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  • 101.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Milan Blazekovic: life in a cartoon =  Život u crtanom filmu 2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Nedovrsena prica2010In: Kvadrat, ISSN 1845-8009, no 22, p. 93-95Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 103.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ohrozený megalopolis japaneského ANIME 52012In: Homo Felix. The international journal of animated film, ISSN 1338-2268, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 68-72Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Penicilin protiv mrznja2014In: Mediacenter SarajevoArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Medicinen mot hatet

    I texten studeras karikatyr och satirbild som ett oersättligt utryck för yttrandefrihet i den massmediala epoken. Textens utgångspunkt är en paradox att karikatyrkonsten blivit ett hett diskussionsämne på samma tid som denna uttrycksform försvinner från vecko- och dagspress.

    Debatten startades efter publiceringen av det nedvärderande karikatyrframställningar av profeten Muhammed i danska och svenska tidningar som de islamtroende upplevde som förolämpande. I texter kortfattat behandlas liknande historiska exemplen på karikatyrer som uppfattades som nedvärdering och förolämpning riktad mot annan etnisk och religiös tillhörighet. Så till exempel publicerades en rad karikatyrer som hånade mormoner i den amerikanska pressen i början av 1900-talet, under en lång period gestaltades svarta på ett ytterst rasistiskt sätt, det fanns karikatyrer som utryckte antisemitism, rysofobi, sexism och misogyni.

    Parallellt med en propagandistisk och ofta av mediamakten missbrukad karikatyr utvecklades även en annan typ av karikatyr och skämtteckning, en som fungerade som en symbol för odogmatisk världssyn, en form av motstånd mot tyranni och en befrielse från terror och den exploatering som människan utövar mot andra människor.

    Ett behov av satiriska och parodiska karikatyrer finns även i de nutida samhällen, såväl de med en lång demokratisk tradition som de samhällen där demokratiska processer befinner sig i en utvecklingsfas.

    Just för dess aktiva roll inom den demokratiska utvecklingen i ett visst samhälle hävdar texten att karikatyrkonsten måste vara tillbaka i massmedier. Dessutom bör karikatyrkonstens studeras som ett akademiskt ämne i samband med studier i konst, journalistik och kommunikationen. 

  • 105.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Priit Pärn2015In: Animation: A World History: Volume III: Contemporary Times / [ed] Giannalberto Bendazzi, Oxford: Focal Press , 2015, p. 140-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett kompletterande kapitel om animation i Estland

     

  • 106.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Procvat cjelovečernje animacije (Renaissance of full-length animation): Srastanje dokumentarnog i animiranog filma jedan je od najinteresantnijih fenomena u medijskoj industriji našeg doba, osobito stoga što se u toj formi neke važne teme, pogled na stvarnost i historiju tretiraju na sasvim drugačiji način od onog u standardnim medijima.2015In: Mediacentar, SarajevoArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Linking up documentary and animated film is one of the most interesting phenomena in the media industry of our time especially as animated documentaries treat some important topics, view of reality and history in a different way from that of the standard media. 

  • 107.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Psychorealism" vs "The Uncanny Valley": Chris Landreth comes across as a digital animation heir to Norman McLaren2012In: Catalogue, 35th Göteborg International Film Festival, ISSN 1102-6448, no 1, p. 25-29Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 108.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Roundtable of the Month:The Image of Beyond Oneself:: The Context and Development of Swedish Animation Documentaries2019In: Contemporary Animation JournalArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikels primära ämne är en tämligen okänd filmgenre, den så kallade animerade dokumentären, vars utveckling under senare decennier fick ny fart tack vare moderna tekniska möjligheter. Med filmens inträde i den digitala eran blir denna genre allt mer vanligt inom de recenta rörliga bildproduktionerna. Förutom att ringa in grundläggande kännetecken av en specifik filmform grundad på genretraditionen som växt fram kring hybridiseringen mellan olika genrer är artikeln samtidigt ett försök till en samtidshistorisk kontextualisering. För att illustrera hur animerade dokumentärer synliggör några dolda aspekter av våra liv genom att behandla den mänskliga existensen i ett stort socio-politiskt sammanhang analyseras svensk animerad film i form av en specifik fallstudie.

  • 109.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Seriously Funny: Animation, The Concealed Avant-Garde2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The progressive migration of the European avant-gardes to America in the late 1930s compelled an adjustment of modern art practice and theory to the new cultural environment and to the needs of the cultural institutions that supported them. This radical redefinition of modern art implied the construction of a modernist canon, one that became hegemonic after WWII with the institutionalization of a discourse of modernism strictly focused on the value of form and an adherence to medium specificity. Associated with cartoons, advertising, and with popular culture in general, animation was dismissed as kitsch.  Moreover, while modernist scholars widely acknowledged film as the modernist medium par excellence, they did not pay much attention to animation, which was relegated to the category of a minor, subsidiary cinematic genre.

    Inherently and unabashedly multidisciplinary (it encompasses and creatively blends painting, drawing, sculpture, film and many other artistic media), animation obdurately defied and still challenges disciplinary regulation. Animation and animation theory, developed in the interstices between modernist fields of practice and theorization such as art history and film studies, offer a unique standpoint from where to analyze modernism in art, the historiography of this discourse, and modernist theory itself.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 110.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sketching Out the ”Proxy Space”2016In: / [ed] Franziska Bukner, 2016, p. 15-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Animation is usually defined as the moving image that
 is not recorded from a real-time movement but the
 movement created artificially. My concern here is the 
visualisation of the space inaccessible for either pho
tographic film image or our sensory apparatus. I see it
 as the crucial attribute of animated image that is equally 
important for understanding of the animation medium
as the movement making. What the philosopher Paul 
Crowther labelled as "proxy space in animated film"
(quoted by Donald Crafton 2013: 147) could in my own
interpretation be distinguished as the creation of the diegetic space that only exists in the viewers' imagination, and only in the moment while they are watching the film. Mise-en-scène in animation is always a symbol for a space, no matter how convincing an illusion of three dimensions is created in some particular film. Actually, many animators who are active in our time exploit the fact that digital animation made a possible perception of space totally inaccessible to the photographic film technique. For instance the penetrating camera (fly-through) dissolves the restrictions associated with the pictorial space so that we can reach what we cannot see beyond the picture's surface. However, in this short presentation I aim to examine that aspect of animation in the realm of traditionally made animated films in order to verify the view on the "proxy space" being always an essential part of the animated image regardless technical or production conditions.In order to explore varied approaches toward the creation of "proxy space" I will look at some canonical films produced during the golden age of Zagreb School of Animation. Those films made by Vladimir Kristl, Dušan Vukotić, Borivoj Dovniković, Vatroslav Mimica and Nedeljko Dragić, provide lot of evidences that prove that animation space stands for an inherent liberation from the limitations of the laws of physics and entering into the world of the fantastic, symbolical and metaphorical. Employing various minimalistic methods the Zagreb animators created a complex multi-dimensional representation of space. By using several film examples I am going to emphasise five different methods in this paper.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 111.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Swedish animated film - 100 Years: Animated children's films, commercials, animated documentaries, as well as films influenced by comics made by distinct individualists are the cornerstones this cinematic phenomenon is based on.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Swedish animated film - 100 Years
  • 112.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tamna strana Potemkinovih kulisa: sovjetski animirani film od animiranih agitki do animacije otopljavanja u filmovima Fjodora Hitruka 2010In: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 63, p. 70-93Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 113.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The "Clayman" from Norway and his worlds2011In: Catalogue, 34th Göteborg International Film Festival, januari - februari 20011, Vol. 34, no 34, p. 16-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 114.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Context and Development of Animated Documentaries, the Cornerstones of Modern Animation in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that the first decades of the new millennium has brought a small renaissance of documentaries, especially those that combine live action and animated pictures and even those visualised totally by employment of some animation technique. The main concern in this paper is a conspicuous propensity in Swedish animation toward animated documentary. Arguably, Sweden is the country that, besides Canada and Great Britain, has developed the most prolific production of films that merge documentary purposes and animated imagery. The paper is composed of three parts. In the beginning the paper defines animated documentary. Swedish animation and documentary history is roughed out in the second part putting emphasis on certain features that might be the base for the development of the animated documentary. Finally, the last part focuses first on some factors in its production and social background that, at least partly, explain why the animated documentary is a prominent feature on the Swedish animation scene and, lastly, some films and filmmakers that eminently represent the genre are pointed up.  

  • 115.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Feast of Humoristic Drawing2012In: Catalogue, 40th World Gallery of Cartoons – Skopje 2012, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 116.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The man and the line: Monographyc study of the work of animator, cartoonist and comics author Nedeljko Dragic2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nedeljko Dragic is without doubt one of the most important creators not only in the Zagreb School of animation but of cartoon films in general, if we accept this term as designating a particular subspecies within the medium of the animated image. However, because of several factors, not unimportant among them the author’s personal bohemian and nonchalant attitude to his work, his films and his other works have not to date been adequately studied.

    Dragic’s film animation, and also his comic strips and cartoons, are works of great complexity and stratified symbolism. Instead of treating animated artificial movement as a mimetic reflection of reality, as the great majority of his colleagues worldwide does, Dragic was practically from the beginning of his career interested in the concept of idea in motion, thought brought to life, visual anthropology and, especially topical in our time, documentary animation. For Dragic the viewer is an active consumer, and for him the act of projection is inter-sub- jective communication, an approach that has only become customary in our post- modern time. This, of course, is not the result of coincidence but of the intuition of an author who is turned to the future with all the force of his creative energy.

    This is why I decided on a combined form of monograph and author study, with emphasis on scholarly analysis and contextualisation in film history, not on the kind of text that is usually tailored to suit books of this kind. Therefore, the aim and purpose of this book is to lay an analytical foundation for the definitive contextualisation and evaluation of Nedeljko Dragic’s work in Croatian culture, and the development of the animation medium on the global level.

    I planned the book on several levels, where each chapter takes us one step further towards some aspect of Dragic’s opus, unaffected by time and still as interesting and provocative today at it was about half a century ago, when the majority of his works were created.

    The introductory chapter is a collection of personal notes about meetings with Nedeljko DragiÊ and the birth of the idea about this book, a process that lasted for decades.

    The second chapter focuses on Dragic the cartoonist, because, in my opinion, it was in this activity that all the preconditions developed which crucially determined the aesthetics of his animated films. Dragic the artist grew out of the modern cartoon, a tradition that differed comple- tely from the idea about the cartoon as a comical drawing, a drawn joke. The modern cartoon, whose prominent representative Saul Steinberg greatly influenced the formation of Dragic’s worldview as an author, is in the first place stamped by a wealth of symbolism and a great ran- ge of subjects which include practically all the basic philosophical issues about man and his world. Dragic’s experiences as a cartoonist fundamentally determin- ed him as a cineaste, animator, satirist and creator in general, sensitive to some of the basic moral issues of our time.

    The third chapter deals with the history of the contacts between and intertwining of comics and animation as a context for understanding Dragic’s work. In this chapter analysis focuses on the comic Tupko, which Dragic made for Vecernji list and which functions as a bridge notonly between his cartoons and films, but also serves to bring his entire opus toget- her into a coherent whole.

    The fourth chapter is a presentation of Nedeljko Dragic’s films, based on his personal attitude to each of them and showing characteristic excerpts from their critical reception.

    To completely understand the value of Dragic’s work, it must in my opinion be placed in the context of film history and global modernist processes in the animation medium, in the evolution of which an essential stage belongs to the phenomenon known as the Zagreb School. This is the purpose and ambition of the fifth chapter of the book. Dragic’s films grew out of and belong to the modernist wave that swept through animation from America after the 1940s and 1950s. This period brought a new trend in cartoon films, characterised by a different sensibility both in visual stylisation and approach to animation. This new current, known as limited animation in older film literature, meant a radical move away not only from the so-called Disney model but also from what was, for example, being created by Avery, Jones, Tashlin and other prominent authors in the Warner Bros. studio. Some important circumstances influenc- ed this development of animation, such as the war, change of lifestyle, industrialisation, the appearance of television, which soon became the main distributor of the animated picture, modern design and art in general. All these tendencies, after an initial spur from the United States, found fertile soil in, among other places, the Zagreb Animation Studio, and Nedeljko Dragic was one of the leading promoters and practicians of this trend.

    A precondition for any attempt to interpret Dragic’s work is the establishment of precise analytical instruments on which this analysis can be based. The- refore, the sixth chapter deals with animation semiotics, which has so far hardly ever appeared in its pure form, at least not in texts in languages that I know. I derived here this barely existent scholarly discipline from the relatively well-established film semiotics, because of the kind- red nature of the moving picture in animation and film (photography), whose basic characteristics are highly coincidental. I also see a reason for this approach in the fact that film semiotics often treat animation in a rather confused and contradictory manner. I will build a specific model for interpreting Dragic’s animation in the first place on the basis of the work of Yuri Lotman, an Estonian structuralist semiotician.

    The final chapter of the book is a long and detailed interview with Dragic himself, who comments all the essential issues concerning his work, the Zagreb School and animation in general from his own point of view.

     

  • 117.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Puppet-Actor in Virtual Environment: Theatrical puppetry, cinema puppetry, digital puppetry2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    My concern is animated puppetry in the digital era. Actually, this presentation is a brief depiction of a much larger "to-be-a book" project.

    Puppet comes from pupa, Latin for "small creature that portray human".

    The idea about a movable, humanlike object emerged in puppet theatre but blossomed in animated film. By using an inanimate objects as an actor puppet animators create worlds we recognize as a deeper, metaphorical truth of own world. Animators are tasked with creating expressions and emotions for their artificial figures, thus turning them into characters.

    That is why probably no other form of creating moving pictures is lavished with as much time, care and passion as stop-motion. In difference to live-action directors that direct living people, the animation director directs his or her own deepest feelings through the material, which allows practically unlimited space for individualism and creativity. By touching the models the animator leaves traces of his life on them so the feelings and spiritual state emanate from puppet-films as some sort of fantastic reportage about the dreams hidden deep in their creators.A great number of important puppet-animators such as Starewitz, Zeman, Ewald, O?Brien, Moss, Trnka, Pall, Kajer, Kawamoto, Borowczyck, Barta, Shorina, Svankmajer or Burton developed the type of iconoclastic aesthetic of the three-dimensional animation.

    But what happened with the illusion of "living" object in the modern 3D computer animation? Can we consider the three-dimensional figures created with the help of some software application as puppetry?

    I argue that digital puppetry could be seen as a new stage in the development of this form of expression whose basic characteristics largely coincide with cinema puppetry and theatrical puppetry.

    In this presentation I focus on a phenomenon sometimes called "uncanny valley",or rather a reduced emotional response, which I see as one of the main reasons for some doubts and confusion in recent discussions concerning digital animation. Absence of human touch and tactile sensation in digital pictures contributes to a form of dehumanization in 3D CGI animation because of the fact that mathematic accuracy in digitally created characters may not elicit the intended empathetic response in the viewer.

    I present three ways in which the problem is usually addressed by animators: (1) creating puppet characters that are in appearance markedly non-human or non-realistic, based on a tradition inherited from theatrical and cinema puppetry, (2) employing some documentary methods, (3) applying a kind of surreal quality to the performing puppet.

  • 118.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Throbbing Desire: During the 70s and 80s, a feminist animation movement grew forth with the Czech creator Michaela Pavlátová as one of the central figures. This year’s animator in focus is an exuberant fountain of ideas who with humor and rich imagery portrays inequality, masturbation and unhappy marriage.2015In: Catalogue, 38th Göteborg International Film Festival, Göteborg, 2015, no 01, p. 23-28Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download (pdf)
    Throbbing Desire
  • 119.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Titoism and the Idea of “The Third Road” as Ideological Foundation of Zagreb School for Animated Film2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographically, and ideologically, Yugoslavia stood on the border between two confronted blocks during the Cold War, but belonged to neither. The idea of ‘the third road’ was extremely popular; people really saw their country as an alternative to imperialist West and bureaucratic East.

    Yugoslav regime was rarely criticized for lack of democracy; it was more fiercely attacked by the nationalist right wing, which sheds much light on the catastrophe that happened after Tito’s death.

    Yugoslav film makers rarely confronted the system; they were mostly its ardent propagators. The ‘third road’ idea was popular even among the creators of Yugoslav’s best films – members of the Zagreb School of Animated film. Still, satire was an important element of Zagreb films, but the satirical razor was directed towards actual global problems, racism, colonialism, pollution, hunger, poverty, fear of the A-bomb, war, etc. Criticism was present, but it did not include social criticism. Yugoslav system was not only spared of criticism, it was, indirectly but indisputably, celebrated. The idea of a small, spiteful country existing on the borderline between two gigantic and hostile worlds was interwoven in many films made in the Zagreb studio. A small freedom oasis, surrounded by pressures, terror and danger, was an all-present motif in animated anecdotes of the leading school’s masters. A small man abused by his surrounding, who, despite the troubles, kept fighting for his way of life, his independence and neutrality was a common denominator of the authors of the Zagreb school, regardless of their artistic profile and their filmic and visual expression.

    Soon after Tito’s death in 1980, the idea of the ‘third road’ turned out to be completely ‘unrealistic reality’, just like La Grande Illusion. After Gorbachov, perestroika, the fall of the Berlin wall, and the end of the cold war, the idea of the ‘third road’ and a country in between lost its initial meaning. Yugoslavia lost its international position, and moreover, dissolved in a bloody war.

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    fulltext
  • 120.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tragajuci za kompleksnim kadrom: Roy Andersson, sadasnji i buduci klasik2010In: Sarajevske sveske/Sarajevo Notebok magazine, ISSN 1512-8539, no 29-30, p. 548-562Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Midhat Ajanovic's My Choice paints an idiosyncratic portrait of the most well-known Swedish director, Roy Andersson, and provides a translation of an inspirational program text by this controversial filmmaker.

  • 121.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tragajuci za vidljivim pojmom / Searching for visible concept: Pokusaj definiranja semiotike animiranog filma na primjeru opusa Nedjeljka Dragica / An attempt to define animated film semiotic on the example on Nedeljko Dragic's work.2012In: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis / Croatian Film Cronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. Sommar 2012, no 70, p. 91-118Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The text looks at semiotics in animation, a branch of semiotic which, as far as the author knows, has practically never appeared in its pure form. Such barely existing scientific discipline is here derived from the comparison with a relatively established film semiotics, considering the similarity between animated and film (photographic) moving images, the basic characteristics of which in most pert overlap. A case study was conducted on the animated films by  Croatian author Nedeljko Dragic, due to their complexity and richness of layers in terms of symbolic charge. Instead of treating the artificial movement in animation as a mimetic reflection of reality, as most of his colleagues do, Dragic takes interest in a moving concept, in a thought brought to life, in visual anthropology amd in animated documentarism, particular topical in our times. For Dragic, a viewer is an active consumer snd he perceives the act of screening as intersubjective communication, an idea that will become popular only in our postmodern times. Of course, this is not a coincidence, this is the intuition of the author who has always looked at the future with the full force of his creative energy.

    Key words: Animated film, semiotic, sign, Nedeljko Dragic, Passing Days, Diary, Tup-Tup        

  • 122.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Usamljeni detektiv u svijetu pohlepe i lazi/Lonely detective in a world of greed and lies: Jedan pogled na  dugovječnu tradiciju tvrdo kuhanog trilera u literaturi i na filmu/One look at the long-lived tradition of hard-boiled thriller in literature and film.2016In: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis/Croatian Film Chronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 22, no 85, p. 163-196Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is centred on the phenomenon of the specific socially critical so-called hard-boiled thriller that distinguished itself as a separate film genre in the USA already during 1920s. The reason for this should be looked for in the everyday life that provide versatile stimuli and inspiration, but first of all in hard-boiled literature that rose to stardom in this period. Another typical American genre, western, deals with the, not only geographically, but also strictly time-limited vision of American history in the years of expansion and settlement (the beginning of western coincides with the emergence of the Colt revolver and its end with the time when cars replaces horses) and in principle represents a glorification of American history and system. However, crime film has a tendency to adjust its framework to the changing historical circumstances, different and new media and is integrated in other cultures, most frequently as an eminent critique of capitalist society. Dashiell Hammett, author and screenwriter, played the most prominent role in the process of genre defining. He basically created the American-type thriller and made it an independent literary genre. Although he authored only a small number of literary works and although he has been more or less completely unrecognized by the academic and literary establishment, with is prose Hammett stimulated the development of the hard-boiled thriller and the aesthetic model on which it was based which transferred from literature to feature film and from there to other media as well, such as comic book and videogames. The model was successfully adapted to non-American environments as well in the form of original hybrids such as Scandinavian thriller for example. What Hammett inserted into crime literature, and indirectly into film and other media as well, is the perception of reality embodied through the modelling of protagonists and a complete relativisation of the line between good and evil. As a man who was all but apolitical, he contemplated society from the inside, from its darker and unembellished, but artwise much more stimulating side, formulating the hard-boiled thriller as a specific socially critical discourse.  On the one hand, this essay is constructed as an analytical overview of the development of genre, its characteristic and significance, and on the other hand as an attempt to provide arguments for the thesis on the stableness of the model, and its vitality, durability as well as pronounced presence in other media and non-American cultures. Regardless of time periods, different characteristics related to theme and style, and subgenres (crime film, gangster film, film noir, police drama, etc.), hard-boiled thriller is, just like Aristotle’s three-act structure, demonstrated as a magic formula on which a highly critical vision of the dominant modern civilisation system related to state, values and culture was based for almost an entire century.

  • 123.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vlado Kristls Don Quijote2011In: Maske und Kothurn, ISSN 0025-4606, E-ISSN 2305-0667, ISSN ISSN 0025-4606, no 3-4, p. 237-244Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The author studies the animated film Don Quixote (1962) by Vladimir Kristl and sees it as one of the first works of art which depicts a mechanical and dehumanized world marked by the loss of subjectivity and the violent erasure of cultural differences between people as an image of global civilization.

  • 124.
    Ajdini, Diana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The key requirements toward a secure Access Control Model for the Internet of Things2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s technical reality, we are surrounded by a large number of devices with a never-ending growing network. This network is constantly retrieving and sending data, and an unlimited exchange of information is consistently occurring. In other words, this concept is known as the Internet of Things. However beneficial the Internet of Things can be for our world; the security and privacy issues must be addressed. Within this research, the security and privacy issues will be addressed through the access control area. The Internet of Things is a highly demanding and dynamic environment, making access control models complicated and somewhat difficult to design. This research was done to obtain what is required of an access control model for the Internet of Things, to ensure privacy and security. Furthermore, the research focused on how developers are applying the security requirements when designing IoT access control models. The research found that requirements included technical constraints of the IoT environment as well as following the requirements of the CIA(Confidentiality, integrity & availability) triad. In addition, the research found that developers apply different methods to achieve the requirements of the CIA triad. 

  • 125.
    Akimana, Allison
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    New Public Management Vs Professionalism: A qualitative case study of the local political governance and its effect on the role and autonomy of teachers in the Swedish public compulsory schools2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last three decades have been characterized with tremendous changes and reformations in the Swedish school policy as a result from the global trend of reorganizing the public sector. These reformations consisted of shifting the responsibility of managing the organization and financial distribution from the government to the local municipalities. However, with that fact, the Swedish educational sector has been experiencing a teacher shortage especially in the public compulsory schools at the local level. Which leads to the purpose of this study how local authorities are promoting teachers and their role.

    The aim of this thesis is to study and analyze how the local political governance is designed (through local policies/regulations, financial management and auditing) is affecting the role and autonomy of teachers in the public compulsory schools in relation to the new public management and professionalism as management models. This is a qualitative descriptive case study where the municipality of Trollhättan and its local regulatory tools will be analyzed, and where potential conflicts that may arise between the two management models will be theoretically explained.

    Finally, as the analysis shows, there are features of the disagreement between the new public management and professionalism (control and autonomy) in the design of the local political governance of the school policy and its effect on the role of teachers. It is also remarkable that the way of governance of the school policy by local authorities plays an important role in promoting the role of teachers.

  • 126.
    Akkaoui, Fadi Youssef
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Jansson, Samuel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Studenters nivå av beroende till sociala medier på Högskolan Väst2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet use has increased greatly as a result of technological developments and social media was expected to have around three billion active users by the end of 2021. However, studies have found that when people spend large amounts of time online, it can lead to an addiction that can negatively affect people's daily lives. The aim of this study is to investigate how students at University West use social media, whether addiction can be identified among students and whether there are differences between men and women. The study has been carried out, as there is not a large amount of similar research that has been done within Swedish higher education, identifying the level of addiction to social media and which is currently seen as problematic with all the social media available. A survey was conducted and answered by students at University West and aimed to identify the level of addiction among students through questions related to six different components. The results showed that Instagram, Facebook/Messenger, YouTube and Snapchat were the most used social media among the students. It emerged that students use these social media mainly to communicate with friends and family, chat, subscribe to/follow groups, communicate for the purpose of their studies and listen to/share music, which is consistent with what previous studies presented. Trends emerged in the responses indicating that female students generally had a higher level of dependency on social media.

  • 127.
    Akrami, Melika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Patients' perspective on e-consultation in Sweden: a quantitative study of factors influencing patients' attitudes and usage.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are becoming more and more part of everyday life. Digital transformation brings benefits as well as challenges for individuals. New health care technologies are providing high-quality treatments for patients. This study investigates patients’ perception toward one of these new technologies, which is Electronic-Consultation. The focus of this research is on challenges and benefits that patients relate to the usage of e-consultation services in Sweden. Additionally, it studies the impact of individuals’ characteristics on their perceptions toward convenience and effectiveness of e-consultation, and in turn, the usage of it. The research has been done using the quantitative approach through a web-based questionnaire. The results show that people have a general high satisfaction with current e-consultation services in Sweden and do not experience many challenges. As a measurement for individuals’ characteristics, selfefficacy has been applied which refers to individuals' capabilities and beliefs in their own capacity to perform behaviors to produce specific performance achievements. To get more precise data, e-consultation self-efficacy (ECSE) has been chosen respectively. Results show that ECSE has a positive influence on people’s usage of these services. An interesting finding of this study is that positive perception does not always influence the decision toward the level of usage of e-consultation.

  • 128.
    Akyol, Philip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Popovski, Filip
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens skuldsättning: En studie om faktorerna bakom hushållens skuldsättning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to investigate which factors are the most crucial in the Swedish household indebtedness. We use Meng et al. (2011) model to access the impact of unemployment, the number of new construction of housing, population, gross domestic product, real estate price index, consumer price index and the interest rate on the Swedish household indebtedness for the period 1995-2015. In addition, we use cointegration and ECM "Error Correction Model" to determine the long run and the short run impact of these factors on the Swedish household indebtedness. The results in the study reveal the GDP and housing prices as the most crucial factors that household debt has increased in the long term, while the most decisive short-term factors are unemployment and housing prices.

  • 129.
    Al Saad, Tamy
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Lundqvist-Westin, Wilma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development. Biblioteket, Högskolan Väst.
    Kunskap och lärande genom projektsamverkan: utmaningar och möjligheter. Följeforskning av ett samverkansprojekt i Vänersborgs kommun.2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2021 beviljades Vänersborgs kommun statsbidrag från Delegationen mot segregation (Delmos) för ett samverkansprojekt mellan det lokala brottsförebyggande rådet och den kommunala arbetsgruppen Samverkan för social inkludering. Projektet kallas Delmosprojektet och syftar till att skapa mer jämlika och jämställda förutsättningar för medborgarna i den socioekonomiskt utsatta stadsdelen Torpa att påverka sina liv. Samverkansarbete är ett nytt arbetssätt inom Vänersborgs kommun, där man hoppas hitta långsiktiga sätt att samverka kring det brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande arbetet.För att kvalitetssäkra arbetet i Delmosprojektet och ta fram underlag för fortsatt metodutveckling fick forskargruppen Samskapande hållbar samhällsutveckling (SHS) vid Högskolan Väst i uppdrag att genom observationer och intervjuer genomföra följeforskning. Forskningen genomfördes utifrån ett deltagarperspektiv och under projektets inledande fas, från september 2021 till januari 2022. Denna rapport är en både beskrivande och analytisk sammanfattning av projektet under den här tiden, med målet att illustrera utmaningar och möjligheter när det gäller kunskapsöverföring mellan de samverkansaktörer som representerar Vänersborgs kommun. Analysen är gjord utifrån ett arbetsintegrerat lärandeperspektiv och inkluderar faktorer som anses påverka lärprocesserna, såsom absorptionsförmåga, systematisk kommunikation, projektroller, gruppdynamik, gemensamma mål, tillit och relationer samt tidspress.Generellt uppfattas Delmosprojektet som positivt och dess mål som viktigt. Samarbetet i arbetsgrupperna beskrivs som väl fungerande med givande diskussioner i en trygg och inkluderande miljö. Genom medborgardialoger visar kommunen stort förtroende för och tillit till medborgarna och deras kunskaper och erfarenheter av området. Projektdeltagarna förstår vikten av medborgarperspektivet och önskar att det även fortsättningsvis är en del av kommunens arbete.Samtidigt uttrycker deltagarna att det finns utmaningar, framför allt i form av otydlighet kring projektstruktur, roller och gemensamma mål. De efterfrågar mer information kring projektet som helhet, men även en struktur för kommunikation mellan grupper och inom de olika förvaltningarna. Likt inom många andra kommunala projekt önskas också mer tid och resurser.Följeforskningen har funnit goda exempel att ta vara på inför framtida projekt men också möjligheter till utveckling. Att förankra kommande projekt är en viktig förutsättning för deras start och fortlevnad, och därtill krävs systematiska kommunikationsvägar, långsiktiga mål och ständiga utvärderingar. Att medborgarnas röster måste vara ledande i arbetet finns det inga tvivel om, men rapporten lämnar utrymme för frågor kring hur man bäst når medborgare som i vanliga fall inte kan eller vill nås.

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  • 130.
    Al Saad, Tamy
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nyman, Anders
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    New Course, New Discourse, New Racism?: Right-Wing Alternative Media in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Like elsewhere in Europe, the tides of nationalist right-wing rhetoric in Sweden have become instrumental in generating a wave of anti-liberal and anti-immigration sentiments in politics and media. In particular, one branch of right-wing alternative media has become a breeding ground for normalizing such rhetoric. Does the anti-immigration stance in such media disguise racist inclinations? In this thesis we examine the discourse of three right-wing alternative media sites in Sweden to explore the possible employment of different types of racism in their articles. By taking the constructivist viewpoint and adopting the post-colonial conceptions of the 'Self' and the 'Other', racist discourse was analyzed and characterized as either biological or cultural. From these two theories, we derived concepts concerning descriptions of contemporary and ideal Swedish society that will be used as further indicators of racist discourses. In this single case study, 94 articles from Fria Tider, Nya Tider, and Samhällsnytt were analyzed on the topics of immigration, integration and crime through a qualitative content analysis. The results show that most of the articles contain cultural racist discourse.

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  • 131.
    Alaei, Seyed Fatemeh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andersson, Anette
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Privatization: What we learn from failure: A case study of Iran Air2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted to assess how the privatization of Iran Air process managed in last efforts and how should it be in right way. It increases the knowledge about privatization in Iran and the need for it. Iran air as our case study is a flag-carrier airline company that is protected by government regulations and subsidies. We try to find the reasons for failure of privatization in Iran Air and their attempt on privatization.

    The method used to collect data was a qualitative methodology, consisting of semi-structured interviews with relevant managers, and knowledgeable professors and the official sites and press. In conclusion, we find that privatization is an important need for Iran Air Company and the main problems that are against Iran Air can be categorized to political, financial, and social. The effects of political connections are most pronounced in countries with high levels of corruption. Iran’s level of corruption and law enforcement environment are lower than those are in developed countries. The root of financial problems of government and the company is the deficiency of liquidity to compensate the debts, but the share did not sell. The social problem arises from the uncertainty of the future of employees of going private company. Decreasing the level of corruption and increasing law enforcement in country are general solution for political problem. Preparing transparent financial statements and fair evaluation of share base price are our suggestion to Iran Air. The staff must be sure of their future. Social Security Organization and employment laws of country or any other response organization must protect them

     

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  • 132.
    Alagic, Amra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Anthonsen, Emelie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Socialt ansvarstagande: En studie kring arbete med CSR inom detaljhandeln ochhur media kritiskt granskar detta2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility has recently become increasingly important, especially in the retailing sector. It has also become more important to the society which affects how organisations choose to work with this. Therefore, media reporting on corporate social responsibility has also increased. How can this affect organisations and their CSR-reporting? Corporate social responsibility has become a well-known concept that corporations have adapted, a consequence of this is that the concept of CSI has emerged. This means that corporations are working in an irresponsible manner to achieve legitimacy. Organisations are dependent on their stakeholders, which in turn may be affected by the media. Thus, it is in the interest of businesses to convey a positive image to the society, which can be done by producing sustainability reports. The purpose of this essay was to contribute with knowledge about how a public organisation with many stakeholders workswith CSR and how they are affected by the media's reporting regarding this. We have conducted a qualitative study where we analysed 15 sustainability reports produced by H&M between 2002-2016. We have done this by conducting a content analysis where we developed a coding scheme. We searched for key concepts and examined how many times these occurred in the sustainability reports. We also analysed the media reporting on H&M's corporate social responsibility. Our theoretical framework consists of research that addressed the concepts CSR, CSI, stakeholders, legitimacy, sustainability reportingand media. We also present an analysis model that served as a starting point, with this weput our empirical data in relation to the theoretical framework and afterwards we conductedan analysis based on this. Our empirical study consists of our coding scheme and material from media and H&M's website. This, together with the theoretical framework, forms the basis of our discussion and conclusions. Our main conclusion was that the corporations' sustainability reporting is primarily influenced by the demands of stakeholders. We have not been able to identify a greater impact from the media regarding the organisations sustainability reports, which reinforces this statement.

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  • 133.
    Alamin Hassan, Wasem
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Jari, Malcom
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Från Valsedelsystem till blockchain-baserade E-valsystem: En kvantitativ studie om väljarnas acceptans till digitalisering2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Democracy is built on consensus among the population through voting. Today we use paper ballot systems which require a centralized control with a reliable group to carry out the voting process, record and count the vote ballots. In recent years studies shown that the traditional system introduces a lot of possibilities of manipulation and corruption of votes. This thesis introduces an alternative approach to conduct voting. The approach is a e-voting system which uses the blockchain-technique. Blockchain provides several features that can protect against corruption and tampering with votes, and it brings a level of transparency that cannot be match by the traditional paper ballot system.

    This study combines quantitative results from a questionary on voters' attitudes towards e-voting together with relevant research on blockchain-solutions and Swedish laws & procedures. The data which was collected was then transferred to Microsoft Excel where we created diagrams and tables and measured the frequency of the various questions.

    The study reports voters' attitudes towards blockchain-based e-voting systems were positive. It turned out that most of the voters were not against change and those who did not know about blockchain were willing to learn to ensure a secure and reliable a democracy as possible. From the questionnaire survey, the voters replied that the properties that were important for an e-voting were data integrity and anonymity. From the survey data and proposals from previous studies, a proposal for a blockchain-enabled e-voting system was created. By using multiple blockchains, smart-contracts and with the help of an architecture in which voter-data is fragmented, the proposed system could increase the security around anonymity and data integrity in connection to voter data.

  • 134.
    Alanko, Eveliina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Pandid, Mila
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Who is the victim?: A descriptive single case study of the United Nations’ construction of the sex trafficking victim2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a descriptive single case study where the construction of the sex trafficking victims by the UN is analysed. More specifically, the study examines the construction of the actual victim and non-victim through the theoretical assumptions of masculinity and femininity. It asks 1) How does femininity and masculinity contribute to the construction of the actual victim by the UN? and 2) How does femininity and masculinity contribute to the construction of the non-victim by the UN? Making it possible to draw conclusions about the "ideal victim" of sex trafficking. Through the use of qualitative content analysis, we look at how the UN uses feminine and masculine assumptions in the construction of sex trafficking victim. The findings indicate that the UN uses more feminine assumption when describing the actual victim and masculine assumptions when describing the non-victim. Hence, supporting the construction of "ideal victim" being a woman. As the UN is a significant actor on the field of trafficking issue, the assumptions and ideas it spreads through its documents and media campaigns, has a significant affect to other actors in the field, IOs, IGOs, NGOs and governments, thus spreading the socially constructed gender stereotypes of the female victim and male predator.

  • 135.
    Al-Bayati, Asmaa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Duran, Esin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The courage to continue to perform during the global pandemic: A study about the outcomes of Covid-19 on employee productivity2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 outbreak has resulted in important changes for employees', hence this research investigated how the changed working conditions, as working remotely during the Covid-19 crisis has affected the productivity of employees. The study aimed to generate new knowledge on how this new working style impacts employee’s productivity and whether to implement this in the future. This study contributes to filling the research gap on how Covid-19 has affected employee productivity in an internationally operating organization.

    The theory section aimed to integrate different parts of relevant and important literature about the chosen topic. Information about working remotely, employee productivity, and factors affecting productivity were provided in this section. The theory section aims to explain employee productivity and how this has been affected by working remotely. To answer the research question: How has remote work during Covid-19 affected employee productivity in an international organization? a quantitative research approach was adopted to collect the primary data. Given the nature of the Covid-19 pandemic, many organizations have implemented remote work policies. The linear regression model was conducted to measure the study hypothesis which is based on independent variables, work environment, employee commitment, and organizational support on the dependent variable employee productivity. The result of the regression model revealed that there is no statistically significant relationship between chosen independent and dependent variables. Consequently, it is not possible to assume that employees have been negatively affected during Covid-19. 

  • 136.
    Albinsson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Faktorer som påverkar skuldkvoten hos de svenska hushållen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the determinants of the Swedish debt ratio for the period 1996-2016. The model that this project is built around is made by Meng et al (2011) where the dependent variable is debt ratio for swedish households and the explanatory variables are GDP, real interest rate, HPI (House Price Index), number of new constructed houses, unemployment ratio and change in inflation. This essay uses cointegration test and Error Correction Model to investigate the short run and long run determinants of the Swedish household debt ratio. The final result after an Error correction model shows that HPI, GDP and unemployment are the variables that affects the debt ratio for Swedish households the most.

  • 137.
    Albinsson, Lina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Niemi Thelén, Mathilda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    “Det är lättare att skriva elaka kommentarer om man ser att någon annan har skrivit först”: En kvalitativ studie om ungas kommunikation på sociala medier, kopplat till begreppen näthat, nätkärlek och digital kompetens2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the subject of young people's communication on social media linked to the concepts of cyberbullying, cyber-love and digital competence. With qualitative methods, focus group interview and interview, four children, two parents and a teacher were interviewed. In the essay, their reflections and perspectives on how they view young people's communication that takes place on socialmedia are highlighted. Previous research shows that the concept of digital competence is difficult to define and there are different interpretations of what the ability to have good digital competence actually means. Research shows that there are tendencies to generalize that all children and young people can handle digitalisation, just because they are born into a time where digital and social media characterize everyday life. The results show that cyberbullying and cyber-love take place in social media. The children surveyed learn to handle communication on social media on their own. To some extent,children have strategies for dealing with online hate and the use of social media, but not to the extent needed. The results also show that both the surveyed parents and the teacher express that there is a need to develop more digital competence and adult participation plays a role in children's development of digital competence.

  • 138.
    Albinsson, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningssystemets effekt på personalens trivsel och gemenskap: En fallstudie inom en säljorganisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's globalization has framed the market and increased the competition among com-panies. Investing in the staff has therefore become more important to maintain the com-pany on the market. With a reward system the company can motivate their employees to perform better. A reward system can be mixed, which means that it consists of group- and individual rewards and goals, and financial- and non-financial rewards. We already know that people are motivated by different factors, that is why it is interesting to study how different kinds of rewards can affect the employees comfort and companionship.

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding on how a mixed reward system influence the employees' companionship and their individual well-being in a sales organ-ization. To fulfill this purpose a theoretical framework has been filled with what a reward system is and how it appears in a sales organization, and primarily what the advantages and disadvantages are of using the different types of rewards. A review about work mo-tivation, job satisfaction and companionship has also been presented.

    The study has been qualitative where interviews have been conducted on a company with a well-developed reward system. We received a wide comprehension of what the sellers thought about the reward system and how it affected their companionship and their indi-vidual well-being. This has been represented in the empirical part to therefore discuss theories and empirics in the analysis part.

    We have increased the understanding that group goals and group rewards improve the companionship, but at the same time individual rewards are required to support the per-sonal development despite that these promote competition among sellers. The financial rewards are used in the short-run but it is important to give sellers something substantial for their work effort. While the non-financial rewards needed to praise, encourage and strengthen the individual satisfaction both in the short- and long-run.

  • 139.
    Albohtori, Eman
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the Returns In the Airline Industry for Developed and Emerging Economies2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The corona virus 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic has impacted businesses differently with many industries recording negative trends. Travel restrictions are seen as a solution to contain the spread of the virus, and these have impacted operations in the airline industry. This research uses an Events Study approach to investigate if the efficient market hypothesis holds for the airline industrystocks, following the announcements of three COVID 19 related events: declaration of COVID 19 a global pandemic; announcement of financial relief packages; and announcement of vaccination rollout. Using a sample of 46 airline stocks in 10 countries, empirical results suggest that the efficient market hypothesis does not hold when there is excessive information flowing in the market and that events with confounding effect lead to semi-efficient market hypothesis. 

  • 140.
    Albulena, Sadiki
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Grujoska, Stefanie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Vinnande marknadsföring: För rekryterings och bemanningsföretaget Jobbakuten2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie var att hjälpa Jobbakuten med deras marknadsföringsstrategi då de inte visste hur det skulle marknadsföra sig på bästa sätt. Jobbakuten är ett rekryterings och bemanningsföretag som funnits i branschen i 15 år och är därmed det äldsta företaget. För att hjälpa dem att utforma en marknadsföringsstrategi har vi tagit hjälp utav teorierna relationsmarknadsföring, då deras kunder tyckte detta är det bästa sättet. Sedan har vi även gjort en SWOT-analys för att på så vis ha en bättre insikt över vad det är som är företagets styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och hot. Förutom detta så har vi även använt oss utav marknadsföringsmodellerna AIDAS-F, DRIP och gått igenom olika marknadsföringskanaler, för att på så vis hitta det som passar Jobbakuten bäst.

    För att kunna göra en marknadsföringsstrategi så har vi även valt att göra en enkätundersökning, som vi riktade till allmänheten för att på så vis få med mer synpunkter. Vi har även telefonintervjuat tio av företagets kunder där vi ställde frågor om företaget, vad de tyckte om företaget och hur dem anser de bör marknadsföra sig. Dessa undersökningar bidrog till att vi anser att Jobbakuten bör trycka på relationsmarknadsföring för att på så vis trygga sin plats hos sina kunder, då det uppskattades mycket utav kunderna

  • 141.
    Alchahin, Jean
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Van Nguyen, Phuong
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Typ II-fel ur ett nytt perspektiv: en kvalitativ studie som kartlägger konkursförvaltares intryck av typ II-fel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines Type II errors from the bankruptcy administers' perspective. It aims to give auditors an insight into why Swedish bankruptcy trustees perceive the proportion of Type II errors as high. Type II errors occur when the accountant in the audit reports does not consider the uncertainties that are threatening the client's ability to stay as a going concern, and the company thereafter applies for bankruptcy. The auditor is considered to operate as an independent intermediate, with the task to confirm to accounting users that the Board's management of the annual report, in line with the Annual Account act, demonstrates a true and fair view. However, recent research emphasizes that auditors continuously do not issue going concern warnings. This auditor behavior results in more challenging corporate bankruptcies, which eventually charge the bankruptcy trustees who have the assignment of administrating the bankruptcy estates, with a higher load of work. Since the bankruptcy administrators will become key players, in relation to Type II errors, this study, hence, aims to identify Type II errors from their point of view. In order to fulfill the purpose, our research question was formulated to illustrate if the bankruptcy administrators are experiencing Type II errors, and if so, to identify the factors that are considered to be a part of the core problem. Five bankruptcy administrators, who have administrated hundreds of bankruptcy estates, were given the opportunity to answer the research question. As this thesis aims for a deep understanding, it has been conducted using qualitative personal interviews. Meanwhile, recent research illustrates the proportion of Type II errors as high, in line with the fact that the non-issued going concern warnings have been linked to several underlying factors. Our interviewed bankruptcy administrators, however, gave an expression of a much higher complexity when the Type II errors were highlighted to occur to a greater degree, and the auditor behavior was considered to be linked with other additional factors. Based on the analysis, the conclusion drawn was that Type II errors occur and that the auditors' non-issued going concern warnings are based on the accounting assessment problems, clients, auditor characteristics, articles of association and the bankruptcy processes. Another issue is that new circumstances occur while the auditor is reviewing the audit reports.

  • 142.
    Aldhagen, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie i lojalitet inom högintensivyrken: En kvalitativ studie inom den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staff turnover has a natural variation depending on industry and organisation. Although high turnover rates are common in high intensity industries, such high rates can also indicate a problem within the organisation and its leadership. The purpose of this study is to examine management’s perspective on empolyee loyalty in order to achieve the desired level of employee retention. The study aims to examine the tools management use to proactively establish loyalty amongst the employees in order to control the company’s staff turnover. The Swedish real estate agent industry was chosen as a high intensity industry, and four in-depth interviews were conducted as a qualitative method for this study in order to collect the empirical data. All four respondents have leadership positions in the real estate business; three are franchisees and one is a human resource manager. The results show three companies in three different stages in growth; the small company with no employee policy, the mid size company with resources but lack of tools for the structured HR work needed to increase in growth, and the big company that has succeeded in a stabile, long term growth, much as a result of a solid personnel policy and the recruitment of a competent and experienced HR manager. The empirical data also shows a lack of interest, knowledge and experience for HR work amongst business leaders within Swedish real estate agencies, which makes recruiting a competent HR specialist a necessity in order to meet the needs of the employees and for the HR work to function. The study concludes that staff retention and loyalty evolves alongside the company’s HR work and simultaneous growth, which concludes that a well developed HR management is required in order to maintain growth, hence a proactive approach on buildning employee loyalty, particularly with an HR representative, is to be recommended.

  • 143.
    Aldjamali, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekrytering av säljare: Vad är det som efterfrågas hos en säljare?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile communications industry is growing, several companies are launching new mobiles, and the number of mobile resellers is increasing. The competition in the mobile reseller industry is tough, where service is in focus. In the service that mobile resellers offer their customers, the sellers are in the spotlight, the frontface of the company. Finding good sellers is therefore an important part for mobile resellers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics and core competencies that a recruiter needs from a sales person who works in mobile resale at the store, as well as investigate which recruitment methods are suitable for use in connection with recruitment. The study strives to help new companies in the sales industry increase their chances of being established by recruiting the right sellers. Through six qualitative interviews with in total nine respondants, I have collected empirical evidence that has been compiled and analyzed on the basis of a theoretical reference framework, which includes relevant previous research. Qualifications and core competencies to be sought when recruiting are mainly communication skills, but also motivation and loyalty. Companies need to be clear in their needs, especially among companies with limited financial resources. During the recruitment process, communication between recruiters and candidates plays an important role, and the recruiter should implement recruitment methods in which the recruiter will be able to observe the candidate's communication skills. Both communication and education play an important role in a recruitment process.

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  • 144.
    Alexandersson, Adina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Uka, Lindon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Political leaders in the face of a global crisis.: A comparative case study of Boris Johnson’s and Stefan Löfven’s framing of the second outbreak of COVID-192021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to identify and analyze the manner in which Prime Ministers Boris Johnson (UK) and Stefan Löfven (Sweden) frame the matter of the Covid outbreak in light of its second onset in 2020. By examining these two actors, we wish to contribute to the already existing literature on political leaders’ crisis rhetoric and to add content to the novel subject of pandemic rhetorics. By utilizing critical textual analysis and framing theory, this thesis identifies and examines themes and patterns of rhetorical structure surrounding the subject of Covid-19. The framing analysis is structured by three analytical points; problem definition, suggested causes and remedies, it will also be analyzed through the scope of integrative complexity theory. The three points will be assessed with measures that indicate in what manner the subject is framed; problem definition - positive or dire. Suggested causes - exogenous or endogenous. Remedies - restorative or reformative. The data for this study consists of 26 speeches made by the two political leaders, four from Löfven and 22 from Johnson. The results show that Stefan Löfven and Boris Johnson frame the outbreak through similar concepts, yet show difference in the variety and extent of integrative complexity; Löfven showing significantly higher levels through keeping a neutral and inclusive standpoint in the three variables, whereas Johnson maintains a more inclined approach with lower levels of integrative complexity by presenting less alternatives and variety in his framings.

  • 145.
    Alexandersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Broberg, Martina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Butikskommunikation inom modebutiker: En observationsstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stores need to be competitive in the current environment where big shopping centers are emerging and customers are increasingly demanding a better shopping experience. Studies indicate that customer decisions are mainly made during the store visit. This means possibilities for shops to influence the customers buying process during the store visit by use of a suitable in-store communication that influence, reminds and inspires customers. Retailers should therefore be aware of how the store communication looks like and how they should strive to improve it. Retailers should know what effects shop communication has to be able to perform changes in hopes to increase customers shopping experience.

    The study aim to investigate how three stores communicate with customers regarding presentation of the assortment, store layout, colors and lighting. The ambition was also to come up with proposals for changes concerning these components which would hopefully improve the shopping experience in the stores. The study was conducted with a qualitative research approach through observations in the three stores to obtain knowledge of the selected components.

    The result of the study indicated that the stores communicated to customers in similar manners regarding presentation of the assortment, store layout, colors and lighting, but it also differed on certain points. Proposition of changes for two stores were given within the components which hopefully would create a better shopping experience for the customers. Change proposal for shop A and C were given in the components which would hopefully create a better shopping experience for customers when they visit the stores. Change proposal for store A was to review the tight placement of the product range which created tight paths and created difficulties to survey the range and try to create a more open layout in the store. Both for shop A and C a propose was to use a uniform background color due to the stores colorful assortment and that store A could create a better color structure of its range. Store B was considered to have a store communication that lived up to expectations based on the theory, which resulted in that no changes have been specified for this shop.

  • 146.
    Alexandersson, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur kan organisationer arbeta för att behålla den yngre generationen: En studie om motivationsfaktorer i verkstadsindustrin2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, organizations are facing a major generational shift, where the younger generation who are more willing to change workplaces, are taking over from the older generation who are more willing to stay in a workplace for a long time. With the younger generation being described as more prone to turnover, organizations face a challenge to retain them. In the work of retaining employees, great importance is placed on motivating their employees, and organizations need to consider each individual's personal preferences in regard to what motivates them. With this as a background, the purpose of the study is to contribute knowledge about what motivates employees to continue working within an organization. As well as trying to find similarities and differences in what motivates employees of the younger and older generations. The study's theoretical framework of reference is based on three successful motivational factors, Herzberg's motivation theory, intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, and Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. Furthermore, the theory chapter raises the concept of employee retention, the work of retaining employees. The earlier research on the generational shift shows that there are large differences between the generations and that the younger generation places higher demands on the organization than the older. To achieve the aim of the study, I used a qualitative method to accomplish a survey on an organization that is facing the challenge of this generational change. Empiric evidence shows that it is mainly the motivational factors compensation and work-related relationships that are important for the employees. Furthermore, the empirical evidence shows that there are great similarities between the generations, but that the younger generation values education and recognition more than the older generation. The result of this study shows that organizations should place great focus on the factors of compensation and work-related relationships, but to meet the demands of the younger generation, organizations should place great importance on factors such as recognition and training. 

  • 147.
    Alexandersson Stamcar, Erika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Doverhäll, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Teachers’ experienced autonomy: A qualitative study of teachers’ autonomy in municipal and independent upper secondary schools2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine how teachers in municipal and independent upper secondary schools experience their horizontal and vertical autonomy to see if there are any similarities or differences between them. Describing their autonomy is done by applying a perception of teachers as street-level bureaucrats to gain a deeper understanding of the concept. In connection to the autonomy discussions, the theoretical understanding is provided in terms of horizontal and vertical influence that might affect autonomy. Those factors are reduced to three specific areas labelled as grading, teaching content and layout of teaching to examine our main research question: How do teachers in municipal and independent schools experience their vertical and horizontal autonomy? In order to answer our main research question, the following questions are specified, (1) how do teachers experience vertical and horizontal autonomy in the fields of grading, teaching content and layout of teaching? (2) what similarities or differences, if any, in respect to vertical and horizontal autonomy exist between teachers in municipal and independent schools? An interpretivist view forms the basis for this study and a qualitative approach is used to conduct a small-n comparison in order to answer those questions through semi-structured interviews. The result show that there is a relatively consistent view of vertical influence, where both the municipal and independent schools receive a high level of vertical autonomy. What is significant, however, is that due to loosely composed governing documents, there is rather a desire to reduce the vertical autonomy. In the horizontal respect, teachers in independent schools are more vulnerable, where guardians and students try to break into the vertical control and thus break the chain of command. 

  • 148.
    Alfredsson, Isabell
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Möller, Leon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Det ger mig trygghet": En kvalitativ studie om svenska HBTQ-personers identitetsskapande och gemenskap på sociala medier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to qualitatively investigate how Swedish LGBTQ people navigate social media and how it affects them in their communities and creation of identity. The thesis findings draw from interviews with eleven persons aged 16 to 44 years. The data of the informants was analysed using a thematic model.  

    The result showed that LGBTQ individuals have great benefit from social media on many different levels but also that they are inhibited on certain platforms for different reasons because of their LGBTQ identities. The benefit was in the area of two of our main themes of community and identity creation where the informants clearly expressed many feelings such as security, understanding, belonging and acceptance. But also that it benefits from the information they receive from the Internet at large but also from other LGBTQ people online. The theme of openness showed that the informants were selective with the openness of the Internet because of their LGBTQ identities and that for various reasons they kept their sexualities secret partly or entirely on separate platforms where they did not feel secure.  

    The informants’ stories are largely in line with international research in the field and our informants' experiences could further be understood when they were confronted with these findings and theories in the field. The results of the study showed that the internet served as a haven for the informants and that through social media it had created a large network of contacts with other LGBTQ people both in Sweden and abroad. The conclusions that can be drawn are that social media serves a great purpose for LGBTQ people in Sweden and that through different platforms they are given the opportunity to express themselves and be paired with people in the same situations, which creates security for the informants. The conclusions we can draw are also that a large part of the informants suffer from minority stress due to or fear context collapse that they experience on different platforms.

  • 149.
    Alfredsson, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens konsumtion: En kvantitativ studie om makroekonomiska faktorer som påverkar hushållens konsumtion i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of Swedish households represents two-thirds of Sweden's total GDPgrowth and can therefore be seen as the engine in the Swedish economy. Changes in consumption can therefore be of great importance to the country's economy and are important to analyze. The purpose of this study is to analyze how macroeconomic variables affect the consumption of Swedish households. The macroeconomic variables that will be investigated are: disposable income, inflation, interest rate, and wealth, consisting of financial and real assets. In order to facilitate understanding of the consumption behavior households, the most well-known consumption theories will form the basis of the study, which are: Keynes Consumption Theory, Life Cycle Hypothesis and the Permanent Income Hypothesis. A quantitative study is performed which means that the relationship between selected variables will be examined by the time period from 1986 to 2017 by an econometric model. Based on previous research and collected data sets, an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ADL). The results of the study indicate that there is a relationship between changes in consumption and changes in the explanatory variables disposable income, inflation and housing wealth. The impact of the the variables on consumption over time is very difficult to identify because of lack of significance in the time lags.

  • 150.
    Alfredsson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andersson, Jesper
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Flerdimensionell styrning inom offentlig sektor: Effekter på chefers motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One method to ease the implementation of strategy and improve performance which has come to grow strong in the public sector is contemporary performance measurement systems (CPM). CPM is a system which comprises the use of financial as well as nonfinancial performance measures. To have a motivating effect according to earlier studies CPM have to be in line with the basic targets of the organization, and the managers should have the possibility to affect the performance measures. performance measures also have to be challenging but still accessible. Earlier studies also indicate that performance measures which is linked to meaningful rewards, and a strong cause and effect relation between the financial and non-financial performance measures has a motivating effect. This study aims to examine how CPM affects managers motivation in the public sector. To do so a number of interviews has been held with managers in the public sector. The results of the study indicate that CPM has the possibility to increase managers motivation, and this could be connected to several factors. One factor which has the possibility to increase motivation is if the performance measures is connected to meaningful rewards. The results also indicate that CPM isn’t necessary to make the managers feel motivated cause they already have a sort of basic motivation, but CPM could contribute to increase motivation further. The reason for this motivation is that they get a confirmation of how good their performances are, and they get clear signals of what is expected of them. PM within a CPM could also motivate the managers to act in a way that is not always optimal for the organization. The competition in the municipal organizations can encourage manipulation of performance measures to get better results than competing organizations. Within the public sector there is also a risk that CPM motivates the managers to focus on performances which is measured, while performances which is not measured gets out of priority. 

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