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  • 101.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centers: A Slower Approach towards Sustainable Local Development2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2011, 1, p. 111-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The constitutional local autonomy of Swedish municipalities aims to relate democracy and public administration to local distinctiveness. It relies on the idea of subsidiarity and rests on the idea of a local common and the citizen’s own inter-pretation of common problems and activities. This gives a unique opportunity to develop Swedish municipalities as slow cities. In Sweden there are some local food initiatives focusing on local and traditional production, hospitality and delivering. However, to live slow is also about how, where and when everyday life take place. This in spite of that all municipalities have explicit sustainability policies. A reason for this could be the dominating discourse of welfare efficiency, production and growth.

       One of the most recent approach to keep up the image as well as the practice of Sweden as a sustainable but still efficient, fast and well-organized state is e-government. The high Internet penetration among Swedes opens for as well as asks for improved and developed governmental services on-line. In Sweden, a recent governmental action plan stresses the importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to effectively develop the Swedish public administration with the aim to ”make it as simple as possible for as many as possible” leading to improved accessibility for all citizens. This has led to that public municipal contact centers have been established. Contacts centers are both physical and on-line. E-government could be considered as fast government, but in this paper we will try to turn that obvious first impression up-side down. We will conceptual argue that municipal contact centers are a tool towards improved sustainability, localism and slowing up administration.

       Thus there are two main implications of contact centers, they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice. This strives to provide a ‘holistic’ approach of the individual in relation to the governmental administration. The conclusions of the paper are a double modeling. Firstly, we point out the implications of time-geographical modeling of slow processes. Secondly, we place e-government and contact centers in this model. Policy implications relate both to the conceptualization of slow processes and the potential to further develop municipal contact centers.

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    Bernhard I_Wihlborg E Municipal Contact Centers abstract
  • 102.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 288-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneursand through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipalcontact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper buildson qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and documentanalysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Localpolicies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economicstructures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actorsto combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified boththeoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issueentrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a singleproblem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core valuesand long term structural changes. The emerging networked governancestructure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both foranalytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide usefulinformation for municipal e-government planning specifically when planningfor implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature onpolicy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts.

  • 103.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Trust in Secure Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 241-262Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Providing e-services on the Internet and using other forms of information and communication technologies are basic components of e-government. E-services as such are innovations – even if the service itself existed before – as they are a new way of producing and organizing the service. For secure use and successful implementation of innovations in public contexts, the innovation must be considered legitimate and related to policies.

       The European Union and all other levels of government form policies, which are translated among the various levels to manage the useful, secure praxis of e-services. Translation in organisational terms takes place across governmental levels in the multi-level governance chain and secondarily from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration relies on a dual steering approach, with strong, constitutionally mandated regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced onto regional and local public agencies. Instead, European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context, and their implications rely on local uptake in the specific setting and on the competencies of the professionals in local public administration. 

       Since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice, our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation allows inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight translations both across levels in multi-level settings and as constructions of meanings of security. The conclusion is that the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 104.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 141-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

  • 105.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    23 years of the Uddevalla Symposium 1998-20202020Report (Other academic)
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  • 106.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

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  • 107.
    Bernhardsson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andersson, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fictional President and Representations of Race in Hollywood Film2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to add knowledge to recent changes in representation of black and white fictional presidents, how they differ from one another and from the ideal presidential traits. The ideal presidential traits are based on previous research on real-life presidents and will provide the basis for the analytical framework that has been developed for this study. In order to fulfill this aim we have constructed a comparative case study that compares films from the second half of the 1990s with films from the 2010s. The films from each time period contains one white and one black fictional presidents and are all part of the action genre. The study shows that while fictional presidents in the 1990s were focused on politics the fictional presidents of today are instead created to be characters of action films with much less emphasis on the politics. Despite this change black fictional presidents have moved closer to the ideal traits while white fictional presidents have moved further away from them. White presidents have become more aggressive and unable to control themselves while the black presidents are now shown as funny characters with a more profane language than previously

  • 108.
    Bertilsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Kinnmark, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Reflecting 'Reality': Ownerships impact on framing news media content2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ownership in media have according to previous studies a central role of what content that is produced. Interests of owners have been shown in the actual media content, interests such as economic and ideological agendas. Financial contributors can have an impact on media content.

    To examine if ownership matters, the comparison is of two news outlets both on the conservative side, where one is independent, and the other is owned by a political party. The news outlets are Samtiden and Svenska Dagbladet. To analyze the news reports, the chosen frames of unemployment, cultural values and crime were examined to understand how the news outlets frame 'reality' and how ownership matters in that context.

    This thesis aims to compare the framing of media content of two newspapers, one owned by a political party (Samtiden, owned by the Sweden Democrats) and one privately owned (Svenska Dagbladet).

    The thesis concludes that the framing of 'reality' in Samtiden is about foreign-born being a threat to the Swedish society. 'Reality' is framed in SvD as a secular, equal society with some challenges. This thesis shows that a newspaper owned by a political party frames 'reality' in favor of their political agenda in contrast to an independent newspaper.

  • 109.
    Bezaghian, Omid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Rezaee, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Professionals within Emergency Management: A qualitative study on the role of professionals in Swedish emergency management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has its starting point in the Swedish emergency management system so to analyse how the role of the professionals has been constructed based on official policies documents. More specifically the aim of this thesis has been to analyse the role of professionals before, and after the reformations of emergency management, with the help of theoretical management doctrines of governance and managerialism. A clear gap has been identified in previous public administration studies, where the effect of reforms on professionals within public administrations has been left out, especially within emergency management. The study is divided into two parts. Firstly, it examines how Swedish emergency management policies have been formulated generally and how they have changed due to reformations. Secondly, when the organizational model is indicated, the role of the professionals has comparatively before and after reformations of emergency management been analysed, in relation to professionals’ autonomy and expertise. The approach of a qualitative comparative case study has been employed, where two cases explicitly have been analysed and compared. The findings of this study have shown that the reformations of emergency management have to some extent shifted the role of the professional towards managerialism values. However, the changes for the professionals have not been very significant.

  • 110.
    Bilemdgian, Vanini
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rahme, Antonio
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Exploring Sectarianism Through Voting Behavior: Exploring the Causal Relationship Between Sectarianism and Human Security Levels in North Lebanon in Contrast to the Lebanese Diaspora in the Emirates2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sectarianism involves governance and two factions fighting over politics, religion, and culture. Depending on the political atmosphere and which of her groups is more dominant, prejudice, discrimination, or hostility might occur. This is a severe issue to be tackled, particularly in Lebanon which raises the need for its exploration under a selected factor which is the human security level. Accordingly, this research aims to explore the tendency toward sectarianism among Lebanese people in two geographical areas taking into consideration the human security level in each region: North Lebanon, which has a generally lower level of human security, and the Emirate, which has higher security levels. Moreover, the study uses voting behavior to measure sectarianism relating this to the mentioned human security levels as a factor that affects people's propensity for sectarianism.The study employs a quantitative approach of a sample of 160 individuals, evenly split across regions was analyzed using frequency analysis. The study found that sectarian inclinations might be linked to the absence of human security in Lebanon and the necessity for Lebanese residents to find alternative sources for their fundamental needs, answering the research question. Future studies should concentrate on increasing human security in Lebanon to reduce sectarianism.

  • 111.
    Bohne, Eberhard
    et al.
    German Research Institute for Public Administration, Speyer.
    Karlsson, CharlieUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Repositioning Europe and America for Growth. The Role of Governments and Pri­vate Actors in Key Policy Areas2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Bom, Elin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Definitionen av integration: En intervjustudie av hur nyanlända och deras infödda svenska arbetsgivare definierar begreppet integration2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how native Swedish citizens’ and immigrating Syrian citizens define the concept of integration. To give the definition a practical turn, the interviewees are asked to explain their role in the integration process as well as explaining how they believe the other part in the integration process are defining the concept of integration. Thereby it is possible to understand how both groups define the concept and how they look upon the responsibility distribution in the process. The very aim of the thesis is to compare whether there are any differences in how Swedish citizens’ and immigrating Syrian citizens define the concept of integration.

    The thesis is designed as a descriptive, qualitative, comparative study, based on semistructural interviews with strategically selected Swedish citizens’ and immigrating Syrian citizens. It takes its departure in theories of discourse and hermeneutics and it is argued that due to the history of the Swedish integration politics, where integration has been defined in different ways, integration should belong to the category of essentially contested concepts. Four major theoretical definitions of integration are identified - integration as multiculturalism, transculturalism, one-sided preservation of culture, and assimilation – and are used to analyse the answers of the respondents.

    The study shows that there is no unified version of a definition for neither of the groups. However, what the both groups has in common is that they initially explain the integration process as a one-sided process; it is the immigrants who should in first hand integrate by learning the structures of the society and the Swedish norms.

  • 113.
    Bonander, Fanny
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Öhgren, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    THE SWEDEN DEMOCRAT’S IMAGE STRUGGLE: A comparative textual analysis of the differences and similarities in ideological presentation and framing of the Sweden Democrats by Dagens Nyheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse what traces there are of social conservatism and right-wing populism in how the Sweden Democrats presents, and Dagens Nyheter frames the Sweden Democrats ideology on immigration issues. The theory chapter explains the ideologies; social conservatism and right-wing populism which are further used in the analysis so as to trace where and how elements of the ideologies are present, or latent, in the research material within the SD’s promotional material and DN’s leading articles of the SD. To reach a result and answer to our research question we perform textual content analysis on the material. The study shows that the presented ideology of the SD differs from how DN frames the ideology. This is evident throughout the analysis as the ‘grey zone’ in which both ideologies coincide are often used by the SD so as to present themselves as social conservative while in the case of DN the ‘grey zone’ actions, statements, and suggestions of the SD are attributed towards right-wing populism.

  • 114.
    Borgedahl, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Eriksson, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Våldtäkt i Hollywoods krigsfilmer: Har representationen av orsaken till våldtäkt i krig ändrats i Hollywoods krigsfilmer mellan perioden före 1980-talet och den efter 1980-talet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to analyse and describe how the representation of the cause of rape in Hollywood combat movies has changed from the pre-1980's to the post-1980's. By doing this, we will contribute to a deeper understanding of how the perception of rape in society has changed, since the second wave of feminism, which has not been addressed before in studies of rape and media representation of rape. We will provide a description of how the cause of rape is represented in movies using evolutionary theory and social constructionist theory on rape, and compare movies from the pre-1980's and the post-1980's, which is the ending period of feminism's second wave. Film theory is also used in order to show that cinema reflects ideas and norms in society. This study uses a qualitative single case study to describe what causes rape according to Hollywood combat movies. By analysing Hollywood combat movies containing rape and sexual violence from the pre-1980's and the post-1980's, the study shows that the representation of the cause of rape has changed from evolutionary to social constructionist aspects of rape, which reflects how society's perception of the cause of rape has changed.    

  • 115. Borgendahl, Oscar Martin
    et al.
    Eriksson, Rasmus
    Inal, Tuba
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Rape in Hollywood Combat Movies: Representations of the Causes of Wartime Rape2018In: Rape Cultures and Survivors: An International Perspective / [ed] Inal, Tuba & Smith, Merril D., Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2018, p. 1-101-1-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Bossel, Niclas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gustavsson, Robert
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    What does the 'sustainable' in sustainable mobility stand for?: Framing of sustainability in the sustainable mobility debate in the Bundestag2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines sustainable mobility as a policy issue in a debate within the Bundestag. The purpose of this research is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the perspectives towards sustainability in the Bundestag. In practice, we investigate how "sustainability" is represented in the sustainable mobility debate in the Bundestag. This thesis finds that the debate protocol from the sustainable mobility debate in the Bundestag upon analysis revealed the perspectives towards sustainability present in the Bundestag. The two major perspectives we identify are pro-economic and environmentalist respectively. Our empirical results show that the ecological sustainability pillar of the "triple bottom-line" model receives the most attention in the Bundestag. Our analytical framework is a combination of two models; the "What is the problem represented to be?" and "triple bottom-line" approaches. The framework is used in conjunction with a qualitative content analysis from a social constructivist perspective. Our study enables future longitudinal research on this particular case.

  • 117.
    Bralic, Nikola
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ethnic identity and generalized trust in heterogenous environments: A comparative study in the Gothenburg region2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has studied two things, the first thing is to see if contact between different ethnic minorities but were the ethnic majority is absent has the same alleged positive effect on generalized trust as contact between ethnic minorities and the ethnic majority. The second issue is to see if people that have contact with people with other ethnic origin than themselves changed their perception of their ethnic identity and if that effects generalized trust. This was done by using theories of social constructivism and social capital were I had an inductive theoretical approach. The research design was comparative research design, comparing heterogeneous environments were there were different ethnic minorities but were the ethnic majority was absent to ethnic heterogeneous environments were there were different ethnic minorities but were the ethnic majority was present using semis structured interviews. What I found out is that contact did in deed effect how people perceived their ethnic identity but not always in the way that the theories suggested that they should. Age seemed to have an bigger effect on generalized trust then ethnic heterogeneity. Also ethnic identity did not directly effect generalized trust but that contact and ethnic identity did in some indirect way effect generalized trust because contact led people to believe that all people are the same no matter their ethnic identity.

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  • 118.
    Brodie, Ipeleng Pusetso
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The Perception of Harm when Conducting Qualitative Research on University Sites: A WIL Reflective Study from Vulnerable Groups of People2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, vulnerable groups (black women, women, women of colour, non-white women, immigrants, refugees, foreign nationals, and intersections of these) are faced with challenges that negatively affect their everyday life. One of these challenges is typically a lack of safety due to racism, marginalisation, exclusion, stereotypes, labelling, out-casting and being more susceptible to incidences of danger and/or harm. This study is a comparative study that explores the experiences of vulnerable group researchers in academic spaces across Sweden and South Africa.

    More specifically, the study compares vulnerable groups from Högskolan Väst (henceforthHV) in Sweden in the global north and from the University of the Western Cape (henceforth UWC) from South Africa in the global south. This comparison is framed through literature on safety, Work Integrated Learning (henceforth WIL), and vulnerable groups. With the aid of Critical Race Theory (henceforth CRT), a framework for analysis is developed around the concepts of overt racism, counter-storytelling, colour-blindness and micro-aggressions.

    The research conducted in this project has found data that vulnerable group researchers are more susceptible to incidences of racial or xenophobic harm despite being in and around proposed safe institutions. The findings from the research speak to incidences of harm experienced in the classroom, in the university, with student researchers and with fellow students in both Sweden and South Africa.

    The intentions that the findings have for WIL entail the need to make conscious considerations for the vulnerable group students it takes on and making their white counterparts aware of the safe environment that is needed. The findings show that if this is not done then vulnerable group students will be in a constant negative cycle of harm limiting them in their processes of learning and inclusion in the classroom, the university space, and the relations they have with their fellow students – this is inclusive of their respective internship hosts. This will in return allow vulnerable groups students to raise relative harmful issues that they experience and more.

  • 119.
    Bruzelius, Martina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Att leda både här och där: Chefers hantering av paradoxer i det hybrida arbetslivet2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Teleworking during the COVID-19-pandemic speeded up the digital transformation of work and the shift towards increased hybrid work. When full time work at a physical office is challenged as a norm, space efficient and flexible office solutions, for example activity-based working, can become more attractive to employers. Organisations of today are therefore managing two trends at the same time, on the one hand how to shape hybrid work in the “new normal” of today’s work life, on the other hand how to design future office solutions. Managers leading hybrid work need to balance work in the office with teleworking parallel with guidelines from the organisation and employees’ individual preferences. Hybrid work can entail inherent contradictions, paradoxes, to managers.

    The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge on how managers in the public sector lead and manage challenges with hybrid work in an activity-based office. A qualitative case study has been conducted through 14 semi-structured interviews with managers in one of Sweden’s largest municipalities, in which both hybrid work and activity-based working have been implemented after the pandemic.

    A theoretical model on paradoxical frameworks in hybrid work is in this study applied on managers leading employees in hybrid work. Using five paradoxical frameworks, work-life, remoteness-closeness, formal-informal, information-communication and control-trust, the study investigates how managers handle inherent contradictions in hybrid work through three different cognitive processes, integration, differentiation and polarisation.

    The study,shows that managers who lead hybrid work handle contradictions differently in each of the paradoxical frameworks. The results also showed connections between the paradoxical frameworks. The conclusion is that managers make balanced trade-offs between multiple paradoxical frameworks within the framework of the organisation’s guidelines for hybrid work and employees’ preferences. An integrated model för managers leading hybrid work is suggested which combine the paradoxical frameworks with the contradictions individual-group as well as organisation-group in order to avoid for example suboptimization in office use and to reach the goals with an activity based office. The study’s results also to a large extent confirm previous research on opportunities and challenges with teleworking in the context of hybrid work and activity-based work. 

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  • 120.
    Brülde, Bengt
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Om global rättvisa2010In: Filosofisk tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 3-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Camerlynck, Alexandre
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Al-Heibi, Mouhamad
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Media framing of terrorist attacks: An insight on how Le Monde and Al-Jazeera framed the perpetrators and the victims in the Charlie Hebdo attack.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Media plays a significant role in people’s daily life, as it is the first lens through which people see events and phenomena happening worldwide. This research aims to investigate how Al-Jazeera (AJ) and Le Monde (LM) portray and frame the victims and perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo attack on the 7th of January 2015. The process of framing and representation are investigated as to whether there are similarities and/or differences in the identities of victims and perpetrators between AJ and LM. Adopting a social constructivist perspective and by using Entman’s framing theory, along with both social representation theory and social identity theory. A qualitative content analysis is conducted. The findings indicate certain similarities in how these two media outlets frame the victims and the perpetrators of the terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo such as arguing that the perpetrators’ action does not represent Islam. Both medias also try to create a certain level of proximity with the victims. When it comes to the framing of the perpetrators, more differences appear: while AJ frames them as heroes avenging the prophet, LM framed them as stupid people making unprofessional mistakes.

  • 122.
    Carlström, Eric
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Knapphetens konsekvens2009In: Krisen som kom av sig?: om att hantera sämre tider / [ed] Nilsson, Viveka, Göteborg: Kommunforskning i Västsverige (KFi) , 2009, 1. uppl., p. 24-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Carlström, Eric
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Neglektiv styrning2007In: Demokratisk och effektiv styrning: en antologi om forskning i offentlig förvaltning, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, p. 587-606Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Carlström, Eric D.
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Center for Security, Crisis Management and Emergency Preparedness,Vestfold, Norway;University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy,Sweden.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Løwe Sørensen, Jarle
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy,Sweden.
    Magnussen, Lars-Inge
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Center for Security, Crisis Management and Emergency Preparedness,Vestfold, Norway.
    Collaboration Exercises in Emergency Work: Outcomes in Terms of Learning and Usefulness2019In: Disaster, Diversity and Emergency Preparation / [ed] Lars-Inge Magnussen, IOS Press, 2019, p. 147-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we reviewed scientific papers which measured the effect of collaboration exercises in terms of learning and usefulness. The question to be answered was: Do collaboration exercises contribute to learning that is useful in actual emergency work? The point of departure was the perception that exercises improve handling logic and actions that increase security and safety in the community. However, the organizations involved in emergencies are regarded as inflexible, conservative, and non-collaborative. Data was collected in three steps. In the first step, studies of collaboration exercises in a crisis context were selected. In the next step, studies focused on the outcome of collaboration exercises in terms of learning and usefulness were identified. Out of 564 articles, seven were selected. The data from all included articles was collected by a common questionnaire in the included studies. The instrument measured learning and usefulness on a 5-point Likert scale, from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A total of 477 participants responded to the surveys. The mean within the learning dimension was 3.54 (SD = 0.62), and the mean within the usefulness dimension was 3.64 (SD = 0.65). The results showed that a developed type of exercise that included room for seminars resulted in a higher degree of learning and usefulness than the rest of the exercises studied.

  • 125.
    Carlström, Eric
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; USN School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway (NOR).
    Magnusson, Leif Inge
    University of South-Eastern Norway, USN School of Business, Norway (NOR).
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    University of South-Eastern Norway, USN School of Business, Norway (NOR).
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Sørensen, Jarle Løwe
    University of South-Eastern Norway,USN School of Business, Norway (NOR).
    Inter-Organisational Exercises in Dry and Wet Context: Why Do Maritime Response Organisations Gain More Knowledge from Exercises at Sea Than Those on Shore?2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 21, no 14, article id 5604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    : This is a study of inter-organisational exercises arranged by on-shore organisations (ONSOs)and off-shore organisations (OFFSOs). The aim was to compare findings from trained emergencystaffs' perceptions of the impact of exercises. The data were retrieved from surveys conducted bythe research team in conjunction with exercises. The surveys included staff from the coast guard,sea rescue, police department, fire department and ambulance services. A total of 94 professionalemergency personnel participated in the ONSO exercises and 252 in the OFFSO exercises. The studywas based on the suggestion that collaborative elements during an inter-organisational exercisepromote learning, and learning is important to make the exercises useful. Collaboration proved to bea predictor for some of the items in learning, and learning was a predictor for some of the items inutility. There was, however, a stronger covariation between collaboration, learning and utility in theOFFSOs exercises than in the ONSOs. One reason might be the different cultures of emergency staffinvolved in on-shore and off-shore organisations. The OFFSOs' qualifications may be dominated byseamanship, together with professional practice, and all parties are expected to act as first responders.ONSOs, on the other hand, practice exercises from a strict professional and legal perspective.

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  • 126.
    Chen, Kedi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Yang, Jialu
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    A good one or a bad one:A comparison of US and Chinese reviews of the film: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to compare the different Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon film reviews from Chinese and American reviewers respectively, and to see how they evaluate and understand the film in the different ways. We use reception theory as our theoretical tool, and divide the film into four themes so that we can compare the different reviews in a more relative way. Meanwhile, we also present some brief ideas to explain the reason why the film gets the different response from both sides. Since our main purpose is to compare the different film reviews, so we choose the comparative design as our research design. The main findings of this thesis show that Chinese and American reviewers do have some distinct evaluations, understandings and views about the film.Besides, culture and aesthetic become the two major factors to influence the response from both sides.

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    Kedi chen & Jialu Yang's final thesis
  • 127.
    Cicak, Katarina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Corruption in politics: The case of Croatia: A comparative study of media representation of corruption in Croatia before and after it became a member of the European Union2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to describe how the problem of corruption in Croatia was represented in the media before and after Croatia became a part of the European Union. The thesis fills a gap in the existing literature regarding descriptive research of media and the lack of descriptive research regarding media representation of corruption in Croatia. The theoretical approach consists of social constructivism, 'What is the problem represented to be' approach by Bacchi and identifying corruption in regard to its determinants (factors). The 'WPR' approach will be filtered through corruption and its determinants, which are identified as: institutional, economic and cultural. With the chosen theoretical approach, qualitative methods are a logical option as a type of research strategy in this thesis. The study is designed as a comparative case of media representation of corruption between two different time frames, before and after Croatia's entry to the EU. The underlying precondition for bettering of Croatian political system would be resolving a cultural issue of a country, and that is corruption. The results show that media representation of corruption in the newspaper Vecernji list present corruption as an economic problem and dependent on institutional solutions, whereas the institutional factors depend on the cultural factors of a country as a whole, such as trust in the political system.

  • 128.
    Coetzee, Wayne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Security as Nation Branding: Sweden’s Status-Seeking Strategy2024In: e-International relations, E-ISSN 2053-8626Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Coetzee, Wayne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sweden’s Weapons Exports Paradox2021In: Do-Gooders at the End of Aid: Scandinavian Humanitarianism in the Twenty-First Century / [ed] Antoine de Bengy Puyvallée; Kristian Bjørkdahl, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021, p. 101-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the paradoxical logics embedded in the Swedish policymaking elites’ rationale for exporting advanced conventional weapons to the so-called developing world. Using the South Africa JAS-39 Gripen fighter jet deal as a case study, the chapter demonstrates how the policymaking elite consciously pursues a dual strategy regarding the production and circulation of weapons – one that is driven both by the Swedish internationalist tradition of “doing good” and “being good” in the world, but also for instrumental purposes. Overall, the investigation illustrates how such processes have become embedded societal symbols of Swedish identity in the post-Cold War era – a phenomenon that serves to conflate the operations of a militarized state with the perceived ideals of Swedish mediation, honest brokership, and overall as a significant contributor to frameworks of promoting ethical and peaceful methods on a global stage. These paradoxes, it is argued, raise important questions about so-called “Swedish exceptionalism.”

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    Sweden's_Weapons_Exports_Paradox_Coetzee
  • 130.
    Coetzee, Wayne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. University of Gothenburg, School of Global Studies.
    The interplay between national interest and idealism regarding Sweden's Gripen exports2017In: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2309-9682, E-ISSN 2224-0020, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 45-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study on which this article is based, aimed to map out and analyse the ways in which Sweden's Gripen exports have been shaped and sustained since the end of the Cold War. It did so by examining three interrelated factors that have had an effect on Sweden's defence industry. By illustrating how societal preferences, defence and security policy shifts, and the role of national identity have influenced weapons manufacturing and exports, this article provides a balanced overview of the most salient push and pull factors of Sweden's Gripen exports. The central contention of the study was that Swedish weapons manufacturing and exports often involve a close interaction between interests and ideals. Moreover, due to the multitude of richly correlated, interconnected and mutually reinforcing elements related to such practices, there cannot be a neat and parsimonious distinction between agents and structures and domestic and international settings. Instead, the study was especially reflective of real-world practices and the strategic relational approach between those forces that shape and sustain Sweden's Gripen exports.

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  • 131.
    Coetzee, Wayne Stephen
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Doing research on ‘sensitive topics’: Studying the Sweden–South Africa Arms Deal2020In: Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 65-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional arms trade is a sensitive topic that is often shrouded in secrecy. As with most aspects of so-called ‘high politics’, processes connected to conventional arms trade habitually take place behind closed doors between a relatively small and tightly knit group of individuals. Gaining access to such people is an enormous challenge for any researcher. Moreover, building rapport with key decision-makers takes a long time, and it requires considerable effort and resolve. This article recapitulates the approach and method of a study done on conventional Swedish arms trade with South Africa. It provides insights into several substantive issues related to such research, in particular, aspects connected to elite interviewing and research ethics. The bulk of the article covers matters related to research design, access to elites, the limitations associated with elite interviewing, and the interview process that was adopted during fieldwork.  The discussion on research ethics is closely, but not exclusively, connected to elite interviewing, and here the article reflects on various ethical considerations as well as the harsh reality of researching sensitive topics, such as conventional arms trade. 

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    WS_Coetzee_2020_Researching_Sensitive_Topics
  • 132.
    Coetzee, Wayne Stephen
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg.
    Ideals and Interests in Swedish Foreign Policy: Explaining the South African Gripen Deal2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores ideals and interests (and their interrelation) in foreign policy. An in-depth case study of this issue examines Sweden’s 1999 JAS-39 Gripen fighter aircraft deal with South Africa. 

    Theoretically, the dissertation responds to the long-standing debate in foreign policy analysis about whether ideals or interests drive foreign policy. Speaking directly to research that has aimed to bridge the ideals-interests divide, this study sets out a framework of analysis that encompasses both ideals and interests as well as the relevant contextual forces that impact on foreign policy behaviour. The analysis shows that due to the multitude of richly interrelated elements connected to arms trade, there cannot be a neat and parsimonious distinction be-tween agents and structures or domestic and international settings. Reflected here are real-world practices and strategic relations between those forces that influence foreign policy behaviour regarding Sweden’s Gripen exports. 

    Empirically, the dissertation provides an in-depth account of what the policymaking elite in Sweden was thinking and doing regarding the export of the Gripen to South Africa in the aftermath of the Cold War. The dissertation contends that the Gripen deal with South Africa is an interesting case study for two reasons: It involves long-standing, deeply (if not passionately) held ideals in Swedish foreign policy behaviour towards a country in the so-called Global South as well as compelling interest-driven calculations regarding the political economy of arms trade. These ideals- and interest-driven aspects stand side-by-side in this case study, explaining how Sweden’s foreign policy behaviour reflected and dealt with these issues in its decision to sell advanced fighter aircraft to South Africa. 

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    spikblad
  • 133.
    Cvetic, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Kantari, Sofia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Collective Trauma and Collective Memory: The creation of collective memories through representations of trauma in docudramas of Utøya 20112019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research is designed as a single case study where film theory along with narrative theory and collective memory theory is employed to investigate how two docudramas narratively represent the same terrorist attack. To execute this study, the concepts of “remembrance” and “forgetting” are used in order to be able to describe how the films, Utøya 22 juli and 22 July, narratively represent the politically motivated terrorist attack on Utøya, Norway which occurred on 22 July 2011. The study found that the representations of the attack visibly depicted and excluded different elements regarding the narrative representations of victims, perpetrator, society, effects, consequences, causes and actions. This results in that the narrative representations of the two docudramas aid in creating different particular collective memories. The research contributes in examining how traumatic political events are represented in films to create particular collective memories, since collective memories are crucial in the political science field regarding issues such as policy formation and identity creation. Moreover, the collective memory that is being left behind, in today’s world where extremist ideologies are continuing to grow, can be vital for institutions and nations in their effort to prevent them; today and in the future.

  • 134.
    Cäker, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Siverbo, Sven
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Effects of performance measurement system inconsistency on managers' role clarity and well-being2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the impact of PMS inconsistency on managerial role clarity and well-being. In addition,we investigate if problems with PMS inconsistency can be dealt with by convincing superiors to loosen their control reactions to variances, giving managers job autonomy and providing managers with support from superiors, peers and staff functions. Based on survey responses from 799 managers in one public sector organizationand 187 managers in one private sector organization we conclude that PMS inconsistency has negative effects on managers' role clarity and well-being. This situation does not improve if superiors practice loose control; on the contrary, it seems to make managers' work situation worse. Job autonomy and support appear to be better coping methods since they have direct positive impacts on managers' role clarity and well-being that counteracts the negative effects of PMS inconsistency.

  • 135.
    da Rosa Jansson, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Roos, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Gender and Media Representations of Foreign Ministers in Gender Equal Societies:: A comparative study of how female and male ministers are represented in Swedish and US daily press2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to describe and compare how female and male foreign ministers are represented in Swedish and U.S. daily press. Choosing two critical cases, Swedish and U.S. media, where gendered stereotypical representation is most unlikely to occur, gives a larger chance for generalization to other countries media, and other types of media. Based upon the ontology of social constructivism and theories of gendered media representation, a qualitative analysis will be conducted to be able to describe how media representations of these foreign ministers look like. The use of gender stereotypical words and meanings used when portraying foreign ministers in media will be compared both between the female and male foreign ministers and between the Swedish and U.S. daily press. The analysis will show that the foreign ministers are portrayed differently based on sex, where women are portrayed as weak and emotional, with their competence doubted, while the men are strong and unquestionable competent.

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  • 136.
    Dahl, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bergenholz, Oliver
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gender Patterns in the Recruitment of Managers in Gothenburg's Public Administration2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine if the job ads for managers in Gothenburg's public administration are gender coded to benefit male or female applicants. This is accomplished by examining the job ads of one female dominated administration as well as one male dominated administration and making a comparison between them. The reason for choosing Sweden, Gothenburg as a case is because Sweden is one of the highest ranked countries in the world when it comes to gender equality and Gothenburg is one of its biggest cities and has worked actively to include equality in its public administrations since 2006 (Budget 2016). Based on several different theories concerning gender, stereotypes as well as male and female leadership an analytical framework was created that helped categorize different merits in job ads as female or male. Hence the method used to answer the research question is a content analysis guided by the analytical framework. The result of the analysis show that the job ads in the male dominated sector are intentionally structured to target women in order to obtain a gender equal manager structure. The female dominated sector does not show the same transparent gender patterns but give an indication that female applicant is more likely to reach the required merits stated in the ads.

  • 137.
    Dahlgren, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Steila,, Meriam
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Att förstå värdet av ekonomistyrning inom kommuner: Perspektiv från användare av ekonomistyrning på central nivå2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A municipality is an important organ in society that is responsible for governing the financial resources of its citizens. This can be done efficiently through the use of financial management, which involves planning, evaluation, and analysis. Previous research has presented varying opinions regarding financial management within municipal operations. For example, NPM emerged as a cornerstone of the public sector but was originally adapted from the private sector. The purpose of this study is to bring knowledge about perceived value of financial management within a municipality from the perspective of its users at the central level. The study employs a qualitative case study method, consisting of semi-structured interviews with respondents representing two central-level perspectives: business developers and politicians. The results indicate that financial management is considered crucial within municipal operations, contributing to added value. This value creation occurs when financial management is contextualized within the organization's goals and strategies. This can be compared to the theory of PSL, where value creation is perceived by users as a reaction to the secondary users benefiting from the offerings of financial management. Finally, there are factors that influence this perceived value, and these are communication, relevance and actuality, trust, and objectives. 

  • 138.
    Dahlqvist, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Britos Stepaniuk, Erika Judith
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Corporatism and the Politics of Responsibility: The Swedish Model in light of the pandemic2020-20212022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis will explore press conferences and press releases from the Swedish government during the first and second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic in Sweden against the background of the Swedish Model of governance. Throughout this research, we will analyse these discourses of high officials in the country in relation to the lived reality of healthcare workers during the pandemic. What role does this discourse play in this context, and what does it say about the meaning of the Swedish Model of governance? Our theoretical approach is based on corporatism, as theorised by Philippe Schmitter, and a critique by Cohen and Pavoncello. Three main concepts were adapted from this theory, ‘cooperation’, ‘exchange’ and ‘control’ and used in our analysis. Our thesis is a descriptive, explorative study of the Covid-19 pandemic, looking at the government discourse and the healthcare sector. The studyis qualitative and used closed coding based on our theoretical framework. The main findings of this thesis are that labour organizations were largely erased from state discourse on managing the pandemic, and that there was a shift between the first and second wave, where corporatist themes overall became less pronounced, and the corporatist structure served as a tool for the central state to diffuse responsibility and assign blame to other actors. 

  • 139.
    Danielson, Niklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ideals and Interests in Right-Wing Populism: Regarding NATO Membership: The Cases of Sweden and Denmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to examine the relationship between ideals and interests in the creation of the preferences of two right-wing populist parties regarding NATO-membership. The two parties who are examined are the Sweden Democrats and Danish People´s Party of Sweden and Denmark, respectively. The Sweden Democrats wish for Sweden to stay out of NATO, while The Danish People's Party wish for Denmark to remain in NATO, and this study sets out to discover the reasons for this difference of opinion between two right-wing populist parties. Such an analysis has not been performed previously in this way inside the broader study of right-wing populism, with the majority of academic study being devoted to, among other themes, the emergence of and subsequent voter demographics associated with right-wing populism.

    The theory utilized for this investigation is "The Liberal Theory of International Politics" based on the works of Andrew Moravcsik, with the analytical indicators being ideals and interests, drawn from this theory. The design of this study is that of a comparative, small-n case study.

    The findings show that there is a variation of ideals and interests between the two parties, with the ideal of peace being the most important for the Sweden Democrats, and the ideal of cooperation being the most important for the Danish People´s Party. National Security was the most important interest for both parties. The findings also showed that economic incentives had little impact on the shaping of either party´s preference when it came to the subject of NATO.

  • 140.
    Davudov, Isa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dimitrova, Ani
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Just logical?: a comparative study of the use of different argument types in the presidential rhetoric of Barack Obama and George W. Bush2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to describe and compare similarities and differences between the presidential rhetoric of Barack Obama's and George W. Bush's State of the Union speeches. Using a comparative design, as well as using the substance of rhetoric as a merit and theories of classical rhetoric, a qualitative analysis is conducted to fulfill the aim of this research. The three classical artistic proofs: ethos, logos and pathos are key concepts for our analysis, where we compare their use within the different policy areas. The results of this thesis illustrate that despite studying so contrasting presidents, their rhetoric appears not in total opposition. In particular, the most predominant appeal in the policy area of defense, in Barack Obama's rhetoric, is to ethos, whereas pathos is in George W. Bush's rhetoric. Similarities between presidents were found in the policy area of social security, where the most used appeal of both is to ethos. Even though in the category of moral questions, the presidents addressed to different issues, we found evidence of pathos combined with ethos, in the speeches of Barack Obama, and pathos combined with logos in the chosen State of the Union speeches of George W. Bush.

  • 141.
    Delic, Sebastian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Alexander
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigration discourse change in the Swedish media?: A descriptive study of cosmopolitan and communitarian representations of immigration in the Swedish editorials during the refugee crisis 2015-20162016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following Bachelor´s thesis is a descriptive study of the immigration discourse during the refugee crisis in 2015-2016 in the Swedish media, focusing on the editorials, and analyzing the representation of immigration before and after the Swedish government implemented a more restrictive immigration policy using the representation theory, discourse theory and the concepts of cosmopolitanism and communitarianism. More specifically the thesis analyzes, (1) How are the cosmopolitan representations characterized in the editorials in terms of norms, problems, solutions and the effects of the solutions in time frame 1 and time frame 2? (2) How are the communitarian representations characterized in the editorials in terms of norms, problems, solutions and the effects of the solutions in time frame 1 and time frame 2 (3) Has the political discourse on immigration in the editorials changed between the two time periods and what similarities and differences are there? The approach we used is a qualitative one, analyzing editorials from the five biggest newspapers in Sweden, which we found using "mediearkivet". The results that we found was that the cosmopolitan representation were the same, with focus on human rights and suggestions of generous immigrations policies, in both time periods. The communitarian representations in the first time period were mostly concerned with problems of immigration and suggestions of limiting it by implementing ID- and Border controls, while the second time frame was characterized by more discussions about national culture and values. A change in the representations could be seen between the two time periods, from a mix between cosmopolitanism and communitarianism in the first to a clear communitarian discourse in the second one.

  • 142.
    Deljamie, Alesina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    UN’s framing on how to successfully combine human security with national security in the EU’s migration policy2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this theses is to analyse how the UN refugee agency, UNHCR frames the human security of refugees in current European migration policy. It will also examine how they frame the increased security concern in the EU. Do they ignore it or take it into consideration? More specifically my thesis will examine: 1. How does the UNHCR represent human security of refugees and asylum seekers as opposed to national security issues raised by states? 2. In what ways are EU’s refugee and asylum policy represented as a problem? 3. What is represented as the solution to the problem? The method used is a single case study with a qualitative approach and makes use of framing theory and social constructivism. After thoroughly analysing data collected from UNHCR webpage, the results indicate that UNHCR frames the national security versus human security as problems due to securitization. The causes of the problem are represented as inefficient border management and xenophobia. The solution to the problem is represented to be a development of common asylum policy towards a more efficient and equal asylum procedure, but also a more efficient border security and cooperation between European member states.

  • 143.
    Dharsani, Moez
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ericsson, Alexandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Women In Diplomacy: How is the Problem of Absence of Women in Diplomacy Framed by the UN?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following Bachelor’s thesis is analyzing contemporary advocacy for more women in diplomacy by the United Nations (UN), with the help of framing theory. More specifically, it examines, (1) how is the absence of female diplomats represented as a problem? (2) What is represented as the causes of that problem? And finally, (3) what is represented as the solutions to that problem? The thesis examines one UN body: UNITAR, which is the only body that focus on the promotion of women explicitly in diplomacy. This is a single case study with a qualitative approach, and makes use of framing theory, based on social constructivism. Through gathering of outward-focused documents from UNITARs webpage, it has been observed that UNITAR frames the absence of women in diplomacy as an inefficiency problem. The argument is that by promoting more women in foreign policy, there will be greater productivity, enhanced economical growth and less poverty. The main causes of the problem are represented as a mix of societal, individual and organizational barriers. The solution to the problem is represented to be mainly training of individual women to improve skills needed to successfully carry out diplomacy, but also, to a lesser extent, training of organizations to inforce a gender mainstreaming approach.

    Key Words:  Women in diplomacy, framing, United Nations, women in foreign policy, international campaigns.

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    Women in Diplomacy
  • 144.
    Djumaev, Bekhan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Sohlman, Rickard
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Should the Plundered Arts be Restituted?: How international norms are interpreted differently in national contexts2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this essay is to look at two cases where the debate rages regarding whether or not to restitute stolen art back to the states from which it was originally stolen. By looking at the debate in each country the essay focuses on gaining understanding in how one state might decide upon returning the cultural treasures and the other refuses to. In assisting the analysis of the debate, theories from social constructivism, norms and ideas of different national identities are assessed. More closely, this essay tries to examine the different ideas of national identity (Imperial Cosmopolitanism and Egalitarian Cosmopolitanism) and analyze the domestic interpretations of the international norm on restitution of plundered treasures that follow from these identities. In doing so, states of interest, Sweden and Great Britain, are chosen and the theoretical model for analysis developed by Bacchi (2010) will be used in order to present ―the problem‖, the causes to the problem and the solutions provided to solve the problem. Thereby, the essay aims to show how the actions, behavior and arguments of these states, in the question of restitution, are greatly dependant on the differences in the ideas of national identity that each state might possess or have inherited from past.

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    Should the plundered arts be restituted
  • 145.
    Dumani, Gentrim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    A qualitative descriptive study on the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party's post-2014 political integration approaches2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to describe the approaches of the Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party to political integration for the newly-arrived immigrant groups in the post-2014 period. This is a descriptive study is with textual qualitative content analysis as a methodology to explore the statements made by the two parties. The sources and data used in the analysis chapter are from the two parties' official websites, government website and the parliamentary website. When the data is analysed by using three models, i.e. the multicultural, assimilationist, and exclusionary models, of integration, this study concludes that while both parties had adopted a multicultural model of integration before 2014, in the post-2014 period there are some elements of change in Moderate Party's integration approaches, such as the addition of demands like the compulsory participation in integration courses for the immigrants and an the integration test shifting the Moderate Party's position toward the exclusionary model of integration. The findings indicate that the Social Democratic Party, on the other hand, still promotes the multicultural model of integration after 2014.

  • 146.
    Dung Nguyen, Trung
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dalsborn, Dominica
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Freedom of speech in the social media context: A comparative study about the debate between the USA and Norway2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental principle within democracy which enhances the civil liberty and political power of citizens in democratic nations. In the past decade, the appearance of socialmedia has both empowered and challenged freedom of speech, resulting in democratic inclusion and exclusion. This thesis aims to contribute new knowledge to freedom of speech in the context of social media. The prevailing views from the existing literature have illustrated that there is an insufficiency of frames to cover the overall picture and highlight untouched issues to freedom of speech in the context of social media. This will be exercised by identifying frames of ongoing patterns and social phenomena of online speech. There are two well-suited theoretical approaches applied to this study: Constructivism and framing theory. In order to address the subject of study, the thesis employed a comparative descriptive qualitative design, following the format of a small N comparative case study between two democratic nations’ major news outlets, the United States of America and Norway. The findings confirmed the existing literature’s claims regarding online free speech, which illustrated online speech patterns and behaviors of online hate speech and undermining democracy. The study also identified new frames which might contribute to the collective list of frames for this subject of study. They are ‘the distortion of freedom of speech’, ‘online harassment’, and ‘public attitude toward social media platforms’ regulation’. Furthermore, these frames indicated emerging problems like a decline in public discourses due to fear of a heated debate climate, and the rising suppression of employee’s freedom of speech in society which requires further attention, comprehension, and prevention. 

  • 147.
    Egestål, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wild Thongsonti, Kimberly
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Framing Sex Trafficking: the case of Sweden and Europe: A comparative study on how Sweden and the European Commission frame human trafficking for sexual exploitation2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trafficking for sexual exploitation is a phenomenon that greatly affects the individual as well as society. The effect is grim for the victims and their families, as sex trafficking violates their basic human rights, can shatter families, and cause severe psychological trauma. Sex trafficking has also negative effects on societies, it can adversely affect the economy, public health, national security, and gender equality. Policies have been implemented in response to sex trafficking, both in Sweden and in Europe. The thesis aims to show how sex trafficking is framed by the Swedish Government and the European Commission, based on the application of framing theory integrated with Bacchi's WPR-approach.

    The research method used is a qualitative, descriptive, comparative, small-N case study with a qualitative content analysis of textual data. Through this method, 11 different documents provided by the Swedish Government and the European Commission were analyzed. The result of the analysis shows that the documents from the Swedish Government use a more prominent frame of human rights, while for European Commission the most significant was organized crime. When it comes to Bacchi’s WPR-approach, the underlying assumptions behind these frames can be argued to be influenced by the national versus supra-national level and how many actors are involved, as well as ideological and legislative differences. Silences were complicated to find in the European Commission, while in the Swedish Government, sovereignty was not discussed. There could also be seen a difference in trend over time, where the European Commissionshifted more towards ‘human rights’ as recently as 2020-2021, while the Swedish Government was more constant in their frame of ‘human rights’. 

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  • 148.
    Ehlin, Björn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Toledo, Claudia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Is the European Parliament Election a second-order election due to centre-periphery structures?: Geographical distances and institutional differences within the European Union2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in the European Parliament Election has steadily declined since the start in 1979. In 2004 less than half (47.8%) of the voting-age population of the European Union used their right to vote. This has actualized questions asking if the European Parliament is a good representation of the European citizens. The paradigm when it comes to explaining the electoral turnout in the European Parliament Election is the second-order theory. Though the theory explains the low voter participation, it does not explain why the European Parliament Election has become a second-order election. Thus, in this thesis will search for the underlying variable explaining why the European Parliament Election is a second-order election. Through our research we find that distances are important in the European Union, and they create centres and peripheries within the European Union. By looking at Rokkan and Urwin‟s horizontal and vertical types of peripheries, where the vertical type consists of Rokkan and Urwin‟s three domain of social life, our research concludes that centre-periphery structures within the European Union are the underlying variable, explaining why the European Parliament Election is a second-order election.

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  • 149.
    Ekelund, Emil
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Wan, Keliang
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Media Framing. Civil Unrest. Electoral Violence. And the Crises of Democracy.: A Comparative Study Of How Electoral Violence Is Framed By The Print Media The New York Times & Wall Street Journal2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Media framing of electoral violence can be constructed differently by different news media. News media has become a significant actor in real-life politics, which provides other constructions, meanings, and understandings. Social constructivism theory and framing theory combine ideology by answering the following questions. This research compares how the New York Times and Wall Street Journal answered these questions by using articles. The study is qualitative and aims to identify the frames used by print media. The author uses articles as data material; all articles from both media outlets are published within two weeks of the incident.

  • 150.
    Eklund, Annika
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Can we be prepared for the next accident or catastrophe?: Potential contributions of emergency collaboration exercises2013In: Proceedings of  The 8th International Conference in Critical Management Studies; 10 Jul 2013-12 Jul 2013; The University of Manchester. Manchester, United Kingdom: The University of Manchester Library; 2013., Manchester: University of Manchester Library , 2013, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catastrophes and accidents (natural,technological, or man-made) have been subjected to scientific research from different disciplines and perspectives for a long time. Examples of these perspectives include community risk and vulnerability, human behaviour during crisis, fire behaviour and eco-system management, decision-making, communication, and collaboration issues. This paper deals with different perspectives of preparation and prevention in terms of accidents and catastrophes. The overall aim is to present an overview of different aspects on the possibility for organisations and societies to be prepared for the next incident and to highlight emergency exercises as a part of crisis management. In the second part of the paper the project “Collaboration exercises—from parallelto synchronous”, is introduced. The project is carried out in Sweden, and aims to explore how collaboration between police, ambulance and rescue services is practiced and developed during exercises. Of particular interest is inter-organisational collaboration and learning during exercises. To develop an understanding of these processes, a range of different types of emergency collaboration exercises was observed and participants were interviewed about their experiences. Tentative findings from the studies so far are briefly introduced. Some challenges of using exercises to increase the preparedness for managing the uncertainty and the unexpected are further discussed.

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