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  • 101.
    Ellström, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sten, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Guide för projektering inom lågspänning2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written in conjunction with a low voltage project planning guide developed by the authors. The purpose of the work is to develop an educational guide for newly employed connection technicians and engineers, that is also available as a tool for experienced planners at the Network Connections department at Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. Another purpose is to give the reader an understanding and insight into the process that is the basis for establishing a project planning of a new connection in the electricity grid. Literary studies and private conversations with several planners at the company were used to collect relevant information. The authors have also participated in an in-depth training of how a new connection in low voltage networks is executed.

    The report describes the two areas of planning and project planning for which the work roles of technicians and engineers at Vattenfall Eldistribution AB are responsible. The planning stage includes, among other things, the dimensioning of the new connection in relation to its surrounding environment, while the project planning phase is focused on using calculations of the electricity quality parameters in the NETBAS computer system.

    The guide is developed using PowerPoint and the features offered by the program, thus enabling a user-friendly and easy-to-navigate guide and design. The homepage of the guide shows a flowchart of the six steps that are needed when planning and project planning a new connection. The user can seamlessly move back and forth between the different steps that contain information and procedures for performing specific tasks.

    A test project planning of a fictitious new connection has been performed by the authors, where the guide has been followed step by step. After reviewing the results of the test, the authors consider that the guide fulfils its purpose as a training material for new employees at Vattenfall Eldistribution AB

  • 102.
    Emami, Iman
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pilqvist, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Implementering av översiktsbild för att hjälpa driftoperatörer bistå anvisningar från Starta Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall is currently working to meet the instructions of the project "Starta Sverige" that is created by the Swedish transmission system operators in which a cooperation between different control rooms and control centers will minimize problems during power system restoration after a major disturbance. This work aims to aid the completion of the strategy in Starta Sverige for the control-room operators at Vattenfall to reconnect load after a system failure in the simplest, fastest and safest way possible. This will be done through development of a schematic overview to Vattenfall's operating system.

    The way to achieve this is to conduct interviews with control-room operators and operating system specialists with the purpose of understanding their needs and expectations but also to understand the technical limitations of the operating system. The development has been performed in an iterative way where follow-up interviews weremade to persistently improve the schematic overview.

    The result is a schematic overview roughly the size of an A4-papersheet. Technical limitations prevent some of the control-room operator's wishes to become reality, such asto use graphs to show the remaining active power to reconnect. There is one schematic overview to each of the eight zones of Starta Sverige in Sweden which will contain information about relevant stations, reactive components and transformer taps in addition to showing the voltage and frequency for the connection point to the national transmission grid. According to the instructions of Starta Sverige there is a priority to present the available and used active power since this information is important for system restoration.

    The schematic overview is planned to be implemented in the operating system the same year as the publication of this report, although currently an example is accessible in Vattenfall's operating system. Since the schematic overview is planned to be used after amajor system breakdown there's an uncertainty when the actual use will be.

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  • 103.
    Enander, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Optimering av tankcontainerlastningar för Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals i Stenungsund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Akzo Nobel is a global chemical company. The company is divided into three business areas. The business areas are divided into business units. One of the company’s sites are located in Stenungsund, the site belongs to the business unit Functional Chemicals Ethyleneamines. The plant produces different varieties of ethylene and ethanol amines. Production takes place on a large scale and the products are delivered in barrels and tank containers. This study examines the loading and scheduling of the tank containers. According to the company, the schedule for the loadings causes a bottleneck. The company does not think there is enough room for all orders. Delivery precision is a key indicator the company uses to measure how well the deliveries are performed. Loadings that miss loaded pre-determined loading date differ from the delivery precision. At present, the company is well below the set target for the delivery precision. In order to offer more space in the schedule, Akzo Nobel needs to change how they handle and plan the loadings. The purpose of the study is to provide alternative solutions for how the loadings can be handled and planned. The solutions should focus on reducing the bottleneck effect of the loading terminal. The aim of the study is to identify why the loading terminal is a bottleneck. The aim of the study is also to develop solutions that can increase delivery precision. In order to complete the study, a literature study was conducted. Relevant topics associated with the study area were studied. Example of studied topics where supply chain, logistics and Lean. The literature study worked as a reference frame for the study. The study was based on an analysis of the situation and a benchmark. The purpose of the analysis was to gather information about the business. It was important to be able to derive the causes of the problem. The purpose of the benchmarking was to find other ways to manage and plan the loading terminal. The analysis, benchmarking and literature study then lay the foundation for the development of alternative solutions. The conclusion of the study was that Akzo Nobel's fear of a bottleneck did not quite match the reality. On the other hand, there are good opportunities for improvement. The sales trend also points to increased sales. Which means that in the future a more efficient loading terminal may be needed.

  • 104.
    Enberg, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Alvin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utförande av aktiviteter inom fastighetsunderhåll2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The client Company X makes many purchases each year with several different decisionmakers, where there is a great variation in both price from different suppliers and execution of the purchasing process. This case study has been conducted with the aim of identifying and presenting guidelines for purchasing services that Company X can use in its procurement process. These guidelines can also be applied to other real estate companies' purchasing processes.

    The work has been limited to dealing only with the procurement of services and therefore presented guidelines cannot be implemented when purchasing goods. The work is a case study with a qualitative survey method where information gathering has taken place through literature studies, interviews and information gathering via the company's financial system and intranet. Due to the prevailing situation regarding Covid-19, the case study has been carried out remotely, and no observations have therefore been made.

    The company's purchasing process has been analyzed and compared with presented theory. Several interview objects with different positions within the company have presented their picture of the purchasing process as well as how the actual work on the purchasing process works. An entrepreneur has been interviewed to gather information from both sides of a purchase.

    The main discussion deals with how a service should be purchased or performed under its own auspices. Company X has an ingrained mentality within the organization to carry out activities internally to the greatest extent possible but is aware that in many cases purchasing is advantageous and sometimes even necessary. In addition, the discussion section addresses the issue of whether a centrally procured contract should be used or whether a service should be purchased individually. Several factors that influence these decisions are presented in the discussion section.

    The conclusion of the work done is that there are several factors that influence the outcome of the execution of activities. Based on these factors, several guidelines have been developed, which are then presented in a practical decision tree. The decision tree aims to help different decision makers through the purchasing process.

  • 105.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dimensionering av matning för nyskänkugn hos SSAB i Oxelösund2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SSAB in Oxelösund will build an electric arc furnace to transform business from a mainly ore-based production, with blast furnaces, to a scrap based production. Together with the construction of the electric arc furnace, a new 130 kV overhead line and a 30 kV substation will be built. The 30 kV substation will feed one electric arc furnace and two ladle furnaces.

    One of these ladle furnaces is currently (2019) being fed with 10 kV, but is going to be converted to 30 kV, while the other one is a new electrically identical furnace. The connection of these three furnaces to the 30 kV grid is done in order to limit the distribution of harmonic distortions and flicker to the other loads. The furnaces on the 30 kV grid will be connected to a common electrical filter.

    The electric arc furnace and the ladle furnaces will be operational and produce steel in the first quarter of 2024. Since the installation will be performed some years ahead the short circuit impedance is not known. The cable between the main substation (OT40) and the ladle furnace substation (SU2) was being selected according to thermals and short time currents which determined the cable to consist of a single core cable with 300 mm2 aluminium conductor isolated by XLPE-isolation. This is provided that the cable is mountedin a triangle formation along a path with temperatures at maximum 35 C and is placed in such a way that the cable is not influenced thermally by other cables. Short circuit and voltage drop calculations are made in the program GNU Octave. The highest three phase and the lowest two phase short circuit current is calculated in every substation.

    The overcurrent protection is set to a maximum disconnection time of 0.9 seconds. A blocking logic is being used to further ensure a selectivity in the facility. The logic means, according to SSAB praxis, that the protection closest to the fault blocks the upstream short circuit protection ( I). The earth fault protection is designed around using a neutral grounding resistor of 10 A. The earth fault protection is directional and is being released by the neutral displacement protection to asure no unwanted tripping of the earth fault protection by change-over switching or faults in the grid. The release of the protection works with detuning up to about 21 A.

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  • 106.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Jellbo, Oskar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Manufacturing logistics courses aimed at competence development: Perspectives of coproduction between university and industry2021In: Plans Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2021: Logistik Möter Praktik, Plan - Logistikföreningen för effektiva flöden , 2021, p. 349-363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New and elevated competences and knowledge needs arise as industry evolves and manufacturing is increasingly focusing digitalisation and sustainability. Facing those aspects of transformation one of the challenges is the continuous and growing need for competence development of professionals. In a work practice of constant implementation of new manufacturing processes, competence development becomes crucial for professionals within engineering fields such as production systems, product development and logistics. This paper reports a study of the design of courses within manufacturing logistics aimed at competence development for industrial professionals. We investigate how such courses can be designed to enable improved logistics practices in manufacturing industry. The course mode and its development are outlined, explaining the university and industry co-production of the incentive. The courses and their specified content are developed jointly with collaborating companies, and the courses are given free of charge as regular university courses advertised as free-standing courses. Data is collected between the period of spring semester 2019 – to spring semester 2021 from five completed courses of 2.5 ECTS on master level within manufacturing logistics. The data comprise quantitative data, such as throughput rate for course participants and qualitative data from focus groups. The focus groups emphasis the perspectives of the course participants and take place at the end of a completed course. Those focus groups serve as course evaluation coupled with highlighting themes of co-production and knowledge exchange between university and industry. The course concept of 2.5 ECTS credits on master level given during a period of five weeks has proven successful as regards meeting competence development need for professionals that are required to study in parallel with full time work. The results highlight participant’s perspectives, revealing that they value the potential of knowledge exchange enabled through the pedagogy of the course concept. Further, we emphasize that co-production between university and industry is beneficial to successfully design education aiming to meet real competence needs and challenges faced by manufacturing companies. To conclude, the results accentuate how the presented course concept can create and encourage conditions that lay the foundation for increased application of, at the companies, previously untried manufacturing logistic methods and new practices within logistics. 

  • 107.
    Eriksson, Rasmus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ohlsson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Eliminering av finplaning vid tillverkning av axiallager2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's striving manufacturing business leads to higher demands concerning tolerances, cost reduction and lead time for all processes. The demands must be fulfilled without any negative influence on the product quality. The most common manufacturing methods are categorised under machining in the form of material removal. To fulfil the demands, producers implement higher material removal rates (MRR) which is controlled by the cutting data cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The implementation of higher MRR result in higher risks for issues concerning quality due to the increased cutting forces.

    This study focuses on the deformations that occur during the production of outer rings for spherical thrust bearings in a hard-turning process. The deformations are believed to be caused by cutting forces that can be altered by the programmed cutting data such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The purpose of the study was to define the behaviour and pattern of the deformations and if they could be controlled by a change of cutting data. The results would act as a mapping of problem and give a clue of the influence that the cutting data have on the magnitude of the deformations. The results would also benefit future projects where the programming of turning process can be optimized to minimize the deformations. The long-term goal is to eliminate the secondary face grinding process that is currently necessary to ensure that the demands concerning tolerances are fulfilled.

    The study was performed by mapping the behaviour and pattern of the deformations using measurement data before and after the turning process. The deformations were studied by measuring the straightness and skewness of the widest plane on the outer rings. A reference group was created by performing measurements without the implementation of any changes concerning cutting data. Testing was accomplished by implementing changes to three different cutting data in the programming. The changes that were made was adjustment of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut.

    The analysis of the results does not show any certain connection between the cutting data and the magnitude of the deformation that occurs. The manufacturing process uses cutting tools recommended for the specific material and operation. The manufacturing process uses a relatively high feed rate considering the specific material type. Further studies concerning cutting data should be completed to improve the statistical credibility.

  • 108.
    Fagefors, Carina
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Neonatology, Gothenburg ; Chalmers University of Technology, Technology Management and Economics, Gothenburg.
    Lantz, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering. Chalmers University of Technology, Technology Management and Economics, Gothenburg.
    Application of Portfolio Theory to Healthcare Capacity Management2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 1-9, article id 659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare systems worldwide are faced with continuously increasing demand for care, while simultaneously experiencing insufficient capacity and unacceptably long patient waiting times. To improve healthcare access and availability, it is thus necessary to improve capacity utilization and increase the efficiency of existing resource usage. For this, variations in healthcare systems must be managed judiciously, and one solution is to apply a capacity pooling approach. A capacity pool is a general, collaborative capacity that can be allocated to parts of the system where the existing workload and demand for capacity are unusually high. In this study, we investigate how basic mean-variance methodology from portfolio theory can be applied as a capacity pooling approach to healthcare systems. A numerical example based on fictitious data is used to illustrate the theoretical value of using a portfolio approach in a capacity pooling context. The example shows that there are opportunities to use capacity more efficiently and increase service levels, given the same capacity, and that a mean-variance analysis could be performed to theoretically dimension the most efficient pooling organization. The study concludes with a discussion regarding the practical usefulness of this methodology in the healthcare context.

  • 109.
    Fagefors, Carina
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Neonatology, Gothenburg; Chalmers University of Technology, Technology Management and Economics, Gothenburg.
    Lantz, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rosén, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Business Administration, Gothenburg.
    Creating Short-Term Volume Flexibility in Healthcare Capacity Management2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 22, article id 8514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that unpredictable variations in supply and demand of capacity inhealthcare systems create the need for flexibility. The main tools used to create short-term volume flexibility in the healthcare system include overtime, temporary staff from internal calling lists, moving staff across units, internal staffing pools, external staffing agencies, queuing patients, and purchasing care from external providers. We study the creation of short-term volume flexibility in healthcare systems to manage short-term capacity losses and demand fluctuations. A questionnaire was developed and distributed among healthcare managers in the Region Västra Götaland healthcare system. Respondents were asked to what extent they used each tool to create short-term flexibility in capacity. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Several significant tendencies were found, including that acute units use overtime and internal staffing pools to a larger extent, and queuing patients and external providers to a lesser extent than planned units. The prerequisites and required managerial approaches used to efficiently manage aggregate capacity in the system differ substantially between different parts of the system. These differences must be addressed when, for example, capacity pools are considered. These results serve as a stepping stone towards a more thorough understanding of efficient capacity management in healthcare systems.

  • 110.
    Fagefors, Carina
    et al.
    Region Vastra Gotaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Lantz, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rosén, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Business Administration, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Siljemyr, Levi
    Region Vastra Gotaland, Head Office, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Staff pooling in healthcare systems–results from a mixed-methods study2024In: Health Systems, ISSN 2047-6965, E-ISSN 2047-6973, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how staff pooling can be used to create a higher service level at a predetermined total capacity in the healthcare sector. We develop new empirical knowledge through a systematic empirical study, using a mixed-methods approach, with a preliminary interview study followed by a principal quantitative survey study, with data from a multihospital system. The purpose was to explore practical barriers for a staff pooling strategy in healthcare systems. Three barriers were identified:recruitment difficulties, community view, and specialisation. Significant differences in perceived height among these barriers were found. The results from this study have important managerial implications for healthcare systems when implementing a staff pooling approach. This study contributes to the existing literature since, to the best of our knowledge, no previous research has been done where barriers to staff pools are systematically identified using a holistic approach that includes all healthcare professions in a multihospital system.  

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  • 111.
    Fakhri, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ramic, Erna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Livscykelanalys och cirkulär ekonomi för ombeläggningsbar stekpanna2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The investigated case company manufactures kitchen products for both companies and retail clients. This study examines a recoatable frying pan. That is, the frying pan is recoated after it has worn out. The recoating process can be done eight times before the properties of the material deteriorate and must be recycled. Recycled aluminum is used in the manufacture of the frying pan and is therefore a part of a circular return system. The life span of the recoatable frying pan is calculated to be approximately 16 years and a coating is estimated to last two years.

    A life cycle analysis is performed on the frying pan, using the software EduPack, which is then compared with LCA for a cast iron and a cast aluminum frying pan. This in order to determine the estimated environmental impact of the frying pans. The results indicate that the cast iron frying pan has a relatively low environmental impact regarding the energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. While the recoatable frying pan has the second lowest environmental impact and the cast aluminum frying pan has the largest carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption.

    It is also analyzed from a circular economic perspective, which differences there are between recoating and manufacturing from scratch. The principle of dematerialization is applied to both production from scratch and recoating, since recycling and reuse of the frying pan occurs. These are part of the technical cycles of the processes as well. The product design is a central part of the circular economy, which was considered in the design stage of the recoatable frying pan. The frying pan does not comply with all five characteristics of CE. However, it is on the right path. 

  • 112.
    Farooqi, Zaineb
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av jordningskonstruktioner och kontrollmetoder i Trollhättan Energis elnät2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, Trollhättan Energy’s distribution grid has consisted of a classic urban network or a countryside network. During the years the grid has developed, and the different parts of the grid have increasingly been interconnected. A relevant question is then how well the existing grid structure can be compared to the Swedish regulations concerning electrical safety compatibility regarding the design and control requirements of earthing systems.

    The main purpose of this thesis has been to shed light on the development of Trollhättan Energy’s distribution grid, where the interconnected extensive buried cable network is expanding, and the typical network of the countryside is gradually disappearing. This entails changed conditions in terms of the network structure and control requirements. EBR, ElnätsBranschens Riktlinjer - Swedenergy is the organization responsible for safety and cost-effective management and development of the Swedish energy sector. They have published instructions and regulations on how earthing systems should be designed and controlled depending on the structure of the network. The directions from EBR are the starting point in this report. The main question is how the cabling has affected the present measurement methods of the earthing systems. Suggestions are given on betterments and how to improve the shortcomings where the network structures do not meet the regulations. The main purpose of this thesis is to study the basic theory and customs of the grounding systems and then relate it to Trollhättan Energy’s distribution network.

    The map of the grid area was studied to account for the control requirements that apply to the earthing systems. As the cable network is expanded, the traditional measurement methods on the ground electrode can no longer be performed. Practically speaking, the grid stations are certainly well equipped in terms of grounding, but the difficulty occurs when control methods must be applied to ensure that the touch voltage does not exceed 100 Volts in the grid stations in case of an earth-fault. If the conditions are satisfied for applying the traditional control methods in countryside rural areas, the network structure can be classified as a classic countryside network and the requirement from the authorities to verify the ground electrode every eight years can be applied. However, the buried cabled network with ground electrodes in every grid station and longitudinal earth wires back and forth between the stations should be considered and classified as a continuous cable network where different control methods for the earthing systems should be used instead.

    Another purpose in this thesis has been to shed light on factors that contribute to the increaseof the earth fault currents in the network. This in turn affects the existing ground electrodes within the concession area. The maximum earth fault current in every substation were calculated using a template from EBR in order to know the permissible earthing resistance in the located grid stations. In some station areas deviations have been noticed, where the calculated resistance value exceeds the maximum permitted. One possible measure to improve the resistance values could be to build more parallel ground electrodes.

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  • 113.
    Filizadeh, Heydar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planering av laddstationer för elbilar vid Pilhallen i Vänersborg2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom försäljning av icke fossildrivna bilar ökar årligen ökar också kravet på att laddstationer på kundparkering skall finnas. Detta arbete har undersökt möjligheten för Pilhallen i Vänersborg att kunna förse sina kunder och hyresgäster med laddstationer.

    Hur stort behovet av laddstationerna är i dagsläget är svårt att säga men investering ses värd då fler kunder kan lockas till platsen. Behovet av att ladda är också svårt att säga då de flesta bilar har olika storlekar på batterier och gästerna/kunderna kommer alla med olika mycket energi kvar i batteriet. 

    Hur länge laddningen kommer att ske beror på om laddstationen är utformad efter antigen en normal, semisnabb eller snabbladdning. Normalladdning är det allra vanligaste och det finns flera olika kontakttyper här är typ 2 kontakten vanligast. Säkerheten vid laddning är en viktig fråga och i inom elbilsladdning delas säkerheten in i 4 Modes utefter kommunikationsförmågan, i Norden är Mode 3 laddning standard.

    Laddning av elbilar sätter stora belastningar på huvudsäkringen och därför undersöks tillägget lastblansering för att se till att säkringen inte löser ut. Det finns olika typer av debiteringar och sedan finns det företag som sköter debitering för laddningen som skett.

    Dimensionering av installationen för Pilhallen har överdimensionerats för att försäkra att den skall kunna förändras allt eftersom tekniken utvecklas.

    Olika leverantörer har kontaktats för olika helhetslösningar för att sedan sätta in dessa i två scenarion som är antigen väggmonterad laddbox och laddbox på stolpe. I nuläget rekommenderas Incharge som leverantör samt att alternativ 1 skall följas. Med alternativ 1 fås 2 st laddboxar med dubbla uttag som installeras på väggen och en laddbox med dubbla uttag som skall installeras på huvudentrén. Totala summan blir 50 000kr inklusivt moms efter investeringsstödet.

    Klimatklivet har tagits till hjälp. Klimatklivet är ett investeringsstöd som reducerar kostnaden för investeringen med 50 %.

  • 114.
    Flink, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Yassin, Mohamed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Customer value analysis on case packer/palletizer machines in pharmaceutical industry2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted with company X, which works with supplying machine solutions for pharmaceutical companies. They wanted to know the potential of case packer/palletizer machines that produce tape-sealed boxes, the customer value for the case packer/palletizer, which customer segments can be identified for the machine and to identify if the machine fits in today’s pharmaceutical market. From the background, a purpose was established that was to explore the customer value and customer segmentation for case packer/palletizer machines producing tape-sealed boxes. To achieve this purpose, the authors interviewed pharmaceutical companies to gather the information needed. Therefore, it was necessary to pick a method for interviews, interviews analysis, and benchmarking.

    Theories that were used in the study are business model canvas and value proposition canvas to gather information for the current situation analysis. The value proposition canvas is also used to help and identify the customer value with the help of other models like the Kano model and marketing mix. For the current situation analysis, a business model canvas and value proposition canvas were made for a general case packer/palletizer supplier. Important information about serialization and aggregation was gathered. Benchmarking was done to help to make questions for the interviews with pharmaceutical companies.

    The result of the interview analysis was that customer basic needs are elevated for the case packer/palletizer in the kano model. The reason being the products and packaging are heavily regulated by governments and customers because of their importance to patient’s health. It was also gathered that flexibility and package safety are important for the customer value on case packer/palletizer machines. From the interview’s analysis, the customer segment was divided into four categories which are case packer/palletizer in one, case packer individual as a machine, palletizer individual as a machine, and unknown solutions. Customers find the case packer/palletizer to be expensive compared to the machine being a small part of the production line, but they also know that the machine is essential for the safety of the products. When it comes to the future work of this thesis it is recommended to furthermore interview relevant and knowledgeable people in the pharmaceutical industry about case packer/palletizer. This includes interviewing and gather data from the suppliers of the case packer/palletizer. 

  • 115.
    Fransson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hesselgren, Karl-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätanalys för station M1 Kungälv2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is made on behalf of Kungälv Energi AB, who sought a state analysis of the 10 kV grid under the substation M1. The execution of this analysis is based on grid data regarding the present situation of M1, and how this will change in the future. The thesis points out critical grid weaknesses and a list of recommendations on how to handle them.The 10 kV grid under the distribution station M1 is currently overloaded, the station has a maximum load of 36.4 MVA and a capacity of 30 MVA per transformer. This complicates the disconnection of one of the two transformers due to the need for extended rerouting of power. Of all components in the relevant grid 26% can be considered outdated. The substations in M1s 10 kV grid are also in need of investigation, 19% of them are overloaded and 7% critically overloaded. Voltage drop is a problem for one of the 20 outgoing lines, K125. The situation of the M1 10 kV grid will become problematic within 10 years if nothing changes.The recommendations suggest replacing transformers to safely meet future demands over the next 50 years. Further recommendations have also been made regarding the division and placement of outgoing lines from the station and the size increase of lines that are overloaded or generates to large voltage drop.

  • 116.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. ANSYS - Education Division, University West, Trollhättan (SWE);Ansys Inc., Materials Business Unit, Education Division, Cambridge (GBR) .
    Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Education2021In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, American Society for Engineering Education , 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Material Science Tetrahedron, which is sometimes used to define the scope of this subject, connects the concepts of material processing, microstructure, material properties and performance of the material in applications. This model can be the foundation for discussing with students the impact of manufacturing processes to materials, such as heat treatments and consequences of welding or machining to the microstructure of metals as well as the effects of laser melting or sintering to additively manufactured (AM) components. On the other hand, it also indicates that material properties play an important role in determining manufacturing parameters, such as material removal rates or tool wear rates in machining. The EduPack educational software was developed as the first computer-based materials teaching resource at the Engineering department of Cambridge University. It consists of two linked databases - one of materials properties (MaterialUniverse) and one of manufacturing processes (ProcessUniverse). This is an ideal platform for cross-disciplinary teaching, not only for materials and manufacturing subjects, but the embedded tools also support all types of engineering design and product development courses; including materials and process selection as well as environmental and sustainability assessment of products. The two main databases contain around 4000 materials and 250 manufacturing processes, respectively, with informative images and schematics facilitating understanding. An extensive number of comparable properties are given in individual datasheets. All these properties are possible to visualize in colourful charts (Ashby charts) that provide good overviews and a good basis for understanding and decision-making. In this paper, relevant educational examples are shown that integrates materials with manufacturing in a natural way.

  • 117.
    Fredriksson, Thorgrim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elkvalitetspåverkan vid utlokaliserad felbortkoppling i radiella 40 kV distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis investigates the changes in electrical power quality that can arise from relocating switchgear and protection relays, from the power-feeding station, for a power grid with radial operation. The report highlights the potential problems with a prolonged faultclearance time in the power grid. The report uses existing regulations and a previously completed bachelor’s thesis, in which a substantial socioeconomic benefit was concluded, as a starting point for the study. The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to determine if unlawful voltage sags can appear in the power grid following a relocation of the switchgear and protection relay. There is also an interest in investigating if the earlier determined socioeconomic benefits remain if the previously unconsidered cost following a voltage sag is included. There is also included in the scope of the bachelor’s thesis to describe a basic method for evaluation of the expected cost of a voltage sag. By observing the nature of occurring voltage sags following simulations in PSS/E for proper power grids several illustrations over the magnitude and disconnection event were produced. The resulting disconnection event was then used in combination with estimated valuation factors to estimate the expected cost following a voltage sag. Which leads to that the socioeconomic benefits can be estimated by contemplating the change in cost following a forced outage in relation to the voltage sag cost. With regards to the occurrence of unlawful voltage sags in the examined power grids the bachelor’s thesis concludes that there is no risk for the appearance of such. The thesis also demonstrates that an overall socioeconomical benefit follows the use of any of the presented relay protection methods. Even though this benefit does not present itself in all the radials for the observed power grids following a relocation. In these cases, a deeper analysis is required to guarantee a positive outcome. The thesis contains an uncertainty with regards to the presented benefits following the use of non-established valuation factors. Following this the thesis should be viewed as a proof of concept and not as a in depth case study for the evaluated power grids. Despite these uncertainties the authors advocates, following the result of the thesis, for the use of relocated current measuring protection relays as a standard method when using relocated switchgear and protection relay. Furthermore, the authors also advocates for the activation of an instantaneous disconnection step, in the power-feeding station, in order to minimize the fault-clearance time of the most critical voltage sags.

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  • 118.
    Fröjd, Felix
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kovacevic, Mate
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktion av testrigg för taktrycksprov2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, thousands of people are killed in car crash accidents. A commonly occurring accident with a potentially fatal outcome is the so called "roll-over accidents" when a vehicle rolls over on its roof and the roof gets pressed in towards the driver or passenger. To decrease injuries and deaths from roll-over accidents, there is a federal law called FMVSS 216a that car manufacturers need to stay within. This law describes the minimum roof strength of a vehicle relative to its weight. To insure themselves that they follow this law, car manufacturers need to test their vehicles roof strength. To enable this, they need a special test equipment with specific instructions from FMVSS 216a. National Electric Vehicle Sweden is a company located in the previous facilities of Swedish car manufacturer SAAB in Trollhättan, Sweden. They are in the need of a new roof strength test rig because their existing test rig does not correspond to the federal regulations of FMVSS 216a. There are a few roof strength test rigs on the market that can be bought and corresponds to the regulations of FMVSS 216a. These can also be examined to be inspired by and compared with. A variety of structural components will be constructed and compiled in CAD. These will also be simulated with FEA to ensure that the rig stays within the tolerances stated by the regulations. The structural components will also make motions and movements made by functional components. These components will be investigated and selected by suitable suppliers and placed in the compilation. This thesis has resulted in a design proposal for a roof strength test rig that comply with the laws and requirements set by FMVSS 216a. It can also perform tests according to IIHS Roof Strength Safety Protocol v.III and has also been provided with angle adjustments that enable other types of tests.

  • 119.
    Gabro, Gabriel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Yasin, Abdulrahman
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Solceller på ett villatak2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the process of procuring a solar cell facility on a typical house located in Gothenburg. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate which methods are best applied for the installation of solar panels on the roof and the management of the production surplus. An installation of a solar cell facility will reduce the electricity consumption costs but increases the fixed costs for a house because the plant must be paid, partly through amortization and partly by interest on the loan. The study analyzes the profitability of such an investment. The study deals with a specific house with known electricity consumption and examines the possibility of reducing the monthly costs. The cost of spent electricity in the house in 2018 was just over 48,000 SEK. The house roof has a total area of 120 m2 which can accommodate 60 solar panels with the total surface area of 102 m2 . This plant is expected to produce 13,100 [kWh / year] with a cost after investment support of 229,000 SEK. This investment results in a revenue of approximately 18,500 SEK compared to the cost before installation. The economic calculations include all costs for the loan with a pay-backtime of just around 12,4 years.

  • 120.
    Galloway, Rory
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Linde, Albin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skillnader i rörliga kostnader i relation till variationer i produktiviteten: en systemstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nouryon is global company that produces specialty chemicals. Their products come into use in many everyday applications. This project is carried out in one of Nouryons factories located in Stenungsund. Nouryon in Stenungsund is divided into two business units, Functional Chemicals and Surface Chemistry. The area to be investigated in this project is Surface Chemistry where it has been noted that variations in productivity within the variable costs differ between 2018 and 2019.

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate, create an understanding and find reasons to why variation of productivity has occurred within the company between 2018 and 2019. The goal is to create an understanding of how the program, SAAG, site at a glance, measures productivity and variable manufacturing cost, and that the purpose should form the basis for designing relevant and achievable improvement proposals to reduce the variations that has been noted.

    In the thesis a literature study was conducted, where theories linked to the field would create a foundation and understanding of the subject. The subjects include, productivity, variable manufacturing cost, lean and sustainability. The literature study along with the methods form the basis for the work to be developed in a structed way. Under the title, results, an analysis of the current situation. The analysis of the current situation led to a more visible and clear understanding of what the problem was and the extent of it. This led to further research into the various sources of error, which the current status analysis showed, to find the underlying causes for the variations.

    The study concluded that the difference in strategy of the company between 2018 and 2019 led to the majority of varying productivity, as well as problems that arose in 2018 that where not sorted during that calendar year, but instead where sorted in 2019, which first during the sortingprocess results in a variation of productivity within the manufacturing cost to vary. Furthermore, Nouryon should continue its research within the topic to see changes and to be able react quickly to changes with in this subject

  • 121.
    Gamble, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Simonsson, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sustainability and Circular Economy of Powder Based Additive Manufacturing2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an advanced manufacturing technology with many potential sustainability benefits, especially in the aerospace industry. This includes the possibilities to produce complex lightweighted (hollow) components, reducing fuel consumption for aircrafts. Outside of the use phase, there are still challenges to overcome in terms of understanding environmental and sustainability benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the life cycle properties and compile findings regarding AM of metal components, in order to assess its impact on the environment and sustainability. This includes an overview of AM, a quantitative life-cycle investigation of superalloy IN718 and a qualitative sustainability assessment of AM using Ashby's five-step method and a discussion in terms of Circular Economy. Results from a life-cycle inventory (LCI) show that both AM-methods, electron beam melting and selective laser melting in this case, required significant specific energy in manufacturing (including powder production), comparable to the embodied energy of the raw material itself. The energy-use is highly dependent on the geometry of the build though and AM offers many advantages in all three sustainability dimensions. This is, amongst other things, due to potential in material savings and closing material loops, freedom in design, on-demand production as well as possibilities for repair and refurbishment. Results also showed that AM have opportunities for better material efficiency than conventional methods, in a circular economy model. One conclusion was that AM-technologies, due to slow build time and relatively high energy consumption (depending on geometry), is not yet feasible for mass production but rather suits small batches of customized or complex components.

  • 122.
    Garcia Reyes, Sergio
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Unidirectional force sensor2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to develop a force sensor, which one should measure the load applied to on the top of the platform. This load is going to be a horizontal force with a limit value of ±3000N.

    The study aims to figure out how to develop this project and make it, this project was planned and executed according to circumstances created by COVID-19. The first step is to select the strain gauges that are going to be used and the type of Wheatstone bridge. After the Wheatstone bridge, the signal must be amplified and then registered and presented to the computer.

    To reach this a lot of books and articles have been studied. For the realization of this project have been used 3 software. First, Multisim which has been used to simulate the Wheatstone bridge and know what the voltage at the output of the circuit would be. The second is the NX FEM by Siemens, which was used to send the simulation of the platform and thus see results as deformation. Finally, Abaqus has also been used to make a 2D prototype and, like the previous one, to see the deformations in the platform. Due to the COVID-19, the assembly of the device has been impossible to carry out. Despite this, all the theoretical part has been carried out and also guidelines how to fit the strain gauges. It has been tried to do as much as possible and it has been explained as far as possible the steps that should be followed to assemble the device. Therefore, even if the practical part cannot be done, the device should be able to be perfectly assembled simply by following the instructions.

  • 123.
    Garis, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hagren, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av det ekologiska hållbarhetsarbetet för tjänsteföretag inom el- och automationsindustrin2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is done with the purpose to examine how service companies in the electric-and automation branch can act within the field of ecological sustainability. The survey was conducted through a literature review and a case study in which a specific company and their customers were mapped. The target is to present improvement suggestions that can be helpful in both companies' internal work, but also how they can work with their customers to improve their work on ecological sustainability together. The case study is limited to examining only three of the company's customers.

    The work began with a literature review being carried out by gathering information from mainly books, articles, and web pages to get a general overview of the methods and processes that companies can use. A case study was then conducted based on semi-structured interviews with the company and its customers to get a clear picture of how the work on ecological sustainability can look in reality.

    By screening the literature review and the case study, it became clear that the most important parts of a company's work on ecological sustainability is to map its aspects in order to create a correct understanding of how the business affects the environment. Furthermore, it turned out that circular economy is a subject that the investigated company's customers are working a lot today but believe that still has great potential. Finally, it was noted that service companies are an important part of their customers' environmental work and have the greatest chance of influencing it in the costumers' core process.

    With the result of the review as a basis, three improvement proposals were formed. The first one is more comprehensive and focuses on how service companies can work strategically with ecological sustainability internally. The other two focus on collaboration with their customers. The improvement proposals are described as follows:

    1. Establish strategic improvement efforts for ecological sustainability

    2. Customer link focusing on ecological sustainability

    3. Reuse of equipment

  • 124.
    Garis, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hagren, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av det ekologiska hållbarhetsarbetet för tjänsteföretag inom el- och automationsindustrin2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is done with the purpose to examine how service companies in the electric-and automation branch can act within the field of ecological sustainability. The survey was conducted through a literature review and a case study in which a specific company and their customers were mapped. The target is to present improvement suggestions that can be helpful in both companies' internal work, but also how they can work with their customers to improve their work on ecological sustainability together. The case study is limited to examining only three of the company's customers. The work began with a literature review being carried out by gathering information from mainly books, articles, and web pages to get a general overview of the methods and processes that companies can use. A case study was then conducted based on semi-structured interviews with the company and its customers to get a clear picture of how the work on ecological sustainability can look in reality. By screening the literature review and the case study, it became clear that the most important parts of a company's work on ecological sustainability is to map its aspects in order to create a correct understanding of how the business affects the environment. Furthermore, it turned out that circular economy is a subject that the investigated company's customers are working a lot today but believe that still has great potential. Finally, it was noted that service companies are an important part of their customers' environmental work and have the greatest chance of influencing it in the costumers' core process. With the result of the review as a basis, three improvement proposals were formed. The first one is more comprehensive and focuses on how service companies can work strategically with ecological sustainability internally. The other two focus on collaboration with their customers. The improvement proposals are described as follows: 1. Establish strategic improvement efforts for ecological sustainability 2. Customer link focusing on ecological sustainability 3. Reuse of equipment

  • 125.
    Gharaibeh, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Lantz, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Building Information Modelling in the wood construction industry: Challenges and level of implementation2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building information modelling (BIM) is becoming a necessity for the wood construction industry, this is due to its high level of prefabrication and complex digital procedures using wood sawing machines and sophisticated cuttings. This research examines the levelof BIM implementation in the wood construction industry in Sweden from industry experts prospective. Data was collected through interviews with industrial practitioners and academics. This research provides an important list of challenges that need to be considered to increase the level of BIM implementation in the wood construction industry. The research also provides recommendations for future research to aid in increasing the level of BIM implementation in the wood construction industry in Sweden.

  • 126.
    Gharaibeh, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Lantz, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, SE-461 86 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Supply Chain Digitalization in the Wood Manufacturing Industry: A Bibliometric Literature Review2022In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, Vol. 21, p. 617-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The wood manufacturing industry has been described as slow in adopting

    efficiency increasing activities in its operations and supply chain, the industry is still

    facing challenges relating to digitalization such as fragmentation, poor traceability,

    and lack of real-time information. The integration of industry 4.0 technologies can

    enhance the supply chain performance in terms of efficiency, collaboration, quality,

    and transparency. This paper aims to evaluate the current status of digitalization in

    supply chains, by analysing the existing literature and mapping research trends. in an

    aim to create a clearer vision of the current state of digitalization in supply chains in

    general and focusing on the wood manufacturing supply chain in particular, the

    results of the literature review will be used to develop a comprehensive framework

    for future research direction, to fully achieve the benefits of supply chain 4.0 in the

    wood manufacturing industry. This framework serves as a departure point to continue

    explaining and observing the best way to accelerate and implement Supply Chain 4.0

    practices for digitalized supply chain management while focusing specifically on the

    wood manufacturing industry. To achieve the overall purpose, a literature review of

    the key literature from 2016 to 2021 has been performed. using a bibliometric and

    content review analysis, the results shed light on various technologies and their

    applications within supply chains and identify research gaps especially between

    theoretical frameworks and actual implementation. This paper provides a conceptual

    framework to further aid researchers in the exploration of knowledge regarding the

    most current trends in Supply Chain 4.0 and its applications in the wood

    manufacturing industry compared to other advanced industries, as well as the

    directions of the new research in the wood manufacturing Supply Chain 4.0.

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  • 127.
    Gharaibeh, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Matarneh, Sandra T.
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Al-Ahliyya Amman University (JOR).
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Lantz, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    An Empirical Analysis of Barriers to Building Information Modelling (BIM) Implementation in Wood Construction Projects: Evidence from the Swedish Context2022In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1067-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building information modelling is gradually being recognised by the architecture, engineering, construction, and operation industry as a valuable opportunity to increase the efficiency of the built environment. Focusing on the wood construction industry, BIM is becoming a necessity; this is due to its high level of prefabrication and complex digital procedures using wood sawing machines and sophisticated cuttings. However, the full implementation of BIM is still far from reality. The main objective of this paper is to explore the barriers affecting BIM implementation in the Swedish construction industry. An extensive literature review was conducted to extract barriers hindering the implementation of BIM in the construction industry. Secondly, barriers to the implementation of BIM in the wood construction industry in Sweden were extracted using the grounded theory methodology to analyse expert input on the phenomenon of low BIM implementation in the wood construction industry in Sweden. Thirty-four barriers were identified. The analysis of this study also led to the development of a conceptual model that recommended solutions to overcome the barriers identified to help maximise BIM implementation within the wood construction industry. Identifying the main barriers affecting BIM implementation is essential to guide organisational decisions and drive policy, particularly for governments that are considering articulating regulations to expand BIM implementation. 

  • 128.
    Glans, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av teknisk specifikation för upphandling av kontrollanläggningar för Uddevalla Energi EInät AB2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 129.
    Gohil, Kuldeepsinh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Verification and Visualization of Safe Human Robot Collaboration for Robotic Cell2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics and Automation field is booming in today´s scenario. Researchers and Technologist comes up with new ideas in the robotics field to achieve a higher productivity, flexibility and efficiency. To achieve the above goals, it shall be required that human and robot share their work space with each other and works in a collaborative nature. Safety is a main concern and in focus. Robot should not injure the operator in any way during working in robotic cell. In this master thesis main focus is to create a various test plans and validate them to ensure the safety level in robotic cell. The test plan should be validated in a real robot environment. The test plans consist of functional and individual verification of safety devices which are being used in a robotic cell at PTC which is known as smart automation lab. Apart from that it includes design simulation of robotic cells with manikins to ensure validation of safety in virtual environment. Design simulation of robotic cell with manikins are created in RobotStudio 6.06. However, smart components, trap routines, SafeMove and offline program in RAPID have been created. Various test results are incorporated in the results section to ensure the verification and validation of safe human robot collaboration of virtual environment in RobotStudio 6.06.

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  • 130.
    Gopinath,, Kiran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mimicking of human hand motion on robot arm using point cloud and Machine learning techniques2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots may be required to do complex assembly operations during production and programming the Robot to perform such operations can be a challenging task. If the motions of the human palm could be mimicked on the Robot, it would mitigate the com-plexities involved in teaching such skills to the Robot. This mimicking action could also be used in other applications like robot based painting where it is necessary to capture motion generated by a skilled human hand and reproduce it on a robot.

    To achieve this there may be many methods. A point cloud camera could be used to capture and store point cloud data of an object at different positions and orientations inside the Robot work volume. Corresponding Tool centre point positions and orientations read from the Robot controller serve as labelled data necessary for machine learning.

    The task involves generation of Robot programs to synchronize point cloud capture and robot pose capture resulting in generation of data necessary for machine learning. The point cloud data is generated using Kinect point cloud camera by establishing the communication between the robot and the Kinect V2.

    The objective in this paper is concluded by gathering the point cloud data for limited positions using Kinect V2 which is necessary for machine learning. Since machine learning techniques can be applied for further process huge amount of data is required hence this data is generated.

  • 131.
    Grahn, Björn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Westher, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utbildningssimulator för kontrollanläggningsingenjörer och elektrotekniker2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Services Nordic AB is in the middle of a generation change with retiring staff which makes it necessary to train new personnel to keep the competence within the company. Today new personnel are trained at high voltage plants that are in operation. To be able to train the personnel in a controlled way without time pressure the demand of a training simulator built from ordinary equipment that exist in the power grid has occurred. Since no such simulator exist a couple of students at Högskolan Väst in Trollhättan was asked if they were interested in constructing one as a higher education diploma thesis in their education. The work process was started by searching for information and studying manuals of the different components that the simulator would consist of. It was important to know which voltages and currents the components needed. Secondly the students needed to find a suitable rectifier to supply power to the components that is part of the simulator. The option to be able to put the rectifier in a continuous power mode rather than a charge mode was important since the simulator doesn´t include any batteries. A cabinet that could house all the components also had to be found. The rectifier and cabinet that is used is a Benning 110 VDC rectifier with 10 A of current along with a cabinet from ABB with a 19-inch mounting plane in the door. The students also needed to make circuit diagrams of the simulator. These were drawn in parallel to the writing process while the components where being delivered. AutoCAD 2018 and elMaster Design17 was used for this purpose. The mounting was done in the workshop at Vattenfall Services where all necessary materials and tools could be found. Long delivery times and delays due to the Covid-19 pandemic led to a lack of time towards the end of the task when the building was performed. This made it necessary to skip some elements of the task. Despite these circumstances the students still managed to complete the simulator within time.

  • 132.
    Gran,, Ludvig
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av parameter för svetsprocessen Nyckelhål-TIG i titan-6Al-4V för tjocklek 7 mm2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Trollhättan produces components for the commercial, military aerospace and space industry. The company belongs to GKN PLC since 2012 which got approximately 58 000 employees and was founded over 250 years ago in Great Britain.

    Keyhole-TIG has gained attention in the aerospace industry for its capability of producing high quality welds in metals such as titanium and nickel-based alloys. The process has shown to complete welds in thickness up to 14 mm, which is a considerable difference in comparison to conventional TIG. Keyhole-TIG appears to be a more robust alternative to plasma arc welding because of fewer influencing factors.

    Today GKN Aerospace is welding a 7,3 mm thick titanium joint using plasma arc welding, but it fails occasionally which leads to quality deficiency costs. It is in the company's interest to investigate how Keyhole-TIG behaves so they can compare it to the existing welding method.

    The purpose of the study it to investigate how the key process parameters of Keyhole-TIG are affecting the welding geometries and to identify a welding parameter for material thickness 7 mm titanium that fulfill the company's requirement specification.

    A literature review was preformed to acquire knowledge about the process Keyhole TIG, control methods and statistical experimental design. A practical way of gathering information was made in the form of welding experiments, measurements and statistical analysis tool, which were made to investigate the parameter association and identify a potential parameter. The main parameters that were investigated were current, electrode distance and advancing speed. Limited areas occurred when creating the design of experiments because the constraints of current and advancing speed was affecting each other. Therefore, the design of experiments was created resembling a D-optimal design.

    The study’s conclusions were that the electrode distance should be short because it contributed to increased penetration, heat input was decreased and underfill was reduced. All key process variables impact on the welding geometries were identified except for underfill. Lastly a parameter was identified with a statistically optimizing tool that generated a valid weld geometry according to the requirements. The parameter was recommended to GKN Aerospace for future use. 

  • 133.
    Granlund, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av koncept för tryckindikator och informationsöverföring för luftaxel2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the project has been to develop a concept for both indicating the pressure level in the rolling axle hoses and for transferring this information from the rotating shaft to non-rotating machine parts. The report's literature study describes sensor technology and information-transferring-techniques for non-stationary objects. Study visits and interviews have been made to pay attention to the demands and expectations of future stakeholders on the product. During the concept generation phase, several methods have been used, including function trees and investigations of patents. A total of 21 concepts were generated. During the concept screening and concept scoring phase, an independent engineering student has been used for feedback. A cost analysis based on estimates for the sub-concepts has been carried out before the concept selection. The work resulted in a total of four subconcepts. Two sub-concepts for pressure indication and two sub-concepts for information transfer. Prior to final conceptual selection, more assessment steps should be performed, for example, subcontractors should be contacted regarding quotation requests and a FMEA should be created.

  • 134.
    Grimling, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hantering av reaktiv effektproduktion som uppstår vid kablifiering av distributionsnätet i Lidköping2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lidköping Elnät has recently noticed an increase in reactive power generation from its network, a problem that comes from cabling and the increased reactive power generation that follows from this. Problems that arise include voltage increases in the grid, cables being overloaded. The agreement with Vattenfall also limits the amount of reactive power that can be supplied to the regional grid free of charge. This study has collected local network data which then is used for calculations in order to investigate how large the reactive powerproduction is, how large it would be in extreme operating conditions such as an unloaded network, and how much the reactive power generation would increase if all overhead lines in the network today would be replaced by cables. Two cases have been investigated. One is the entire 40 kV network in Lidköping. The other is a selected 10 kV group in an area of rural environment with long stretches of overhead lines, which is expected to generate much reactive power when being cabled. The survey has been carried out by collecting network data from Lidköping Elnät's documentation, which was compiled and analyzed partly in Excel and partly through loadflow calculations in the PowerWorld Simulator program. Interesting result from the two cases is how much reactive power is generated, where it is generated, how large power flows go through the network and finally reach the connection point to Vattenfall. It is also interesting to examine the magnitude of the voltage variations at some points in the network. The results calculations in excel and calculations using the PowerWorld Simulator program have been compared with each other and both clearly show that it is rural areas that are most exposed to the reactive power generation. This because the countryside in many cases has long lines with relatively low loads. The future cabling will further increase these problems and some areas will experience more than doubled reactive power generation. Power factor compensation using shunt reactors are introduced in the calculations and the new conditions are tested in different configurations in order to provide several alternatives. Power factor compensation gives good results and with two 10 Mvar reactors and a single 2 Mvar reactor all reactive power production can be compensated. The voltage increase is at most a few percent and is easily taken care of by using the transformer tap changers.

  • 135.
    Gröndahl, Sander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utförande och dimensionering av jordning i inomhusställverk upp till 145 kV2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a system study with the purpose of ensuring, through studies of existing knowledge, that Otera Ratel AB's construction regarding grounding in substations is up to par with today's standards. The challenge is that in-depth knowledge is required to understand and apply existing implementation and design standards for construction of grounding systems. Additionally, the requirements regarding safe voltage levels must be laid down so a standardized workplan based on that can be formed.

    The report processes the overall theories and concepts which are necessary for the contractor’s decisions. Theory is collected from studies of regulations, standards, handbooks, reports and interviews. The theories treat subjects such as: earth fault currents, earthing conductors, earthing electrodes, earth potential rise, and touch voltage. These theories are subsequently applied to an example based on real data.

    Thereafter, a discussion about the importance of a correct executed grounding system follows. The consequence of an incorrect designed system could be fault currents which take the wrong path to ground. The theory section and example case are both also discussed and inserted into a broader context. Despite the extensive knowledge of the standard provided in the report no standardized workplan can be determined. The decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis relying on case specific facts. The validity of the example case can be called in question since data is missing which affects the result of the example.

    The report concludes by presenting the results and recommendations on how to scrutinize the standard and its concepts regarding successful grounding. The voltage requirements are also determined and hence the aim of the report is achieved.

    Proposals for continued work include the themes which this report neglects but which are in some way connected to grounding, like EMC compatibility and lightning conductors. Furthermore, fault current splitting and methods for measurements are areas in which extra insight is needed.

  • 136.
    Gustafsson, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Flores, Leandro
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Apparatbestyckning i en fördelningsstation: Kostnad kontra driftsäkerhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the different constructions that are applied to substations that are used in Vattenfall regional electrical grid. All the new stations follow a set of guidelines and recommendations that are gathered in the internal planning guideline manual. These standard solutions are being investigated to see the reasoning and how the addition or lessening of parts in these stations are motivated. Each standard solution comes with a bit of leeway, flexibility in its development where you either connect your outgoing lines to the substations bus bars with a so-called double breaker solution or to be connected directly to the bus bar with only one breaker. Through interviews, researching of the internal documents, electrical handbooks, through calculation and applying it that information upon a specific station in the regional electrical grid as an example the standard methods could be examined and how they are applied. This report shows how the whole construction process, thought process and decisions of the construction new station is realized.

    The planning of maintenance and the work being performed on the grid is planed ahead of time to avoid big jobs overlapping each other. Maintenance and other work on the grid always contribute to some form of risk that puts the grid in a weakened state. A lot of time the stations that normally have a redundant supply will find themselves in a situation without redundancy during maintenance. This report gathers data from over six years ofwork performed around Station A to confirm the large amount of maintenance on the grid in the area. Load flow calculations were performed to lay the ground for the investigation of the redundant supply around Station A and the cost of two separate scenarios around Station A. This to be able to show how a double breaker solution could be valued on a certain line. Future work could use this as an example of the probability and costs of dealing with choices between double breaker vs single breaker solutions. To motivate a double breaker connection on an indoor constructed 40kV substation depends on the required amount of service reliability. The estimated cost of the double breaker solution is determined to be greater in comparison with then the probability of it being needed in this one example. Something worth mentioning and that always should be taken into consideration is that the large amount of maintenance, does change the initial state of the power grid away from its original form in the beginning of the planning of work.

  • 137.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindqvist, Wiktor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Studie över laddning av personbilars påverkan på ett lokalnät2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s climate and environmental goals take us close to a future where a larger part of the Swedish automotive industry will experience a change towards electric motor vehicles. A few chargeable vehicles do not affect the electrical grid but what happens if the number of electric chargeable vehicles increases remarkably? Posed with this question, Västra Orust Energitjänst wants to investigate how their low voltage networks are affected by this futurechange.

    This thesis has examined how two different low voltage networks within the Västra Orust Energitjänst electrical grid will react when exposed to an increased load. The investigated areas, a residential district as well as a rural area, will have several scenarios simulated. A proposal of the rated power of a parking lot that plan to install several charging stations is also handed over to Västra Orust Energitjänst.

    The load scenarios that are used are simulated in the software program Mickel made by Mirakel services. The scenarios are based on randomly selected users in the network that will be handed a chargeable vehicle and have the power consumption increased, for either 2 or 4 hours. The time the users are expected to charge their chargeable vehicles are spread out over 24 hours, but the majority will charge their vehicles between 16 and 22. During this time span the network normally has its highest power consumption regardless of vehicles are charged or not.

    The results of the study clearly show that the rural network area in its current state will handle these simulations and it is only the transformer that will experience overload. The residential area, in its current state will not handle the simulated increase of load well. Several fuses and power cables will experience overload and the transformer will experience overload in some of the scenarios. Several users will experience a severe voltage drop due to the simulated increase in power consumption.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from the results are that the networks differ in the way that they will handle the load that derives from a larger number of chargeable vehicles. Because of this it is hard to draw general conclusions about how VOEs network will handle this change, instead expected tendencies will be seen. To fully understand how the networks willreact, further investigations are recommended to be performed.

  • 138.
    Gustafsson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Påverkan på leveranssäkerheten och elavbrottstiden vid användning av fjärrutrustning2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year the electricity network companies in Sweden reports to Energimarknadsinspektionen (EI) about how long power outages they have had in their networks as well as other data needed to ensure the network quality. SAIDI, SAIFI and CAIDI are three different reliability indicators that depicts the quality of the network as they give numbers on how many and how long outages that have occurred in the network.

    To achieve as low values as possible on these indicators the network must be provided with equipment such as fault indicators and remote-control equipment to quickly find and fix faults in the network. To find out how much more efficient the fault clearing gets with fault indicators and remote control, two different studies have been performed. For the first study a fictitious scenario has been produced to investigate how operations management engineers handle the same fault and which steps that are made based on different conditions regarding fault detectors and remote control. For the other study, outages longer than three minutes in two of Gothenburg energy’s receiving stations during 2018-2020 have been analysed to investigate if the duration could have been shorter if the network would have had more stations with fault indicators and remote control. To illustrate the duration of the outage, the reliability indicator CAIDI will be used as it illustrates the average duration of the outage forevery customer.

    The result of the investigation shows that the duration of the outage for the analysed faults would have been shorter for most of the customers with more remote control and fault indicators. Although it is important to point out that not all faults in the network can be solved quicker with remote control and fault indicators since some long interruption times is a result of other factors such as equipment that doesn’t work properly.

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  • 139.
    Gustavsson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Zachariasson, Linus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av länkage till skogsmaskin2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis was to develop and present a solution to mount a flail head on Alstor 840. There is currently no existing solution to mount a flail head on Alstor 840 and Alstor haven’t develop one either. The mounting solution shall be easy to install and have a robust construction. The flail head’s angle needs to be adjustable with the help of a hydraulic cylinder. A flail head has been chosen, and the presented solution is developedexclusively for that flail head. The project has followed a structured product development process where multiple methodshave been used. QFD, Brainstorming, Concept screening and Concept scoring are examples of methods used to generate and choosing concepts. The chosen concept has then gone through both preliminary and detail-design stages to generate 3D models in CAD, FEM-calculations and 2D drawings.The final solution consists of two parts called hydraulic attachment and linkage. The linkage will connect the flail head and the crane on Alstor 840. The hydraulic attachment mounts on the tip of the crane. A hydraulic cylinder is then mounted between the hydraulic attachment and the linkage. This concept fulfills customer needs for being robust, easy to mount, easily maneuvered, adjustable and it doesn’t occupy space on the crane. Drawing of constructed parts have been produced and is shown in the thesis.

  • 140.
    Gustavsson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Maintenance and its impact on overall equipment efficiency2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Pig System is the practice of cleaning up moving liquid in a pipe using a plug called Pipe Inspection Gauge (PIG). This leaves no residual product in the pipe and secures against cross-contamination.

    Nouryon site Stenungsund has the largest Pig System in Sweden. This system is divided into groups and Group 15 has breakdowns that lead to costly production stops. These stops can entail work from manually disassembling sections of the group to insert clearance pigs to blow out broken pieces of other pigs. It can also mean manual steaming where hardened raw material has collected. The reason all of this leads to production stops is that the area where maintenance is performed is considered dangerous during production and thus all reactors must stop during maintenance causing a lower OEE number.

    The purpose is to find the root causes for corrective maintenance and to create a list of suggested improvements to mitigate production stops and thus optimising the production lines at the facility on-site.

    During the work, the system is defined with schematics, components listed from archives, common problems listed from operators experience and this correlated to work orders that are provided by the internal documentation system at Nouryon on site.

    The work orders are sorted by corrective maintenance and categorised from the text provided by the staff on the order. The categorisation of these work orders is where validity becomes a large factor in the study. The reason is that the text provided in these orders are written by individuals with different levels of detail and thus is an estimate of what the reason for the maintenance orders is. These orders are compiled and compared to what the reason for production stops are and prioritised.

    The result of the study end with a list of improvements that covers all the different issues discovered. The problems and corresponding solutions are prioritised with an FMEA that is confirmed by stakeholders on site.

    Further studies concerning lifetime calculation, alternative pigs and new sensors are suggested as all these reasons requires further investigation and testing to get a real answer concerning the pig system. 

  • 141.
    Göransson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tessin, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning och projektering av smarta elbilsladdstationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An expansive use of electric vehicles and therefore charging stations will eventually lead to a much greater load on the electrical grid. One way to avoid overloads is to fit charging stations with load balancing systems that can adjust every charging station’s power output in relation to the rest of the local substations load. Since cars usually remain parked for long periods of time the load balancer can ensure that the cars only charge with a high amount of power when the general load is low, and thereby the local electrical grid doesn’t risk overloading in consequence of the increased total energy consumption.  This paper includes a market review of the three largest load balancing system suppliers on the Swedish market to clarify what separates the different systems and whether they are applicable in different areas. There will also be a design, carried out through ÅF, of a scenario of 50 charging stations controlled by load balancing systems in the parking lot of a company. In conjunction with this there will be an investigation of the ability to charge 50 of the employee's electric cars during an 8-hour working day with an assumed average commute of 50 km. Which charging stations and load balancing systems that are to be used in the design are determined by those which are best suited to the circumstances of the company. The design has been done in accordance with Swedish standards and with the help of information and software provided by ÅF. The companies that participated in the market investigation were found through Power Circle. According to the customer's requirements, the charging stations needed a power output of 22 kW, and since variations of the power consumption of the plant are present, the load balancing system must be able to measure the load of a transformer to adjust all charging stations power output accordingly. The charging stations and systems that were considered most suitable for the situation were Eldon's. The design included cable sizing, cable layout maps, cost calculations and transformer calculations. Each car needed only about 10 kWh to reach a fully charged state, and the available power of the transformer was sufficient to complete the charging of up to 182 electric cars during the workday. Thus, the cost of both cables and charging stations could have been much lower if the requirement of 22 kW power output was not set.

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  • 142.
    Hadzic, Mirella
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Stridsberg, Louise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tejp som kraftöverförande fogmetod: en kartläggning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is a survey of adhesive tape as a force-transmitting bonding method in partnership with TechROi Engineering, Trollhättan, Sweden. TechROi Engineering is a consulting company that works with design solutions frequently for the automotive industry and the manufacturing industry. The company wishes to implement taping as a bonding method but wants to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint. A matrix that consists of characteristics of the tapes and established requirements are conducted with the purpose to enable an obtainment of correlations. The identified requirements are of surface preparation prior application of adhesives and its effects on the durability and the strength of the joint. Two methods for surface preparation is degreasing and abrasion. Further, factors and thus requirements are identified that are necessary whilst conducting an analysis and experiments of the strength of the adhesive joints. The identification of requirements for strength tests are done so with the benefit of a number of selected standards as well as previously conducted tests by researchers. The test methods are primarily intended to evaluate the mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and are sorted in the report depending on the fracture modes. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode are studied in this thesis. The standardized test methods contain guidelines regarding how the tests shall be conducted. There is an importance to execute the tests, preparations and calibration according to the same circumstances. There is a need to rank the requirements although this may prove difficult since it depends on the application in which the adhesive joint shall be. Additionally, the occurrence of conflicting requirements is dependent on the application. Difficulties with obtaining test methods for mixed-mode arise, particularly due to the absence of standardized tests.

  • 143.
    Hagebrand, Pauline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Stern, Carl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av ny station för pressning och delmontering2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has been carried out at Parker Hannifin's facility in Trollhättan throughout the course of ten weeks between January and March 2022. Parker has identified the possibility of reducing the number of operations, increase the degree of standardization as well as facilitate the workload in the assembly that manufactures variable hydraulic motors. This is done by performing a transfer of an assembly operation to the shaft group where unused work capacity has been identified. The assembly is not developed at a pace that is in line with the development in the rest of the business in terms of quality, ergonomics, and productivity. This also applies to operation that is planned to be moved to the shaft group. To be able to carry out this move, an additional press needs to be procured and a new ergonomic, safe, and quality-assured workstation designed.

    Literature studies are done to obtain data on ergonomics and press systems, which is used as a starting point when designing the new press with the associated workstation and working methods. The search for information is done by performing observations and interviews to create a picture of the current situation. The work also includes a survey of the material flow where interviews and observations are used to investigate how the material is delivered to the workstation. Ergonomics are analyzed using the Swedish Work Environment Authority's risk assessments and the Humantech software. The tool FMEA, is performed to identify risks in the assembly both before and after the operation is moved. Concept generation and concept selection are both part of the generic product development process, which is used as a method to develop ideas for solutions when designing the new press with the associated press fixtures as well as working methods for the new workstation.The result is an ergonomic and safe workstation that is expected to manage the demand for shafts for the next nine years. The new press is estimated to reduce the cycle time from 70 to 50 seconds per shaft.

    The result of this thesis is considered to achieve the goals since the productivity and ergonomics for the assembly operation has improved along with it being quality assured. This thesis does not present a specific model of a press to the workstation due to lack of time, but Parker is provided with the basis needed for the purchase of a new press for the developed concept.

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  • 144.
    Haghnegahdar, Nima
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lövholt, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Faktorer som effektiviserar digitala möten vid lärosäten2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to Covid-19, large parts of Sweden's universities and companies have chosen to introduce digital meetings. Even before the pandemic, digital meetings were a topical issue because several organizations have sustainability goals increase travel-free meetings. Although the benefits of the digital meetings are many, there are also factors that contribute to meetings becoming less efficient digitally. Both communication and social interaction deteriorate with the digital meetings. The purpose of the study is to investigate which factors contribute to digital meetings becoming effective for students and staff at higher education institutions.

    The study method is based on grounded theory and studies of relevant literature in the field. It is a qualitative study that investigates how higher education institutions can achieve effective meetings. Grounded theory means that data collection, selection, and analysis of data is repeated several times. The process continues until saturation occurs. Grounded theory is an interactive process where data collection and analysis interact during the entire process.

    The study observed four different factors that can help higher education institutions conduct more effective digital meetings. For a meeting to be effective, the right conditions must be in place. The study shows that problems with the user-friendliness of e-tools are important and an improvement proposal is to create a user-friendly interface. Researcher Linn Gustavsson Christiernin has developed a method which shows that the right functions are selected for the right user groups, which creates user-friendliness. The study also discusses the help of technology in the digital meeting, which can create more effective methods to perform practical steps and explain complex problems.

    For a complementary picture of the study area, interviews and observations can be performed at digital meetings. Several higher education institutions have conducted student §surveys, which has created insight into students' position on the questions asked in the survey. A broader perception is created if students can speak more freely during interviews and not answer leading questions. 

  • 145.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Identifiering av potentiella leverantörer av systemdrifttjänster2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency quality in the Swedish grid is deteriorating. Plannable production from nuclear power is phased out. At the same time, the government has set a goal for Sweden to be fully supplied by renewable electricity production by 2040. Therefore, wind power is beingexpanded, which means an increased share of electricity production that are dependable on the weather, which in turn means more unstable frequency quality. The need to regulate the power system will thus increase, which is expected to lead to a greater need for so-called ancillary services.Traditionally, hydropower has, and still does, account for more than 90% of all ancillary services in Sweden. There is a great need for development of new technologies in frequency regulation both from an efficiency perspective as well as from a business competition perspective so that the power system in the future will have sufficient good frequency quality.

    This report identifies a number of these new technologies and roughly estimate the potential of these technologies.Wind power is being expanded and at present it is difficult to motivate regulation of production as it is not possible to control the wind, which means that, for example, down regulation of production leads to a waste of wind and therefore a waste of revenue.Number of electric cars are increasing and the charging of them is seen as a great potential if certain obstacles can be overcome. By integrating a “smart” charging system, many charging points could be aggregated together and jointly charge faster or slower as an ancillary service. In addition, a new “V2G” system is under development which, if users’ flexibility allows, lets the cars battery discharge back to the power grid, which further increases the potential.Furthermore, industry accounts for a large portion of Sweden’s energy consumption, of which many loads are not dependent on even constant power consumption. By being able to adjust the consumption of these loads in real time, the adjusted consumption can be sold as ancillary services.In addition, the development of batteries is fast. With these, great potential comes in both direct delivery of ancillary services and to even out peaks in power consumption.

  • 146.
    Hallqvist, Alexandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av genomloppstid inom termisk sprutning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate possible ways to increase the throughput efficiency for a part that is thermally sprayed at GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan.

    The goal of the project was to identify technical solutions that can reduce the lead time for the part by at least 40 % and to investigate improvements that could increase the efficiency for all the products that are coated at the department. The project was carried out because the part had one of the longest process times at the department due to a lot of handwork, masking, low-power spray gun and multiple machine stops during the spray operation. The process has been observed and employees have been interviewed to map the current state. Process documentation and part drawings have also been investigated to understand the requirements and ensure that the solutions are useful for the department. The time each activity took were mapped during the observations. Based on the recorded times histograms were made to investigate which moments are most time consuming and therefore needs to be improved. Through the interviews, observations and the benchmarking, solutions were found and further investigated and assessed to identify which ones are the most effective and implementable. Together with operators and technicians, the possible solutions were discussed for in terms of feasibility and improvements. The technicians also discussed the possible time reductions per activity that the proposed solutions are expected to entail when implemented. To achieve the goal, the masking needs to be changed as the masking tools cause the bouncing of coating on the tools and back on the gun, which makes necessary to stop the spraying process after each stroke. If the masking tools are redesigned, a five-hour deburring operation that is performed at another department can be eliminated.

    The conclusion from this work is that it is possible to increase the process efficiency by 49.5% if the existing spray gun is used. If a higher-powered gun can be employed, it enables further efficiency improvement. The increased efficiency of the process makes it possible that the lead time can be shortened from seven days to four days as the part can be completed in the department.

  • 147.
    Hansen, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Underlag för ombyggnation av reservskydd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This problem-solving system study has highlighted what problems a power distribution network can have with the combination of large transformers and long cables and wirings. This means that the short-circuit currents become too small for the transformer or busbar protection to function as backup protection if the outgoing 10 kV lines regular relay protection fails.

    With the requirements that exist in the safety of a plant and power distribution network, it is important to have relevant protection that meets the requirements contained in laws and regulations. The protection that exists in a power distribution network must be fast and safe. There can always be a failure in the equipment that exists and then some form of reserve must be available to ensure that the safety requirements are met.

    The goals that have been met with this study, are that it has been possible to clarify the problems that exists with back-up protection and to present solutions that are able to disconnect all faulty parts as quickly as possible in order to protect persons and animals, property and facilities from damage. The study shows some solutions that are simple and economical, the costs are realistic estimates from experienced competent personnel from different manufacturers. The various solutions have been discussed and weighed against each other with the pros and cons that form the basis for a decision making about which solution is best.

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  • 148.
    Hansson, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Blom, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Handling derivative CAD data containing Model based Definition2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about how model based definition (MBD) and model based enterprise (MBE) are advancing in the technical industry. It will replace the old method of using drawings to use 3D models with measurement, which then can be used downstream in the companies. For this to work in a world with several different software manufacturers there is a need to use neutral file formats. GKN is a company that has worked model-based for 5-10 years and is now aiming to apply this in their downstream manufacturing. The problem is that suppliers and other companies do not use the same CAD program or the same versions of the program, which in GKN's case is NX 12.0.2. So when sending or receiving files it must be converted to a neutral file format that all CAD programs can open, it is during the process of loss of information which means that it is not possible to apply MBD in MBE that GKN strives to do. This project study what losses can occur, how to design models in a way that avoids errors, which neutral file format is best suited for GKN today and what the future might look like. File formats examined are Prt created by Siemens NX, JT and STEP AP242 which are both neutral file formats, Catia and QIF. The work started with investigating GKN's known cases where errors and information loss occurred and based on it read what was to be prioritized. In that investigation it was discovered that it was product manufacturing information (PMI) that disappeared mainly during the conversion.   The method was to test and troubleshoot different models in NX 12 and then note the deviations that occurred. To perform a test a model was taken in its original CAD file, which in NX cases is Prt. It exported to, for example JT, and then compared the models to analyze if there were any differences. Test models were provided by GKN, but models were also created to simulate as many errors as possible simultaneously. After the troubleshooting was completed, the process of investigating whether there were any solutions to the errors found or whether it was possible to avoid them was begun. Faults could be that set dimensions were assorted or disappeared from the model, notes have changed font or size, cannot see sections etc. Errors that could not be resolved or bypassed led to contact with Siemens which replied that the errors were corrected in newer NX versions and shared the latest version of the CAD program, NX 1926. In the newer version, information that NX 12 failed to convert was converted.To examine Catia files, a software called Glovius was used, it was created to be able to visualize all types of file formats but also to export to neutral file formats. There were no errors during the visualization of Catia, but when the file was exported to STEP information loss was detected. The same result was given when Prt was exported to JT. But the fact that Catia could be exported to STEP gave it the opportunity to open it in NX. QIF is a file format that could not be tested practically but instead a theoretical study was performed. It should be able to be used for both NX and Catia and the company that developed it believes that all information will follow along during the conversion. The results of the survey indicate that at present there is no neutral file format that can export all information so that MBD can be applied in MBE. After all tests, JT is the format that currently manages to export Prt files with the least information loss but that this is a process that works with continuous improvement and therefore work much better in the future.

  • 149.
    Hansson, Hedvig
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Review of stable gas and its safety applications2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at Autoliv Sverige AB in Vårgårda. The purpose of the thesis was to increase Autoliv’s knowledge regarding stable gas and its safety applications. To achieve this, a literature study, eight interviews and patent searches has been performed. To broader the understanding further, a concept study of an inflatable life buoy has been made. This idea was presented during a brainstorming session with nine employees at Autoliv. There are some certain characteristics that differentiates gas from solid and liquid substances. The first characteristic is that gases does not have a specific shape or volume. The volume is determined by the size of the container. Another property of gas is that it could be compressed to decrease its volume. The last characteristic is that a contained gas obtain pressure against all walls in the container. If the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well. In this thesis, stable gas is defined as gases that not react with other gases when it is let out in the air. An unreactive gas means that the valence shell is full and that no electrons are missing or needs to be bound to another molecule. This corresponds to stable gases, for example the noble gases that is presented to the far right in the periodic table of elements. There are several safety products on today’s market that uses stable gas. This thesis includes a screening of three variants of inflatable vests, a bicycle helmet and a lifeboat. These products activate in different ways, both automatically and manually. The purpose of the life buoy was to do design a product that is easier to throw and takes less space than a traditional life buoy. Thus, demonstrate how stable gas can be applied in a real-world scenario. A complete solution has not been developed in this thesis due to the limiting time factor. Basic constraints, such as pressure and volume were calculated to show the necessary requirements on the buoy and the cylinder. The concept study of the inflatable life buoy resulted in a buoy of 35 litres with a cross section diameter of 1.6 dm. To be able to inflate this volume, a cylinder containing 90 ml is required. The dimensions of the cylinder have been calculated to minimize the use of material which resulted in a height and diameter of 50 mm. One of the conclusion of this thesis is that stable gas is useable for safety applications. The choice of gas depends on the specific product and its conditions and requirements. Therefore, a specific gas cannot be considered as the most optimal.

  • 150.
    Hansson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie för implementering av planeringssystemet Demand Driven Material Requirments Planning i X-verkstaden på GKN2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is performed in collaboration with GKN Aerospace Sweden AB in Trollhättan. With the ambition to streamline a production processes in one of the workshops (X-workshop). The objective with the work was to clarify the pros and cons with DDMRP. What presumption GKN have for an implementation, what is required for an implementation and what they have that supports a transition towards DDMRP. The work follows three iterations of a PDSA-cycle and the data collection methods used are litterateur study of the methodology functions, pros and cons with it and interviews to understand the situation of the X-workshop and with staff that have experience with DDMRP at GKN. The theory of DDMRP involves protection of the production processes against variability by strategically positioning buffers. The outcome of the thesis conveys in an analysis of the answers form the interviews. With help from the interview answers and the theory, the metrics of the product Genx was elected to perform a theoretical analysis upon. The theoretical analysis was compiled by following the manufacturing quality requirement of a product down to operational level. It was noticed at operational level that operation 300 and 800 had long queuing times, variability in operation times and that they are positioned before respective after operation 500 which has capacity constraints. Recommendation, is to place a buffer near operation 300 and 800 to uphold the production process.The analysis ends with what supports a transition to DDMRP for the X-workshop and what they need to oversee in the case of an implementation of this methodology. The discussion describes the results from the interviews are regarded specifically for the organization and the environment at GKN X-workshop. What speaks for an implementation of DDMRP is that the methodology is possible to run in parallel with others planning methodologies.

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