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  • 101.
    Carstensen, Peter H.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    On knowledge management: a field study2000In: Internet-Based Organisational Memory and Knowledge Management, IPG Group Publishing , 2000, p. 170-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that knowledge is one of the most important assets of today's organizations. According to Davenport and Prusak (1998), knowledge is often a company's greatest competitive advantage in a global economy. How to support the company's knowledge-intensive work processes (e.g., quality support, product design or strategic planning) is therefore becoming a vital issue in many organizations worldwide. Identification, analysis and characterization of the knowledge-intensive work processes become essential in order to qualify a discussion of how to support knowledge management processes. This chapter presents, discusses and reflects upon findings from a study of how highly skilled actors manage information and knowledge, i.e., how information is gathered from a wide range of sources, structured according to needs and relevance for the users, and disseminated to the relevant suppliers in the organization. The aim of the chapter is two-folded: first, to contribute to the general empirical body of knowledge about knowledge-intensive work, especially focusing on the central characteristics of the knowledge management processes; secondly, to initiate a discussion of which overall requirements we must set up for how knowledge management processes could be supported by means of information and communication technology. Knowledge-intensive work processes often concern collaborative problem-solving and mutual support that require effective ways of handling information and knowledge between different people, both in short-term and long-term situations. The distributed and dynamic nature of knowledge management work also imposes a high degree of complexity involving many different actors with different conceptualizations, interpretations, perspectives, needs, etc. of the knowledge produced and approached. The various actors have different perspectives on the concept of knowledge. The work needed to articulate knowledge and make information and knowledge accessible becomes extremely demanding and complex. Often face-to-face interaction is required. However, in complex and collaborative work settings the problem of articulating knowledge by rich interaction and communication is obvious. The actors are distributed both geographically and temporally. There is a need for computer-based mechanisms for interaction and coordination of information and knowledge (cf. e.g., Carstensen and Wulf, 1998).

  • 102.
    Cermak, Pavel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Changes in work performance of employees brought by the Covid-19 pandemic2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout 2020, millions of workers were restricted to their houses due to the spread of Covid-19 and the adoption of social distancing regulations. Our habits, ways of working, and communications have all changed. It was a big challenge for the companies to adapt to the situation.

    The research question "How did the performance of employees change while working from home?" is answered using semi-structured interviews with people working at the manager level and through a self-administrated questionnaire to analyze employees'efficiency change while remote working with a focus on three areas, teamwork, creative and administrative work.

    The findings highlight that companies should remain benevolent to remote workers after the Covid-19 pandemic. The result showed that the overall performance of employees while working from home (WFH) does not change. However, there is a slight tendency to decrease teamwork and creative task efficiency.On the other hand, administrative tasks show the opposite.

    The study also rejects previous discoveries that female workers have a more negligible probability of being distracted while WFH. On the other hand, the results confirm that industries such as "Computing and IT," "Business, consultancy or management," "Engineering or manufacturing," and "Marketing, advertising or PR" are more likely to perform work remotely.

  • 103. Christie, Michael
    et al.
    Ferdos, Fariba
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    Axelsson, A
    Online collaborative learning: a case study2005In: Proceedings of the ALE conference, Amsterdam, Nederlands, 6-11 June 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Christie, Michael
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ferdos, Fariba
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The Task Takes Over: Assuming Too Much in Online Collaborative Learning2005In: Research and Practice of Active Learning in Engineering Education / [ed] E. de-Graaf, G. Saunders-Smith and M. Nieweg (eds.), Amsterdam: Pallas Amsterdam University Press , 2005, p. 12-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Cukur, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Adoption of ERP system for operations management in SMEs2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast development of the IT in the society of today has led to that more SMEs rely on ERP systems. Especially, IT has facilitated the management of the flow of goods within and between organizations and have made lead times more effective and also have increased the overview of the flow of goods. This will help SMEs obtain a competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is analyze the factors influencing SMEs adoption of ERP systems. A qualitative case study is conducted within a company which both is engaged in manufacturing and project work. The company runs service projects for its customers and at the same time they produce articles both for sale and for use within the service projects. An ERP system can also serve as an overall system for the administration, the production and inventory management in the company. However, there are important factors to take into account in the adoption phase, related to the technological infrastructure, the organizational challenges as well as environmental relations in order to decide on an implementation on an ERP system. It is of a critical importance that the SME really change their routines in order to follow the processes implemented in the ERP system. Otherwise, the company runs the risk to be stuck in its previous and ineffective inventory management processes, regardless of investments in the ERP system and the technological infrastructure.

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  • 106.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hirschfeldt, Doris
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Webbhotell: En jämförelse utifrån miljömässig hållbarhet och tjänster2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, it is important for all companies and businesses to have a website and to be visible on the internet. You could say that if you are not digitally visible, you are not on the market. To publish your website, you need to use a web hosting service. The reason for using a web hosting service is to use the offered services instead of having your own datacentre with servers and network. There are many different web hosting companies to choose from that offer a range of services that are well described like capacity, bandwidth, and availability. In this subject specialization we have added the important aspect of sustainability. With help of a comparative content analysis of several web hosting companies and their offerings, this will show if and how the suppliers chose to present sustainability. The result shows that only a few web hosting companies present sustainability on their website where smaller companies present no information at all. The conclusion is that web hosting companies do not consider sustainability as important. It is the midsize and larger web hosting companies with more customers, servers and datacentres who prioritize sustainability. With sustainability also comes a higher cost.

  • 107.
    Danielsson, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lokomotion i ett gyllene snitt: En observationsstudie av naturtrogna och uttryckslösa kroppsrörelser med en metod designad för naturalistisk karaktärsanimation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In aspiration to achieve naturalistic character animation, some difficulty does show up, both in 3D-CGI, 2D-CGI as in traditional handmade animation. The reason why difficulty appears in the task of achieving naturalism is for instance because of the simulated natural laws in the digital world which cannot affect the characters cinematic movement. The result of illustrating the natural law manually by hand can affect the illusion of the movement as not naturalistic or inconsistent, which can result in that the spatial adaptation to space is not perceived as naturalistic. It is most often up to the animator to make a believable illusion of the natural laws. This study examines a deeper understanding of the human way to behave and to adapt to the physical reality and through that, apply this movement on character animation.

    The purpose of a deeper understanding of movement's phenomena is to find a clearer method dedicated to naturalistic movement that can be adapted to all forms of character animation, regardless of the character anatomy. Unfortunately, it would not be possible to study all aspects of the physically adaptive behaviors as to the size of the topic. This study will therefore orbit the human locomotion, also known as walking. Focus will therefore be on the bottom part of the body, from the pelvis down to the ankles. There are scientists that do argue about a connection between the golden ratio and the human locomotion. This study is an attempt to apply the golden ratio on 3D-characters.

    This study has been devoted to a different approach in the character animation, where its starting point will be mathematical equations. For this study, it has meant an application of the golden section in a temporary form, that is in motion.

    The result is therefore a mathematically based method dedicated to imitating naturalistic movement in terms of time, that is to say human locomotion. The method has been proved to be useful even in the imitation of characters movements that do not possess human proportions.

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  • 108.
    Davoud, Ivan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Khadem Haghighi, Sam
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Att bättra på användarupplevelse: En fallstudie på Högskolan Västs nylanserade webbplats användbarhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are today few websites that can fully meet a user's requirement. A reason for this could be because you either do not know your target audience enough or that you try to make your business cost-effective. University West has recently relaunched their website. The response from the target audience, the university students, was negative, but unclear. This study has researched how the existing students are experiencing the new website from a usability perspective. To collect empirical data, a questionnaire was sent out to the students. 230 students responded and answered the questionnaire. The results were later categorized in categories that should be improved, from the students view of point. The empirical data was then transformed into usability requirements which in turn was applied into a prototype. The approach of this study did conclude on a few usability aspects that needs to be re-worked to satisfy the users. Among other things navigation, efficiency and appearance.

  • 109.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering. Institutionen för data- och informationsteknik, Datorteknik (Chalmers.
    A Slowdown Prediction Method to Improve Memory Aware Scheduling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific and technological advances in the area of integrated circuits have allowed the performance of microprocessors to grow exponentially since the late 1960's. However, the imbalance between processor and memory bus capacity has increased in recent years. The increasing on-chip-parallelism of multi-core processors has turned the memory subsystem into a key factor for achieving high performance. When two or more processes share the memory subsystem their execution times typically increase, even at relatively low levels of memory traffic. Current research shows that a throughput increase of up to 40% is possible if the job-scheduler can minimizes the slowdown caused by memory contention in industrial multi-core systems such as high performance clusters, datacenters or clouds. In order to optimize the throughput the job-scheduler has to know how much slower the process will execute when co-scheduled on the same server as other processes. Consequently, unless the slowdown is known, or can be fairly well estimated, the scheduling becomes pure guesswork and the performance suffers. The central question addressed in this thesis is how the slowdown caused by memory traffic interference between processes executing on the same server can be predicted and to what extent. This thesis presents and evaluates a new slowdown prediction method which estimates how much longer a program will execute when co-scheduled on the same multi-core server as another program. The method measures how external memory traffic affects a program by generating different levels of synthetic memory traffic while observing the change in execution time. Based on the observations it makes a first order prediction of how much slowdown the program will experience when exposed to external memory traffic. Experimental results show that the method's predictions correlate well with the real measured slowdowns. Furthermore, it is shown that scheduling based on the new slowdown prediction method yields a higher throughput than three other techniques suggested for avoiding co-scheduling slowdowns caused by memory contention. Finally, a novel scheme is suggested to avoid some of the worst co-schedules, thus increasing the system throughput.

  • 110.
    De Castro Emerick, Agatha
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Utveckling av e-tjänster med hjälp av processbaserad verksamhetsutveckling ur medarbetarnas perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government requires municipalities to provide their services via new channels. These requirements come from an EU directive. What is expected from municipalities is that they provide their services electronically, so called e-services. The municipalities have different ways of developing e-services. The city of Trollhättan uses processes to develop eservices, through process-based business development. This means that employees in addition to dealing with a new information system also sometimes need to participate in an organizational change. Literature studies show that research about municipal e-services has grown while researchers have spent less time researching on how e-services affects the public administration work. There is a growing interest in how the change affects the individual employee's daily work. The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about the experiences of the employees involved, partly by the way in which different e-services are created, and how these affects and changes the working situation of the employees. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative approach was chosen. The survey is based on four deep interviews with employees from the city of Trollhättan. E-service development through a process-based business development is perceived as complex, instructive and constructive. It leads to a transition from an individual perception to a holistic view of the organization, which means greater understanding of the employee's own work in conjunction with the goals of the organization. The effects that have been found with the introduction of e-services are a more efficient way of working that leads to easier handling of incoming cases and better control over them; Time saving where manual work is replaced by direct communication computer to computer and an increased workload when e-services are not the primary application method.

  • 111.
    Dervisevic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Oskarsson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Seshat: A sync system for Audiobooks and eBooks2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this degree project we present a way to construct a synchronization system that is able to create a timings file, which is the file the system uses to know how to sync the eBook and audiobook, using speech recognition and estimation algorithms. This file is then used by the system to let the user select a sentence and have the audiobook start reading from that sentence, or vice versa. This system can create these files with a mean offset from a manu-ally timed file which is within our expectations for the system.

    We use estimation algorithms to fill in the blanks where the speech recognition falls short. Speech recognition accuracy is typically between 40-60%, sometimes dipping lower, so there are blanks to fill in. Using basic algebraic principles of calculating velocity we can ex-trapolate the speed of a reader, using the duration of the audiobook as the time and the amount of characters written as the distance. For increased accuracy we derive this value on a per-chapter basis.

    Using this method we are able to create accurate files, which the user can use to freely sync any location in the book. Our system is designed to work for any book in the world that does not have an audiobook which cuts off between sentences in the audio files.

    We manually create timings files for four different books with widely varying publishing dates, author styles, reader style and gender to create as wide and representative a testing pool as possible for the project

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  • 112.
    Diaz, Patricia
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm (SWE).
    Frykman, Malin
    Innovitaskolan (SWE).
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lärande i en digitaliserad värld2023Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av skolans uppdrag är att utveckla elevernas digitala kompetens. Lärande i en digitaliserad värld, som är en konkret och undervisningsnära handbok, är tänkt att stödja läraren i arbetet med detta.

    Enligt Skolverket omfattar arbetet med digital kompetens fyra övergripande punkter, som alla behandlas i boken. Dessa är att förstå digitaliseringens påverkan på samhälletatt kunna använda och förstå digitala verktyg och medieratt ha ett kritiskt och ansvarsfullt förhållningssättatt kunna lösa problem och omsätta idéer i handling.Bokens författare konkretiserar och problematiserar vad lärande i en digitaliserad värld innebär i praktiken. I varje kapitel ges konkreta exempel på hur lärare kan designa undervisningen så att eleverna ges tillfälle att använda digitala verktyg för att söka kunskap, bearbeta information, lösa problem, skapa, kommunicera och lära.

    Boken riktar sig till verksamma och blivande lärare inom grundskolan. Även lärare på gymnasium och vuxenutbildning kan ha glädje av bokens innehåll. [Förlagets bokinformation]

  • 113.
    Drugge Wikman, Olivia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Brantmo, Annalena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hitta rätt och hitta lätt på kommunens webbsajt: En studie av navigationsstrukturer på svenska kommunsajter2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is the main source of information for many of us, regardless of whether it is a telephone number, train timetables or information from the municipality we are looking for. The purpose of this essay has been to study navigation on municipalities’websites and how its design and structure affect users' opportunities to find important information. The results show that there are several parts of the navigation that are important to make it easy to find information. How well connected the different pages of the website are and how easily you can reach other pages on the site. A clear main navigation with well-chosen names for the different categories. A consistent word choice throughout the site and that the name of the links leads the user's thoughts on the right track. The opportunity to see where on the site you are and clearly marked links. All of these are examples of things that in our empirical study prove to be of importance to the user. 

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  • 114.
    Dudov, Dzmitry
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Psykologiska påverkan på UX design2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    UX design is a great direction today. But still many people who create their own web pages or applications don't understand what UX design is and why it's so important. This essay shows what UX design is, how to do tests and what psychological factors affect people's emotions in design. Which patterns designers may use and which patterns designers should not use. The thesis runs through qualitative and quantitative methods by using poll and interview.

    As a result, readers gain an insight into the prototype that was created according to the user's needs, which is also linked to psychology, how these factors affect the user's emotions both positively and which factors can affect emotions negatively.

  • 115.
    Dullum, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Komprimering av en headerbild: En undersökning av bildkvalitet och laddningstid2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Images account for a significant portion of the content on web pages. At the same time, there is an opposite relationship between image quality and image size, as the size affects the loading time of a web page. An image can be reduced in size using lossy compression. Lossy compression removes content from an image so that the image quality gets worse and this can be done to varying degrees. In this study, an image has been compressed to varying degrees in the lossy JPEG format. Then has the qualitative method - focus groups been used to analyze web pages with these images and decide at what degree of compression that is optimal based on image quality and loading time. The three focus groups were divided in age into an older, a middle-aged and a younger group to be able to see if there were differences in the approach around the images between age groups. The conclusion from the study is that you do not need to compress very hard to achieve an optimal result. The loading time is most affected in the first steps of the compression and in the survey, the 75% compression ratio is the one with the best image quality and at the same time a loading time that does not disturb the informant. Conclusions from the study also show differences between the age groups where the middle age group is most sensitive to both poorer image quality and poor loading time. The older group is at the same time most forgiving of harder compressed images when it comes to image quality. 

  • 116.
    Eborn, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jönsson, Nklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Välfärdstjänster med stöd av IT: Införandet av IT-stöd gällande vård och omsorgs verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology is a constant recurrent topic that concerns big parts of society, not least the health sector. The topic aims at enhancing the independence, safety and activity of people in need of care and their relatives through technology. As medical research is constantly moving forward and the world population is getting bigger and lives longer, the pressure on activities and in the healthcare is increasing as a sanction. One of the pieces that requires more and more resources is the elderly care. They have a challenge to keep up with the increasing amount of people who want and need their services. In parallel, the technical solutions to make the healthcare more efficient is presented. Society is becoming increasingly digital and new technical IT solutions are presented to facilitate the way in which businesses operate.

    The purpose of this report is to handle the question of how the work changes municipal activities when IT is introduced in the daily healthcare activities. Vänersborg municipality in western Sweden has been studied using the introduction of a technical platform as a first step in the process of introducing IT support in elderly care. The technical platform is an independent platform that is not dependent on a specific supplier, which gives a free choice to adapt the platform to the business. By applying the platform, which in this study is termed an independent service platform, free communication with other IT solutions can be made possible.

    The following study is based on a qualitative approach which aims to interpret and understand the data collected through empirical studies. In order to design the theoretical frame of reference for the study, an extensive literature review has been conducted to gather knowledge relevant to the subject before the interviews were conducted. The analysis of the collected data shows that Vänersborg's municipality can extract benefits by implementing an independent service platform in the business to change the way in which IT support is introduced.

    The conclusion of the study shows that there is a strong and clear vision of the municipality of Vänersborg to improve the efficiency of care by introducing an independent service platform. The working environment thus becomes easier with smaller external IT solutions that benefit from future procurement, which is the main goal of the welfare technology.

  • 117.
    Edlund, Emilia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Storsjö, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Influencer marketing inspirerar modeintresserade följare: En studie om hur följare på Instagram uppmuntras att handla modeprodukter av influencers2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on how followers are encouraged by influencers in various ways to purchase fashion-related products on Instagram, from an informatics perspective in a digital context. The purpose is to increase understanding of how a follower is encouraged in various ways to buy fashion-related products that are marketed by an influencer on Instagram, which also can provide an understanding of how fashion companies strategically can work with influencer marketing.

    To investigate this, we conducted 11 interviews through personal meetings or online through the program Zoom with women in the ages of 20-35 years old. They were asked questions related to how they perceive their relationship with an influencer and the exposure to their content inspires them to purchase the fashion products they promote.

    The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The different themes that emerged from the thematic analysis were inspiration creates new needs, appealing content, save money with discount codes and credible collaborations.

    The study's final results show that parasocial relationships play a role in a respondent's decision to purchase fashion products marketed by influencers. The results also show that discount codes, video content, recognition, accessibility, and inspired outfits are contributing factors for respondents to make a purchase from an influencer.

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  • 118.
    Ekblad, Lovisa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Findley, Hannah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sociala mediers roll i centrumutveckling: Kommunikation mellan Trollhättans Stad och dess invånare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban development is a part of a municipality’s responsibility in offering its citizens a good living environment. A crucial aspect for a municipality to succeed with urban development is to include the needs and opinions of its citizens. Social media, as a part of e-government, can be used to increase involvement and participation from citizens in a municipality's work with urban development. When the public sector uses social media, they need to actively encourage communication with citizens to be able to understand and ascertain their needs and opinions and not only use social media to distribute information. The purpose of this study was to understand how large municipalities in Sweden work with social media to increase involvement and participation from citizens and how social media can promote urban development. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach using mixed methods. The findings of the study show that the participating municipality primarily uses social media to distribute information about cultural and entertainment events, which is also what the citizens of this municipality are requesting. Social media is not used to ascertain the opinions and suggestions from citizens, however social media is used to advertise occasions when citizens are invited to participate and influence the work with urban development. Municipalities need to develop common strategies and definitions when working with social media to facilitate their work and to provide their citizens with a better understanding of what they can expect from the municipalities social media accounts.  

  • 119.
    Eklöf, Jon
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (DNK) ,GKN Aerospace Engines, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Hamelryck, Thomas
    Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (DNK).
    Last, Cadell
    Center Leo Apostel (CLEA), Vrije Universiteit, Brussels (BEL).
    Grima, Alexander
    GKN Aerospace Engines, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Abstraction, mimesis and the evolution of deep learning2023In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep learning developers typically rely on deep learning software frameworks (DLSFs)—simply described as pre-packaged libraries of programming components that provide high-level access to deep learning functionality. New DLSFs progressively encapsulate mathematical, statistical and computational complexity. Such higher levels of abstraction subsequently make it easier for deep learning methodology to spread through mimesis (i.e., imitation of models perceived as successful). In this study, we quantify this increase in abstraction and discuss its implications. Analyzing publicly available code from Github, we found that the introduction of DLSFs correlates both with significant increases in the number of deep learning projects and substantial reductions in the number of lines of code used. We subsequently discuss and argue the importance of abstraction in deep learning with respect to ephemeralization, technological advancement, democratization, adopting timely levels of abstraction, the emergence of mimetic deadlocks, issues related to the use of black box methods including privacy and fairness, and the concentration of technological power. Finally, we also discuss abstraction as a symptom of an ongoing technological metatransition.

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  • 120.
    Ekman, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundin, Johan
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Attitudes towards IT and use of LMS in Teacher Education: A Swedish case study2015In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Mar 02, 2015 in Las Vegas, NV, United States / [ed] David Slykhuis; Gary Marks, Chesapeake, VA, 2015, p. 900-906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the relation between attitude and use of a university-wide Learning Management System (LMS) among faculty members engaged in teacher education at a large Swedish University. We compare the findings with a control group of educators from the same university, not involved in teacher education. The results reveal that all teachers fail to provide evidence for a correlation between attitude and use, which contest established assumptions in, for instance, the technology acceptance model (TAM). Still we can detect significant differences between teacher educators and other faculty members: Teacher educators are more positive to the potential for IT in general (p<0.1), and in particular more positive to (i) how IT develop their pedagogy, and (ii) that time spent on communicating with students through IT is time well spent. Furthermore, teacher educators use the LMS significantly more frequently, and with a wider scope of used functionality compared to other faculty.

  • 121.
    Ekman, Rebecca
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Vilket programmeringsspråk används mest inom webbutveckling?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this examination essay was to analyze what programming language is used the most in web development. The question was answered by reviewing scientific articles and its research. Also, by creating a form with questions that was asked to employees in web development related work, about what programming language theyuse the most. After previous research and with the interviews, a result could be made and be able to come forward to which programming language is used the most in web development.

  • 122.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Experiences Of Teaching And Learning With Social Robots2022In: ICERI2022 Proceedings, iated Digital Library , 2022, p. 1678-1685Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in exploring how social robots can be used for teaching and learning and robots are now studied in a variety of subjects. When robots are used for teaching, they are often assigned a role with a social character appropriate for the intended learning activity. This study focuses on a learning activity where a child plays a digital mathematics game together with a social robot in a middle school classroom. The activity is based on the idea of learning-by-teaching, where the robot has been designed as a tutee and the child is assigned the role of tutor. Through interviews and questionnaires, the children’s, and the teacher's experiences of the learning activity were captured. How does the social robot perform as a tool for teaching and learning? How should the activity be organized and how should the teacher act?

    The study shows that the children think that the robot can express itself verbally and ask appropriate questions. They experience it as a social and fun co-player. However, the robot has several limitations, where difficulties in verbal communication are the most characteristic, such as language recognition, timing, and strange comments. In addition, children react negatively to the robot losing attention to the child and not being able to play the game properly. Moreover, the children think that the activity can be carried out both individually and in groups but consider that the teacher must be in the classroom to explain the activity and above all, to support the child-robot interaction both verbally and technically.

    In many ways, the teacher expresses similar thoughts as the children. The robot engages students and through its questions, the robot makes them reflect and communicate mathematics. As the robot gives students continuous responses, students become more persistent in their learning. The teacher also mentions problems with verbal child-robot communication. The students need to speak loud and clear with reasonably long sentences and the right timing. In addition, the teacher experiences technical problems, such as the players losing contact with each other.

    The teacher considers the activity challenging to carry out in a classroom partly because background noise interferes with the robot interaction and partly because the activity is not suitable for all students. The teacher also mentions the importance of introducing the game and declaring the purpose of the activity, since it may be hard for students to focus on the game and the robot simultaneously. If using the activity in teaching, the teacher imagines that [s]he needs to support the child-robot interaction, i.e., repeat and explain the robot's questions and help the child with what, how, and when to answer the robot. Besides, the teacher may also help with mathematics and encourage strategies and detailed explanations. Unlike the children, the teacher thinks that the activity enables opportunities for assessment of the playing students.

    Finally, the study also revealed some ethical dilemmas with using social robots in educational contexts. It was partly about renegotiating prevailing social norms and partly about the deception of assigning a tool human characteristic. Together with the technical and didactic experiences of teaching and learning with social robots, the study provided an insight into a[n] [in]possible future.

  • 123.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lära tillsammans genom digitala medier2022In: Använd rummet: högskolepedagogiska metoder för aktiva lärosalar / [ed] Veronica Alfredsson, Noomi Asker, Christel Backman & Sara Uhnoo, Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 127-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Teaching with social robots2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The school's digitalization is an ongoing process that brings new didactic opportunities, but also challenges. Social educational robots entail a complex teaching situation and affect the teacher's role, actions, and responsibilities in the classroom. Through observations in an authentic classroom context, this thesis aims to provide a nuanced and realistic picture of how teaching with social robots can unfold. Social educational robots have previously been explored in different educational contexts, but few studies shed light on the teacher role. Nor is it discussed what new aspects of digital competence become important when teaching with educational technologies that exhibit social behaviour. This thesis studies teacher actions and intended actions in a learning activity where a child collaborates with a social educational robot. In the activity, the robot is designed to act as a learning companion (tutee), the child acts as a teacher (tutor), and sometimes a few peers participate. The study is based on video observations of teachers' dialogues and behaviours in this learning activity, and a total of 25 hours of recorded video material has been analysed. The observations are supplemented with interviews, workshops, and questionnaires, where more teachers reflect on teaching with social robots.

    The result shows that social educational robots may contribute to relevant learning situations but also introduce new teacher roles, bringing additional challenges. The teacher's most prominent role in this learning activity is as an interaction mentor, in which the teacher assists the verbal and non-verbal interaction between the child and the robot, such as verbal communication fluency, explaining the robot's behaviour to the child, and maintaining attention.The result also identifies challenges that may emerge if social educational robots are used for teaching and learning. One of these challenges is due to the teacher relating to the robot as a didactic tool as well as a social actor, interchangeably. This duality causes conflicts in the teacher's actions, as the two perspectives call for different behaviours. The thesis also shows that using social educational robots entails new demands for adequate digital competence.

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  • 125.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    New Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Robots and Artificial Intelligence: How Teachers’ Programming Knowledge Could Affect Future Educational Technology2020In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 3475-3483Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational Robots (ER) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are rapidly evolving to meet the challenges that characterize school environments. The direction in which these emerging technologies will develop, and the effect they finally have on schools, will partially be shaped by how scholars and practitioners imagine future education. A recent study about the views of teachers and educational researchers regarding the use of ER and AI for learning purposes highlighted this issue [1]. This study revealed that, beside an urgent need for teacher professional development, the participants were concerned about human interrelations, individualization, educational management and ethics. However, both groups showed a rudimentary understanding of the differences between these two technologies. More importantly, there seemed to be a gap in the way teachers and researchers in that study approached new technologies in education. Whereas for teachers the purpose of technology was to enhance current teaching processes, for researchers, technology had a deeper transformational potential. Since then, a large national program aiming at increasing schoolteachers’ computational thinking and coding skills has been put into practice at several Swedish universities to support the introduction of computer programming in the K-12 curriculum. To account for these new developments, we wanted to investigate how these teacher professional development programs could reflect on upcoming school technologies. University teachers in charge of the programming courses could provide insightful information about how ER and AI can mold future school practices since they represent an entrance point for teachers into these technologies. Delegates from several universities involved in the development of programming courses for K-12 teachers were therefore invited to give their vision of a future classroom. In order to compare with the previous study, seventeen university teachers were also asked to imagine a teaching situation in a school in which a) social robots and b) robots with artificial intelligence, were a reality. They were further requested to reflect upon which challenges and possibilities could emerge when using ER and AI in post-digital K-12 education. Which differences appear relevant compared to the participants in the previous study? The analysis showed that the university teachers participating in our study coincide in pointing out potential gains in individualizing teaching and relieving teachers from routine tasks. Our informants adhered to the position of schoolteachers and did not predict any fundamental transformations in the current teaching practices. Unique for our participants was their ability to discern between ER and AI and that, while they were largely sceptic toward the cognitive benefits of a physical robot, they trusted the software to achieve similar results in a traditional computer. Given the premises in this investigation “future teachers that already knew how to program”, the participants in our study did not suggest further need for professional development, which contrasts with the prevalent opinion in the previous study. If university teachers believe that programming knowledge is enough to bridge the competence gap, and they do not expect any radical transformation in education, maybe ER and AI could be fully integrated in the teaching practice more easily than it was predicted earlier

  • 126.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    New Teacher Roles With Social Robots as Actors in the Classroom2020In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 6636-6644Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are entering the classrooms and provide new opportunities for education. Educational robots can either be used for programming, or as new types of social actors where these robots are designed to play different roles such as teachers, tutors, peers or tutees. However, new social actors affect the scene for learning by altering the social dynamics in the classroom, which in turn affects the roles of the other actors. In this study we explore the role of teachers in robot-enhanced classrooms, and ask the question: What new teacher roles emerge when robots enter the classroom as social actors? In this study we explore a setting where a student plays an educational mathematics game together with a humanoid robot on an interactive whiteboard, guided and supported by teachers and peers from the class. Four classes of school children in 2nd and 41h grade participated and played for about 5 minutes each. The game playing sessions were video-recorded, and 32 sessions were randomly selected, transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using Interaction Analysis. Situations in which the teacher acted were analyzed to investigate when and why the teacher intervened and what types of support that was provided to the student. Results show that the teacher took several roles during the sessions. Traditional roles include moderator organizing the learning and managing social interactions as well as educator supporting the student’s learning by scaffolding mathematical problems and game-playing strategies. In addition, the teacher had to act technical facilitator handling problems and challenges with using the robot, and the role as interaction mentor guiding and supporting the student to manage the social interaction with the robot. The latter two roles are challenging and unfamiliar to most teachers. We conclude that using robots as social actors in education introduce new, challenging teacher roles requiring substantial and specific digital competence.

  • 127.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    The dual role of humanoid robots in education: As didactic tools and social actors2022In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of using social robots for teaching and learning has become increasingly prevalent and robots are assigned various roles in different educational settings. However, there are still few authentic studies conducted over time. Our study explores teachers’ perceptions of a learning activity in which a child plays a digital mathematics game together with a humanoid robot. The activity is based on the idea of learning-by-teaching where the robot is designed to act as a tutee while the child is assigned the role of a tutor. The question is how teachers perceive and talk about the robot in this collaborative child-robot learning activity? The study is based on data produced during a 2-years long co-design process involving teachers and students. Initially, the teachers reflected on the general concept of the learning activity, later in the process they participated in authentic game-play sessions in a classroom. All teachers’ statements were transcribed and thematically coded, then categorized into two different perspectives on the robot: as a social actor or didactic tool. Activity theory was used as an analytical lens to analyze these different views. Findings show that the teachers discussed the activity’s purpose, relation to curriculum, child-robot collaboration, and social norms. The study shows that teachers had, and frequently switched between, both robot-perspectives during all topics, and their perception changed during the process. The dual perspectives contribute to the understanding of social robots for teaching and learning, and to future development of educational robot design.

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  • 128.
    El Alaoui, Hassan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Söderling, Linn
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur påverkar dark patterns användarvänligheten inom e-handel: En studie om på vilka sätt dark patterns påverkar användarvänligheten inom e-handeln2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dark patterns are techniques used in web design to trick the user into doing things they didn’t mean or wanted to do in the first place. In this study we investigate how dark patterns affect the usability in the e-commerce area. We do this with a qualitative study, by observing the participants when shopping and navigating on e-commerce websites. This is also followed up by an interview. We focus on which dark patterns can be identified and how these affect the user. The patterns we could find were Visual Interference, Misdirection, Activity Message, Pressured Selling, Hard to Cancel, HiddenCost, Testimonials, Low-stock messages, Countdown Timer and Forced Enrollment. Our conclusion from this study is that dark patterns partly affect the usability, but not according to the user. We could see this since they were exposed for several darkpatterns, however according to them the usability in the websites were good to excellent.

  • 129.
    El-Far, Abdulkader
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hassan, Fahmi
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Acceptans av Artificiell intelligens inom sjukvård: Sjukvårds studenters acceptans kring AI inom sjukvård2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificiell intelligens is one of the most interesting techniques in modern time. The aim of this study is to examine how the acceptance towards AI is when talking about healthcare students. What has being used to research this, is a quantitative study using a survey. In addition to this a few hypotheses were created to examine if they correspond with reality. The survey consisted of 60 participants who are studying to be doctors, nurses or biomedical analytics, in Gothenburg University and University West. The result of this study analyses the elements that affect the acceptance of AI. This study shows that there is a connection between reliance and acceptance of AI, while there is no statistical significance between sex and age there by they do not affect the acceptance of AI.

  • 130.
    Emilsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Josefsson, Rasmus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    En studie om intern kommunikation i distribuerad agil systemutveckling med tvärfunktionella utvecklarteam2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the help of a qualitative approach and by means of semi structured interviews, this study investigated how distributed agile system development affects the internal communication between cross-functional teams. The interviews are conducted with staff who work in IT-projects with distributed agile teams.

    The result of the study shows that there are challenges in the form of technical problems during meetings over the Internet, misunderstandings and a higher probability of inaccurate comprehension regarding team members tasks. Secondly, it seems that, unlike similar earlier studies, cultural differences and language barriers were not a major problem. Thirdly, unlike earlier studies, it emerged despite the well-functioning infrastructure problematic moments in the form of human factors.

    At the end of this study, we propose that there is a need for continued research in order to explore the contexts in which the human factors affect distributed agile teams.

  • 131.
    Eriksson, Felix
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Isoaho, Simon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kritiska framgångsfaktorer avseende samarbete i agila utvecklingsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många agila utvecklingsprojekt misslyckas att leverera och blir försenade på grund av en snabbt skiftande marknad där projekt förändras under tidens gång. De faktorer som påverkar individer och dess samarbete inom ett agilt utvecklingsprojekt är därtill otydliga.

    Denna studies mål var därför att utreda vilka kritiska framgångsfaktorer som finns gällande individer och dess samarbete i ett agilt utvecklingsprojekt.

    Kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts med individer som arbetar inom agila utvecklingsprojekt på stora verksamheter i Sverige. Detta för att kunna kartlägga vad som är viktigt för att lyckas med implementationen och användandet av den agila utvecklingsmetoden.

    Intervjuernas resultat kunde brytas ner in i tre kategorier som har en påverkan för att lyckas med utvecklingsprojektet: produktion, personer och samarbete samt arbetsmiljö. Analysen, baserat på intervjuerna och tidigare forskning inom agila utvecklingsmetoder och samarbete i utvecklingsprojekt, visar att kommunikation är den viktigaste påverkande faktorn. Graden av bra kommunikation inom och utanför projektet är en stor faktor till att en projektgrupp kan ha ett agilt och flexibelt arbetssätt som kan förändras i takt med att utvecklingsprojektet pågår. Därtill visar även studiens resultat att val av kommunikationsverktyg är en viktig faktor för ett bra samarbete mellan individerna.

  • 132.
    Eriksson, Thommy
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Institutionen för industriell organisation och ekonomi.
    Andersson, Sven
    Chalmers tekniska högskola Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    Desktop VR and Filmmaking: a case study of how web3D models and chat can be used in the product design process2004In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Cancun, Mexico, 2004, Vol. 58Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Eriksson, Thommy
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Andersson, Sven
    Chalmers tekniska högskola Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    The Computer Mediated Movie Producer: Leadership in Online Collaborative Communities2004In: Proceeding of Winter Internationals Symposium on Information and Communication, Cancun, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Ernstsson, Helen
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Relationen mellan spelare och karaktärer inom onlinespel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is there is a relationship between the player and the character the player use when playing online games? Why does a player pick his character? Does the player affect its character, and does the character in turn affects the player? Does this impact exist from the very moment the player creates their character and does it continues throughout the game? And how does this impact look? Would a player pay with real money to make their character look good in the game?

    I have chosen to dig deeper into this and interviewed players about their thoughts on their character and how they create them. I chose the online game Tera Online to start from. I want to bring up the player's actions by the character and the player's experience in the gaming world to helps us understand how a player takes their decisions and affect its character. How the player sees himself against his own made up character and if the player chooses to reflect himself in his character or any other character that the player wants to be. In this work I have done interviews describing the relationship between the player and the player's character. I describe different concepts in the subject and also the player's interactions and observations when they play online games. The result shows that there is a relationship between the player and the character and discusses how it may look. It shows that the attractiveness and social status affects the player's choice of the character. And that it may improve if the player changes the clothes and appearance to something fancier. It also shows that the social and teamwork in online games meet the player's needs and satisfaction of playing.

  • 135.
    Estifanos, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Modiri, Omid
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ungdomars syn, erfarenheter och upplevelser av nätmobbning: intervjuundersökning av gymnasielever2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med det ökade internetanvändandet bland ungdomar har tillväxten av nätmobbning ökat. Studiens syfte är att få kunskap om problemet genom att använda sig av ungdomar som kunskapskälla. En individuell intervjuundersökning genomfördes där ungdomarna beskrev sin syn, upplevelser och erfarenheter om nätmobbning för att få en förståelse kring problemet och vad man kan göra för att förhindra det. Empirin har samlats in genom kvalitativa intervjuer där tolv svenska gymnasielever deltagit. Det framgick att anonymitet är en stor faktor till varför nätmobbning ökat men möjligheten till att kunna vara anonym får ungdomar att agera och skriva saker de vanligtvis inte hade gjort. Ungdomar använder ett grövre språk, och accepterar mer på Internet än vad de hade gjort i verkliga livet.Eleverna saknar säkerhetstänk på Internet, de ser Internet som en arena utan lagar och regler där man inte behöver stå för sina handlingar. Det finns inga konsekvenser av ens handlingar på Internet, vilket resulterar i att det är svårt att dra en gräns för hur långt man kan gå med nätmobbning. Grupptryck är även en faktor till varför nätmobbning ökar bland ungdomar då det är viktigt att passa in bland ungdomar. Det framgår även att ungdomarna hade önskat att vuxna i skolan hade engagerat sig mer för att förhindra nätmobbning.

  • 136.
    Fili, Saman
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Murguz, Amar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sociala mediers framgång; en potentiell fara för personlig integritet: En kvalitativ studie kring studenters inställningar till och medvetenhet kring personlig integritet samt sociala medier.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become pervasive technology that deeply penetrates the everyday of its users and studies have shown that especially students have a hard time imagining life without social media. With regards to this, social media exposes its users to threats to privacy and with it comes the debate of privacy concerns. Personal data has become the means with which users pay to be able to use social media. This side of social media offers a discreet but wellfunctioning datamining process wheras the more obvious side entails amusement, agility, social relations and such. From a privacy perspective, datamining becomes problematic where threats to privacy are being experienced. With this background, the underlying study examines personal integrity and how it is affected by social media usage. More specifically, students' attitudes regarding privacy and social media is examined based on Alan Westins theory. Students differ in age but come together in lives of the students as there are similarities in stress and pressure. This, with earlier research showing a need for online presence entail students to become an interesting target. The research question is answered qualitatively where interview where conducted with ten students from Högskolan Väst. Based on these interviews, empirical data was gathered, analyzed and discussed. The study showed that the majority of respondents were pragmatic in their approach to social media and prefer therefore to have control over the spreading of their information. They like to decide who gets to see what. The conclusion is that students' personal integrity is threatened by their use of social media as the study showed a lack of knowledge in the fact that their data is being used and spread to third parties

  • 137.
    Fischer, Gerhard
    et al.
    University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, (USA).
    Lundin, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    The challenge for the digital age: making learning a part of life2023In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main argument behind this paper is learning in the digital age should not be restricted to creating digital infrastructures for supporting current forms of learning nor taking schools in their current form as God-given, natural entities, but changing current forms of education by developing new frameworks and socio-technical environments for making learning an integral part of life. The authors provide a framework for this argumentation as well as a call-to-action for research on the co-evolution of learning, media, and learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper theoretically and argumentatively explores the core assumption that the digitalization of society results in challenges and opportunities for learning and education based on fundamental transformations (Collins and Halverson, 2009; Fischer et al., 2020). Findings: The digital age greatly enhances the opportunities and supports the necessity for “making learning a part of life”. But while the growth of technology is certain, the inevitability of any particular future is not. The impact of schooling goes beyond that new information about computers, the Internet, and social media are integrated into the schools of today. The transformation of schools needs to be informed by an understanding of the impact of mindset formation that will determine people’s approach to learning for the rest of their lives. The authors’ framework is focused on moving “beyond gift-wrapping” by not only fixing and existing systems but to change them and not only reforming but transforming them. Originality/value: It is the authors’ hope that this article will be of interest to many stakeholders (including learners, teachers, curriculum designers, technology experts, parents, and politicians) and provide a foundation for an ongoing debate and informed actions for “Making Learning a Part of Life” in the digital age. © 2022, Gerhard Fischer, Johan Lundin and Ola J. Lindberg.

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    fulltext
  • 138.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Against users2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. (USB) / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen, IRIS , 2015, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the 50’s users has played a great role in the research aboutinformation systems. However, users have mainly been considered as operators of the information system or as managers receiving the output. In this article I argue that users are not operators but clerks performing their job. In the same way as I’m a driver and not a car user when I drive my car, the clerk is performing the work, not using an information system. Knowing how to use the information system the clerk produces useful inform ation without paying any specific attention to the artifact. This perspective put certain demands on the designer of the artifacts, in fact (s)he should be a meta-designer, providing the clerks with useful tools for designing their own workflows

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    fulltext
  • 139.
    Flensburg, Per
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Den stora tankestriden inom informatik: en idéhistoriskanalys2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of informatics, was initially development of computer-based information systems based on mathematical/logical perspective. In mid-1970s, some doctoral students stated that use of these systems should also be studied. Hence work content, work environment and power relations at the workplace should be studied. This cannot be done solely with mathematical/logical methods. Based on Ludwik Fleck's concepts of thought style and thought-collective, Kuhn's paradigm theory and Berger & Luckmann's knowledge sociology, some events taking place during the decade 1975-85 are analyzed and the concept of though tstruggle is introduced. My problem statement is:

    1. How can the conceptual idea within the informatics in Sweden during the period 1970-1985 be understood?

    2. Why did this happen just then?

    3. How does it fit into the other changes in society?

    The result is a description of the thought struggle, what triggered it and what it led to, and where the events have been placed within dimensions of time, positivism and philosophy.

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    fulltext
  • 140.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Introducing e-learning in municipal contact centers: a Swedish case study2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    IT and the new society: from XML to Habermas2011In: Challenges for the Future in an ICT Context: ... for Stig / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Sundsvall: Dep. of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University , 2011, 1, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Flod, Nicholas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kajdic, Eldin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designriktlinjer för att anpassa Augmented Reality-applikationer till högskoleutbildningar: Att anpassa användningen av Augmented Reality-applikationer till högskoleutbildningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As technology keeps evolving, new ways to access information begin to emerge. A subject that recently has received more attention is Augmented Reality (AR), which can be explained as a reality enhanced with virtual information. Using AR for educational purposes is something that recently has started to gain attention, which has created a greater demand for AR-applications that can be used in higher educations. As the subject is relatively new, there are yet no clear design guidelines and principles to be followed when developing these types of applications. To create successful AR-applications with good usability, it is vital that developers follow design guidelines and mainly focus on the needs of the application's users.

    This thesis aims to answer the research question "which design guidelines should be followed when developing AR-applications for higher education?".

    To be able to answer this question, this thesis has collected data by exploring a wide range of previous research consisting of a combination of AR, Design and Higher education. The reasoning behind why a literature study was conducted was to acquire knowledge of how AR-applications are being used at present time, as well as finding already existing design guidelines that may be applicable to the end result of this thesis. This thesis was later backed up by user observations and interviews with purpose of collecting empirical data to further amplify the final design guidelines. Previous research found that a lack of user experience related AR-studies has led to insufficient information on both evaluating and designing AR-applications for educational purposes. The creation of AR-applications for higher education is relatively new, which means that there are no direct guidelines for what is right or wrong in terms of design. The research also found that customizing the applications to multiple platforms, making rewards systems, following certain design principles and keeping cultural differences in mind could lead to significantly improved results in terms of usability and user satisfaction.

    The results from the user observations and interviews imply that students are in need of in-app tests, clear instructions, intelligible interfaces and immediate feedback, as user AR-application interfaces sometimes can be confusing, resulting in frustrated students. By following the proposed design guidelines, this study may benefit developers who intend to create AR-applications to be used in higher education.

  • 143.
    Forsman, Berit
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Obeid, Ayman
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Breddinförande av e-handelinom omsorgsförvaltningen i Trollhättan2021In: Organisering, implementering och användning av välfärdsteknologi: Resultat från eTeam-projektet / [ed] Ann Svensson, Camilla Gjellebæk, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2021, p. 55-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Forssell, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mattsson, Sarah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Användbarhet och tillgänglighet: En kvantitativ studie av svenska kommuners webbplatser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability and accessibility are two important dimensions of a website. Accessibility refers to how easy users with disabilities can access website content, while usability refers to how effective and efficient a webpage is to use for all users, with and without disabilities. The main objective of this research is to analyze the usability and accessibility aspects of selected Swedish municipalities' websites and evaluate whether higher levels of usability are associated with higher levels of accessibility. The study examined the home pages of 40 municipalities' websites. The usability assessment of the websites was conducted with a revised heuristic checklist consisting of 43 questions. Accessibility assessment was conducted using two automated analysis tools, WAVE and TAW. The correlation between the different aspects of usability and the four main principles of availability was calculated. The results showed that all the evaluated websites to some degree, had usability problems and 35 out of 40 websites showed accessibility issues. The analysis also showed significant relationships between some of the usability aspects and some of the accessibility principles. These findings indicate that an improvement of websites accessibility may result in increased usability and vice versa. 

  • 145.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle, Sverige.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jaldemark, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Sverige.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Lundin, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Applied Information Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Öberg, Lena-Msrie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för data- och systemvetenskap, Sverige.
    On the Swedish national graduate school for digital technologies in education - GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctoral students and supervisors2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, Sevilla, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors

  • 146.
    Fred, William
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kannerholt, Filip
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur central är säkerheten när man surfar på molnen?: En komparativ studie mellan offentlig och privat sektor i arbetet med säkerhet- och integritet i molntjänster2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, almost all businesses operate in a rapidly changing technological environment due to the changes that are being driven by digitalization. Digitalization includes a technology-based transformation of organizations, products, services, business processes and IT-architecture.The development has contributed to a shift in the IT-world from internally generated computer power to more tool-based computer resources, such as services over the Internet,also called cloud services.

    Cloud services are a growing paradigm and lead to new discussions about security and integrity. The study aims to compare the transition of the public and private sectors to cloud services. The survey also intends to take a closer look at how security and integrity aspects affect the two sectors' views on the concept of processing and storing data in cloud services.The study was based on a qualitative method, and through semi-structured interviews with respondents from both cloud service providers and consumer businesses collected relevant data. The study uses the framework for technology-organization-environment (TOE) to empirically examine differences in how the two sectors relate to security and integrity in cloud services. The results indicate that cloud service providers have come a long way in the work around IT-security technically. Today, secure and efficient cloud services are offered with good scalability, and most people today fairly agree that cloud service providers have better knowledge, capacity and resources to actually handle security than the organizations themselves (technology). Competence within organizations is also an important factor that plays a role in the security and integrity of the cloud services (organization). Finally, the r esults show that the public sector differs from the private sector in the level of sensitive data that is stored and handled, which means that it is tightly controlled by legislation. Thus, the public sector has a higher set of requirements for how data is handled, which means that one needs to relate to security and integrity at a higher level (environment).

  • 147.
    Fredriksson, Lina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Herngren, Lina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kroppsaktivister på Instagram: En semiotisk innehållsstudie kring hur fem utvalda kroppsaktivister förhåller sig till köns- och skönhetsnormer på Instagram2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the West, a thin normative body is what many aim for. On social media, we are constantly shown others’ perfect lives and their perfect bodies. However, several studies show that social media contributes to mental illness and body hatred. Body activism has grown through publishing images outside the norm. The movement seeks to problematize and alter the body that the media repeatedly portrays. Social media enables multi-way communication where users themselves are involved in the creation of the content that is displayed. Body activists exploit this to express themselves as activists. Hence, they wish to contribute to a change that can benefit many. 

    A semiotic image analysis was conducted on a total of 15 images posted by five different body activists on Instagram. The analysis revealed that the majority of the activists break the norm of slimness but follow other norms such as classic female posing and an absent gaze. Some of the activists objectify themselves in several of the images, while others are more norm-neutral. While most of their content is norm-breaking regarding slimness, the content is rarely norm-breaking but instead follows the ingrained norms of how women should be portrayed in pictures.

  • 148.
    Fridolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hagberg, Elina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Påverkan av digitala läromedel hos högstadieelever: Kvalitativ studie avseende elevers åsikter kring digitala läromedels inverkan på elevernas motivation, engagemang och studieresultat2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how the learning is affected amongst middle school students through the use of digital learning materials. The study is based on students in the age of 13–15 and excludes teachers, principals and other actors. A qualitative study has been conducted where semi-structured interviews have been used as a method. The empirical data in the study consists of nine interviews with students who have experience on digital learning materials. The results of the study show that digital learning materials affect student learning but in various ways. The study shows that digital learning materials create the conditions to make the learning methods become various. The diversity in learning methods produces positive influence from students' point of views. Digital learning materials increase student motivation and commitment, which leads to better study results. The study showed that the majority of students preferred a mixture of traditional and digital learning materials, which should not be eliminated. An important finding is the relation between teacher capabilities in digital tools and learning opportunities for students. In several subjects, the teachers do not use digital learning materials due to the lack of competence, which generated the negative consequences for students. This decreases the diversity of learning methods which is considered as a crucial respect to enhance their learning.

  • 149.
    Fuentes, Ana
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kuchcinski, Krzysztof
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Graph matching constraints for synthesis with complex components2007In: 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (DSD 2007) / [ed] Hana Kubatova, Lubeck, Germany, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new method for high-level synthesis that enhances design flexibility, specialization and performance primarily conceived for programmable hardware. New programmable hardware devices often provide fast dedicated components that perform complex computations. Arbitrary complex computations can be efficiently extracted from the CDFG using our new graph matching constraint to produce final implementations that better suit the design to the targeted architecture. Our algorithm also reduces possible syntactic variances detecting semantically equivalent structures in the graph. This new graph matching constraint was integrated in our own Constraint Programming solver engine together with other constraints to naturally model the heterogeneous features present in the synthesis problem. The use of complex functional modules is taken into account in the optimization process during binding and scheduling yielding significantly shorter schedules and gains in terms of area and performance. We demonstrate our technique on a variety of HLS benchmarks and show that efficient design space exploration can be accomplished using this technique.

  • 150.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Practice beyond technology when programming and mathematics teaching converge2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how computer programming and mathematics teaching converge in the presence of a revised mathematics curriculum for upper secondary education. The focus is on the stratified policy strategies deployed by the institutions; how teachers tactically navigated the tensions and contradictions that arose in their everyday teaching; and how these tactics later consolidated in practice.

    The empirical data for the study consists of two iterations of individual interviews with nine mathematics teachers who were already proficient inprogramming at the onset of the reform. The teachers’ unit plans and other programming activities, were used as starting points for in-depth discussions about their professional practices. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the context, the author also examined relevant policy documents, including the mathematics curriculum, official guidelines, and a collection of programming exercises and demonstrations provided by the Agency for Education.

    Along with these documents, the official strategies were also informed by the explicit decisions and implicit outcomes surrounding the National Exams. By analyzing teachers’ tactics and policy strategies, the thesis sheds light on the ways in which teachers adapted to the new curriculum and the challenges lenges they faced in integrating programming into their mathematics instruction.

    This research aims to contribute to a critical understanding of the complex relationship between curriculum reforms, teacher practices, and the integration of programming in mathematics education. When mathematics teachers started integrating computer programming into their subject, two tactical approaches became evident: dual teaching and interspersed programming. The teacher’s proclivity to implement dual teaching practices or interspersed programming are tactics shaped by and in response to the conditions of the new curriculum and their own preferences and views on student learning. These two tactics disclose different ontological commitments in relation to the strategies dictated by the curriculum and reflect a cardinal distinction between planning mathematics activities with elements of programming and planning programming activities with elements of mathematics. Of relevance for teachers and curriculum designers is the understanding of (a)how the notion of programming and mathematics as separate subjects oversimplifies teachers’ actual integration practices, and (b) how the curricular choices made by policy can shape the teaching tactics adopted by educators.

    Gradually, both the surrounding constraints and the reasons behind them evolved, rising new practices. The second iteration of interviews was designed to unveil the consequences of latter curricular constraints and delve into the teachers’ practices as they change over time. Teachers’ initial resolutions, trials and experiments with programming in mathematics are sometimes reinforced by means of perseverance and the teachers’ mature reflectionson their past experiences. Other tactics need to be refined or updated and yet some are discarded. Along this distinction, relevant categories emerged that illustrate the processes behind consolidated practices in the presence of new technologies. Furthermore, the thesis provides a discussion on how this transition is characterized by acceptance of new practices rather than acceptance of new technologies.

    Recognizing these aspects can guide educators and curriculum designers towards a better understanding of the complexities and nuances involved in integrating programming into mathematics education. This understanding can inform more effective teaching practices and curriculum development that support meaningful integration and promote students’ learning in mathematics with the help of programming.

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