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  • 101.
    Heidari, Enzo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle.
    Between Words and Gender: A Linguistic Appraisal of Mel Medarda in Arcane2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the animated series, Arcane, with a particular emphasis on the character ofMel and her linguistic strategies in navigating intricate gender dynamics. Centered on theconcept of appraisal analysis, the study reveals how Mel’s dialogue not only serves as a narrative device but also challenges traditional gender norms. Using a linguistics-centric methodology, thepaper elucidates how Mel’s language — saturated with judgment, appreciation, and affect —offers a lens into the series’ multifaceted exploration of femininity, power structures, and personal agency. The research methods encompass a character-focused perspective, linguistic analysis, thematic coding and QR codes. Key findings spotlight Arcane’s prowess in portraying female characters who wield power gracefully, exhibit emotions without portraying them as vulnerabilities, and participate in a wide spectrum of relationships. Such portrayals actively defy gender conventions, showcasing women with depth and complexity in storytelling. However,while lauding the series for its progressive portrayal, the paper also acknowledges the careful balance required to ensure that character depth does not unintentionally fall into superficial ortrope-laden pitfalls. In conclusion, Arcane serves as a captivating piece of entertainment and anotable reference in the discussion of gender representation, reinforcing the power of media in molding societal perspectives on gender dynamics. 

  • 102.
    Heldner, Christina
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Odysseus Elytis' To Axion Esti i svensk tolkning och med förord av Christina Heldner2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 103.
    Heldner, Christina
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Poesins makt och Historiens fasor: En essä om Odysseus Elytis och hans stora diktcykel To Axion Esti2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 104.
    Heldner, Christina
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Svenska översättningar av Dantes Gudomliga komedi – la Divina Commedia2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is devoted to the Italian 14th century poet and scholar Dante Alighieri and his poetic and narrative masterwork La Divina Commedia, usually considered to be one of the highlights of Western literature. More specifically, its object is to examine and characterize the quality of the hitherto seven complete translations into Swedish as for semantic equivalence, equivalence in a number of formal aspects connected with language, style, and versification constraints, and, finally, acceptability of target text language to a contemporary readership. The translations taken into consideration are those of Nils Lovén, 1856-57; Edvard Lidforss, 1903; S.C. Bring, 1905; Aline Pipping, 1915, 1924; Arnold Norlind, 1921, 1930; Åke Ohlmarks, 1966-1969; Ingvar Björkeson, 1983.

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  • 105.
    Hellström, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Administration.
    Alexander i den tyskspråkiga medeltida tradiionen2018Ingår i: Alexanderlegenderna i tid och rum: Alexander den stores gränslösa historia / [ed] Hult, Karin & Vidén, Gunhild, Stockholm: Appell förlag , 2018, s. 187-202Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 106.
    Henriksson, Samuel
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle.
    Station 19 and Black Lives Matter: A critical discourse analysis2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the TV series Station 19, which is a series about a group of firefighters in Seattle, and its characters through a critical discourse analysis. The aim of the critical discourse analysis is to find how the characters within the series convey their opinions on power relations and what their feelings are towards this. Furthermore, the study aims to find whether the language used by the characters is used in order to promote, or oppose, social change within the series. When critically analysing the discourse, the results of the analysis show that there are several characters that both oppose and support social change within the series and how they convey these opinions. Additionally, the analysis reveals a clear hegemony that exists within the series that benefits the characters that are white, and not the characters of colour.

  • 107.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    A collection of contradictory selves: The dialogical self and the dynamics of identity transformation2021Ingår i: Complexity perspectives on researching language learner and teacher psychology / [ed] R. Sampson & R. Pinner, Multilingual Matters, 2021, s. 234-251Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 108.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Att vara ett global medborgare: skapandet av språkliga identiteter i och utanför skolan2014Ingår i: Att förstå ungdomars identitetsskapande: en inspirations- och metodbok / [ed] Sorbring, Emma, Andersson, Åsa & Molin, Martin, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, 1, s. 276-305Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet beskrivs språk som en kontext, och fokus är på identitetsskapande som kan kopplas till inlärning av främmande språk och språkanvändning.

  • 109.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Challenges in bridging between cultures of English experience2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 289-313Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 110.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Contexts of possibility in simultaneous language learning: using the L2 Motivational Self System to assess the impact of global English2010Ingår i: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 149-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others, with English being the greatest source of such interference. In this article it is suggested that, as an alternative to interference, Markus and Nurius' theory of the working self-concept may offer a theoretically more coherent explanation for between-language effects in situations of simultaneous learning. Using a specially designed instrument, three hypotheses were tested for a sample of Swedish pupils actively engaged in learning two L2s. First, it was hypothesised that learners would have separate L2 self-concepts as speakers of different L2s, secondly, that FL self-concepts would be interpreted negatively in relation to English self-concepts and, finally, that a high degree of FL-to-English negative self-concept referencing would be associated with low FL motivation. Whilst tentative support was found for all three hypotheses, with negative effects of English being most noticeable among boys, the results need to be followed up by further research employing more exacting methodologies.

  • 111.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Digital games and ELT: bridging the authenticity gap2013Ingår i: International perspectives on motivation: language learning and professional challenges / [ed] Ushioda, Ema, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, s. 133-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I will suggest that in cultural contexts such as Sweden where English is an integral part of young people’s everyday lives and is encountered and used in a range of out-of-school domains, a particular challenge facing teachers is not so much generating motivation to succeed in long-term competency goals, but rather engaging students in day-to-day classroom activities. Based on the idea that self-authenticity can have a motivating force (Gecas 1991; Vannini 2006; Vannini and Burgess 2009) and drawing on James Paul Gee’s recent work on affinity spaces (Gee 2005; Hayes and Gee 2010), I will argue that teachers of English need to create learning opportunities where students can experience the types of creative and self-relevant interaction commonplace in digital gaming. This does not mean that teachers should look to leisure-time domains with an eye to the wholesale import of youth culture content into the classroom, but, rather, that greater scope should be given to aesthetic and personal expression in activity design. In arguing that there is a growing authenticity gap between the English students learn in school and the English they use outside, I will begin the chapter by looking at the sorts of things young people in Sweden do in their free time.

     

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  • 112.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Directed Motivational Currents: Extending the Theory of L2 Vision2019Ingår i: The Palgrave Handbook of Motivation for Language Learning / [ed] Lamb, Martin; Csizér, Kata; Henry, Alastair; Ryan, Stephen, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 139-161Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the idea of directed motivational currents (DMCs), and maps out the conceptual antecedents. Explaining how the construct is an extension of Dörnyei’s theory of L2 vision, it describes the components and phenomenology of DMCs. It explains how DMCs differ from peak experiences of optimal functioning conceptualized in Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow, how energy is directed by a self-concordant goal coupled with a matching vision of success, and how in a DMC conscious self-regulation is unnecessary. The chapter explains how DMCs can function at individual and group levels. In light of research findings, the validity of the construct is examined. The chapter explains how the DMC construct provides a template for understanding enduring motivation, and a framework for focused interventions in language classrooms.

  • 113.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Enablements and constraints: Inventorying affordances associated with lingua franca English2016Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 488-510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcultural flows of capital, culture and communication have created conditions for the widespread movement of people around the globe, leading to increasing diversity in countries of destination. In contexts of global migration lingua franca English is indispensable in initial and survival communication. For migrants to northern European countries where lingua franca English functions as a 'contact language' in 'contact zone encounters', it is of value not only as a communication medium, but also as a resource for learning typologically similar host-country languages. Drawing on the concept of affordances, the purpose of this study is to create an inventory of the ways in which English can facilitate, but also constrain social interaction and the acquisition of Swedish. Interviews conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires revealed the presence of enabling and constraining affordances in social, classroom, material and cognitive domains. Discussing the study findings, it is suggested that the ways in which the individual attunes to an affordance associated with English, perceiving it as either enabling or constraining, is dependent on their current motivational and affective state and in-the-moment cognitive processing

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  • 114.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Examining the impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A case study2011Ingår i: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 235-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous L2 (English) and L3 (Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves approach was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a larger dataset (n=101). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis techniques. In analysing the data Markus and Nurius’ (1986) theory of the working self-concept was used to examine experiences of and cognitive responses to the presence of L2 English in L3 learning situations. The results indicate that for these individuals an L2 English self-concept is an active constituent with a referential function in working self-concepts activated in L3 learning situations. To offset the potentially negative effects of the incursion of L2 English, some of the individuals recruited different forms of positive self-knowledge into the working self-concept. For one participant the powerful referential effect of English was such that it became difficult to sustain a viable L3-speaking/using self. The results suggest that the inclusion of a working self-concept component in possible selves motivational research may be methodologically rewarding, particularly in multilingual settings and/or where contextual or process factors are in focus.    

  • 115.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gender differences in compulsory school pupils' L2 self-concepts: A longitudinal study2009Ingår i: System, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 177-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 116.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gender differences in L2 motivation: A reassessment2011Ingår i: Gender Gap: causes, experiences & effects / [ed] Davies, Samuel A., New York: Nova Science , 2011, s. 81-101Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with aptitude, motivation is the primary determiner of learning outcomes in second language (L2) learning. Widely regarded as an activity especially suited to girls, empirical studies from different sociocultural contexts have, with few exceptions, revealed systematic gender differences in L2 motivation. In particular, gender differences are most apparent in relation to establishing an affinity with other L2 speakers, the ability and willingness to identify with the values associated with L2 ethnolinguistic communities and a lack of ethnocentricity. Together these attributes have been categorized as integrativeness (Gardner, 1985). Explanations for observed gender differences vary and, other than a general recognition of the impact of social norms and gender role expectations, no overarching theoretical explanation has yet been attempted. Given the recent paradigm shift in the conceptualization of L2 motivation from a social psychological approach based on identifications with other groups of speakers, to one based on the learner’s internal identification of a future language speaking ‘self’, a timely opportunity is presented to review previous findings. Following an initial discussion of the paradigm shift in L2 motivation theory and the role of gender in conceptions of the self, the literature on the gender gap in integrativeness is reviewed through the lens of self-related theories. A tentative explanation for observed differences that synthesizes the results of previous research and is theoretically consistent with a self approach is proposed. Drawing on the work of, amongst others, Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver and Surrey (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991) and Cross and Madson (1997) it is suggested that gender differences can be understood in relation to processes involving the construction and construal of selves, where the selves of males are characterized by independence whilst those of females emphasize interdependence.

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  • 117.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    L2 Motivation and Multilingual Identities2017Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 101, nr 3, s. 548-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By tradition, L2 motivation research has a monolingual bias – the motivational systems of a learner’s different languages conceptualized as separate entities rather than as cognitively interconnected. At a time when multilingualism has become a new world order (Douglas Fir Group, ) and where there is evidence of powerful identity experiences connected to speaking several languages (Pavlenko, ) this is unfortunate. In alignment with the multilingual and dynamic turns in SLA (de Bot, ; May, ), and adopting a complexity thought modeling approach (Larsen–Freeman & Cameron, ), this article explores multilingual learners’ L2 motivation. It is suggested that the motivational systems of a multilingual learner’s different languages can be understood as constituting a higher-level multilingual motivational self system that is part of an ecology of interconnected and interpenetrating systems. This system contains multilingual self guides, one of which is the ideal multilingual self. Drawing on construal-level theory (Trope & Liberman, ), the manner and effects of mental representations of an ideal multilingual self are assessed. Finally, it is suggested that motivation deriving from a broader identity that encompasses but, in important ways, transcends a multilingual person’s language-specific identities has a central role to play in multilingual education.

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  • 118.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    L3 Motivation2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to study secondary school students' motivation to learn a second foreign language in addition to English. In addition to the empirical investigation of L3 motivation over a program of study and the testing of the widely-held assumption that L2 English impacts negatively on L3 motivation, the aim was also to contribute to the conceptual development of self-based motivation theory by examining the evolution and development of language-speaking/using selves, and by addressing the issue of interference between different self-guides.  In Studies I and II the L3 motivational trajectories of two samples of secondary school students (n=532, n=169) were mapped across grades 4 – 6 (Study I) and grades 6 – 9 (Study II), with a particular focus on differences in the trajectories of girls' and boys' ideal language-speaking/using selves. The results of Studies I and II revealed a pattern where initial gender differences, although remaining stable after a year of learning, thereafter follow different developmental paths. While boys' ideal L3 selves declined by the end of grade 9, girls' ideal L3 selves became stronger. Although a similar pattern was found for L2 English selves, the gender gap here was not as marked.  In Study III the hypothesis that, as a result of negative cross-referencing between ideal L2 and ideal L3 selves, L2 English would have a negative effect on L3 motivation was tested in a sample of 9th grade students (n= 101). Analysis of the data indicates that students are aware of the ideal L2 English self in L3 learning situations and support was found for the hypothesised negative effect on L3 motivation, with the impact being stronger among boys. In Study IV the hypothesised processes of negative cross-referencing were examined in a series of in-depth interviews with four participants selected using a maximum variation sampling strategy. Analysis of the data revealed that when cross-referencing takes place, some students seem to invoke counteracting resources. In the discussion of the findings it is suggested that, rather than interference, competition may provide a conceptually more coherent descriptor of the processes of cognition that take place in the working self-concept when more than one possible language self is active. The implications of the findings for theoretical development are discussed in relation to both qualitative applications of the L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005), and the proposed ID component in the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism (Herdina & Jessner, 2002). Finally, the educational implications of the findings are discussed and a series of proposals for classroom interventions are put forward

  • 119.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Learner–environment adaptations in multiple language learning: casing the ideal multilingual self as a system functioning in context2020Ingår i: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple language learning has been largely neglected in L2 motivation research. Recently, complexity principles have been used to model multilingual motivation. In this work, multilingual self-guides are conceptualised as emergent from interactions between the motivation systems of different languages. Motivational systems and their emergent properties are also influenced by the contexts in which acquisition takes place. In this interview-based study in a Swedish secondary school setting, the ideal multilingual self is explored as 'a system functioning in context'. Focusing on the ways in which multilingual identities and the social contexts of multilingualism co-evolve, analyses show how the school environment shapes and is shaped by emergent identities. The importance of multi-scalar designs is highlighted, and the contribution of motivation research to sustainable multilingual education is discussed.

  • 120.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational activities and identity work2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 133-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 121.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational connections in language classrooms: A research agenda2021Ingår i: Language Teaching, ISSN 0261-4448, E-ISSN 1475-3049, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 221-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With roots in social psychology, second language (L2) motivation has largely been investigated using self-report techniques. Studies drawing on observational data gathered in contexts where learning takes place are rare, and understandings of how motivation evolves in classroom interactions remain limited (Boo, Dörnyei, & Ryan, 2015). In a position paper in Language Teaching, Ushioda (2016) maps out an agenda for qualitative research examining motivation that emerges in language classrooms. With a focus on psycholinguistic processes, and with the aim of understanding how motivation 'connects with specific aspects of second language acquisition [and] particular features of linguistic development', Ushioda makes the case for researching L2 motivation 'through a small lens' (p. 564). Furthering this agenda, I make proposals for research with a relational focus where, through a somewhat wider lens, motivation and engagement generated through connections created by teachers in their classroom practice can be investigated. To frame these proposals, I use the concept of connective instruction (Martin & Dowson, 2009). Connective instruction holds that motivation and engagement increase when students can connect with the teacher as a person, with content that the teacher enables them to get involved with, and with the working methods that the teacher promotes. Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.

  • 122.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk. Lund University, Center for Languages and Literature, Lund (SWE).
    Multilingualism and persistence in multiple language learning2023Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 107, nr 1, s. 183-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For language learners who aspire to become multilingual, commitment involves a personal journey. Defining persistence as a preoccupation with goal-focused action directed to a desired future state and drawing on research from cognitive psychology and the mental time travel paradigm, this article presents an identity-based framework of persistence in multiple language learning. In the framework, persistence is supported through the operation of 3 interconnecting processes: (a) the generation of personally meaningful goals aimed at becoming multilingual, (b) the conjuring of mental images that represent states, events, and values associated with being multilingual, and (c) the integration of representations of multilingualism within an unfolding personal history. To illustrate these processes, data from online sources and research literature exploring language learners’ narrative biographies is used. The relevance of the framework is critically assessed in relation to (a) the development of interventions supporting motivation for foreign language learning, (b) the exploration of motivational processes through narrative-based inquiry, and (c) the varying linguistic, social, and societal contexts in which multiple language learning takes place. © 2023 The Authors. The Modern Language Journal published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations, Inc.

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  • 123.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Online Media Creation and L2 Motivation: A Socially Situated Perspective2019Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 372-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are increasingly common in language learning. Online media creation provides scope for agency and spaces for identity construction, but empirically grounded conceptualizations of the influences on learners' motivation are lacking and the digital technology–second language motivation interface remains largely unexplored. Using a grounded theory ethnographic approach (Charmaz,2006), and with the aim of developing a theoretical account of the emergence of motivation in online media creation, this study investigated a blog project in an English language classroom in Sweden. Engaging with multiple data sources, and using Ito and colleagues' (2010) theory of participation in media practices as an analytical framework, motivation is conceptualized as stemming from the desire to create a visually appealing and authentic artefact, from a perception of audience, and through the documentation of identities. Variations in motivational intensity between student groups could betraced to varying investments in digital media practices. Primarily, differences were between validation-seeking that was locally oriented and validation-seeking conditioned through actions within a genre of practice. These conceptualizations are of importance for English language teaching. In language-developing activities that involve online media creation, motivation can be enhanced when space for genre exploration is provided

  • 124.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Possible selves and personal goals: What can we learn from episodic future thinking?2020Ingår i: Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2149-1135, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 481-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Mental time travel lies at the frontier of research into motivational persistence in language learning (Dörnyei, 2020). This article introduces the theory of episodic future thinking (D’Argembeau, 2016, 2020), and examines the key components of autobiographical knowledge and personally important goals. With findings on the long-term goals and career aspirations of preservice English teachers as a departure point (Erten, 2014; Ölmez Çağlar, 2019), I outline the contributions that episodic future thinking can make to the psychology of second language learning and teaching. Positioning episodic future thinking in conceptual terrain at the intersection of vision-based theories of L2 motivation (Dörnyei, 2009), Self Determination Theory frameworks (Noels, 2009), and narrative, life-story approaches (Dörnyei & Ryan, 2015), I explain how it can inform the investigation of motivational persistence.

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  • 125.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Rewarding foreign language learning: effects of the Swedish grade point average enhancement initiative on students' motivationto learn French.2017Ingår i: Language learning journal, ISSN 0957-1736, E-ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 301-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed the admissions system to higher education. Upper secondary students who continue with the FL learnt in secondary school are rewarded with extra credits that considerably enhance their grade point average (GPA). The purpose of this interview-based study is examine the impact this initiative has on the choices of 6 upper secondary students to continue with their FL, French, and on their motivation over one and a half semesters of study. Using self-determination theory and Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self System model as analytical lenses, results reveal that for the three students whose motivation is rooted in intrinsic and/or self-determined extrinsic reasons for learning, the GPA-enhancing credits have little or no impact on either choice or effortful behaviour. For the other three students, none of whom, but for the extra credits, would have chosen to continue with French, the GPA-enhancement is almost the sole source motivation. However, because their reasons for studying French are not fully self-determined, learning lacks personal meaning. These students see little longer-term value in their efforts, nor meaningful applications for the skills they have developed. Consequently, goals do not extend beyond achieving a passing grade. The effects of making a fifth and sixth year of FL learning de facto compulsory on students’ willingness to use the FL in the future and on their FL-speaking/using self-concepts are discussed, and the consequences of the initiative are critically appraised.

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    Prepublication version
  • 126.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Swedish or English?: Migrants' experiences of the exchangeability of language resources2016Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 442-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the key to 'integration', the purpose of this study is to examine English-speaking migrants' experiences of opportunities to use Swedish and English in communication. Interviews were conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires. Drawing on participants' experiences of language use in institutional contexts, analyses focus on the influence of value assessments, orientations to ideal-type norms, processes of self-surveillance and the effects of discursive positionings. While migrants' language choices are understood as a consequence of structural conditions, attention is also drawn to the ways in which such choices are flexibly negotiated. Analyses shed light on participants' creative and critical capacities and how, in their language choices, they evaluate, relate to and resist macro-social structures. Different varieties of English are shown to offer different communicative opportunities and not all are equally exchangeable. Opportunities to use English also differ as a consequence of the intersections of discursive positionings.

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  • 127.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Swedish students’ beliefs about learning English in and outside of school2014Ingår i: Motivation and Foreign Language Learning: from theory to practice / [ed] David Lasagabaster, Aintzane Doiz, Juan Manuel Sierra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, s. 93-116Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden students’ encounters with English in and out of school are very different. Spending around 20 hours per week in English-mediated environments outside of school, they are often engaged in richly meaningful activities. Consequently, many young people believe they learn as much of their English as a result of participation in English-mediated leisure time activities as they do from textbook-dominated classroom instruction. Drawing on emerging discussions on the ways in which learners’ beliefs about the primacy of learning English in natural environments can have negative effects on learning behaviours in formal settings (e.g. Mercer & Ryan, 2010), and how learners’ beliefs about the causes of success in language learning can impact on motivation (e.g. Hsieh, 2012), this chapter examines the ways in which such beliefs may impact on Swedish students’ responses to classroom learning. Further, in view of the fact that beliefs about the context in which English is mostly acquired differ substantially between girls and boys, the chapter examines the ways in which gender differences in the nature of self-regulation can impact on students’ beliefs.

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    Henry (2014)
  • 128.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The ‘Burden’ and the Darkness: The British Empire and Colonialism2013Ingår i: Postcolonial Texts and Events: Cultural Narratives from the English-Speaking World / [ed] Andersson Hval, Ulrika, Henry, Alastair & Bergström, Catharine Walker, Lund, 2013, 1, s. 15-35Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The Dynamics of L3 Motivation: A Longitudinal Interview /Observation-Based Study2014Ingår i: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, s. 315-342Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (L3) in school is a common experience for students in countries all over the world, particularly in Europe where a central aim of European Union educational policy is the development of multilingualism (Cenoz & Jessner, 2000; European Commission, 2005, 2008). Common language combinations, as for example in the Scandinavian countries, are English as the initial instructed foreign language (the L2) with French, German or Spanish (the L3) introduced at a later stage. The simultaneous learning of more than one foreign language (FL) has begun to attract the interest of motivation researchers, with findings pointing to the popularity of English (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005; Csizér & Lukács, 2010) and indicating that, comparatively, motivational trajectories for L3s show a markedly steeper decline (Henry, 2009). There is also evidence that L3 motivation is prone to greater fluctuation, both gradual and dramatic (Mercer, 2011) and that, in competition for the learner’s time and resources, L2 English can have negative effects on L3 motivation (Henry, 2010, 2011, 2014; Mercer, 2011).

       As Cameron and Larsen-Freeman (2007: 227) note, complexity theory approaches that reject linear scenarios and focus on the webs of interactions taking place within and between dynamic systems, seem to resonate with ‘the problem spaces of applied linguistics’. One particular ‘problem space’ where complex dynamic systems (CDS) theories can usefully be applied is in third language acquisition. The acquisition of a third language involves greater degrees of complexity than in situations when only one new language is in focus as it is necessary to account for the interactions between different language systems in the learner’s mind (Herdina & Jessner, 2002; Jessner, 2006, 2008). This means that, in addition to all of the individual difference factors recognised in SLA, in third language acquisition the evolution of a language system will also be dependent on the development and behaviour of other parallel language systems (Jessner, 2008).    

       With the aim of examining the motivational dynamics of six Swedish students learning French as an L3, this chapter reports on findings from a series of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations conducted over a nine-month period. The chapter begins with an overview of some of the CDST concepts used when engaging with the data, and concludes with a reflection on some of the methodological challenges encountered in this type of research.

  • 130.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The Dynamics of Possible Selves2014Ingår i: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, s. 83-94Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dörnyei’s recasting of L2 motivation as a process of self-discrepancy has not only generated scores of journal articles and book chapters focusing on the motivational effects of L2 self-guides, but through practitioner-oriented publications (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014; Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2013; Hadfield & Dörnyei, 2013) the Ideal L2 Self is beginning to find its way into motivational practices in the classroom. Widely recognised as potentially powerful generators of motivation, ideal L2 selves risk however being conceptualized as static constructs, fixed ‘targets’ that the individual strives to achieve or live up to. Such a view does not fit easily with the current trend in SLA towards the application of dynamic approaches. For this reason an elaboration of the dynamics of possible selves seems timely.

       In this chapter I explore two important dynamic processes. First I look at the ways in which ideal L2 selves are upward- and downwardly revised as a result of assessments of the likelihood of their achievement. I then consider processes in which changes in language speaking/using self-guides are triggered as a consequence of interactions with other self-concepts. While the identification of this first type of dynamic stems from the notion that, during a period of learning (long or short), the learner’s goalposts are likely to shift, the second is a development of the long-held recognition that motivated behaviours do not take place in relative isolation, but are shaped by the other ongoing activities in which the learner is engaged (Dörnyei, 2005; Ushioda, this volume). Before looking at these two processes, I begin by outlining three aspects of complex dynamic systems (CDS) theory of particular importance in developing an understanding of self-guide dynamics. These are, respectively, changes to attractor states, system connectedness and timescales.

  • 131.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The motivational effects of cross-linguistic awareness: developing  third language pedagogies to address the negative impact  of the L2 on the L3 self-concept2014Ingår i: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1750-1229, E-ISSN 1750-1237, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with supporter languages have been shown to facilitate L3 production, recent research suggests that cross-referencing with the L2 may be detrimental to motivation. In the current study, 21 students learning L2 English and L3 German or Spanish were interviewed about comparisons involving L3 and L2 self-concepts. Results revealed that nearly all of the students were aware of making such comparisons. A number, however, had developed strategies to counteract the potentially detrimental effect that comparisons with the L2-speaking/using self-concept can have on L3 motivation. It is argued here that in emerging pedagogies of L3 learning proper account needs to be taken of cognitive and affective individual difference factors. In particular, as a means of offsetting the negative impact that a high-status supporter language can have on the learner's L3 self-concept, students should be made aware of the problem and helped to develop and make use of counteracting strategies.

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    Motivational effects of cross-linguistic awareness
  • 132.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Tredjespråksinlärning och motivation2016Ingår i: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] C. Bardel, Y. Falk och C. Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, s. 165-188Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 133.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Understanding language learners' motivation2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 43-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 134.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Vision and Goal Self-concordance2021Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of the Psychology of Language Learning and Teaching / [ed] Gregersen, Tammy & Mercer, Sarah, Taylor & Francis, 2021, s. 231-244Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal self-concordance has been shown to have enduring influences on behavior. It predicts sustained effort and increased goal-attainment. Compared to goals that lack self-concordance, self-concordant goals generate greater satisfaction and increased well-being. One research strand where vision and goal self-concordance have been studied as integrated dimensions in behavior-steering processes is work on episodic future thinking. In any long-term activity, self-concordant vision generates momentum by channeling the person’s focus. In addition to survey-based research pointing to the importance of vision and visualization capacity in generating motivation for language learning, studies have also demonstrated the effects of visionary-based interventions in second language (L2) classrooms. A growing body of work now points to the value of mental imagery in L2 learning, adding to the list of domains in human life in which vision functions as a motivational resource–business management, psychotherapy, and theology, to name but a few. © 2022 Taylor and Francis.

  • 135.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    What Motivates Students?2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 63-85Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 136.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Why can’t I be doing this in English instead?: An interview study of the impact of L2 English on girls’ and boys’ L3 selves2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial International Gender and Language Association Conference IGALA 6, 18-20 September, Tokyo / [ed] Maree, Claire & Satoh, Kyoko, Tokyo: Tsuda College , 2011, s. 126-139Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been very little research on L3 motivation, it would appear that the gender divergences commonly found in L2 motivation are also apparent when a third foreign language is learnt. In a previous analysis of quantitative data Henry (2010a) found an inverse relationship between i) the extent to which students compared the L3-speaking/using self-concept with the L2 English-speaking/using self-concept, and ii) L3 motivation. Further, this effect was stronger for boys. In an attempt to shed light on these gender differences, interview data from students with differing motivational profiles were analysed using the theoretical framework of the working self-concept (Markus & Nurius, 1986; Markus & Kunda, 1986). The results suggest that, for these students, the L2 English self-concept is frequently invoked in L3 learning situations and that it has a referential function. Whilst the girls interviewed appeared to be able to offset the impact of L2 English by creating cognitive barriers and recruiting positive L3-related self-knowledge, the boys seemed to rely more on forms of self-knowledge that emphasize a capacity for hard work and determination. For some of the boys the pervasive impact of L2 English meant however that it was impossible to sustain a viable L3 self-concept.  

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 137.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Young people and English: A changing landscape with changing challenges2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 23-41Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 138.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Chan, Letty
    Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling: Lessons from a pilot study2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we offer an evaluation of 'retrodictive qualitative modelling' (RQM) in action. Drawing on data from a Hong Kong setting, we offer an in-depth analysis of the system dynamics of a single participant, and reflect on the challenges involved and methodological lessons learnt when using the RQM model.

  • 139.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för hälsa, kultur och pedagogik.
    The Impact of Out-of-School Factors on Motivation to Learn English: Self-discrepancies, Beliefs, and Experiences of Self-authenticity2017Ingår i: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 713-736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    English is today learnt in multitudes of settings worldwide, making it difficult to characterize relationships between motivation and context in generalized terms (Ushioda 2013). In settings where students have extensive encounters with English outside school, a reluctance to invest effort in formal learning has been observed. To investigate ways in which out-of-school encounters impact on motivation, questionnaire data was obtained from 116 upper secondary students in Sweden. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of hypotheses generated from emerging research into language learners identities, beliefs and self-authenticity appraisals. Results revealed that, compared to reference studies from settings where English lacks similar prominence, the Ideal L2 Self accounted for substantially less of the explained variance on a criterion measure. This can be accounted for by the limited discrepancy between current and ideal L2 selves. Results also indicate that beliefs about the efficacy of learning in natural environments have a negative impact on motivation in school, and that appraisals of self-authenticity may have a similar effect, although methodological challenges make this contention difficult to substantiate.

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    fulltext
  • 140.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Davydenko, Sofia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thriving? Or Surviving?: An Approach-Avoidance Perspective on Adult Language Learners' Motivation2020Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 104, nr 2, s. 363-380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a language is a long-term undertaking. In this endeavor, motivation is served by patterns of regulation that steer and control behavior. Regulation can be focused on possibilities and opportunities (an approach pattern), or the implications of failure (an avoidance pattern). Responding to calls for work with a focus on regulation (Papi et al., 2019), and with the aim of developing insights into second-language perseverance, this study explores the regulation profiles of highly motivated adult learners of Swedish. Using the directed motivational currents construct as a template, analyses of interview data from 18 participants revealed distinct patterns of approach- and avoidance-focused regulation. While approach orientations were associated with enjoyment and well-being, avoidance orientations were associated with worry and stress. The effects of regulatory orientations on motivational sustainability are discussed, and implications for theory and practice are considered. © National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations

  • 141.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Davydenko, Sofia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    The Anatomy of Directed Motivational Currents: Exploring Intense and Enduring Periods of L2 Motivation2015Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 329-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of articles Dörnyei and his colleagues (Dörnyei, Ibrahim, & Muir, 2015; Dörnyei, Muir, & Ibrahim, 2014; Muir & Dörnyei, 2013) describe the phenomenon of a period of intense and enduring motivation in pursuit of a highly desired personal goal or vision. These surges of motivational energy, which they call Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs), uniquely differ from other types of highly motivated behaviour or optimal forms of engagement that are to be found in the literature in the sense that individual learning activities form integrated parts of a coherent motivational superstructure. The current article offers the first systematic empirical investigation of this motivational phenomenon. Focusing on periods of unusually intense and enduring motivation experienced by migrant learners of Swedish as a second language, the purpose of this interview-based study is to consider whether core characteristics of DMCs can be identified in participants’ descriptions of sustained motivated behaviour, thereby considering the validity of the DMC construct. Results reveal that motivated behaviour is characterised by features similar to those outlined by Dörnyei and colleagues, namely the presence of a salient facilitative structure, the generation of positive emotionality, and the direction of motivated behaviour toward long-term identity investment goals. This indicates that the DMC construct captures a unique form of motivation worthy of future investigation.

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    fulltext
  • 142.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Goddard, Angela
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle.
    Bicultural or Hybrid?: The Second Language Identities of Students on an English-Mediated University Program in Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Language, Identity & Education, ISSN 1534-8458, E-ISSN 1532-7701, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 255-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that in foreign language learning and ELF situations, identity might not be implicated in any great extent. Focusing on the impact globalization has on identities, the purpose of this study is to consider whether identity might be involved in Swedish students’ reasons for enrolling on an English-medium university program and, if so, the types of identities students construct. Analyses of data from interviews with 11 students revealed that identities do play a role in students’ enrolment reasons. However, rather than the bicultural identities identified in previous motivational research, the identities emerging here appear hybrid in nature. Along with other recent research, the results indicate that in contexts where English has a prominent social/societal/cultural presence it is implicated in identity construction, and that there is a relationship between identity and ELF. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 143.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Anna
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational Strategies and the Reframing of English: Activity Design and Challenges for Teachers in Contexts of Extensive Extramural Encounters2018Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, nr 2, s. 247-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively encountered outside the classroom. Given also that little is known about strategies relating to the design and content of classroom activities, the purpose of this study is to identify and critically evaluate strategies focusing on activity design and content in classroom activities that, in a setting where students have extensive extramural English encounters, teachers have found to be effective in generating motivation. Using Dörnyei's (2001) taxonomy of motivational strategies as an analytical tool, 112 descriptions of motivational activities provided by a randomly drawn sample of secondary EFL teachers in Sweden (N = 252) were content-analyzed with a focus on design and content. Providing support for Dörnyei's proposals, the results reveal the prominence of activities that enable students to work with authentic materials (cultural artefacts produced for a purpose other than teaching) and in ways that can be experienced as authentic. Activities involving digital technologies which provide opportunities for creativity are also prominent. Use of authentic materials places high demands on teachers' pedagogical and linguistic skills. In contexts where students respond positively to such activities, teachers' language awareness skills become of significant importance.

  • 144.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Lamb, Martin
    University of Leeds,School of Education, Leeds, UK.
    L2 Motivation and Digital Technologies2019Ingår i: The Palgrave Handbook of Motivation for Language Learning. / [ed] Lamb, Martin; Csizér, Kata; Henry, Alastair; Ryan, Stephen, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 599-619Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum Press, 1985) as a lens through which to review research describing motivational influences associated with digital technologies. Motivational effects are traced to pleasure generated from technology use (intrinsic motivation), and to the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs that generate and sustain high-quality motivation; the manner in which digital technologies enable learners to connect to others (relatedness); experiences of agency and independence in using the L2 in digital spaces (autonomy); and the generation of linguistic self-confidence (competence). Adopting an interdisciplinary position, it is suggested that in addition to understanding the effects of these “psychological nourishments” (Rigby & Ryan, The Routledge handbook of media use and well-being (pp. 34–48). New York: Routledge, 2017), there is a need for broader conceptualizations of motivational influences. Three concepts with particular relevance to L2 motivation are identified: the development of L2 vision through learners’ engagement with digital media, influences stemming from appraisals of verisimilitude when a digital technology forms a part of learning, and the effects of personal validation seeking when L2 media is created in networked environments.

  • 145.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk. Lund University, Centre for Languages and Literature, Box 201, SE-221 000, Lund (SWE).
    Liu, Meng
    Beijing Foreign Studies University, School of English and International Studies, No.2 North Xisanhuan Road, Beijing (CHN).
    Can L2 motivation be modelled as a self-system?: A critical assessment2023Ingår i: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 119, artikel-id 103158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some two decades ago, Dörnyei (2005) proposed that motivation for L2 learning could be modelled as a self-system. Despite the profound influence of Dörnyei’s scholarship and impact of the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) model, the fundamental premise that motivation for L2 learning can constitute a self-system has escaped critical scrutiny. Highlighting how the self-system constitutes a framework within which self-referential cognition is organized, and that self-appraisal occurs in relation to socially-derived standards (Bandura, 1978; Higgins, 1990), this article critically assesses the utility of a self-system conceptualization. This is accomplished by addressing five problem areas connected with the L2MSS and which relate to the model’s self-system conceptualization: the “fantasy problem” (nondifferentiation of desire and fantasy), the “ought-to L2 self problem” (unspecificity of relevant others and internalization processes), the “integrativeness problem” (difficulty of incorporating affiliation motives), the “learning experience problem” (failure to account for relational and biographical influences), and the “context problem” (inadequate modelling of learner–environment interactions). Critical engagement with these problem areas demonstrates how the self-system conceptualization embodied in the L2MSS is tightly circumscribed, and how a self-regulatory system framework can provide greater utility. 

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  • 146.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk. Lund University (SWE).
    MacIntyre, Peter D.
    Cape Breton University, Department of Psychology Skills (CAN).
    Willingness to Communicate, Multilingualism and Interactions in Community Contexts2024Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the communication behaviours of individuals in multilingual community contexts. Using a complexity lens and the presentation of a revised 3D pyramid model, the authors demonstrate the dynamic nature of willingness to communicate over time and shed new light on processes that affect communication, migration and well-being.

  • 147.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Macintyre, Peter
    Cape Breton University Glace Bay, (CAN).
    Wang, Lanxi
    Cape Breton University, Sydney, (CAN).
    The dynamics of willingness to communicate: Change Point Analysis in the lab and the field2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of complex dynamic systems theory (CDST) has brought challenges and innovation in theory, research, and practice of language teaching and learning. To date, however, methodological developments have lagged behind (Hiver & Al Hoorie, 2020). Change point analysis (CPA) is a statistical method appropriate for analyzing dynamic data in language development. The method has been used in studies of groups (Han & Hiver, 2018) and individuals (Nitta & Baba, 2015). CPA identifies points or ‘thresholds’ along a distribution of values on either side of which characteristics vary significantly. CPA is used in time series data where parametric assumptions cannot be made (Taylor, 2000). Because it focuses on change, CPA is particularly useful in studies from a CDST perspective where research questions address changes either in the means or variance of variables without making untenable parametric assumptions. In this presentation we will demonstrate the empirical use of CPA software in two studies of willingness to communicate (WTC) with individual-level data. WTC is defined as the readiness to talk to a specific person in a specific context using the L2 (or L3, etc.) emerging from interactions within a dynamic system (MacIntyre, 2020). It has been argued that sources of WTC can best be understood by intensive analysis of individual cases, analysis that is “conspicuously absent” from the literature (Friermuth & Ito, 2020). We focus on how CPA was used to identify specific thresholds indicating reliable changes in WTC. Study 1 adopted a fieldwork approach to examine long-term changes in WTC among six immigrants to Sweden over their first year in-country. In Study 2, CPA identified changes in WTC among 10 ESL students in Canada who were discussing a meaningful photo in a language lab context. In both studies, CPA focused analysis on identifying the specific processes leading to changes in WTC.

  • 148.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Persson, ÅkeHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Engaging with Work in English Studies: An Issue-Based Approach2021Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited book focuses on practices of work in late modern society, taking an ‘issue-based’ and interdisciplinary approach to English Studies which acknowledges the impact of globalization on the position of English in the daily existence of millions of people around the world. Envisioning English as “a diverse yet unified subject” where the study of literature, language, and education can be pursued thematically, it constitutes part of an ongoing transformation and revitalization of English Studies. It will be of interest to readers with backgrounds in linguistics, literature and education, as well as fields normally seen as lying ‘beyond’ English Studies such as psychology, sociology, philosophy, urban studies, political science and childhood studies.

  • 149.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Persson, Åke
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Introduction: Engaging with Worki n Worlds of Change2021Ingår i: Engaging with Work in English Studies: An Issue-Based Approach / [ed] Henry, Alastair & Persson, ÅKe, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2021, s. 1-17Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a globalized world, English Studies is in need of transformation. Serving as an introduction to the anthology, this chapter makes the case for an issue-based approach to English Studies where engagement is sought with fields beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries. From the position that English Studies can be understood as a form of participatory action — where English Studies is brought into the world and the world is brought into English Studies — the chapter examines practices of work in contemporary society, and previews the volume’s contributions.

  • 150.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Elevers möten med engelska i och utanför skolan: Upprop till deltagande i forskningsprojektet Bridging the Gap2014Ingår i: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, nr 4, s. 22-27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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