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  • 1051.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015In: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, p. 1-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 1052.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 1053.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Systematic Process for Selecting a Typical Case in School Setting2013In: Proceedings IRIS 36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway / [ed] Bratteteig, Tone, Aanestad, Margunn & Skorve, Espen, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2013, p. 461-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the rationale behind the concrete steps how we systematically have gone through the case selection process as the first phase of a research project named Consequences of the Digitalization of Schools. The project is a single-case longitudinal (5-year long) study and adopts a so called Whole-School Approach. Previous research has criticized case studies for lack of both systematic approach and transparency in the presentation of the case selection process. The purpose of the presentation of this case selection process is to contribute to enhancing understanding of and broadening knowledge on systematic and transparent case selection techniques. The SIRIS database has been used to select a typical Swedish primary school in the chosen municipality where the project will be conducted. The SIRIS database contains annually statistics from all primary schools in Sweden, and is available online for public use. We demonstrate how and why a particular school representing a so called typical school was selected as our case. 

  • 1054.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Managing the Digitalization of Schools: an explorative study of school principals’ and IT-managers’ perceptions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of ICT in school setting is in many ways a complex managerial task that involves several stakeholder groups. Firstly, principals and deans have to relate to the local, regional, national, and international policies and governing systems. Furthermore, the voices of teachers, students and their parents have to be considered and negotiated. In this paper, we explore how school principals’ and municipal IT-managers’ perceive the usefulness and the potential role that ICT play in the school context. In a pilot study of a single school district in a Swedish municipality, we have interviewed representatives from the municipal board of education, the municipal IT-support for schools, and two principals. By using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) as an analytical lens to understand the two constructs of “Perceived usefulness” and the possible role of ICT, we conclude that the barriers for successful integration of IT into educational practices requires firstly overcoming the lack of coordinated ICT investment strategy and tracking of ICT. This can be done by having a clearly articulated ICT policy distributed to school staff which we argue will positively influence the perceived usefulness as expressed by principals and their governing body. Secondly, inclusion of ICT in all aspects of teachers’ professional school activities will bring change to school activities and processes.

  • 1055.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Managing the Digitalization of Schools: an exploratory study of school principals’ and IT managers’ perceptions about ICT adoption and usefulness2014In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2014, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2014, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nowadays increasingly ICT-related investments in an overgrowing competitive school setting, the deployment, maintenance, and particularly the effective use of ICT is in many ways a complex multifaceted managerial task involving several stakeholder groups. In a pilot study of a single school district in a Swedish municipality, we have interviewed representatives from the municipal board of education, the municipal IT-support for schools, and two principals. We have used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) as our analytical lens to explore how school principals’ and municipal IT-managers’ perceive ICT adoption, usefulness, and the potential role of ICT. We conclude that the barriers for a successful integration of ICT into school-related activities requires a holistic managerial thinking in order to overcome the lack of coordinated ICT investment strategy and tracking of ICT.

  • 1056.
    Babu, Bijish
    et al.
    Mechanics of Sold Materials, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Charles Murgau, Corinne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Mechanics of Sold Materials, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Physically Based Constitutive Model of Ti-6Al-4V for Arbitrary Phase CompositionArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main challenge in producing aerospace components using Ti-6Al-4V alloy is to employ the optimum process window of deformation rate and temperature in order to achieve desired material properties. Understanding the microstructure property relationship qualitatively is not enough to achieve this goal. Developing advanced material models to be used in manufacturing process simulation is the key to iteratively computeand optimize the process. The focus in this work is on physically based flow stress models coupled with microstructure evolution models. Such a model can be used to simulate processes involving complex and cyclic thermo-mechanical loading

  • 1057.
    Back, Cornelia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av Stockholms, Göteborgs och Malmös hantering av miljonprogramsområden: ur kommunernas och de kommunala bostadsbolagens perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The million programme is a building era that took place between the years 1965 to 1974 when a politic decision was made to build a million new residences in Sweden, to correct the housing shortage. It´s now been more than 40 years since these residences were built and the need to renovate is a necessity, which makes this programme a very current subject. The purpose of this study is to map the three largest city´s handling of the need for renovation. The main question of this study is how the buildings of the million programme is being handled today. Meanwhile a series of other questions have been answered in this study; the difference between laws now and then, how the million programme areas looks in the different cities and how they are treated in the layout plans, what the need for renovation might lead to, and if there is any profit in restoring the buildings.It is a qualitative study as it is a situation in a few cities that are being studied, but through a survey this study gets a quantitative mixture as well. A survey was dispatched to the three municipalities and their communal real estate companies.Malmo, Gothenburg and Stockholm are both similar and different regarding planning and visions. Both Gothenburg and Stockholm placed their million programmes outside of the city´s core, whilst Malmo´s was located close to the centre of the city. They all have visions in their layout plans to create a more unified and connected city through increased integration and better communication between the city areas.There was a wave of renovation in the eighties and nineties because of the ROT-deduction and many projects concerning the million programme are still ongoing to this day. Facade renovation is common in all three cities and, to a certain degree, restoration of balconies and windows. Gothenburg has invested a lot in energy efficient measures and in Stockholm it has become increasingly more common with energy saving interventions like adding increased isolation. The image of the million programme´s constructions is "concrete ghettos", but the most common houses consists of three storeys with apartment size 3 rok.The Swedish legislation are of great importance during the renovation as there now are requirements on energy efficiency amongst other things, but also during the wave of renovation in the eighties and nineties when the demand of discretion was enforced in PBL 1987. The foundation in the million programme houses is satisfactory and they are functionally built which makes a renovation more cost-efficient than it would be to tear it down and build new buildings. The problem then does not reside in the need for renovation, as most houses needs restoration after so many years, but in the sheer number of buildings that would require a renovation.

  • 1058.
    Back, Mariana
    et al.
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Broman, Lars
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Astronomisk allmänbildning: en förstudie2011In: Inre och yttre verklighet / [ed] Aadu Ott, Anders Steene och Gunnar Windahl, Strömstad: Strömstad Akademi , 2011, p. 97-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1059.
    Backelin, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Lejdström, Pontus
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Att fånga upp elever i en unik arena: Förutsättningar för skolpersonal att uppmärksamma och arbeta med elever på högstadiet som lever under hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to get to know the conditions for detecting and working with pupils who live with honour related violence and oppression in a secondary school in Sweden. More specific we were interested in the perspective of school staff, which we collected with semistructured interviews in a small Swedish municipality. Our study was conducted partly in cooperation with the municipality where the school was located. In order to gain a deeper understanding of our object of study, the conditions for detection of and working with pupils that live with honour related violence and oppression expressed by school staff. We used psychological and physical tools, and the zone of proximal development from a culturalhistorical psychology as scientific concepts. These concepts also helped us to present our findings in a more effective way. Our findings pointed to three areas of contact where different professions could detect, get connected and start a relationship with a pupil who might live with honour related violence and oppression. These three areas were identified as each having some different opportunities and conditions regarding the possibility to detect and successively work with this group of pupils. Our findings also point to the need for education about honour related problems for school staff, especially the teachers who were noted to be a group in need of knowledge regarding these issues. One important condition in working with pupils living with honour related violence and oppression was the need for clear rolls of responsibility and knowing who to contact in certain situations.

  • 1060.
    Backelin, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Experimental study of trepanning process with nickel-base superalloy sheet, using CO2 laser.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis experimentally investigates the defect generated at the start and stop zone when trepanning, using CO 2 laser and the nickel-base superalloy Hastelloy X. The project has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT) in Trollhättan. Experiments which investigates the effect of altering entrance radius, exit radius (withdrawal) and nozzle distance have been performed. Samples were created by using a Trumpf 2D-laser machine and they were prepared for evaluation by grinding, polishing and etching. The Sample were then evaluated and measured by using an optic microscope. Experiments have been planned according to the method, design of experiments (DOE).

    By using the programme Minitab, regression analysis and empirical models were created which describes the effect of the tested parameters. The results show that it is possible to decrease the start and stop defects by altering of the process parameters.

  • 1061.
    Backelin, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sakseter, Victoria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Barns perspektiv på matsituationen i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under vår utbildnings gång har vi slagits av tanken på hur mycket det kan skilja sig mellan måltider på olika förskolor. Allt ifrån regler, rutiner och även upplevelse i form av trivsel och miljö. På vissa ställen upplevdes måltiderna av oss som rofyllda där barnen i lugn och ro pratar sinsemellan och med pedagogerna och på andra ställen upplevt måltiden som ett stressigt och negativt laddat rutintillfälle i vardagen på förskolan. Därmed dök tankar upp kring hur barnen upplever måltiderna på förskolan utifrån de regler och rutiner som finns och även barnens egen chans till delaktighet och påverkan vid matsituationen.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på hur barn uppfattar måltiderna på förskolan, hur de upplever dessa situationer och hur barnen upplever sin egen möjlighet till delaktighet och påverkan.

    Forskningsfrågorna vi har utgått ifrån är följande:

    Hur upplever barnen de regler och rutiner som omgärdar matsituationen i förskolan?

    Hur stor delaktighet och möjlighet till att påverka matsituationen upplever barnen att de har?

    Metod: För att undersöka våra frågor har vi använt oss av intervjuer med barn på två förskolor. Vi har suttit tillsammans med barnen två och två och spelat in intervjusamtalen genom ljudinspelning. Vi har sedan utgått ifrån våra övergripande temaområden och delat in intervjuerna under olika rubriker för att på detta sätt få fram ett analysmönster. För att få en insyn i hur måltiderna på förskolorna kan se ut och är uppbyggda ur ett utomstående perspektiv har vi även valt att observera måltiderna på förskolorna under en veckas tid.

    Resultat & slutsats: Det som framkommit under våra intervjutillfällen med barnen är att de har liknande uppfattningar kring många av de fenomen som diskuterades men vi kunde även se att barn upplever samma situation på ibland helt skilda sätt. På förskolorna får barnen vara delaktiga på så vis att de får vara med och duka inför måltiderna och i samtalen som förs under måltiderna. De regler och rutiner som finns vid måltiderna har barnen dock ingen större chans att påverka utan anses av barnen endast vara bestämda av pedagogerna. Måltiderna på en förskola kan skilja sig ganska stort emellan varandra i syn på vad måltiden egentligen innebär och ska innehålla och här har pedagogerna det största ansvaret och även makten att arbeta för en trivsam, social och mättande måltid.

  • 1062.
    Backlund, Angelica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lekens betydelse för barns utveckling: En kvalitativ studie om förskollärarnas syn på barns fria led i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Utifrån en granskning av den tidigare forskningen om lekens betydelse framgick det i den samtliga litteratur att lek är lärande och utvecklande för barn. I den tidigare forskningen lyfts bland annat upp synen på lek och lärande utifrån olika perspektiv där leken tillför lärande och utveckling inom bland annat den sociala förmågan.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studien är att få en mångsidig och djupare förståelse för den fria lekens betydelse för barns utveckling och lärande.

    Metod: I denna studien har jag valt att använda mig av en kvalitativ metod i form av fokusgruppsintervju. Syftet med fokusintervjuerna var att synliggöra pedagogernas perspektiv och tankar kring lekens betydelse.

    Resultat:Mitt huvudsakliga syfte var att skapa en förståelse för lekens betydelse, vilket skedde i ett nära samarbete med förskolornas pedagoger. Pedagogerna gavs möjlighet till utvecklande diskussioner där deras tankar och reflektioner stod i fokus. Syftet med detta var att synliggöra deras perspektiv på barns fria lek och lärande för att kunna ta ställning till hur de arbetar för att främja barns utveckling och lärande. Resultatet av studien visade att pedagogerna såg leken som något positivt för barns lärande och de arbetade medvetet med den fria leken för alla individers utveckling och lärande.

  • 1063.
    Backlund, Linus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Grundvall, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Omvårdnad av anhöriga till traumapatienter: en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During trauma treatment lots of health personal are mobilized under a short timeframe. The focus lies upon the care of the patient which leads to reduced focus on the nursing care for the relatives. The relatives are in a difficult life situation and in a major need for nursing care. Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate the nurses' care for the relatives of trauma patients. Method: This study is a literature review of eleven studies that involves relatives or nurses perceptions of the nursing care provided for the family-members of critically ill trauma patients. The studies were analyzed and categorized into themes and subthemes. Results: A total of three themes emerged. "Communications with the relatives", with subthemes the nurse gives information, nurses' behaviors and accessibility, taking the time to get to know the relatives. "Relatives involvement in care" with the subthemes involving the relatives in care, letting the relatives close to the patient. The last theme was "nurses provide care for the patient" without any subthemes. Conclusion: Information was crucial to the relatives. The nurse had to be calm and accessible to the relatives' needs and when he or she seemed stressed it was considered uncaring for the relatives. The relatives wanted to comfort themselves and the patient by being close to him or her. The subject needs more research especially with focus on what's being done for the relatives of trauma patients.

  • 1064.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wingård, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the recreation of photorealistic images has had a major role within the use of 3D-CGI for visualisation and advertisement. The recreation of something that can be called photorealistic without the use of a camera provides several advantages over photography. Because of this - several companies has begun using CGI as an alternative method within advertisement. There's still however, areas where the use of CGI remains limited - either because of the complexity and thus the expense, or because of how we as human perceive something that is done with CGI. We focused this study on the use of CGI food images used for advertisement. The reason for this is that we interact and consume food everyday, which can mean that our perception of something that we see as a consumable item may be drastically different from other products created with CGI.

    To test the perception of CGI images of food, we created a survey which purpose was to compare images of food utilizing CGI with photographic counterparts to judge the experienced appeal felt towards each image by a group of participants. This was done by having participants rate the images with a score of appeal as well as give written feedback of their thoughts about specific images and their general opinion of the use of CGI for advertisement purposes. Our survey showed a slight preference towards the CGI rendered images compared to the photographs that we used. There were however, several participants who disliked the "plastic" and unrealistic look of the CGI images that severely lowered the amount of appeal that was experienced. We hypothesize that the reason for the preference for CGI images in this study was because the use of CGI can make an image have an unrealistic perfection to it that can provoke a stronger appeal than how the look of the product would do in actuality. The type of product that the image represents may also play an important factor. This study focuses on chocolate bars, and thus the results may vary greatly if the study was conducted with the use of other food products, such as meat, fruit or vegetables.

  • 1065.
    Backman, Anne-Marie
    University West, Department of Technology.
    Beräkning av styvhet i lokaliserade enheter i jiggar med finita elementmetoden2002Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 1066.
    Backman, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Leitgeb, Christina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Garbage in, garbage out: automatiserade redovisningsprogram och deras påverkan på redovisningens kvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitizing advancement that has occured within the accountant segment have impacted what used to be a manually run segment within the industry to now become fully automated. The autonomous and technical aspect within the IT-segment have brought both new possibilities and ways of working, the following leads to an advantage being that you now have the possibility to get rapports in real time, among other things. An increasing number of accounting processes are automated as accounting programs evolve and an important question to be asked is how the quality within the accounting segment is affected.

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the impact of automated accounting processes on the quality of accounting. We chose a qualitative research strategy and abductive research facility.

    Through semi-structured interviews with accountants and auditors at various agencies, we collected data for our empirical analysis. We analyzed based on a thematic analysis based on the themes of the study; comprehensibility, reliability, relevance and comparability.

    The results of the study show that quality is improved and work more efficiently with automation. Reducing the manual work in the form of instancing's and transferring it to an automated process minimizes the risk of errors in the accounting. What is important, however, is that the setup of accounting programs automatic processes must be correct from the start, if the setup is incorrect then the result will be incorrect. Having standard setups in the applications reduces any errors that may arise when loading against, for example, proprietary templates, as they constantly need to be updated. To fully automate all parts within the accountant segment is presently not possible as some parts must be manually handled, such as annual accounts. Although the automated processes minimize the risk of instance, it is still important that some form of quality check needs to be done to assure that the result is correct. The results of the study also show that a good accounting quality requires that the accounting consultant has the correct competence and understanding of accounting. The correct competence in the future also includes IT-management why it should be introduced in the financial studies.

    In conclusion, we have been able to conclude with the help of the study that it is wrong from the beginning in the form of incorrect setup of the automatic process, error of failure or lack of competence of the accounting consultant will also the final result be incorrect, in other words "garbage in, garbage out".

  • 1067. Badgujar, A. C.
    et al.
    Dhage, S. R.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    Process parameter impact on properties of sputtered large-area Mo bilayers for CIGS thin film solar cell applications2015In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 589, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) has emerged as a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiencies approaching those of silicon-based solar cells. To achieve optimum performance in CIGS solar cells, uniform, conductive, stress-free, well-adherent, reflective, crystalline molybdenum (Mo) thin films with preferred orientation (110) are desirable as a back contact on large area glass substrates. The present study focuses on cylindrical rotating DC magnetron sputtered bilayer Mo thin films on 300 mm × 300 mm soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. Key sputtering variables, namely power and Ar gas flow rates, were optimized to achieve best structural, electrical and optical properties. The Mo films were comprehensively characterized and found to possess high degree of thickness uniformity over large area. Best crystallinity, reflectance and sheet resistance was obtained at high sputtering powers and low argon gas flow rates, while mechanical properties like adhesion and residual stress were found to be best at low sputtering power and high argon gas flow rate, thereby indicating a need to arrive at a suitable trade-off during processing. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 1068.
    Badgujar, Amol C.
    et al.
    Centre for Solar Energy Materials, ARCI, Hyderabad, India.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Dhage, Sanjay R.
    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Process Parameter Impact on Selective Laser Ablation of Bilayer Molybdenum Thin Films for CIGS Solar Cell Applications2018In: Materials focus, ISSN 2169-429X, no 4, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 or CIGS absorber layers are a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiency exceeding 22% having already been demonstrated at the cell level and their commercialization been ramped up. Scribing by selective ablation to achieve monolithic integration is an essential step in CIGS module making to divide a large area cell into a series of inter-connected smaller cells. P1 scribing or electrical isolation of back contact is an essential part of the monolithic integration. Laser-induced scribing of Molybdenum (Mo) back contact of a CIGS solar cell is highly sensitive to process parameters like laser power, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency. The above parameters control the scribe width, heat affected zone and process residue directly or indirectly, thereby affecting electrical isolation and module performance. Influence of laser process parameters on scribing of a bilayer Mo thin film back contact has been investigated and is being reported. The scribes obtained employing various laser conditions were characterized for electrical isolation and analyzed by optical microscopy followed by profilometry. High-quality scribing, with a scribe width of 53 μm over a length of 300 mm, was achieved on a bilayer Mo thin film sputtered on a Soda lime glass substrate.

  • 1069.
    Badjie, Fatou
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ghavaed, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En kvalitativ studie kring faktorer som kan påverka personalens hälsa i en organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har författarna valt att titta närmare på vilka faktorer det finns som kan påverka anställdas hälsa i en organisation. Detta genom att först identifiera faktorerna i det valda företaget och sedan med hjälp av intervjuer och den teoretiska referensramen få ett resultat. I den teoretiska referensramen redogör författarna för en historisk bakgrund om hälsa och faktorer som kan påverka medarbetarens hälsa. För att få fram relevant litteratur inom ämnesområdet har författarna använt sig av en kvalitativ metod, vetenskapliga artiklar och intervjuer. I det empiriska avsnittet framgår intervjuerna på fyra anställda i det valda företaget. För att veta hur deras hälsa är gjorde författarna ett urval på grund av att författarna ville få fullständiga svar från personer med erfarenhet. Det ställdes frågor angående arbetsförhållanden, motivation, trivsel etc. Därefter har författarna vävt samman den teoretiska referensramen med det empiriska och analyserat kring det. Detta för att besvara frågeställningen och syftet. Senare visar det sig att personalen i det valda företaget skulle kunna tänka sig att byta jobb om det fanns möjlighet. De känner även att de saknar motivation och tydliga mål från chefen. Slutligen har författarna kommit fram till att det trots några positiva saker på arbetsplatsen finns det en del brister som skulle kunna förbättras som kan gynna personalens hälsa.

  • 1070.
    Bador, Kourosh
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Samband mellan fysisk träning och positiva och negativa affekter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regular physical exercise is crucial for both physical and mental health. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between physical activity (its frequency and intensity) and positive or negative affect, in a Swedish college student population. The study included information from 155 college students, 64 men (mean age, 23 years) and 91 women (27 years, average age). Students were asked to estimate how much time they spend on physical exercise during their leisure time, by responding to the "Godin Leisure -Time Exercise Questionnaire". At the same time they were asked to assess their feelings during the previous few weeks with the help of "The General Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales (PANAS)". In this study the relationship between the variables physical exercise and affects, as well as the differences between the defined groups of the study population were described. These groups were (1) different gender, (2) individuals with children and those without children, and (3) individuals who live alone or are in a relationship. The results showed that, in agreement with previous studies,

  • 1071.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Bador, Nima
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Partnership Interacts with the Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Positive Affect2016In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 768-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being is a central concept of positive psychology, and is directly coupled with a high level of positive affect and a low level of negative affect. Positive affect is associated with enthusiasm, activity, hope and inspiration, while negative affect is associated with emotions such as anger, contempt, guilt, shame, fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Physical activityis crucial for both physical and mental health and is positively associated with well-being. Gender and social factors (e.g., parenthood or partnership) have complex relations with well-being and affect. In the present study we aimed to 1) examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and affect and 2) investigate whether or not social factors interact with this association. Method: The study included information from 155 Swedish university students: 64 men (mean age 23 years) and 91 women (mean age 27 years). Students were asked to estimate their usual engagement in physical activity during their leisure-time by responding to the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. They also reported the level of positive and negative emotions experienced during past weeks by completing the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule instrument. Results: In the Swedish student population leisure-time physical activity correlated only with positive and not with negative affect. Students' gender, age or whether or not they had children did not influence this association. However, this correlation differed significantly between those who lived with a partner and those who were single. Conclusion: Leisure-time physical activityis positively correlated with an overall subjective well-being, and this correlation is modifiedby the social factor of partnership

  • 1072.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    AGERA KBT AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Evaluation of an Integrated Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment Within Addiction Care2019In: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, ISSN 1094-3412, E-ISSN 1556-3308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to evaluate an integrated intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment for people with substance-related syndrome in outpatient care and to identify eventual gender differences. The study population consisted of 35 outpatients (18 male, 17 female) at a clinic in Western Sweden. The patients completed a four-month period of intensive group therapy and participated in the data collection at admission and discharge. The data were collected using the following inventories: Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale,Hopelessness Scale, and Trait Hope Scale. Results showed decreases in anxiety, depression and experience of hopelessness, and increases in self-esteem and hope. In females, the most dramatic improvement was measured for the anxiety and depression attributes, while in males the strongest effect was measured for hope and self-esteem. This study provides clinical evidence of the positive effects of integrated intensive CBT in outpatient care of people with substance-related syndrome.

  • 1073.
    Bador, Nima
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sambandet mellan Hopp och Självkänsla: En studie i positiv psykologi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hope and Self-Esteem are two concepts in positive psychology. Snyder and colleagues (1991) grounded the theory that defines Hope and suggest a relation to Self-Esteem. Hope is defined as the general perception that one's goals can be met, while Self-Esteem as a feeling of self-worth. Hope's two components are:

    Pathway and Agency. Pathways are the route generating thoughts to desired goals, and Agency is the motivational component of Hope. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the concepts of Hope -and Self-Esteem, and the possible effects of age and gender, in a Swedish context, that, according to our knowledge, were not previously studied. The study population included 136 Swedish college students (Mean age = 24, SD = 5.6 years), in a close to 50:50 gender distribution. Data was collected with the help of the validated, self-rated questionnaires: Snyder´s "Hope Scale" and "Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale" (modified). The non-parametric statistical methods of Spearman and Mann-Whitney were used for data analysis. Results showed that women scored significantly higher than men, and adults (over 22 years) scored higher than young adults (under 22) in Hope. Self-esteem was not affected by gender but young adults scored significantly lower than adults. Moreover, while a moderate and significant correlation between Hope and Self-Esteem could be measured, the multiple regression analysis showed that only the Agency component contributed significantly to Self-Esteem. Women showing higher Hope than men and adults showing higher Hope than young adults are two findings that are not in line with previous studies.

  • 1074.
    Baeza, Peter
    et al.
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Ott, Aadu
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Lärande ur ett neurovetenskapligt perspektiv2012In: World Wide Workshop in Science Education / [ed] Aadu Ott, Strömstad: Strömstad Akademi , 2012, p. 109-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter från två forskarutbildningskurser i neurovetenskap med inriktning mot undervisning och lärande har genomförts och påvisat det fruktbara i att utveckla de tablerade pedagogiska och didaktiska teorierna om lärande till att även omfatta en neurovetenskaplig aspekt. De diskussioner och tankar som utbytts under kursens gång har på ett påtagligt sätt berikat insikten om hur hjärnan bearbetar information och om hur lärande går till på den neurala nivån. En sådan ansats kan leda till praktiska tillämpningar i undervisningen och förtjänar därför att uppmärksammas inom lärarutbildningen i Sverige. Det genombrott som, genom studier av hjärnans funktion med modern scanningteknik, har skett på det neurovetenskapliga forskningsfältet kan skapa nya och potentiellt fruktbara möjligheter för forskning om hur lärandeprocessen skulle kunna förbättras.

  • 1075.
    Bagge, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Johanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Orden bakom siffrorna: Hur tydliggörs tillvägagångssättet vid värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i noterna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research have pointed out that the regulatory framework IAS 40 is not detailed enough. There are therefore no clear directives on how specified information that should be included in the notes regarding the approach of investment properties. The purpose of this study was therefore to obtain deeper understanding concerning the way Swedish listed real estate companies presents the approach of valuation of investment properties in the notes and get a deeper knowledge about similarities and differences with focus on; input level, method of valuation and external valuation. The study is based on a hermeneutical approach since a qualitative method in form of a content analysis has been done. The content analysis included all Swedish real estate companies listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. The notes of the real estate companies´ annual report from 2016 were examined. The study found out that all companies applied input level three when they clarified fair value. Furthermore, many of the companies based the fair value on similar calculations and this phenomenon can be explained by coercive and mimetic isomorphism which are presented in the theoretical section. The study also discovered that the extent of the external valuation differs between the companies. Further, the study also revealed that the notes overall included the same type of information concerning input level, method of valuation and external valuation. However, there are some differences in how much details that are included.

  • 1076.
    Bagge, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Till, Erika
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Förmedling och kommunikation för att öka trafiksäkerheten: En fokusgruppsstudie om ungdomars kunskap kring trafiksäkerhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to see how young peoples experience and knowledge of road safety are in today's society and how knowledge should be designed to best reach out to the youths. As the research shows that young people, especially boys, aged 15-24 are over-represented in road accidents, we see this as an interesting start. Looking further on the research, it shows clear differences in what socioeconomic position these young people have in society and the risk of being involved in accidents, the lower the socioeconomic position, the higher the risk.

    Based on a partnership with the National Society for Road Safety (NTF) it became clear that the problem was how to spread knowledge to the youth in segregated areas and it was something they wanted help to work on. Based on a qualitative survey, we wanted to use a phenomenological approach with focus groups as a method to capture young peoples knowledge as well as experiences on road safety. The result showed that it was clear their knowledge and experience was not so high and they gave us many clear proposals on how the work on road safety could look like. And in the end of this survey a lot of interesting suggestions of interventions is presented.

  • 1077.
    Bagge, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Larsson, Victoria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Tysta barn, tysta lärare?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 1078.
    Bagger, Marie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Johansson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda barn i hemmet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As a nurse working in community home care you should today have enough knowledge to provide patients in different stages of life with good and safe care. The number of children receiving care in their home is increasing. There are today no Swedish studies that focus on this topic. How is the nurses experience of provide care of children in their homes?

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the nurse's experience of giving care to children in their homes.

    Method

    An interview study was made with eight nurses working in community home care in four different community's in the western of Sweden. The text from the interviews was analyzed through a qualitative content analysis.

    Result

    The analysis resulted in three categories, seven subcategories and one theme.

    The following categories emerged: To feel inadequate, To take notice of the particular family´s needs, To be committed. The theme that emerged was oppressive but .rewarding.

    Conclusion

    The nurses felt inadequate when it came to giving care to children in their homes. The main reason for this was the feeling of lack of knowledge and experience of giving care to children. The nurses experienced that the family had a big and important role when it came to giving care for children in their home and that a good cooperation with the family was important to be enable to give the best possible care to the child. The nurses experienced that it was important to be truly committed when working with children.

  • 1079.
    Bagger, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lindholm, Josefine
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Läsläxan: ur elev- och lärarperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    I skolan har läsningen en stor betydelse för undervisningen i alla ämnen. Vår erfarenhet säger oss att läsläxa är ett vanligt sätt för att få tid till läsning som annars är svårt att hinna med i skolan. Läxor i sig är ett hett debatterat ämne för såväl lärare, elever och föräldrar. Det vi blev intresserade av att undersöka i vår studie är hur lärare tänker kring läsläxan och om deras tankar når fram till eleverna.

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår studie var att få ökad förståelse för vilka tankar lärare och elever har kring läsläxan. De frågeställningar vi har utgått ifrån under vår studie är:

    • Vilket syfte har lärarna med läsläxan och är eleverna medvetna om detta syfte?

    • Hur resonerar lärarna och eleverna kring läslust i samband med läsläxan?

    • Vilka strategier använder lärarna respektive eleverna när det blir det svårt att läsa läsläxan?

    Metod

    Vi har utfört en kvalitativ studie, för att komma fram till ett resultat. Vi har gjort tre observationer, två lärarintervjuer och sex barnintervjuer på två olika skolor. Vi förde fältanteckningar under observationerna och vi spelade in intervjuerna som vi sedan transkriberade och sedan analyserade, vilket gav vårt resultat.

    Resultat

    Studien visar att lärarna tänker liknade kring syftet med läsläxan. Utifrån vår första frågeställning så fann vi två olika syften med läsläxan, dels varför lärarna har valt att ha läsläxa och dels hur de har valt att arbeta med läsläxan. Båda lärarna har valt läsläxa, för att eleverna ska utveckla sitt läsflyt, vilket når fram till eleverna. Det andra syftet vi fann var hur lärarna arbetar med läsläxan. Även här är lärarnas tankar överensstämmande, de har båda valt att hela klassen läser samma bok. Det som har påverkat deras val av arbetssätt är hur läsläxan kan stimulera läslusten, hur texten ska fungera för hela klassen och att de vill arbeta gemensamt med texten för att förbereda eleverna för den enskilda läsningen hemma. Utifrån vår andra frågeställning fick vi fram att lärarna anser att det är viktigt att texten stimulerar läslusten och tar hänsyn till detta när de väljer läromedel och arbetssätt. Det skiljer sig i hur de tänker kring läslusten i samband med läsläxan. Lärare 1 nämner att läxbokens texter har olika genrer, vilket hen menar lockar eleverna. Lärare 2 tar istället upp att texten behandlar sådant som är relevant för barnen och som de känner igen sig i. Hen försöker skapa lust inför texten genom att läsa med inlevelse vid högläsning. Utifrån vår tredje och sista frågeställning fann vi att båda lärarna arbetar med att skapa en förförståelse för texten för att eleverna ska vara förberedda inför läsningen hemma. Lärare 2 nämner även guidad parläsning som en hjälpstrategi. Eleverna är mer konkreta i sina tankar och nämner lässtrategier de använder när det blir svårt att läsa

  • 1080.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics .
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, .
    Crustal thickness recovery using an isostatic model and GOCE data2012In: Earth Planets and Space, ISSN 1343-8832, E-ISSN 1880-5981, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1053-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the GOCE satellite mission goals is to study the Earth's interior structure including its crustal thickness. A gravimetric-isostatic Moho model, based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) theory and GOCE gradiometric data, is determined beneath Iran's continental shelf and surrounding seas. The terrestrial gravimetric data of Iran are also used in a nonlinear inversion for a recovering-Moho model applying the VMM model. The newly-computed Moho models are compared with the Moho data taken from CRUST2.0. The root-mean-square (RMS) of differences between the CRUST2.0 Moho model and the recovered model from GOCE and that from the terrestrial gravimetric data are 3.8 km and 4.6 km, respectively.

  • 1081.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Department of Surveying, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Recovery of Moho's undulations based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz theory from satellite gravity gradiometry data: A simulation study2012In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1097-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the gravimetric approach to determine the Moho depth an isostatic hypothesis can be used. The Vening Meinesz–Moritz isostatic hypothesis is the recent theory for such a purpose. Here, this theory is further developed so that the satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) data are used for recovering the Moho depth through a nonlinear integral inversion procedure. The kernels of its forward and inverse problems show that the inversion should be done in a larger area by 5° than the desired one to reduce the effect of the spatial truncation error of the integral formula. Our numerical study shows that the effect of this error on the recovered Moho depths can reach 6 km in Persia and it is very significant. The iterative Tikhonov regularization in a combination with either generalized cross validation or quasi-optimal criterion of estimating the regularization parameter seems to be suitable and the solution is semi-convergent up to the third iteration. Also the Moho depth recovered from the simulated SGG data will be more or less the same as that obtained from the terrestrial gravimetric data with a root mean square error of 2 km and they are statistically consistent.

  • 1082.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    A study of the adhesion strength of plasma sprayed coatings2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1083.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Clement, Uta
    Numerical and experimental study of Ni-particle impact on a ti-surfaceIn: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1084.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Numerical and Experimental Study of Ni-Particle Impact On A Ti-Surface2007In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference: May 2007, Beijing, China, ASM International , 2007, p. 219-224Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1085.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    On-Line Measurement of Plasma-Sprayed Ni-Particles during Impact on a Ti-Surface: influence of Surface Oxidation2007In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 506-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of plasma-sprayed Ni5%Al particles on polished and grit-blasted Ti6Al4V samples under oxidized and nonoxidized conditions. For this purpose, measurements of thermal radiation and velocity of individual plasma-sprayed particles were carried out. From the thermal radiation at impact, splat diameter during flattening and temperature evolution during cooling were evaluated. Characteristic parameters related to the quality of contact between the splat and the substrate were retrieved. The flattening speed was introduced to characterize wetting, while the cooling rate was used to characterize solidification. The idea was to get a signature of particle impact for a given surface roughness and oxidation state by identifying parameters which strongly affect the splat behavior. Sieved Ni5%Al powder in a narrow range (+65 −75 μm) was sprayed on four sets of titanium alloy surfaces, consisting of polished and grit-blasted samples, one set had a nonoxidized surface and the other one was oxidized in an oven at 600 °C for two hours. Resulting splats after impact were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the splats on oxidized surface showed pores in their core and detached fingers at the periphery. The cooling rate and flattening degree significantly increased on the oxidized smooth surface compared to the nonoxidized one. This trend was not found in grit-blasted surfaces, which implies that impact phenomena are different on grit-blasted surfaces than on smooth surfaces thus further work is needed.

  • 1086.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    On-Line measurement of plasma-sprayed ni-particles during impact on a ti-surface: influence of surface oxidation2007In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 506-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of plasma-sprayed Ni5%Al particles on polished and grit-blasted Ti6Al4V samples under oxidized and nonoxidized conditions. For this purpose, measurements of thermal radiation and velocity of individual plasma-sprayed particles were carried out. From the thermal radiation at impact, splat diameter during flattening and temperature evolution during cooling were evaluated. Characteristic parameters related to the quality of contact between the splat and the substrate were retrieved. The flattening speed was introduced to characterize wetting, while the cooling rate was used to characterize solidification. The idea was to get a signature of particle impact for a given surface roughness and oxidation state by identifying parameters which strongly affect the splat behavior. Sieved Ni5%Al powder in a narrow range (+65 −75 μm) was sprayed on four sets of titanium alloy surfaces, consisting of polished and grit-blasted samples, one set had a nonoxidized surface and the other one was oxidized in an oven at 600 °C for two hours. Resulting splats after impact were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the splats on oxidized surface showed pores in their core and detached fingers at the periphery. The cooling rate and flattening degree significantly increased on the oxidized smooth surface compared to the nonoxidized one. This trend was not found in grit-blasted surfaces, which implies that impact phenomena are different on grit-blasted surfaces than on smooth surfaces thus further work is needed.

  • 1087.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Relationship between surface topgraphy parameters and adhesion strength for plasma spraying2005In: ITSC 2005: Thermal Spray connects: Explore its surfacing potential!, The Material Information Society , 2005, p. 1027-1031Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve sufficient adhesion strength within thermal spraying, the surface to be coated has to be modified. Grit blasting is the most common way to generate a clean and roughened surface. The bonding mechanism between the grit-blasted substrate and the coating is assumed to be due to mechanical anchoring, why an optimal surface roughness is essential. The surface roughness is usually evaluated using Ra which cannot fully characterize the complex nature of the chaotic substrate topography. This study was performed in order to evaluate if Ra can be replaced by other surface characteristic parameters such us R.q, Rpk, Rpv, Rk…with higher correlation to adhesion strength. Average roughness was measured by a perthometer and with white light interferometry to get 3D images of the surface topography. Disc shaped substrate samples of Ti6Al4V (AMS 4928) were grit blasted with aluminium oxide grit and plasma sprayed with a Ni5%Al coating. Adhesion strength was determined according to the ASTM C633 standard. The correlation between a number of different surface-parameters and adhesion strength were evaluated and compared with Ra.

  • 1088.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Two-step grit blasting for enhanced adhesion of thermal spray coatings2004In: Surface modification technologies XVIII: proceedings of the eighteenth international conference on surface modification technologies held in Dijon, France November 15-17, 2004, 2004, p. 23-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1089.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Barbezat, G.
    Sulzer Metco, Wohlen, Switzerland .
    A parameter study of the Protal® Process to optimise the adhesion of Ni5Al Coatings2004In: Thermal Spray 2004 : Advances in technology and applications: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference 10-12 May 2004, Osaka, Japan Thermal Spray 2004, 2004, p. 898-902Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Protal process combines surface preparation using a laser and thermal spraying in one production step. The laser preparation is based on a photomechanical reaction induced by the interaction between a laser of high instantaneous power and a polluted surface. The mechanism of bonding and the coating-substrate interface are then changed in comparison with grit blasting resulting in a significantly reduced substrate roughness. This study is aimed at finding the optimal Protal process parameters for the coating adhesion of a Ni5%Al sprayed on Ti6Al4V and IN718 alloys. The parameters investigated are laser beam intensity, the time delay between the laser impact and the spray impact, powder feed rate, substrate roughness and temperature. A test plan including these parameters is analysed by means of a fractional factorial design of experiment method. The adhesions of the coatings are measured using the ASTM C633 standard test. Data are analysed by a multiple linear regression model using a least squares fit. In addition, the coating/substrate interface is examined by optical and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) techniques as well as by Auger electron spectroscopy. Substrate roughness, substrate temperature and laser intensity are all shown to have a negative correlation with adhesion strength within the investigated range. Areas of diffusion are noticed at the coating/substrate interface.

  • 1090.
    Bahbou, M. Fouzi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Wigren, J.
    Volvo Aero, Trollhättan.
    Effect of grit blasting and spraying angle on the adhesion strength of a plasma-sprayed coating2004In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 508-514Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1091.
    Bahno, William
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Zymeri, Endrit
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Investmentbankernas avstånd från insolvens: En analys av USA:s investmentbanker fram till och efter finanskrisen 2008.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Financial crises in USA 2008 is seen as one of the worst crises in the last ninety years. Financial crises went hard on the American economy and abroad as a whole. Pressures under both administrations and rising house prices was one factor that led to the burst of house bubble in 2008. America has today eight financial institution seen as systemically important banks globally and holds a big market share in the US market. If one of these institution goes closer against bankruptcy, it can jeopardize the US and world economy as well. This thesis aims to analyze how the largest and systemically important investment banks operations could affect their distance from insolvency. With the data that is available, one has constructed and used a panel data to see and calculated Z-Score, with Z-Score as dependent and six independent variables over a time period of 17 years. In the panel regression the results show that comparing mean of Z-Score and predicted Z-Score, the values are similar and both follows a trend. This indicates that model used in thesis, belongs with Z-Score. The result showed that Z-Score for some banks were lower than normally under the financial crisis.

  • 1092.
    Bahramvalady, Mozhgan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Livskvalitet för patienter med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a growing problem today around the world. People are getting diagnosed with COPD everyday and the number of cases is expected to increase in the future. It is important that the nurse can respond to people living with COPD and to understand the symptoms and living condition of these people in order to apply a good nursing care.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how quality of life is affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Method: The method of this study is based on a qualitative and quantitative research according to Friberg (2006) and Friberg (2012). Nine articles was analyzed according to Fribergs five-step model and results divided in three main themes.

    Results: The main themes were Symptom that limits everyday life, symptoms with a psychosocial impact and Relieving of symptoms that increases the quality of life.

    Conclusion: The results showed that COPD affects the entire life. To combine different treatment options such as applying oxygen, special breathing techniques and to increase the physical activity, it is possible to increase quality of life in COPD.

  • 1093.
    Bahtijari, Agon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Deyab, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Den nytillträdde verkställande direktörens möjlighet och incitament till Earnings Management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial statements submitted by the companies will form the basis for various financial decisions taken by external stakeholders. This assumes that the information presented in these reports is valid and consistent with reality. However, the reliability and validity of these reports has been contested by previous studies whichmean that surrounding companies CEO turnover, both the incoming and the outgoing CEO have opportunities and incentives to Earnings Management. The possibility of Earnings Management arises as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as a principle-based accounting system, creates scope for subjective assessments and estimates that can be utilized by the management to conduct Earnings Management. This opportunity is complemented by the management's opportunistic perspective and the seek after own interest. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge if the newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process, as well as whether the presence of Earnings Management surrounding CEO turnover is affected, depending on whether the newly appointed CEO is promoted from within or recruited outside the company. To carry out the survey, we have used a quantitative research method. The study contains 49 companies registered on the OMX Stockholmsbörsen Large Cap. All companies' annual reports have been analyzed between 2005 and 2015, which resulted in 539 observations. The study's result indicate that it can't be ensured that a newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process. Nor can we be ensured that an external newly appointed CEO has greater opportunities for Earnings Management than an internal newly appointed CEO.

  • 1094.
    Bajraktari, Lirije
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Abdallah, Rosanne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikter och kommunikation: Hur konflikter och kommunikation hanteras på en arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi valde att göra en undersökning på en skola inom kommunen i Trollhättan som heter Kronan. Studien handlar om hur man hanterar konflikter på arbetsplatsen och hur kommunikationen påverkar konflikterhanteringen. Till hjälp av vår studie ville vi få besvarat på hur konflikter sköts och hur kommunikationen kan leda till konflikter för att kunna få inblick på hur detta kan hanteras på bästa sätt. För att få hjälp med undersökningen kontaktade vi Kronan för att utföra vår undersökning. Vi har utgått från en kvalitativ metod och valt att intervjua fem anställda på organisationen angående deras syn på ämnet. För att kunna genomföra vår studie har vi utnyttjat oss av litteratur för att jämföra med resultaten från våra intervjuer. Resultatet från vår undersökning visade att konflikter inte trängs bort utan det hanteras till en bättre arbetsmiljö där kommunikation har en stor påverkan. De anställda väljer att hantera konflikterna på olika sätt, vissa väljer att låta individerna sköta problemen själva medan andra väljer att försöka lägga sig och hantera konflikterna på direkten.

  • 1095.
    Bajwa, Humera
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Karawan, Liza
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledningens roll i arbetsmiljön: En studie inomhemtjänsten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vårdens styrning måste väsentligt förbättras samt utvecklas, det allvarligaste problemet ledningen handskas med inom äldreomsorgen är det faktum att personalens ansvar gällande arbetsprestationen är otydlig samt att det finns en brist på återkoppling gällande utfört arbete. Det saknas konkreta insatser som kan implementeras för att förbättra personalens arbetsvillkor. Detta leder i sin tur till att personalen är omotiverade i sitt arbete. Utifrån ovan diskuterade perspektiv skapar äldreomsorgen en bild av att vara en dysfunktionell organisation. Problemet är att arbetsmiljön inte är särskilt bra inom äldreomsorgen då högsjukfrånvaro, brist på motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter är de vanligaste förutsättningar som skapar en dysfunktionell organisation.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka ledarskapets roll i den dysfunktionella organisationen samt hur ledningen kan förbättra arbetsmiljön. Genom att kvalitativt intervjua sju personer, fyra enhetschefer samt tre medarbetare, kunde vi uppnå studiens syfte.

    I teoridelen definierade vi ledarskapets innebörd genom att presentera fyra olika ledarskapsstilar vilket är karismatiskt, transaktionellt, transformellt samt Laissez - faire ledarskap. Dessutom presenterades definitionen av arbetsmiljö samt friskfaktorer för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Därefter presenterade vi ledningens roll i att skapa en god arbetsmiljö genom att belysa faktorer som motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter.

    Det som framkom av studien var att ledningens har en väsentlig roll i att förbättra arbetsmiljön inom äldreomsorgen genom att implementera ett ledarskap som präglas av gemenskap, motivation samt kommunikation. Respondenterna ansåg även att återkoppling, varierande arbetsuppgifter, inre motivation samt att en god gemenskap är väsentlig för att skapa en tillfredställande arbetsplats.

  • 1096.
    Baker, Jay
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pain and embaressment: Patients' experience of pilonidal disease2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Pilonidal disease describes the occurrence of a cyst, abscess or sinus tract located near or on the natal cleft of the buttocks that contains hair and skin debris, it affects predominantly men and is notable for affecting relatively young patients (15-35 years) and having long healing time. Aim: This study will create a literature review of patients' experience of their post-surgical wounds after surgery for removal of pilonidal sinus tracts, abscess or cysts. By highlighting issues encountered by patients after surgery this study aims to provide nurses with insight as to the specific needs of this group of patients. Method: Literature review based on scientific articles. Eight articles were selected and analyzed. Articles were searched for in the databases; CINAHL, and Pubmed available through University West. Results: Results of this review formed two distinct categories. Firstly pain was identified as a category, this contained subcategories of; pain due to dressing change, sitting and walking post-operatively, pain and analgesia and post-operative pain due to differing operative technique. Secondly embarrassment was identified as a category, this divided into the subcategories of; embarrassment due to malodour and embarrassment connected to altered body image. Conclusion: Pain and embarrassment during extended healing periods may have a significant effect on a patients' quality of life. As the primary patient contact point due to frequent dressing changes, the nurse has the ability to improve patient experience through a combination of applied practice and patient education to improve personal wound

  • 1097.
    Bakraqi, Valon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Humed Darir, Yasir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Användarvänlig interaktion med mobila enheter: En studie av centrala designprinciper för mobila enheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study presents the way that technology for mobile units has developed in a quick pace, which has led to an expansion of smartphone usage. While the smartphone usage has expanded, the websites hasn't followed the same development. The problematic discussion in this area deals with the difficulties of adapting interfaces from a stationary computer to the interface of a smartphone.

    Selected mobile sites from different airlines have been investigated, based on how user-friendly they are. The study aims to investigate the problems that can arise when airline sites are not user-friendly, and illustrate how the various design principles are applied in these selected websites. Previous research regarding this topic shows that it's difficult to adapt a website to a smartphone. The same design principles are required as for the ordinary websites, but they need to be performed in a stricter manner. Moreover, earlier research shows that usability is an important aspect in the design of the site for smartphones.

    A qualitative approach was applied in the study, where the approach to collect materials for the study has applied the method think aloud, and interviews have been conducted in order to gain a deeper understanding. The result of this study shows that the investigated mobile websites suffer of severly insufficient usability in regards to the investigated design principles and the principles of usability. It is crucial to apply design principles for good mobile usability to the areas that are important for the interaction between the website and the user. The website and its functions should adapt, depending on the device the user uses to browse the website. The website should not confuse the user and should always give feedback on the whereabouts of the user on the website.

  • 1098.
    Balachandramurthi, Arun Ramanathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Alloy 7182018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), commonly known as 3D Printing, is a disruptive modern manufacturing process, in which parts are manufactured in a layer-wise fashion. Among the metal AM processes, Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) technology has opened up a design space that was not formerly accessible with conventional manufacturing processes. It is, now, possible to manufacture complex geometries, such as topology-optimized structures, lattice structures and intricate internal channels, with relative ease. PBF is comprised of Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) processes.

    Though AM processes offer several advantages, the suitability of these processes to replace conventional manufacturing processes must be studied in detail; for instance, the capability to produce components of consistent quality. Therefore, understanding the relationship between the AM process together with the post treatment used and the resulting microstructure and its influence on the mechanical properties is crucial, to enable manufacturing of high-performance components. In this regard, for AM built Alloy 718, only a limited amount of work has been performed compared to conventional processes such as casting and forging. The aim of this work, therefore, is to understand how the fatigue properties of EBM and SLM built Alloy 718, subjected to different thermal post-treatments, is affected by the microstructure. In addition, the effect of as-built surface roughness is also studied.

    Defects can have a detrimental effect on fatigue life. Numerous factors such as the defect type, size, shape, location, distribution and nature determine the effect of defects on properties. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) improves fatigue life as it leads to closure of most defects. Presence of oxides in the defects, however, hinders complete closure by HIP. Machining the as-built surface improves fatiguelife; however, for EBM manufactured material, the extent of improvement is dependent on the amount of material removed. The as-built surface roughness, which has numerous crack initiation sites, leads to lower scatter in fatigue life. In both SLM and EBM manufactured material, fatigue crack propagation is transgranular. Crack propagation is affected by grain size and texture of the material.

  • 1099.
    Balachandramurthi, Arun Ramanathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dixit, Nikhil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Deng, Dunyong
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Microstructural influence on fatigue crack propagation during high cycle fatigue testing of additively manufactured Alloy 7182019In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 149, p. 82-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the microstructure of additively manufactured Alloy 718 was performed in order to better understand the parameters that have an influence on the fatigue properties of the material. The specimens were manufactured using two powder bed fusion techniques – Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Four point bending fatigue tests were performed at room temperature with a stress ratio of R = 0.1 and 20 Hz frequency, on material that was either in hot isostatically pressed (HIP) and solution treated and aged (STA) condition or in STA condition without a prior HIP treatment. The grains in the SLM material in the HIP + STA condition have grown considerably both in the hatch and the contour regions; EBM material, in contrast, shows grain growth only in the contour region. Fractographic analysis of the specimens in HIP + STA condition showed a faceted appearance while the specimens in STA condition showed a more planar crack appearance. The crack propagation occurred in a transgranular mode and it was found that precipitatessuch as NbC, TiN or δ-phase, when present, did not affect the crack path. The areas with larger grains corresponded to the faceted appearance of the fracture surface. This could be attributed to the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip being confined within one grain, in case of the larger grains, which promotes single shear crack growth mode

  • 1100.
    Balachandramurthi, Arun Ramanathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dixit, Nikhil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Influence of defects and as-built surface roughness on fatigue properties of additively manufactured Alloy 7182018In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 735, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam melting (EBM) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) are powder bed based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. These, relatively new, processes offer advantages such as near net shaping, manufacturing complex geometries with a design space that was previously not accessible with conventional manufacturing processes, part consolidation to reduce number of assemblies, shorter time to market etc. The aerospace and gas turbine industries have shown interest in the EBM and the SLM processes to enable topology-optimized designs, parts with lattice structures and part consolidation. However, to realize such advantages, factors affecting the mechanical properties must be well understood – especially the fatigue properties. In the context of fatigue performance, apart from the effect of different phases in the material, the effect of defects in terms of both the amount and distribution and the effect of “rough” as-built surface must be studied in detail. Fatigue properties of Alloy 718, a Ni-Fe based superalloy widely used in the aerospace engines is investigated in this study. Four point bending fatigue tests have been performed at 20 Hz in room temperature at different stress ranges to compare the performance of the EBM and the SLM material to the wrought material. The experiment aims to assess the differences in fatigue properties between the two powder bed AM processes as well as assess the effect of two post-treatment methods namely – machining and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Fractography and metallography have been performed to explain the observed properties. Both HIPing and machining improve the fatigue performance; however, a large scatter is observed for machined specimens. Fatigue properties of SLM material approach that of wrought material while in EBM material defects severely affect the fatigue life. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

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