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  • 101.
    Axhall, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet som formade studien handlade om de kostnader som uppkommer för företag då det sker uppsägningar av personal. Studiens syfte och fokus låg på att finna sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget. För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes sju intervjuer med personer som har titeln butiksbiträden. På grund av tidsbrist valdes en specifik yrkesgrupp och för att avgränsa studien. Vetenskapliga artiklar tillsammans med övrig litteratur var studiens sekundära källor, medan studiens primära källor var intervjuerna som ägde rum med de sju respondenter från fyra olika företag. I teoriavsnittet presenteras olika teorier och studier som gjorts med olika infall- och synvinklar på begreppet meningsfullhet, vilket var många. Min definition av meningsfullhet var de som ser på meningsfullheten så som jag personligen gör, framförallt sker genom de kundmöten jag står inför som butiksbiträde. Tidigare forskare har poängterat att definitionen av meningsfullhet går att koppla till de relationerna som uppkommer mellan individer, vilket då påvisade att det fanns ett intresse kring denna syn på meningsfullhet i arbetet. I teoriavsnittet sammanställs och presenteras olika forskares synsätt på hur meningsfullhet uppkommer i arbetslivet. Baumeister & Vohs (2002), se Vuori T., m.fl., 2012) tolkade ordet meningsfullhet som "en positiv innebörd och betydelsen av en aktivitet" vilket även poängterades av Vuori T., m.fl. (2012) där meningsfullheten uppkommer med att människor associerar sitt arbete med positiva ting. Enligt Dimitrov, D. (2012) tolkades meningsfullhet som att skapa ordning i innehållet, detta innefattade Dimitrov, D. (2012) med självkänslan för vad personen i fråga tillför sin arbetsplats, arbetsinnehållet att skapa utmaning, kreativitet, lärande, egen makt och självständighet. Medan Hirschi, A., & Terrence, T. (2012) uppfattade meningsfullhet som individers uppfattning om hur betydande deras arbete var. Teoriavsnittet innehåller även olika teorier och tidigare studier om hur företag behåller sina anställda. Slutligen i analysavsnittet sammanför diskussionen och kopplingarna mellan den insamlade empirin och teorin. Slutsatsen av studien resulterade i att ledare inte tycktes ha samma inflytande på meningsfullheten i arbetet, så som de övriga kollegorna och främst kunderna hade. Studien påvisade starka samband mellan meningsfullhet och kundbemötandet.

  • 102.
    Axhall, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tjärndal, Lina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konsekvenser för organisationskulturen vid en sammanslagning av två organisationer: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig sektor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of change in organizational contexts involves much, what we will focus on in the following study are mergers. Mergers are becoming more common in the dynamic and changing world that we live in. When two different organizational cultures are combined, it´s inevitable to avoid organizational culture being affected. Having knowledge about how interactions affect the organization is important in order to serve as a profitable and giving strategy. Previous research shows that organizational culture is affected by collusion, because the organizational culture has a strong impact on the outcome of the merger. Organizational culture can change in mergers, as the change brings new aspects of the organization, which in turn affects organizational culture. Two recurring factors that existed in the field of research were leadership and communication. Our research questions for the following study are:

    - What consequences can arise in the mergers of two organizations whose cultures differ?

    - How can leadership and communication contribute to developing organizational culture within the organization?

    The aim of the study is to contribute with increased knowledge of how cultural conditions such as organizational culture are affected by a merger. The following study focuses on leaders in raising awareness and awareness of how mergers and organizational culture can be developed and managed to make the transition rewarding and that the organization should have a stronger common organizational culture. In order to accomplish this, a qualitative method was chosen with a hermeneutically interpretative approach. The collected material for the study is based on scientific articles and semistructured interviews with ten selected interviewees. The analysis and conclusion of the study is based on the interviews we received through interviews with both leaders and teachers within the organization. The conclusion showed that geographical distances between organizations can contribute to a reduced degree of cohesion. In order for leadership and communication to develop organizational culture within the organization, clarity and structuring are required.

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  • 103.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

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  • 104.
    Backman, Jessica
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konstruktion av identitet och förmedling av image vid varumärkesuppbyggnad i en mindre stad: Fallet Trollhättan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the mobility of the population and the development of the economy, much more attention is paid to the competitiveness between nations, regions and cities. City branding is a development strategy where there is a need to build cities own identity through marketing and convey their image. However, the understanding of how large cities work cannot be transferred to smaller cities, which, among other things, may face economic constraints. Instead, smaller cities must let their creativity flow and try to benefit from what can already be used. The purpose of the study is to find out how a small city can construct its identity and to convey its image in order to develop its brand. Based on this, previous research has been used to search for important information about city branding as well as a city's identity and image in order to find out important variables to investigate further in the study. Some variables in the construction of identity that were important in my study included the city's personality, appearance, significance of place, distinctive features and also leadership and planning. Some variables that were important to investigate when conveying the image included characteristics of the city, general feelings about the city, appearance, the significance of the place and its development. To fulfill the purpose, a qualitative case study has been performed of the city Trollhättan. To get important information about the city's identity, the City of Trollhättan has been contacted to understand how they try to construct their identity. This has been collected through a presentation by the City of Trollhättan, with a series of interview questions and also through available documents. To get relevant information about the city's image, a qualitative focus group interview was conducted. Itconsisted of six people with different ages, gender, ethnicity and different connections to Trollhättan to get a broader perspective on their perceptions of the city. Based on this method and the variables that were important for the study, the empirical data has been collected. The analysis illuminates connections between previous research and empirical data based on the selected variables. It also illustrates similarities and differences between how Trollhättan constructs its identity and how the respondents perceive it. It states, among other things, that the construction of identity can affect people's image. It is therefore important to communicate what happens in the city, so that people feel involved and feel proud of the city.The conclusion that can be drawn regarding to the construction of identity is that a smaller city should constantly strive to work with the gaps between the existing city and the desired one. They should take advantage of the city's conditions and adapt to their stakeholders as much as possible. It can also be concluded that the decisions that a city makes in its construction of identity can affect the city's image in both positive and negative ways, which may depend on how people choose to perceive the decision or of the lack of communication.

  • 105.
    Backman, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Leitgeb, Christina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Garbage in, garbage out: automatiserade redovisningsprogram och deras påverkan på redovisningens kvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitizing advancement that has occured within the accountant segment have impacted what used to be a manually run segment within the industry to now become fully automated. The autonomous and technical aspect within the IT-segment have brought both new possibilities and ways of working, the following leads to an advantage being that you now have the possibility to get rapports in real time, among other things. An increasing number of accounting processes are automated as accounting programs evolve and an important question to be asked is how the quality within the accounting segment is affected.

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the impact of automated accounting processes on the quality of accounting. We chose a qualitative research strategy and abductive research facility.

    Through semi-structured interviews with accountants and auditors at various agencies, we collected data for our empirical analysis. We analyzed based on a thematic analysis based on the themes of the study; comprehensibility, reliability, relevance and comparability.

    The results of the study show that quality is improved and work more efficiently with automation. Reducing the manual work in the form of instancing's and transferring it to an automated process minimizes the risk of errors in the accounting. What is important, however, is that the setup of accounting programs automatic processes must be correct from the start, if the setup is incorrect then the result will be incorrect. Having standard setups in the applications reduces any errors that may arise when loading against, for example, proprietary templates, as they constantly need to be updated. To fully automate all parts within the accountant segment is presently not possible as some parts must be manually handled, such as annual accounts. Although the automated processes minimize the risk of instance, it is still important that some form of quality check needs to be done to assure that the result is correct. The results of the study also show that a good accounting quality requires that the accounting consultant has the correct competence and understanding of accounting. The correct competence in the future also includes IT-management why it should be introduced in the financial studies.

    In conclusion, we have been able to conclude with the help of the study that it is wrong from the beginning in the form of incorrect setup of the automatic process, error of failure or lack of competence of the accounting consultant will also the final result be incorrect, in other words "garbage in, garbage out".

  • 106.
    Badjie, Fatou
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ghavaed, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En kvalitativ studie kring faktorer som kan påverka personalens hälsa i en organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har författarna valt att titta närmare på vilka faktorer det finns som kan påverka anställdas hälsa i en organisation. Detta genom att först identifiera faktorerna i det valda företaget och sedan med hjälp av intervjuer och den teoretiska referensramen få ett resultat. I den teoretiska referensramen redogör författarna för en historisk bakgrund om hälsa och faktorer som kan påverka medarbetarens hälsa. För att få fram relevant litteratur inom ämnesområdet har författarna använt sig av en kvalitativ metod, vetenskapliga artiklar och intervjuer. I det empiriska avsnittet framgår intervjuerna på fyra anställda i det valda företaget. För att veta hur deras hälsa är gjorde författarna ett urval på grund av att författarna ville få fullständiga svar från personer med erfarenhet. Det ställdes frågor angående arbetsförhållanden, motivation, trivsel etc. Därefter har författarna vävt samman den teoretiska referensramen med det empiriska och analyserat kring det. Detta för att besvara frågeställningen och syftet. Senare visar det sig att personalen i det valda företaget skulle kunna tänka sig att byta jobb om det fanns möjlighet. De känner även att de saknar motivation och tydliga mål från chefen. Slutligen har författarna kommit fram till att det trots några positiva saker på arbetsplatsen finns det en del brister som skulle kunna förbättras som kan gynna personalens hälsa.

  • 107.
    Bagge, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Johanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Orden bakom siffrorna: Hur tydliggörs tillvägagångssättet vid värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i noterna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research have pointed out that the regulatory framework IAS 40 is not detailed enough. There are therefore no clear directives on how specified information that should be included in the notes regarding the approach of investment properties. The purpose of this study was therefore to obtain deeper understanding concerning the way Swedish listed real estate companies presents the approach of valuation of investment properties in the notes and get a deeper knowledge about similarities and differences with focus on; input level, method of valuation and external valuation. The study is based on a hermeneutical approach since a qualitative method in form of a content analysis has been done. The content analysis included all Swedish real estate companies listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. The notes of the real estate companies´ annual report from 2016 were examined. The study found out that all companies applied input level three when they clarified fair value. Furthermore, many of the companies based the fair value on similar calculations and this phenomenon can be explained by coercive and mimetic isomorphism which are presented in the theoretical section. The study also discovered that the extent of the external valuation differs between the companies. Further, the study also revealed that the notes overall included the same type of information concerning input level, method of valuation and external valuation. However, there are some differences in how much details that are included.

  • 108.
    Bahtijari, Agon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Deyab, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Den nytillträdde verkställande direktörens möjlighet och incitament till Earnings Management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial statements submitted by the companies will form the basis for various financial decisions taken by external stakeholders. This assumes that the information presented in these reports is valid and consistent with reality. However, the reliability and validity of these reports has been contested by previous studies whichmean that surrounding companies CEO turnover, both the incoming and the outgoing CEO have opportunities and incentives to Earnings Management. The possibility of Earnings Management arises as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as a principle-based accounting system, creates scope for subjective assessments and estimates that can be utilized by the management to conduct Earnings Management. This opportunity is complemented by the management's opportunistic perspective and the seek after own interest. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge if the newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process, as well as whether the presence of Earnings Management surrounding CEO turnover is affected, depending on whether the newly appointed CEO is promoted from within or recruited outside the company. To carry out the survey, we have used a quantitative research method. The study contains 49 companies registered on the OMX Stockholmsbörsen Large Cap. All companies' annual reports have been analyzed between 2005 and 2015, which resulted in 539 observations. The study's result indicate that it can't be ensured that a newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process. Nor can we be ensured that an external newly appointed CEO has greater opportunities for Earnings Management than an internal newly appointed CEO.

  • 109.
    Bajraktari, Lirije
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Abdallah, Rosanne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikter och kommunikation: Hur konflikter och kommunikation hanteras på en arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi valde att göra en undersökning på en skola inom kommunen i Trollhättan som heter Kronan. Studien handlar om hur man hanterar konflikter på arbetsplatsen och hur kommunikationen påverkar konflikterhanteringen. Till hjälp av vår studie ville vi få besvarat på hur konflikter sköts och hur kommunikationen kan leda till konflikter för att kunna få inblick på hur detta kan hanteras på bästa sätt. För att få hjälp med undersökningen kontaktade vi Kronan för att utföra vår undersökning. Vi har utgått från en kvalitativ metod och valt att intervjua fem anställda på organisationen angående deras syn på ämnet. För att kunna genomföra vår studie har vi utnyttjat oss av litteratur för att jämföra med resultaten från våra intervjuer. Resultatet från vår undersökning visade att konflikter inte trängs bort utan det hanteras till en bättre arbetsmiljö där kommunikation har en stor påverkan. De anställda väljer att hantera konflikterna på olika sätt, vissa väljer att låta individerna sköta problemen själva medan andra väljer att försöka lägga sig och hantera konflikterna på direkten.

  • 110.
    Bajwa, Humera
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Karawan, Liza
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledningens roll i arbetsmiljön: En studie inomhemtjänsten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vårdens styrning måste väsentligt förbättras samt utvecklas, det allvarligaste problemet ledningen handskas med inom äldreomsorgen är det faktum att personalens ansvar gällande arbetsprestationen är otydlig samt att det finns en brist på återkoppling gällande utfört arbete. Det saknas konkreta insatser som kan implementeras för att förbättra personalens arbetsvillkor. Detta leder i sin tur till att personalen är omotiverade i sitt arbete. Utifrån ovan diskuterade perspektiv skapar äldreomsorgen en bild av att vara en dysfunktionell organisation. Problemet är att arbetsmiljön inte är särskilt bra inom äldreomsorgen då högsjukfrånvaro, brist på motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter är de vanligaste förutsättningar som skapar en dysfunktionell organisation.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka ledarskapets roll i den dysfunktionella organisationen samt hur ledningen kan förbättra arbetsmiljön. Genom att kvalitativt intervjua sju personer, fyra enhetschefer samt tre medarbetare, kunde vi uppnå studiens syfte.

    I teoridelen definierade vi ledarskapets innebörd genom att presentera fyra olika ledarskapsstilar vilket är karismatiskt, transaktionellt, transformellt samt Laissez - faire ledarskap. Dessutom presenterades definitionen av arbetsmiljö samt friskfaktorer för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Därefter presenterade vi ledningens roll i att skapa en god arbetsmiljö genom att belysa faktorer som motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter.

    Det som framkom av studien var att ledningens har en väsentlig roll i att förbättra arbetsmiljön inom äldreomsorgen genom att implementera ett ledarskap som präglas av gemenskap, motivation samt kommunikation. Respondenterna ansåg även att återkoppling, varierande arbetsuppgifter, inre motivation samt att en god gemenskap är väsentlig för att skapa en tillfredställande arbetsplats.

  • 111.
    Bankel, Selma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rosengren, Tove
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Onboardingprocessen under Covid-19-pandemin: en kvalitativ fallstudie kring introduktionen av nyanställda på distans2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the Covid-19 Pandemic, organizations have had to change the way they work, and more employees have had to work from home. This means that even new employees commence their employment remotely and are introduced to the organization remotely, meaning they go through the onboarding process remotely. Since the pandemic started approximately one year ago, there is limited research on how the onboarding process has been impacted and how the remote onboarding process has been experienced. This study’s purpose has been to create knowledge about how the onboarding of newemployees has been affected or changed during remote work. This has been created byexamining how new employees and those responsible for the onboarding have beenaffected by the onboarding process taking place remotely. To specify the purpose, the research questions were focused on employees from the same organization and who had worked the majority of their working hours remotely. The theory consisted of previous research around onboarding activities, organizational culture, socialization, and remote work. A case study design was chosen for this study. The selection of respondents was chosen through specific criteria’s, which included being from one organization, and the new employees had been working in the organization for a minimum of three months and not more than a year. To create an understanding of the experience of the onboardingprocess, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight respondents, where three were in charge of the onboarding process, while the remaining five were new employees in the same organization. After the interviews, the material was transcribed and later became the empiricism for the study. The empiricism from these interviews showed above all that it was a challenge for the new employees to get to know their coworkers while working remotely. It was also difficult for the new employees to get an understanding of the organizational culture, this is supported by the theory as it shows that it can take a long time to understand the organizational culture. Additionally, there were only two out of five new employees who had a mentor from the start of the employment, and it was shown that a mentor would have been wanted. An analysis model was used, which was based on a previous model from Bauer (2010) called “The Four C’s” that consisted of four levels of what a successful onboarding process should consist of for new employees. Based on this model the organization reached the first level, which consisted of informing about rules, laws, and policies, while the remaining levels were partially achieved. The study shows that previous onboarding activities are still relevant, as well as mentorship, and the social aspect is extra important when the onboardingprocess is remote.

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  • 112.
    Barceló, Lídia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The impact of company specific and foreign country factors on the choice of foreign market entry mode in the hotel industry: A case study of Meliá Hotels International entering Asia Pacific2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism sector is the key driver of the Spanish economy, especially the hotel industry. Due to different reasons, Spanish hotel chains have started their internationalization process. In the other part of the world, Asia Pacific, is considered a region with an enormous tourism potential, in which the region receives a great number of international travellers every year. Additionally, due to the increase of the middle class, the number of domestic tourists has also increased. The study on the choice of entry mode is a topic very much discussed in the existing literature, since its choice is a key decision in the process of internationalization, and many factors influence this strategic decision. However, the motivation for this thesis is the lack of previous studies on the internationalization of Spanish hotel companies in Asia Pacific.

    From this perspective, the objective of this master's thesis in International Business is to gain a deeper understanding of the company specific and foreign country specific factors that influence a particular Spanish hotel chain in choosing an entry mode for internationalization into Asia Pacific. The Majorcan hotel chain, Meliá Hotels International, has been selected due to having its main focus the growth expansion into Asia Pacific.

    From here, a conceptual model has been developed on how different factors influence the decision of equity or non-equity entry modes. The study follows a qualitative research design and case study. The data has been collected through interviews and various documents published by Meliá. The major finding is undoubtedly Meliá's strong decision to follow a business model based on asset light and to establish itself in Asia Pacific by operating under management contracts. But the results also suggest factors that go beyond the characteristics of a company, such as foreign country factors, also accumulation of great influence, as specifically is the case for Meliá Hotels International into Asia Pacific.

  • 113.
    Barkman, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Forsler, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motives for voluntary sustainability reporting: A study of SMEs in Sweden and the U.K.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate is rapidly changing due to an increasing amount of emitted carbon dioxide which will lead to problems for future generations to meet their needs in terms of resources. More and more organizations have started acknowledging that their activities affect the environment surrounding the organization. Multinational organizations are forced by law to present a sustainability report to declare their contribution to a more sustainable development. Small and medium-sized organizations (SMEs) do not need topublish a sustainability report by law, but an increasing number of SMEs publish a sustainability report voluntarily. Therefore, it is of interest to gain knowledge about what motives SMEs have to present a voluntary sustainability report. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting by SMEs in Sweden and the U.K. To gain knowledge about the subject, a quantitative approach was used. In order to limit the scope of this study, SMEs in Sweden and the U.K. was targeted to answer a web-based survey. The survey was based on the theoretical framework, which consisted of the triple bottom line, the legitimacy theory and the stakeholder theory. Based on the theoretical framework, four hypotheses were formulated. Hypothesis 1 was that organizations have more motives for presenting information about environmental sustainability. Hypothesis 2 was about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting and legitimacy. Hypothesis 3b was that organizations prioritize certain stakeholders' demands. Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3b were all confirmed by descriptive statistics and one sample t-tests. Hypothesis 3a was about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting and satisfying their stakeholders' demands. Hypothesis 3a could not be confirmed or rejected due to scattered results in the descriptive statistics and the one-sample t-test. Two major conclusions could be drawn from the conducted survey. The first conclusion was that organizations have more motives to sustainability report about the environment rather than about the social or economic aspects of sustainability. The second conclusion was that both gaining legitimacy and satisfying certain stakeholders' demands are motives for sustainability reporting for SMEs.

  • 114.
    Bartczak, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Keca, Tatjana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Transformativt ledarskap under en pågående förändring2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to gain in-depth knowledge of how the hotel industry exercises transformative leadership during organizational changes with a focus on the Covid-19 pandemic, which has hit the tourism industry hard. To fulfill the purpose and answer the research question, a qualitative method was used during the study, which is also based on six interviews with leaders from a hotel. Furthermore, the study shows that the chosen organization uses transformative leadership during the Covid-19 pandemic. Above all, it is shown by the leaders working to motivate and encourage their employees. The leaders involve the employees in the decision-making process and let the employees be creative and come up with their own suggestions. The leaders have also emphasized that there have been difficulties in working with the employees on an individual level as the leaders during the Covid-19 pandemic have had to prioritize the organization as a whole. At the same time, all respondents emphasize that employee well-being was also a decisive factor during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

  • 115.
    Basiri, David
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Val av redovisningsregelverk och vilka faktorer som styr: En kvalitativ studie utifrån Auktoriserade Revisorernas perspektiv om småföretags val mellan K2 och K3 regelverken2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On February 13, 2004, The Accounting board (BFN) decided on an adapted direction on the work on norming. Some of the motives for this was that the supervisory background remained extensive due to previous ways of producing norms. Another reason for the choice was that since there was an occasion for companies to choose recommendations from different norm providers, it was given the opportunity to choose which result they would like to report, which meant that information presented by the unlisted companies could be difficult to interpret. This resulted in the development of BFN's category rules, which divide Sweden's companies into four categories based on the volume of the company, where each individual category has its own rules that contain inclusive general recommendation. The intention of this study is to show the accounting profession's experiences of which factors were decisive for smaller companies when choosing between these two K-regulations and to gain an understanding of how companies’ accounting choices go. The study also shows the respondents' views on BFN's category rules and its impact on the reporting in smaller companies, the respondents' views on principle-based regulations and rule-based regulations as well as their views on K2 and K3, respectively. An interpretivist approach takes remained with the intention of presenting the accounting career's own opinions and experiences. Furthermore, a qualitative method in the form of semi-structured interviews takes remained. The primary data of the study has been collected through the interviews, while the secondary data has been obtained through scientific articles, non-fiction literature and websites. The theory that has been linked to the problem area of the study, i.e. the way in which corporate accounting choices go, are Positive Accounting Theory, Institutional Theory and research on varieties between rule-based and principle-based theories. The study has shown that smaller companies often rely on the accounting profession's expertise and advice when it comes to accounting choices. In addition, it can be acknowledged that many companies center of attention on simplicity and that they themselves need to make such a small effort as possible. The business sector and special conditions at the companies are important for how they choose. For example, certain specific accounting rules are crucial, mainly for companies with slightly more complicated conditions, such as component decrease for real estate companies, the possibility in K3 to value financial assets at fair value and the activation ban for selfgenerated intangible assets that affect innovation companies. Generally, the accounting profession needs to be better at passing on the meaning of the different regulations to the companies, but also on informing that there actually is an opportunity to choose regulations.

  • 116.
    Bellstam, Jennifer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bergqvist, Therés
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröms inverkan på autonom motivation: Inom offentlig sektor2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations use some form of reward system, ether financial or non-financial, as instruments for control. The point of reward systems is to motivate employees within organizations in various ways. In previous studies praise, a form of non-financial reward, has been shown to have a positive effect on motivation. However, what type of motivation praise affects has not been adequately researched. Within the public sector resources are scarce and earlier research shows that most of the employees in that sector are autonomously motivated. To be motivated in that way means to be driven by a selfinterest and many people working in the public sector do so because they feel that their work is meaningful. Research has shown that increased motivation has a positive effect on the performance and it is therefore important for managers within the public sector to be able to keep the staff motivated. The purpose of this study is to further develop knowledge about how praise, a form of cost efficient non-financial reward, can influence the autonomous motivation in employees within the public sector. A qualitative research method has been applied to achieve the purpose of this study. A total of eight interviews have been conducted with people working in the public sector and which all get praise in their workplace. With the help of the conducted interviews and earlier research concerning praise and motivation we have been able to find out how praise is given within the public sector and how it affects the employees three psychological needs; experienced competence, experienced belonging and experienced autonomy as well as their autonomous motivation. Praise is often given verbally within the public sector it is the praise for individual performances that has the most impact. Praise from managers is often considered as the least significant since they are not considered to be present enough to see what the employees accomplish. This study concludes that praise has an impact on autonomous motivation and may also affect the controlled motivation.

  • 117.
    Benayed, Elie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jama, Issa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bitcoin: An empirical study on the future developments2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bitcoin has over the years dominated the headlines for good and bad reasons. Examples of this range from the first introduction of a Bitcoin Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to the recent attack on the Bitcoin exchange, MT Gox, where 850000 bitcoins were stolen worth hundreds of millions USD. The fundamental questions that this research answers are what Bitcoin exactly is and whom the actors are using this digital currency. Furthermore, an empirical research is conducted to highlight how actors expect Bitcoin to develop in the future.

    Bitcoin is depicted as a self-evolving system that has its own community. This research draws similarities with the traditional theory of ecosystem and the business ecosystem theory by Moore (1996). The Bitcoin ecosystem is presented as a model that consists out of internal and external factors.

    The methods that are used in this research are mostly of quantitative nature, though a qualitative way of analysing is also incorporated in this research. An electronic questionnaire was sent to users, investors and companies that use Bitcoin. These electronic questionnaires were sent to companies by email and to different Bitcoin forums to reach users and investors in Bitcoin. A total of 51 actors have completed the questionnaire.

    The empirical analysis focused on the present and the future of Bitcoin. The subjects that are covered consisted of legal, economic and technological factors that determine the Bitcoin system. The present situation shows that the main reason people use Bitcoin is that it offers the actors an alternative for fiat currencies and low transaction costs when making payments. The current drawbacks of the Bitcoin system are, regarded by scholars and actors, to be the high volatility in the value of Bitcoin and the security concerns that are caused by hackers of the system.

    Finally, the overall sentiment amongst users, investors and companies is that the future of Bitcoin is considered to be a bright one based on the legal, economic and technological factors

  • 118.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Feldt, Denise
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kompetensförsörjning som en del av HR-funktionen: HR-funktionens förändringar och dess betydelse för strategisk kompetensförsörjning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to get a good economic growth in the community, as well as a fully functioning labor market, competence is an important prerequisite. Competence is not only about the amount of years a person has studied at the university, instead its more about lifelong learning that takes place outside traditional education systems. During the passage of time, human resources and skills gained in importance while today's employees have much higher education. Despite this, there seems to be a shortage in some organizations when it comes to skills development.

    The purpose of this study is to examine what the work of strategic competence can look like. In the work we have chosen to interview three organization employees with HR responsibility to see what tools they use to plan and work with skills development. We've chosen to adopt a qualitative approach in the form of interviews to get a picture of how the tasks are done.

    The result of this work has been based on empirical data, wich later is linked to the theory section parts. Based on this we have drawn connections and interpretations which are later summarized in the analysis and conclusion. The result we reached was that the concept of competence was interpreted differently between the various organizations we worked with. Organizations' common view was that competence has a significant role to achieve success.

  • 119.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jörgensen, Mimmi
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kundrelationer: Vikten av goda kundrelationer inom detaljhandeln2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How should the retail stores work with their customer relationships to successfully retain their customers in a time of increased competition in the form of accessible e-commerce?

    This work aims to provide a deeper knowledge of how a company should work on creating good customer relationships. The work also provides an updated view on how an established retail company such as Hennes & Mauritz works with customer service and how well it meets the service requirements of todays customers.

    The work includes a literature survey, which refers to the customer and their service expectations. To get a better view on how actual customers and shop assistants look at customer relationships, the work also include an empirical study that is prepared in the form of a questionnaire survey, two shorter interviews with employees at Hennes & Mauritz and an organizational survey. These two parts will in the end be the answer to our question

  • 120.
    Bengtsson, Karoline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jansson, Martina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sociala medier som ett marknadsföringsverktyg: En fallstudie om hur Lyckåsen Styling & Interiör kan använda sig av sociala medier.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att Internet bara blir större och större har sociala medier blivit ett självklart val av marknadsföringsverktyg där homestyling och interiör företag lägger stor vikt på marknadsföringsarbetet via sociala medier.

    Syftet med studien är att ge förslag till Lyckåsen Styling & Interiör i Göteborg som är ett nystartat företag inom branschen, hur dem kan nå ut till många intressenter med hjälp av sociala medier.

    Studien är av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod i form av intervjuer och en enkätundersökning. Intervjuerna har genomförts med två organisationer, Alvhem Mäkleri & Interiör och Lyckåsen Styling & Interiör med fokus på Lyckåsen som är studiens uppdragsgivare. Egna observationer har gjorts av de nämnda organisationernas hemsidor för att få en inblick hur dem använder sig av sociala medier idag. Vi har även genomfört en enkätundersökning för att få reda på intresset av styling och interiör samt användningen av sociala medier i allmänheten. Sociala medier har gjort att det blivit möjlighet att skapa relationer mellan säljare och köpare på nätet därför är det viktigt att dra nytta av dessa resurser och skapa relationer.

    Resultatet från observationer, intervjuer och enkätundersökning visar att Lyckåsen till skillnad från Alvhem har lagt mindre fokus på att marknadsföra sig på sociala medier. En av anledningarna till att dem inte är aktiva är att dem är ett nystartat företag och har inte tillräckligt med kunskap kring ämnet. Eftersom respondenterna i enkätundersökningen föredrog att ta del av information via Facebook, bloggar och Instagram är det viktigt att utnyttja dessa forum vid marknadsföring. Man vill också förmedla företagets mål på rätt sätt så att man får en bred krets av intressenter. För att behålla sina intressenter via sociala medier är det viktigt att satsa på snygg layout, färgstarka bilder och en kontinuerlig uppdatering på de olika forumen

  • 121.
    Bengtsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hög arbetsbelastning och stress: En kvalitativ fallstudie inom läraryrket2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag i ett kravsamhälle där vi har höga förväntningar på oss, både inom arbetslivet och privatlivet. Det kan vara svårt och mycket påfrestande för oss att leva upp till alla dessa krav och förväntningar, det märks inte minst då den psykiska ohälsan kraftigt ökat i Sverige under de senaste åren. Psykisk ohälsa har blivit vår stora folksjukdom och står idag för över 40 procent av sjukfallen i Sverige. Det är ett hett ämne som ständigt diskuteras inom nyheter och media. Dålig arbetsmiljö en är bidragande faktor till psykisk ohälsa och vi vet att hög arbetsbelastning och stress är ett vanligt problem inom många branscher idag, som påverkar människor negativt. Debatten har nu resulterat i en ny föreskrift, som trädde i kraft den 31 mars 2016, i syfte att förbättra de organisatoriska och sociala förhållandena på arbetsplatsen.

    Vi har gjort en fallstudie på en högskola i Västsverige för att undersöka hur lärare upplever och hanterar hög arbetsbelastning och stress. Vi har gjort intervjuer med sex lärare som även fört dagbok under två veckor, som en del i undersökningen.

    Lärarna uppger att deras arbetssituation är mycket påfrestande i vissa perioder. Främst handlar det om tentaperioder samt vid överlappningen mellan kursslut och kursstart. Stressen och den höga arbetsbelastningen påverkar lärarna på olika sätt. Vissa menar att de på grund av arbetet har ett minskat socialt liv och några nämner att de ibland har en störd nattsömn. Att arbetet ibland går ut över deras privatliv är samtliga lärare överens om, då de ofta arbetar både under kvällar och helger. Arbetssituationen hanteras genom att lära sig strukturera arbetet och hitta rutiner som fungerar för sig själv.

  • 122.
    Bengtsson, Micaela
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur kan ett HRM-system påverka det strategiska HR-arbetet inom organisationer?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HR (Human Resource) has a significant role for organisations, as they have the main responsibility for their personnel. Organisations use HR functions in various extent, while some organisations only have one pronounced HR manager, others have an HR department where personnel issues are distributed between managers and line managers. It is the personnel within the organisation that are the human resources and are the ones who develop the organisation. It is a key factor to have personnel that feel satisfied in their work assignments, as it can make them perform better. Organisations can use an HRM system (Human Resource Management) to collect data in one place, for example data about the employees. It can be difficult for organisations to work with strategic HR work, this is because they have a lot of administrative personnel management as well as organisations rarely choose to invest in HR. The purpose of this study was to examine how an HRM system can affect the strategic HR work within organisations. To examine this, I have used semi-structured interviews at an organisation in Västra Götaland. At this organisation, six people were interviewed where three of them have managerial roles and the other three are employees. The conclusion shows that an HRM system that is administered, updated and maintained continuously will provide added value to the organisation. Therefore, the system needs to be maintained in order for it to be a successful investment for the organisation, otherwise it will be more work to maintain the HRM systems than it would be useful. The study has shown that an investment in an HRM system contributes to more strategic HR work. That is because the system takes care of the administrative work, which then allows HR to work more with strategic work. 

  • 123.
    Bengtsson, Siri
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Coronakrisens påverkan på internkommunikationen: En kvalitativ studie på en statlig myndighet2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is being carried out as a B-thesis in business administration at University West spring 2020. I, as an author, have been studying the personnel economics program for two years and will therefore study the impact of the corona crisis on internal communication at a government agency. This is being done with a qualitative method with structured interviews and from an abductive approach with a total of five respondents.In recent times, Swedish society has undergone major and unusual changes as a result of the Covid-19 virus, which has created concern and uncertainty within organizations. Leadership and how the leader communicates is often described as of great importance, especially during uncertain times and thus it is currently being tested. Previous research has shown that leadership and communication are extremely important for how well an organization recovers after a crisis and how internal communication is complex in the way that what the management wants to communicate to the employees is not always interpreted by the employees as intended. The purpose of this study is therefore to study any differences in the internal communication at a government agency in order to investigate how the crisis affects the internal communication and any difficulties that arise.To find out, interviews were conducted with three department heads and two employees of a government agency. When selecting respondents, there were no major requirements regarding education, age, gender, etc. but what was sought were people who could give a good picture of the business and that themselves had an experience they could convey. The material collected from the interviews is compared with the theoretical frame of reference that has been developed that deals with topics such as leadership, communication, crisis and digital tools. Through analysis, a conclusion was reached which was that the biggest difference before and during the corona crisis is the increased use of digital tools and the reduction of physical contact. This has created an increased workload at the same time as messages about how the work is to be conducted have been communicated differently from different quarters and that as an employee it has thus not been possible to know what information to relate to. Despite this, it turns out how the, sometimes, lack of communication still worked because of the leaders' strong and open relationship with the colleagues.

  • 124.
    Bennis, Isabel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mattila-Markus, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Hur utformningen av rapporterna skiljer sig åt mellan branscher i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem - Negative environmental impacts are increasing due to various global development trends and sustainability reporting is growing among companies. To get a comparability between companies' sustainability work GRI can be used which publishes guidelines for what and how companies should report. Previous research shows that there are differences between sectors in what they choose to report.Purpose - The study aims to examine how sustainability reporting differs between industries in Sweden and what these differences are caused by.

    Delimitation - The study has been limited to analysing major Swedish listed companies' sustainability reports, published in 2014, which applies the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. Only companies' work on environmental and social responsibility have been studied. Method - In the study a quantitative survey approach has been used to make it easier to measure and compile the collected empirical data. Information has been gathered from companies' annual and sustainability reports, as well as their web pages. Data has through content analysis been reworked to facilitate the information management.

    Results and conclusions - The study shows that there are differences between the analysed industries since some of them reported a greater extent than others. The material industry is the sector that accounts for most information while the health industry reports the least. Greenhouse effect, energy usage and information about employees are those indicators that are reported most frequently among all companies. Proposal for further research - In continued research, a similar survey can be done but where interviews are conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the corporates sustainability work. A comparison between the public and private sectors as well as examining sustainability reporting over time are also suggestions for further research.

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  • 125.
    Berg, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Relationen mellan företagsledare och revisor inom ägarledda bolag: Förtroende eller kontroll?: En kvalitativ studie om relationens påverkan på revisorns oberoende och revisionskvalitén2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of auditor independence is based on providing reliable information to stakeholders. If the auditor is partial in the audit, the financial report is at greater risk to provide deceptive information to stakeholder and their decisions will be based on inaccurate information. Based on previous research, three critical situations, where the auditor independence could be threatened, were identified. These situations are when the auditor offers consulting services, when there is a long-term customer relationship and when the customer is either financially or personally important to the auditor. Previous research differs from what consequences this implies, for example how audit quality is affected. Furthermore, accurate statement regarding the company's going concern can be equated with good audit quality. These statements do not in itself constitute a threat to independence, but an effect that the auditor in his audit is not independent may be that he does not make correct statements about the company's going concern. Based upon this, the intention of the study was to provide increased knowledge of how the relationship between auditors and business executives can affect the independence of the auditor and the perceived audit quality. Furthermore, also how the auditor's statements of going concern was affected by independence. Previous research formed the semi-structured interviews conducted with auditors and business executives. The study included responses from seven respondents, three of whom are auditors and four whom are business executives. The study revealed that the auditor's independence, in appearance, was affected in some of the critical situations, but is not questioned in owner managed businesses, based upon that they do not have any external stakeholders of essential importance. The auditor's independence, in fact, is not threatened in any of the critical situations as there is no conflict of interest between shareholders and business executives. Furthermore, the study also distinguished that both consulting services and long-term customer relationships improved the perceived audit quality. This because that business executives gained a greater trust in the auditor of the company and that this reduces the information asymmetry between the company and the auditor. On this basis, this also leads to that the statements of going concerns did not became affected since the auditor's independence was maintained in all situations.

  • 126.
    Berg, David
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sediqi, Elhamuddin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm som motivation inom vården: en kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector in Sweden comprises businesses within the municipality, state and county councils. Of all employed people in the country, one third works in the public sector. Major challenges are reported in healthcare where poor working conditions, low salaries and a lack of motivation are common issues. This study has the purpose of creating a better understanding and knowledge of how praise affects the motivation of the employees in the healthcare. We also investigated the form of praise that motivates the employees and consequently contributes to higher motivation. Previous research on motivation has to a greater extent focused on the private sector, hence there is a need for more empirical studies of praise in the public sector. The study is based on an empirical study on motivation and a qualitative research approach where we have chosen to do six semi-structured qualitative interviews with employees in healthcare. These interviews were later transcribed, and the data was used for the empirical work. Much of the empirical data showed that praise affects motivation differently depending on the recipient's characteristics, which were also in line with the theoretical basis of the study. The study also shows that most employees have a greater desire to receive praise individually rather than other alternatives, even though some felt that receiving praise in front of others was also important. These differences can be explained with Maslow's hierarchy of needs - depending on how the employee’s needs have been met. Those who have their basic needs met (step 1) and feel safe (step 2) and feel social belonging (step 3) need for self-esteem (step 4) are more receptive to praise. The study shows that praise as motivation in healthcare is used to a lesser extent than desired. It is also desirable for employees to receive praise and there are virtually only positive effects except if the praise is given to an individual in front of a collective group. Then it can contribute to negative effects in the form of jealousy or negative feelings

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  • 127.
    Bergenholtz, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningens betydelse för försäljning och service: en kvalitativ studie av balansen mellan bankens försäljning och god kundservice2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how well organizational rewarding system can get the staff to increase their sales of products and services, while customers are offered service-excellence for their own good.

    The study is related to reality through a qualitative research, in the shape of semi-structured in-depth interviews, were the employees' views of the reward system at Swedbank's telephone bank are examined. Respondents consisted of six advisors and one business manager.

    Using a theoretical framework based on motivation theories of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's Two factor theory and Vroom's Expectations theory, the data obtained during in-depth interviews were processed and analyzed. Further, the 4P-model was used to analyze how well the organization exhibit customer service-excellence.

    The result shows that it is mainly distributed internal, verbal reward to the workers, but that the sales statistics are the basis for a possible raise. All of the respondents stated that there are unclear directives from senior management regarding the goals; should the staff either increase the sales or reduce the queues. Employees consider that unclear directives create demotivation at work, when the focus on target setting constant varies. Furthermore, all respondents stated that colleagues encourage each other to sell better when they regularly receive reports regarding sales and efficiency.

    In the interviews, it also became clear that the organization does not apply any reward for customer service-excellence, but reports from unsatisfied customers are followed up and investigated in some cases. However, business managers sometimes participate at client meetings through call screening, in order to develop staff in improved customer service.

    The conclusion of the study is that the organization mainly applies reward of internal nature, where regular reports, considering sales and efficiency create competition among the staff. Their comparison with one another evokes motivation. Different directive considering goal achievement is a factor of demotivation among the respondents. There is no reward for service-excellence. There have been indications that customers are not satisfied with the bank's service, which is suggested to be based on that there is an imbalance between hard (structure and strategy) and soft factors (shared values and personal skills)

  • 128.
    Berger Jernberg, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hjelm, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fördelar och nackdelar med budget: Hur arbetar svenska börsnoterade bolag med budget2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of budgeting is to allocate financial responsibility within organizations and can be a valuable management tool (Kullvén, 2009). A discussion of long duration, however, is that traditional budgeting should be complemented by other management tools. There is also an advocate for organizations to abandon traditional budgeting and instead work in accordance with the Beyond Budgeting (Neely, Bourne & Adams, 2003).

    The purpose of this study is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of classical Budgeting and Beyond Budgeting. The study was conducted in five listed organizations where interviews were conducted with key personnel.

    The study's research questions are:

    How do listed companies work with budget, regarding planning, management and evaluation? How does listed companies relate to criticism against the traditional budget?

    Four of the five organizations that participated in the study use budgets. They consider that the criticism of the budget is not relevant to their business. All four companies use budgets or forecasts as they prefer to call it, as a tool for planning, management and monitoring. In other words, all four companies follow the classic basic idea of budgeting. None of these four companies have been thinking about abandoning budgeting, but instead works to develop and streamline its budgeting work and adapting budgeting to its own operations and to the world around us changes.

    The fifth organization which is working with Beyond Budgeting, believes that the people working close to the customers know the market best and should make the decisions. The organization believes that budgeting is not in accordance with their values. This is because they want to have a flat organization with a minimum of control. Furthermore, the organization working with Beyond Budgeting means that each employee is aware of the need of economizing and does not want to get as much of the "budget pie" as possible.

  • 129.
    Berggren, Julia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Attraktivt arbete och främjande ledarskap enligt 90-talisterna: Med fokus på arbetets innehåll, tillfredsställelse och förhållanden samt motivationsfaktorer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of an organizations most important assets is the employees and today, changing workplace is common, especially for younger generations. Therefore, organizations face a challenge in creating attractive work and retaining the employees.

    The purpose of this study was to identify what 90-talists considered attractive work to be in terms of work content, job satisfaction, working conditions and motivation factors, but also how leadership can create an attractive work.

    The study examines general traits of 90-talists, what they consider attractive work to be and which motivational factors they consider important. Furthermore, the role of leadership in the context of an attractive work is examined. A Facebook-survey has been conducted to reach out to 90-talists, where thirty questions were answered. In total, 133 respondents answered the survey, where 100 of the answers came from respondents born in the 90s. Their answers have resulted in statistics that have been presented in the study.

    From the responses in the questionnaires, it was possible to conclude that the 90-talists saw themselves as cooperative and ambitious. They value freedom of action, where they can influence and control their own work and that there are opportunities for development. Having the opportunity to come up with own ideas and make own decisions was also something that the 90-talists considered important. They also felt that social contact, both with employees and leaders, was important. Committed and responsive were the leadership qualities that were valued highly by the 90-talists. The 90talists considered it important that the leader shows appreciation through feedback and dialogue and also promotes cooperation.

    From the empirical material, the analysis was one of the most important dimensions in the work content of freedom of action, in terms of job satisfaction, the perceived internal and external recognition of the 90s was in the employment relationship, the social contact at the workplace that weighed heavily.

    The study shows that in order to attract or retain the 90-talist in workplaces, an attractive work content, job satisfaction and working conditions need to be created in order to create an attractive work. An attractive work based on the 90-talists perspective is mainly based on the fact that development opportunities exist, that there is possibility of freedom of action and also social cohesion. A leadership that promotes these factors can thus also promote attractive work for the 90-talists.

    Proposals for future research are to implement qualitative studies in order to reach underlying thoughts and explanations that could have deepened the study´s results.

  • 130.
    Berglund, Magnus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Faktorer som påverkar tillit i ledarskap och organisationer: En kvalitativ studie ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon “leadership” has interested researchers from a variety of disciplines for a long time. The main focus has been on finding a normative and universal formula based on rational approaches. Despite a large number of scientific studies, mainly based on quantitative data, questions about the impact of interpersonal relations remain. In the search for the good and constructive leadership, research has recently become increasingly interested in the phenomenon “trust”. This study aims to create a deeper understanding of factors that contribute to trust in a leadership context. In particular issues concerning which factors that affect trust in organizations and in leadership. Behavioral perspectives are mainly used as the explanatory model. As a basis for further assumptions empirical data from interviews are interpreted. The study demonstrates several connections between theories and empirical data. But there are also several discrepancies. The results indicate that a number of factors promote trust between manager and employees, e.g. dialogue and feedback appear to be important. Conversely, “laissez-faire” or “non-leadership” impact employees and organizational effect in a destructive way. The importance of the organization signaling a tolerant culture is also emphasized, that it is permissible to make mistakes. It’s also vital that managers have the ability to protect the employee from negative feedback. Furthermore, it is also stated that the most common normative and rational theories often differ from the more turbulent reality of the respondents. The results also show that there is a need from managers to add structure and rules within the organizations. The context presented in the study is assumed to affect managers' ability to practice the well-researched quantitative theories. The study also shows that consequence assessments of expected response affects initiatives. This is in line with theory, but the perspective is usually focused on the relationship between manager and employee. Instead, the study indicates that it is primarily impact assessments between colleagues that govern employees' behavior. In summary, the study shows that trust is an important factor in constructive leadership, although not the only prevailing one. Rather than being a single agent, trust is a part of a synthesis. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that further data is collected regarding managers' reality, in order to better understand how the well researched quantitative theories can be used in practice. Furthermore, more studies of how colleagues impact trust and behavior are advocated, in order to verify the interpretations. 

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  • 131.
    Bergström Kvidén, Felicia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Martinsdottir, Isabella
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningssystem baserat på kundnöjdhet: En fallstudie på en organisation inom bank- och försäkringsbranschen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customer satisfaction is a non-financial performance measurement that can be connected to an incentive system to motivate and direct employees, as well as drive and increase efforts to create a higher customer satisfaction. More research is needed on what speaks for and against this connection to motivate employees. The purpose of this study is to create knowledge about employees being motivated by connecting customer satisfaction to an incentive system. Therefore, a qualitative case study was conducted in which ten interviews with employees from an organization within the banking and insurance industry. From previous research eight factors has been identified that are needed to create a motivational incentive system. These are; reliability, distinctness, justice, opportunity to influence, knowledge, more frequent measuring points, significant reward and motivational level. The study shows that customer satisfaction led to an increased motivation to get more satisfied customers. In addition, the structure of the incentive system, through the collective reward, led to everyone feeling valuable which can help to create motivation. However, customer assessments were not always perceived as fair and did not reflect employees' performance and justice seems to be an important factor in creating a motivational incentive system. The conclusions reached are that measuring customer satisfaction has a motivating effect on employees to create more satisfied customers. If an incentive system is not based on the criteria above which are required to have a motivating effect, the incentive system will have minor importance. If an incentive system does not have a motivating effect on employees, it will neither drive the undesirable effects at the employees such as manipulation or act myopically which otherwise are possible. Although the customer satisfaction measurement is not reliable and the customer satisfaction assessments is sometimes perceived as subjective and unfair, the incentive system can be perceived as fair and thus motivating.

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  • 132.
    Berisha, Agnesa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sundblad, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arbetsmotivation i öppna kontorslandskap: En kvalitativ fallstudie om sambandet mellan den fysiska utformningen av en kontorsavdelning och medarbetarnas individuella motivationsnivå på ett försäkringsbolag2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en kvalitativ fallstudie om sambandet mellan fysisk arbetsmiljö och medarbetares individuella motivationsnivå till det dagliga arbetet. Studien är riktad till en specifik avdelning på ett försäkringsbolag i centrala Göteborg. Avdelningen är ett öppet kontorslandskap där medarbetarnas främsta arbetsuppgift att ta emot skadeärenden från kunder via telefon.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera och nå ökad kunskap kring vad som motiverar medarbetarna på den valda organisationens avdelning utifrån fysiska arbetsmiljöaspekter.

    De ämnesområden studien behandlar inom den fysiska arbetsmiljön är planlösning, inredning och ergonomi. Studien kommer även belysa ämnesområden så som motivation och psykosocial arbetsmiljö.

    De slutsatser vi kan dra efter genomförd studie är att medarbetarna på avdelningen sällan medvetet lägger märke till vad i den fysiska arbetsmiljön som fungerar motivationshöjande för dem. Det som istället är märkbart angående fysisk arbetsmiljö är medarbetarnas medvetenhet kring de faktorer som stör deras motivation till arbetet på olika sätt.

  • 133.
    Berndtsson, Adam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kourieh, Gabriel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Förändring och strategi inom organisationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have this report studied change and strategy within organizations. The purpose of this report is to show how organizations can work with their changes and their strategy. Theory of these subjects has been developed with the help of scientific articles. Interviews with staff at the organization Innovatum have been done in order to create our own empirical data about changes and strategy. Innovatum is an experience center which is located in the town of Trollhattan. Innovatum is owned by the Foundation Innovatum, Trollhättan city and municipal Fyrbodals. To collect data to the empiricism the chosen method was qualitative interviews, this is because this method was considered to be most suitable and we wanted to have a deep and comprehensive data. Interviews were done with seven people, four women and three men. One of the interviewed was an operations manager, one was an economist and the rest were teachers. Theory and the empiricism has been analyzed in the report's discussion section

    The conclusion of our completed study was that for successful change requires that the organization focuses on creating positive attitudes and behavior towards change. To succeed with changes it is also important that the organization gives priority to a clear and effective communication. Competent leaders are also something that is important during change. The results of our study reinforced previous theories about what is important to improve the changes within an organization

    The conclusion of our completed study was that for the success of the strategy process in organizations, the organization is required to have an overall picture when deciding on strategies. An effective strategic planning is also something that is important for the strategies. It is also important that the organization is willing to take new ideas from their employees when designing strategies. The organization must not only make use of a single strategy. To succeed in the strategy process, the organization must work to make the strategic implementation properly functioning. The results of our study reinforced previous theories about what is important to improve the strategy process within an organization.

  • 134.
    Berndtsson, Adam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jämställdhet i bolagsstyrelser2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna rapport ville författarna undersöka jämställdhetsdebatten angående bolagsstyrelser, hur pass viktig denna egentligen är och om organisationerna kan gagnas utav denna diskussion. Frågan undersöktes med hjälp av teori från vetenskapliga rapporter samt egen empiri som skapades med hjälp av intervjuer.

    För att reda ut diskussionen om jämställdhet i bolagsstyrelser undersöktes vad jämställdhet egentligen är, där det togs fram att det absolut inte handlar om hur könsfördelningen för tillfället ser ut i en organsation. Om det är jämställdhet eller inte, handlar snarare om en individ vid en rekrytering blivit bortvald utav den orsaken vilken grupp denna individ tillhör.

    Anledningar till varför det är få kvinnor i bolagstyrelser togs också fram i rapporten där mycket tydde på att det inte är något ”glastak” som skapar den låga andelen kvinnor i bolagstyrelser. Istället var det orsaker som att det finns färre kvinnor med den utbildning och de erfarenheter som krävs för att sitta i en bolagstyrelse. Orsaker som att kvinnor i större utsträckning inte är lika intresserade av att göra karriär togs också upp. Enligt teorin i rapporten tydde också mycket på att kvinnor i större utsträckning ogillar konkurrens och att detta är en bidragande orsak till att det finns färre kvinnor i bolagstyrelser.

    I rapporten undersöktes också hur en tvingande könskvotering kan påverka organisationer, där resultatet var väldigt enhetligt att organsationer med största sannolikhet inte har någonting att vinna på att använda sig av en tvingande könskvotering i sina bolagsstyrelser. Det undersöktes också om bolag som har en jämn könsfördelning kan gagnas utav detta gentemot bolag som har mestadels män, resultatet som uppvisades var att det förmodligen inte finns något att vinna på att försöka ha en jämn könsfördelning. Vad som krävs av en individ som sitter i en bolagstyrelse skrevs också ned i rapporten, där bland annat följande saker utmärktes: Högskoleutbildning i ekonomi, teknik eller juridik, ledarerfarenheter, erfarenheter av att vara VD, kunnig inom området bolaget bedriver samt strategisk förmåga.

    Slutsatsen blev den att jämställdhetsdebatten kan vara viktig i den mån det handlar om att de som tillsätter styrelserna skall bortse från vilket kön eller grupp individen tillhör. Det enda som skall vara avgörande för vilken individ som rekryteras till en styrelse skall vara hur stor potential denna individ har att skapa lönsamhet och att utveckla organsationen. Det viktigaste för organisationerna är att de tillsätter de individerna som är bäst lämpade för uppgiften och då spelar det ingen roll vilken grupp eller kön dessa individer tillhör.

  • 135.
    Berndtsson, Leif
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Local Action Group, LAG - A Method for Local Development and Regional Growth: Some experiences of Leader+ in Sweden2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2006: Entrepreneurship and Development - Local Processes and Global Patterns: Revised papers presented at the 9th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 June, Fairfax, VA, USA / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 141-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LEADER programme is aiming at transgressing existing boundaries between social sectors. It is done through the creation of partnership organizations and new regions. Viewed from a governance standpoint, the inclusion of actors from the private and non-profit sectors promises higher efficiency in delivering political goods through added resources and increased local knowledge.   The article will describe if the Leader-method function as a means of ensuring a bottom-up approach, innovation and decision-making in partnership. In the future Leader can be seen as a strategic tool for ensuring participation and cohesion. There will be a focus on following factors as: Partnership   An important question is how it is decided that representatives shall be invited into the partnership. Shall this be done in a relatively ordinary way or shall it include greater elements of new thinking and process orientation?   Process-oriented. In many guidelines for development work, it is pointed out that the work shall be carried out with a process-oriented manner of working. In order to succeed with a process work, a great measure of flexibility and fresh thinking is required with space for new ideas and new groupings. Bottom-up approach. In connection with local development, a bottom-up approach is often mentioned. Has the Leader-program contributed positively?  The article will also describe some Leader-projects who have the main effort to support a good life environment with a functioning public service attracting new people. These bring with them work or plans for activities who lead to increasing employment in the district.

  • 136.
    Berndtsson, Leif
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Pågående landsbygdsforskning: en översikt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för Tillväxtanalys regeringsuppdrag att beskriva utvecklingen i och inom olika regioner har myndigheten valt att göra en översiktlig studie av pågående forskning kring landsbygders utveckling. Arbetet har genomförts av agronom Leif Berndtsson, Högskolan Väst.

    Studien har i huvudsak genomförts genom litteratursökning. Därtill kommer enkät- och intervjusvar från ett antal forskare samt aktörer inom landsbygdsområdet.

    I särskild bilaga redovisas 40 forskningsprojekt samt hänvisas till ca 100 papers från konferensen Nordic Rural Future, maj 2010.

    Rapporten utmynnar i ett antal slutsatser och förslag på förbättringar. Några av dem är följande:

    Forskningsfältet är mycket brett och svårdefinierat. Ordet landsbygd "avskärmar" en hel del forskning som faktiskt pågår, men där forskarna själva inte ser sig som "landsbygdsforskare" utan mer som ämnesinriktade inom exempelvis genus, jämställdhet, innovation, entreprenörskap el liknande. Det begränsar sökmöjligheterna av pågående forskning.

    Det vore önskvärt med ett tydligare landsbygdsfokus inom pågående forskning med inriktning mot klimatförändring och energiomställning. Det saknas t.ex. studier och forskning om vilka effekter och möjligheter en klimatomställning som det kan få för landsbygder och de människor som bor där.

    Den nyligen avslutade halvtidsutvärderingen av Landsbygdsprogrammet visar på att det finns behov av ytterligare forskning om hur man kan avläsa och mäta effekter av tillväxtstimulerande insatser. Utvärderarna har t.ex. haft uppenbara problem med att finna metoder för att avläsa effekter såväl inom de mer kvantitativa insatserna inom axel 1 och 2, som i de mer kvalitativa insatserna inom axel 3 och 4.

    Det vore vidare positivt med ett tydligare arbete för att föra ut forskningen till mer tillämpade insatser. I dagsläget satsas resurser på att återföra forskningsresultat till befintliga företag eller till nystartande företag via olika arenor som Inkubator, Innovationsbron, mm. Det finns ett behov av insatser för att föra ut mer samhällsinriktad forskning till praktisk tillämpning hos politiker, beslutsfattare, samhällsplanerare, regionutvecklare, m.fl.

    Flera forskare pekar på en obalans i tilldelningen av forskningsmedel inom landsbygdsområdet.

    Det är en förhoppning att översikten ger underlag för diskussioner och förslag som leder till en ökad förståelse för forskningen om landsbygders utveckling. I kapitlet slutsatser och rekommendationer finns många exempel på ett ökat tvärdisciplinärt synsätt för att stärka forskningsområdet. Detta skall inte tolkas som ett minskat behov av djup ämnesinriktad forskning. Snarare skall det ses som ett behov av att få de olika disciplinerna att öka sina kontaktytor med varandra. Det bör även i sin tur leda till en ökad förståelse och leda till fler insikter om de möjligheter som kan finnas inom landsbygdens områden. En förhoppning är att även forskningsfinansiärer kan se behov av att koppla ihop de vetenskapliga disciplinerna i större utsträckning.

    Slutligen ger de exempel som redovisas i rapportens bilaga en positiv bild av att det finns en pågående forskning, som om resultaten sprids, kan vara till nytta för landsbygdsområdet.

  • 137.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    One foot in academia and one in work-life: the case of Swedish industrial PhD students2023In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 506-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the benefits and barriers for learning in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students. A work-integrated learning (WIL) approach is applied to highlight key issues that university and industry need to consider promoting mutual learning.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling WIL offering PhD programs in three disciplines for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors. Data was gathered using qualitative methods; 19 semistructured interviews with industrial PhD students.

    Findings – Findings show that industrial PhD students are developing practical and transferable skills, hence, contributing to research of interest for academia and work–life. Identified benefits for learning include proximity and access to data, project and networks and contextual understanding and tacit knowledge. Barriers for learning are the perceived limited understanding of employers, the dilemma of balancing and switching between different roles, lack of belonging and identity, deficient collaboration agreements and ethical dilemmas.

    Research limitations/implications – Contributes insights into an industrial PhD education transforming along with societal needs promoting a future workforce of researchers with skills, new work practices and learning capabilities applicable in the work–life of contemporary society.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to the emerging field of studies of alternative doctoral educations by identifying benefits and barriers for learning and providing recommendations for how university and industry may promote learning in a resilient industrial PhD education collaboration.

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  • 138.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 111-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 139.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Conceptualizing University-Society Collaboration: A Literature Review Focusing on Drivers of Collaboration2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, p. 9036-9042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration and learning are vital for development in all sectors of society and there is a constant need for new ideas, innovation and development. Crucial for dealing with contemporary complex challenges on a local, regional, national and global scale is a need for the inclusion of many perspectives and competences. However, collaboration is never friction free but challenging. A reason for this might be that there are different expectations on goals and outcomes due to that collaborating organizations bring different contexts, Inter-organisational collaborations, cultures, traditions etc. These challenges are addressed by several approaches for university-society collaboration, e.g. Work-Integrated Learning (WIL), University-Industry-Government (Triple-helix), University Community Partnership (UCP), and Public Private Academic Partnership (PPAP). These are all aiming at planning, performing, compiling and leveraging knowledge exchange and co-creating sustainable results. What is less developed is what genuine impact such results do have on society, i.e. societal impacts. Thus, there is a need for gaining more knowledge in research about what key mechanisms that constitutes successful collaboration between academia and various public and private organizations in research projects.This conceptual paper explores the underlying concepts of principles that are used as guidelines for successful university-society collaboration. It draws on a literature review of key concepts selected from established frameworks and models that are current in the field of university-society collaboration, e.g. co-creation, trust, relationship building. The aim of the paper is to gain deeper insights in the complex dynamics of research collaboration by combining previous models with current research literature and suggest implications for both model development as well as principles of conduct when societal impact are to be ensured in university-society collaboration. Hence, the research questions to be addressed in this paper are: What are the key concepts that underlie the dynamics of university-society collaboration in the research literature? How can successful university-society collaboration be conceptualized in order to facilitate co-creation and societal impact?

  • 140.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna KarinUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report contributes to a Nordic perspective on co-operation for sustainable destination- and regional development based on studies conducted within a Swedish-Danish Interreg project 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). An introduction chapter with major themes initiates this report followed by five chapters1 written by researchers from Aalborg University, Denmark (Incevida) and University West, Sweden (School of Business, Economics and IT). The purpose of this report is to give deeper nsights in Nordic destination and regional development by empirical case studies. These studies have been presented and discussed at seminars during international scientific conferences within regional science (the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 2013 in Kansas City, USA and the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 2014 in Uddevalla, Sweden) organized by University West. The contributions are nterdisciplinary in that sense that they are written by scholars from different scientific disciplines such as business administration, informatics, planning and culture studies. However, all scholars have a destination and/or regional perspective as a point of departure in the case studies conducted. The three-year project offered great opportunities to cross-border learning and applied research in close co-operation (Work integrated learning) with project partners and students.The studies are partly supported by the project MARIFUS “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund (Interreg IV A). The editors express sincere gratitude to all authors and all partners of the MARIFUS project. 

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  • 141.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Industrial PhD Education: Exploring Doctoral Students Acting in the Intersection of Academia and Work-Life2022In: Proceedings of the Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference,  InSite 2022,: Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Online July 6-7, 2022 / [ed] Jones, Michael, Informing Science Institute , 2022, p. 1-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/Purpose:

    The aim is to explore the benefits and challenges of industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students who are acting in the intersection of academia and work-life by applying a work-integrated learning (WIL) approach to highlight issues that academy and industry need to consider.

    Background:

    Industrial PhD education is a vital part of collaboration between academia and society although still an under-researched field. This paper reveals the perspectives of the industrial PhD students who are at the same time involved in both academia and industry, with the same academic demands as traditionally enrolled academic PhD students combined with demands and expectations from their industrial employers.

    Methodology:

    Qualitative methods were applied and 19 semi-structured interviews with industrial PhD students were conducted. The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling work-integrated learning offering PhD programs for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors.

    Contribution:

    This explorative study contributes to advance the current knowledge of third cycle education to deepen the insights into benefits and challenges in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life. By applying a WIL approach on third-cycle education, issues that academy and industry need to consider for successful collaboration within doctoral education are identified.

    Findings:

    Findings indicate that industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life are developing practical and transferable skills requested by employers outside academia, hence increasing societal impact. Findings show that industrial PhD education generates several WIL benefits. Novel challenges identified include unclear financial agreements, conflicts of interest, administrative bureaucracy, work promotion opportunities, and lack of be-longing and identity, hence not exploiting the full potential of WIL. This has been further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic with restricted travel and dependence solely on virtual connections.

    Recommendations for Practitioners:

    It is vital to recognize that challenges do exist and need to be considered to strengthen industrial PhD education as well as collaboration between academia and society. Increased communication and continuous interactions between academia and industry during the entire industrial PhD education are needed.

    Recommendations for Researchers: Future studies of WIL in industrial PhD education are encouraged.

    Impact of society

    This study contributes insights into PhD education transforming along with societal needs based on successful university-society collaboration.

    Future Research:

    Further research is encouraged to deepen and broaden the industry perspective of industrial PhD education.

  • 142.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Network collaboration for local and regional development the case of Swedish women entrepreneurs2020In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 539-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs participation in networks with focus on local community collaboration. In recent years interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can gain cross sector knowledge sharing and boost the attractiveness of a region. Using case study methodology with 14 qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews in two phases with business counselors and women entrepreneurs, participatory observations and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs in smaller cities and their collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Results state that women entrepreneurs are active and participate in various local community networks and that networks are viewed as valuable assets for business development. Women entrepreneurs strategically choose to join strong networks that have an impact on local community development. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other business and public actors, especially in contact with authorities. The women entrepreneurs have mixed experiences of local community support hence the main sources for renewal processes and knowledge sharing are co-owners, staff, digital tools, networks partners, families and friends.

  • 143.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Understanding Women Entrepreneurs' Encounters with an Increasingly Digitalized Workplace2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation Revised papers presented at / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 73-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore how women entrepreneurs encounter and learn to use ICT at work in response to calls for further research regarding ICT and small businesses, especially women entrepreneurs' adaptation to an increasingly digitalized workplace. Qualitative methods were applied including a total of 13 interviews in two phases with 11 women entrepreneurs, and observations of the irdigital presence. Findings indicate the benefits of digitalization of small businesses, although the women entrepreneurs also emphasize digital disadvantages such as negative online comments and reviews and digital stress. Informal learning and self development were practiced. In order to remain competitive, the women entrepreneurs were aware that they constantly have to learn new things to capture the potential and keep up the pace in digitalizing their workplaces. The importance of recruiting young digitally skilled employees was strongly highlighted.

  • 144.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    University-Industry Collaboration in Higher Education: Exploring the Informing Flows Framework in Industrial PhD Education2020In: Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, ISSN 1547-9684, E-ISSN 1521-4672, Vol. 3, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/PurposeThe aim is to explore the informing flows framework as interactions within aPhD education practicing a work-integrated learning approach in order to revealboth the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Background An under-researched field of university-industry collaboration is explored revealing both the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Methodology Qualitative methods were applied including interviews and document studies. Intotal ten semi-structured interviews in two steps were conducted. The empiricalcontext is a Swedish PhD program in informatics with a specialization in workintegrated learning.

    Contribution By broadening the concept of work-integrated learning, this paper contributesempirical results on benefits and challenges in university-industry collaborationfocusing on industrial PhD students and industry by applying the informingflows framework.

    Findings Findings expose novel insights for industry as well as academia. The industrialPhD students are key stakeholders and embody the informing flows betweenpractice and university and between practice and research. They are spanningboundaries between university and industry generating continuous opportunities for validation and testing of empirical results and models in industry. Thismay enable increased research quality and short-lag dissemination of researchresults as well as strengthened organizational legitimacy.

  • 145.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Women Entrepreneurs in Local Community Networks: Participation, Challenges and Place Development2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 129-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local community networks with focus on place development. In recent years interest in the importance of female entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can boost the attractiveness of a place and achieve network synergies. This study is a continuation of an earlier study of Swedish municipal business counsellors' support to female entrepreneurs in tourism where findings show that there was a lack of support for women as entrepreneurs. Using a qualitative method approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs' participation and collaboration in local community networks, challenges and local support with particular reference to a Swedish context. The study is based on interviews with 11 women entrepreneurs who were selected from three municipalities in Sweden. All respondents are active in the tourism sector and participate in local community networks. Results indicate that cross-sector networks, preferably strong networks that may have an impact on local community development, are important, especially from the perspective of a small entrepreneur. Smaller informal groups of other local entrepreneurs are also vital for inspiration and renewal processes. Furthermore, findings indicate that participating in collaboration in networks (face-to-face and digital), smaller groups or co-ownership is seen as means to develop the business as well as contributing to boost the attractiveness of a place. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other actors, especially in contact with authorities and the dual roles in combining entrepreneurship and family. Respondents have mixed experiences of local community support. However, several women entrepreneurs stress the importance of local support, stating the importance of family and friends.

  • 146.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Work-Integrated Learning and Collaboration in Higher Education 3rd Cycle: The Case of Industrial PhD Students2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings: 14th International Technology, Education and Development ConferenceValencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020. / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 2344-2353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today universities and higher education face challenges related to collaboration with the society. Societal impacts and innovation from academia are highly valued from governments and interaction with and impacts on society and practice are of crucial importance for universities today (Gellerstedt, et al. 2018; Galan, 2018). University West in Sweden has a profile area in work-integrated learning (WIL), which generally aims to address issues on integrating theory and practice in education in a sustainable and coherent way (Olsson et al. 2019; Gellerstedt et. al. 2015). In this paper the arguments are based on a study of a PhD-education (3rd cycle) in Informatics with the specialization of work-integrated learning. at University West.

    The focus is on the collaboration between the university and industry through industrial PhD-students who are active in the university-industry interface i.e. fully employed by the industry during their PhD-education.Research on collaboration between PhD- students and industry is, according to Thune scarce. Previous research mainly focuses on the students´ learning outcomes and educational experiences (Thune, 2009) although some benefits of this kind of collaboration are recognized (Assbring and Nuur, 2017). Thus, research on interaction and informing flows between university, students, research and practice needs to be further developed ( Bernhard et al, 2018).

    In a recent study aiming at evaluating a PhD education (third-cycle) and research environment from a WIL perspective several collaboration activities were identified at key stakeholders in university as well as in the industry (Bernhard et al 2018) by adopting an informing science model in order to conduct a current state analysis. The findings implicate e.g. that flows from PhD-student and research environment towards stakeholders were generally strong, while the opposite flows were weaker. This was especially crucial for the flows originating in practice.Thus, the overall aim of this paper is to explore university-industry collaboration and identify possible aspects of societal impact of industrial PhD-student education. The research is conducted as a case study and qualitative methods will be applied.

  • 147.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Inclusive place innovation as a means for local community regeneration2020In: Diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 57-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter contributes knowledge on the challenges of collaboration within local community regeneration in order to identify innovative approaches at work in smaller cities through case studies in Sweden and Norway. Place innovation perspectives are applied to address issues of diversity and inclusiveness in the renewal of a small city centre or district based on cultural heritage. In-depth qualitative interviews in 2016–2018, participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by diverse perspectives, conflicts and attitudes; limited inclusion of stakeholders; lack of digital communication and information as well as face-to-face information, and indistinct place identity. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on including diverse stakeholder perspectives through common communication spaces, cultivating place identity and applying a step-by-step regeneration.

  • 148.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stakeholder Collaboration for Place Innovation: Challenges and Visions in Local Regeneration2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 127-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from urban place innovation studies with focus on stakeholders' interests and involvement in developing local communities in smaller cities. The aim of the present paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to involve stakeholders in local regeneration through case studies in Norway and Sweden.

    In-depth qualitative interviews have been conducted during the years 2016-2018. In total 40 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, municipalities, elected officials and residents with particular interests in regeneration of the local communities have been interviewed. Additional participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by cultural heritage, authenticity, indistinct place identity, insufficient communication and inclusion together with a mix of nostalgia and resignation. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of city centers.

  • 149.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Women Entrepreneurs' Participation in Local Tourism Networks in Sweden: a Pilot Study2016In: Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2016, p. 257-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In tourism contexts entrepreneurship contributes to the ongoing transformation and development of places and regions. In recent decades interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship in the perspective of local and regional development has increased worldwide. The tourism industry is characterized by a high degree of women entrepreneurs in small enterprises, innovation capacity and also a high growth of benefits from networking. The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks in Sweden. Using a qualitative method approach, this pilot study on women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks explores local support and collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Findings indicate that there is no special focus on or support for women entrepreneurs in any of the three cases. Furthermore there is limited knowledge ofthe local distribution of male and female entrepreneurs. There are contextual characteristics of the Swedish tourism sector that may affect women entrepreneursand their participation in tourism networks.

  • 150.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Designing For An Active Learning Classroom: How Technology Makes A Difference In Higher Education2019In: ICERI2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres IATED Academy, 2019, p. 4109-4116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active Learning Classroom (ALC) has been introduced in many universities designed to promote active, student-centered learning to facilitate new teaching and learning situations. However, it is well known that technology per se do not create new teaching practices. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of technology in instructional design created for an active learning classroom. We explore a case of instructional design in an ALC, within the context of a university in Sweden and students at a bachelor's degree program in informatics. An action oriented research approach was applied. Data includes; engaged classroom observations; a student survey; and teachers’ interviews. The results show that technology came to play an important role in the instructional design in terms of affecting the engagement and pace in the teaching situation. Contributions includes unpacking how the functionality of technology can affect the teaching situation in a technology intense ALC environment as well as instructional design suggestions created for a ALC and that is considered fruitful by students and teachers.

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