas beskrivningar indikerar dock en inre motivation att skriva hos de flesta av de sju eleverna.

  • 1198.
    Bengtson, Helena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Martinsson, Viveca
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Etnisk mångfald i arbetslivet: en diskursanalys av Västra Götalandsregionen2003Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 1199.
    Bengtsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Kuc, Arlena
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Resultatpåverkan av olika fördelningar på parametern operationstid vid simuleringsstudier.: 2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete event simulation is used to imitate and analyze how systems change over time. The actual behavior of the variation in the system is interpreted by using discrete and continuous probability distributions. In the software program Simul8, simulation models are created based on the information collected from the production. Shifts, operation time and efficiency are examples of information required for the modeling process.

    The aim with this bachelor´s thesis was to investigate how different choice of probability distributions on the parameter operation time affects the result of a discrete event simulation.

    The thesis is a result of a case study performed at Volvo Aero Corporation, Sweden. The case study involves investigation of probability distribution for 18 manufacturing operations for a product. The manufacturing sequence consists of three different types of processes (automatic, semiautomatic and manual). These three types of processes need different level of instrumentality. The commercial statistical computer software, Stat:fit has been used to find proper probability distribution for each of the manufacturing operations. The results from Stat:fit have been used to analyze if there are any connections between the process type and the probability distributions.

    The recommended probability distributions have been tested with Goodness-of-fit tests (Chi2, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling) using Stat:fit and used in the simulation modeling. The simulation model has been validated and verified by a simulation advisor at Volvo Aero. Five different simulation models have been evaluated in Simul8, with five different types of distributions. All simulation runs have been statistical proved, in Simul8 with 95% confidence interval.

    The result of this study indicates that the variation of process time has limited effect for complex simulation models containing low level of efficiency and high load factors, concerning the result of throughput time. For simple models, excluded from restricted efficiency, the effect on the throughput time is featured.

  • 1200.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Mandelholm, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att leva med diabetes typ 2: Strävan efter balans2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes type 2 is today a rapidly increasing global health problem, often caused by unhealthy lifestyle choices. Changing life after a chronic disease is both time-consuming and burdensome, especially when many felt that the life they had lived before was too valuable to give up.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of living with diabetes type 2.

    Method: A literature study was produced based on eleven qualitative scientific articles, which were analyzed by Friberg's five step analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in two main themes, Imbalance in life and Balance in life with eight sub-themes; The inner battle, Loneliness, Life in denial, Lack of knowledge, The will to fight, The need for support, Finding acceptance in life and The importance of knowledge. These themes described the striving for balance in life when living with diabetes type 2.

    Conclusion: The study showed that persons with type 2 diabetes experienced a mix of feelings which were highly affected by how their lives around them looked like. This meant that even though you might had learned and accepted to live with type 2 diabetes, it did not necessarily meant that life not will take a turnabout. It is important for the nurse to know that life with diabetes are changeable, and that they therefore have a significant role to support the person to find balance in life.

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