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  • 101.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan Västs Rapport 3 - Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen består av en studie av Gamlebyen Fredrikstads kommune, Norge. Denna studie baseras på 18 djupintervjuer med 21 aktörer i och kring Gamlebyen, Fredrikstads kommune, som genomfördes perioden november 2016 - februari 2017 samt en webb-enkät med 22 elever (blivande hantverkare) vid Plus-skolen i Gamlebyen i mars 2017. Syfte med studien var att fånga aktörernas uppfattning om Gamlebyens attraktivitet, vision, nuläge och utmaningar i samverkan. Syftet var även att ge förslag för samarbete och styrning som potential för framtida näringsutveckling och engagemang. Vidare syftar studien långsiktigt till ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Studien visar på den mångfald av aktörer som verkar i Gamlebyen och den brist på samarbete och kommunikation som denna mångfald ger upphov till. Området saknar en gemensam vision om Gamlebyen skall utvecklas och bevaras. Sammantaget gör detta att Gamlebyen hämmas i sin utveckling och inte får den attraktionskraft som området har potential för. Många aktörer känner att kommunens satsningar på andra områden i Fredrikstad har haft ett negativt inflytande på området.För att Gamlebyen skall kunna nå sin potential behövs en samordnande roll av typen centrumutvecklare som koordinerar dels internt i Gamlebyen men även verkar in mot kommun och centrum för ökad samordning. En gemensam intern kommunikationsplattform för aktörerna i Gamlebyen är av stor vikt för att öka kommunikationen i området och samordna aktuell och korrekt information.

  • 102.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Indicators of economic development: an exploratory study using Swedish municipal data contrasting economic development and growth2018In: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series / [ed] Gråsjö, U., Karlsson, C. och Bernhard, I., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 359-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores possible measures of economic development and how they relate to measures commonly used for studying economic growth. Since potential factors for measuring economic development typically differ greatly over large geographical areas, we will study the indicators on a municipality level to avoid large geographical units of analysis. The data is from 2013 and 2014 and is found in official Swedish data repositories, and include variables such as gross pay per employee, citizen satisfaction with the municipality and Gini-coefficient for Swedish municipals. The results indicate that trying to find one overall measure for economic development is not feasible. Our main conclusions are that indicators for economic growth and economic development in some cases move in opposite directions. There is a need for more direct and harmonized, national and international data to further drive the research in the field of economic development.

  • 103.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Identifying Summer Season Segments on the Swedish West Coast: the Case of Lysekil2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 59-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify tourist segments present during the summer season in a northern European seaside resort setting. Demographic changes on a global scale bring with them dramatic changes in tourist demand and behavior. This poses new challenges for places that have a history of being attractive summer tourist destinations, challenges that can only be dealt with by informed actors. The small coastal town of Lysekil was chosen as the case of study since it has a history as a traditional northern European seaside resort, experiencing problems with adjusting to changing tourist demand and behavior. In addition, it is geographically separated from other similar towns which facilitates data collection. Data was collected during the summer season, from May to September, with a structured survey. The results identify five segments, what characterize them and when they are present.

  • 104.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Late Season Tourists on the Swedish West Coast2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 77-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of city centers and tourist destinations it is, as for any development of attractive offers, imperative to be informed about who the customer is and what s/he needs, wants and desires. For tourist destinations, various customer types can be identified, each with different purposes, needs and wishes.Some types may be present around the year, whereas others may show up during specific points in time. The aim of this report is to identify who the late season visitor is and what s/he actually does when visiting the small town of Lysekil on the Swedish West coast. On the basis of a sample of 155 tourists, participating instructured interviews performed in the in the late part of the summer season, including the months of August and September, it can be concluded that the only clearly identifiable segment during this period consist of couples over 50 who spend their vacation in their motor homes, visiting different locations for a couple of day seach, and mainly spending their time and money shopping and dining at restaurants.

  • 105.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kooperativt företagande och hållbar utveckling: En studie om gemensamma drivkrafter bakom kooperation och hållbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är hållbar utveckling ett ämne som diskuteras på flera plan i samhället och det finns en tendens att företag vill betona sin hållbara inriktning. Detta arbete handlar kooperativa företag och hur de värderingar som kooperativ arbetar med påverkar hållbar utveckling. Kooperation och företag med sociala mål möter problem som är kopplat till valet av associationsform och detta får konsekvenser som påverkar möjligheter till finansiering och trovärdighet. Genom intervjuer med personer som antingen driver ekonomiska föreningar eller arbetar med kooperation presenterar detta arbete gemensamma drivkrafter hos kooperation och hållbar utveckling. Vilka drivkrafter som ligger till grund för valet att starta ett kooperativt företag och vilka värderingar som hållbarhetsbegreppet för med sig visar sig vara liknande på flera punkter. Vidare visar arbetet att forskningen kring dessa ämnen kan upplevas begränsade och att synen på hållbarhetsbegreppet inom forskningen är mer inriktat mot miljöaspekten än som ett helhetsbegrepp.

  • 106.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie om ledare och medarbetares upplevelser av organisationsförändring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To implement an organizational change can be overwhelming for those individuals who work in the organization. Evaluation of results or the process of change rarely occurs and one reason may be lack of resources in the organization or that it´s not a priority. When an organization sees the result they usually compare it to the goals underlying the change, if the result reach the goals it is sees as "successful" if not, the result is "unsuccessful". This study aims to examine how the results are experienced by employees and management who have undergone a change and how they relate it to the goals. The caseorganization has completed a move to new temporary premises while the reconstruction will be completed. We have chosen to study a department within the organization, they have two levels, employee- and management. The study has a qualitative approach where the collection of data is made of semi-structured interviews with twelve respondents, ten employees and two from management. These have been interpreted and presented based on two themes throughout the entire study, communication, and personal experiences.

    There are several elements in the changeprocess that can contribute to employee acceptance. Employees can more easily accept change if they receive information early in the process which gives time to adapt (Shin et al, 2015). Individuals within an organization need to be seen and to be involved in order to be able to feel satisfied with the change (Liljengren et al, 2003). The result of the interviews showed that respondents don´t have the same experience of the result and that everyone did not describe the same goal with the change. All received the same information about the move, some feel that they have been involved and feel satisfied, others feel that they haven´t been involved, which contributed to the discontent of the change. The conclusion of this study is that participation in the process gives a positive experience of the result and a higher acceptance if less satisfying working condition occurs. This study has shown that there are differences between employees and managements experience of organizational change and one way to find these differences is to routinely evaluate the results.

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  • 107.
    Arvidsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Näsmark, Sofia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Digitalt ledarskap för att främja medarbetarnas hälsa vid distansarbete: en studie utifrån två offentliga organisationer2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how managers have acted in their digital leadership to promote the health of their employees during teleworking, and how managers experience health during teleworking from an employee perspective. The questions we intended to answer was: Based on managers managing their staff digitally at a distance, how have they acted and what challenges and opportunities do they experience when it comes to maintaining employee health? From an employee perspective, what challenges and opportunities do managers experience that exist regarding employees' health during teleworking? The theory we used consisted of three themes that crystallized after a literature review which were: balance between work and leisure time, sense of belonging and motivation. The study applied a qualitative method where data were collected through eight semi-structured interviews with managers from two different public organizations. When it comes to work-life balance, the results show that most employees have experience more flexibility in their daily life, but that the boundaries of what is working time and not have begun to blur. The manager has an important role in his or her leadership to clarify the framework within which the work is to be carried out in order for the employees to have a healthy balance between working hours and leisure time. What is perceived as the greatest challenge is the sense of belonging and being able to bridge the social encounter with digitized solutions. In order for no employee to become socially isolated in the telework, it is important that the managers have close individual social contacts with each employee. Regarding motivation, the managers have experienced that this is highly individual where some employees get high motivation based on the distance work, while others lose their motivation. Here, digital continuous feedback and reconnection can be a measure for managers to motivate their employees. Our results show that digital teleworking leads to new demands on managers' leadership. We argue, based on our study, that in cases where the manager succeeds with his leadership, there are great opportunities for employees and their health. The study we have done contributes to an increased understanding of how managers experience digital leadership and the promotion of health in teleworking for their employees. The study also contributes with empirical examples where managers highlight challenges and opportunities they experienced. Proposals for further research in the area are proposed to make a more comprehensive study with more variables to see if it is possible to find out more general connections between the parameters. 

  • 108.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Värdet av investering i kompetensutveckling: En fallstudie på GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, en högteknologisk tillverkningsindustri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The staff is the company’s most important asset is a common expression and compe-tence is considered today as a condition for good results and success (Björklund & Holmqvist, 1999; Johansson & Johrén, 2011). It can though be difficult to concretize increased knowledge in education, which requires a discussion of how the business and employees are affected. Few organizations today have structured systems to track and discover the value and the positive impact that an investment in competence development may entail (Chong et al., 2000). GKN Aerospace Sweden AB is actively working with a training tool for competence development called the "Training Days". The purpose of these training days is that with the help of internal trainers educate the staff to raise skills and to encourage the exchange of knowledge. The purpose of this study is to develop a proposed calculation model for investment in competence development and to study the effects that these internal training days provide, both from an individual perspective and an organizational perspective. The study consists of a qualitative and interpretive appro-ach, in which methods of data collection consists of informants interviews and a survey. The idea of the "Training Days" and internal trainers aims that everyone can share their knowledge, because there is a lot of expertise within the organization. The concept means that employees train other employees, resulting that the company pass on knowledge of key employees to other employees. The results and the conclusions from the study showed that knowledge and information from the "Training Days" was valuable and contributed to improve the participants’ work and led mainly to more general knowledge but also more in-depth knowledge. The model applied to the concept is the bottom-line which according to Smith (2004) is a model of evaluation character, supplemented by monetary measures where the focus of the method lies in determining the effects of investments on a participant level. The effects of these educational interventions considered for the employees to be increased efficiency, improved job performance and improved work quality. From an organizational perspective obtains a competitive advantage as employees possess a deep and general knowledge, as well as it presumably have some impact on the company’s financial performance and success

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  • 109.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015In: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, p. 13-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Arvidsson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustavsson, Christina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Från medarbetare till ledare: En mellanchefs förutsättningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En mellanchef arbetsleder det praktiska arbetet närmast produktionen, och rätt person kan utveckla en verksamhet på ett bra sätt. Många företag i olika branscher väljer internrekrytering av mellanchefer och låter redan kunnig arbetande personal i företaget avancera till arbetsledande positioner. Dessa blir ofta operativa chefer, arbetar närmast de anställda och påverkar produktionsutfallet i högsta grad. Att få en förändrad position inom företaget ger förändrade relationer och arbetsuppgifter. Genom studier av internrekryterade mellanchefer, som tagit klivet från medarbetare till mellanchef, undersöktes upplevelsen av att byta position.

    Syftet med studien var att skapa en ökad förståelse för internrekryterade mellanchefers roll inom företag. Genom att ta del av deras personliga erfarenheter ville vi också få svar på vår forskningsfråga: Hur beskriver mellanchefer övergången från medarbetare till ledare, och hur ser de på sin yrkesroll?Undersökningen har bedrivits utifrån kvalitativa djupintervjuer med sju mellanchefer från olika branscher. Det empiriska materialet har studerats utifrån en analysmodell som belyser mellanchefernas kompetens och förmåga till kommunikation, lojalitet och acceptans, samt även personlighet och förmåga till förståelse. Att fånga berättelser från övre chefer och medarbetare kan i fortsatta studier med fördel kombineras denna forskning.Slutsatsen för vår forskning är att de internt rekryterade mellancheferna är genomgående nöjda med sin roll, och beskriver hur de med åren hittat sätt att hantera svårigheter. Mentorskap, samt utbildning i konflikthantering i tidigt skede skulle gynna förutsättningar för dessa mellanchefers yrkesroll. Detta gynnar produktiviteten och de mänskliga resurserna, samt skapar goda förutsättningar till det kommande ledarskapet.

  • 111.
    Asal, Maher
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Schäfer, Christian H.
    The Application of Equity Index Futures in Portfolio Management Strategies: An Empirical Study2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this book is to analyse how investors can reduce the systematic risk of a portfolio of stocks by using equity index futures, and how the leverage effect of futures can help to seize a market opportunity to lift a portfolio's return. Another contribution is to introduce the reader to the practical handling of equity index futures transactions using Eurex's products.

  • 112.
    Asmail, Aceel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Organisationskultur & Krishantering: Kulturella faktorer som hinder i organisationers krishantering2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for a well-functioning crisis management is to understand the organizational culture. The organizational culture can either escalate a crisis or help the organization prepare, respond and manage it effectively. A crisis poses a threat but can also bring new opportunities for development and learning. Crisis research is fragmented and interest in studying the relationship between organizational culture and crisis management is still limited. A few researchers have investigated cultural factors that can hinder an organization's crisis management, but there is still a great lack of empirical research today that deals with organizational cultural factors that hinder crisis management in Swedish companies. In this study, a survey was conducted on two case companies in the tertiary and service sector to contribute with an increased understanding of the cultural factors that hinder crisis management in Swedish companies. The case companies were hit by a serious crise in our time. To achieve this, the essay author has used a hermeneutic study and a qualitative approach in the form of interviews with three selected people from these organizations. A comparison between the companies shows small differences between the cultural factors that have created obstacles to the case companies' crisis management and the factors have obvious connections to the theory. In the first company, the factors ineffective communication, inflexibility, difficulty adapting, lack of trust, religious beliefs, culture of silence, guilt & scapegoat thinking, as well as classification with experience, reliance of success and trained mindlessness have created obstacles to crisis management. In the second company, the same obstacle factors are again identified, except for, reliance of success and religious beliefs. Here they have instead been replaced by denial and the culture of turnover. This study also shows that the loyal employee is important for crisis management work. That the factor disloyal behaviour has also created obstacles to crisis management in the study's case companies. All these cultural factors reflected "internal problems" that existed beneath the surface and hindered the creation of a healthier culture that promotes crisis management. The study shows that an understanding of the organization's existing culture and subcultures is crucial for effective crisis management work. The study's case companies recommend working more towards a mindful culture that encourages continuous learning and adaptation that increases the awareness and understanding of the organization's members of crise warnings signals and the company's common problems, plans and values. In the long run, this will make an impression on organizations and cultural barriers will be bridged, and crises dealt with more effectively.

  • 113.
    Asp, Linda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Jansson, Emelie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Är fastighetsmäklarbranschen i farozonen för negativ arbetshälsa?: En kvantitativ studie om hur psykisk arbetshälsa påverkas av lön, belöning och motivation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The real estate industry has a high level of staff turnover, which can be a sign of a stressful environment at work. In addition, the industry has a distinct system where performance based remuneration in the form of commission occurs to a large extent. According to previous research, stress is an indicator of poor work health, which in turn affects the motivation to perform. Considering this, the purpose of this study was to examine how real estate agents in Sweden experience their occupational health based on salary, reward and motivation, and to examine what significance these factors have for their performance.

    A quantitative method with cross-sectional design was used. The collection of data was carried out through a web survey which was partially designed by using the Effort Reward Imbalance model (ERI-model), as well as evidence-based tools for measuring motivation. The theoretical starting point of the study was that different types of salary and rewards, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can affect employees' well-being both positively and negatively. The ERI-model can measure stress in the work situation by identifying whether there is an imbalance between a person’s effort and reward, and whether overcommitment occurs.

    The results of the empirical data showed that real estate agents are a group that suffers from work-related stress. By analyzing the compiled data collection, using the theoretical framework of the study, the discussion resulted in several conclusions. One of the conclusions was that a minority of the real estate agents experience a negative imbalance in combination with a high level of overcommitment. Consequently, they run a high risk of negative work health. The results of the study also showed that the type of salary does not influence the stress level. Moreover, it was concluded that non-monetary rewards are the most important factor to reduce stress among those who have commission pay. Another conclusion was that real estate agents are generally more driven by intrinsic motivation than extrinsic motivation, which is positive because intrinsic motivation contributes to better work health. Finally, it was found that real estate agents are highly motivated and can perform well despite their stressful work environment

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  • 114.
    Asplund Carlsson, Maj
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Herrman, Margaretha
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Kullgren, Carina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Mårdén, Björn
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Att göras till filmarbetare i den nya kulturekonomin2011In: Att göras till filmarbetare / [ed] Margaretha Herrman, Nora: Nya Doxa , 2011, 1, p. 280-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Assaf, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Webbutikens uppbyggnad: Faktorer hos en webbutik som influerar unga kvinnors tillit2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online retailers that sell fashion have recently become more common and the biggest target group for clothes, shoes and accessories today are young women. The large growth of online retailers has resulted in trust concerns by consumers. The purpose of this report is to examine the factors that influence young women to feel trust towards a web store. A qualitative study has been conducted in form of a focus group interview, which examines seven women's attitudes and thoughts towards online retailers. This study is based on a theory of six different factors that affect trust towards online retailers, which go under the term web site quality. The factors are: web site usability, security and privacy, speed of download, product and service information quality, and aesthetic aspects. The report shows that the six factors have a large impact on trust and particularly the completeness of the web site. Also, the study shows that word of mouth has a big influence and can be developed to an additional factor. 

  • 116.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Creative industry cluster growth in a global economy: the example of Film in Väst, Sweden2004Report (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Beyond the Economic Meanings of Development: A Discussion of Political-Geographical Constructions of Societal Development2007In: Uddevalla Symposium tenth anniversary 2007: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Buildning Innovative Capabilities for Regions: Revised papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, University West, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 155-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-economic development, in any society, includes many productive activities excluded in conventional economic analyses. This paper aims to critically uncover, explore and discuss how productive activities included in societal development are hidden by a monetary bias. By doing so, the paper strives to initiate a critical conceptual discussion related to what is generally indentified as weaknesses and relevant policies in regional development. The goal is to reach beyond convetional economic analyses to unlock and develop implications for conceptual models that can exted perceptions of societal development with its political, temporal and spatial meaning. The paper proceeds as follows: Firstly, through some illustrative empirical examples, uncover the meanings of ´economic´ activities from completely different contexts; Secondly, to explore the more general implications of a perspective/approach, inspired by Hägerstrand, which emphasizes political implications in time and space; Finally, to point out a conceptual discussion that enhances a broadened perspective for societal regional development that reaches beyond the conventional meanings of economic development.

  • 118.
    Augustsson, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Nilsson, Lovisa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Vem är den typiska spagästen?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga den typiska spagästens konsumentbeteende samt studera dess föränderliga natur med avsikt att bidra till en ökad förståelse för kundbeteendet inom spabranschen. Avsikten med uppsatsen har varit att ta reda på vem den typiska spagästen är.

    Vi har med hjälp av teori inom bland annat konsumentbeteende, kundvärde och kundförståelse tillsammans med en webbaserad empirisk undersökning, studerat vad kunden värdesätter vid val och besök av spaanläggningar. Eftersom vi har strävat efter en förståelse för vem den typiska spagästen är kretsade undersökningen även kring livsstilsfrågor, levnadsvanor och demografiska aspekter. Examensarbetet har skett i samarbete med ett specifikt företag inom spabranschen (Varbergs Stadshotell och Asia Spa) för att därigenom få inblick i en representativ del av vår målpopulation.

    Resultatet av vår undersökning visade att det inte är de sociala aspekterna som är de mest värdefulla för respondenterna vid val av spaanläggning. Istället är det känslan spaanläggningen frambringar, egentid och upplevelsen som står i centrum. I vår strävan efter att ta reda på vem den typiska spagästen är, har vi med hjälp av vår studie kunnat sammanfatta den typiska gästen som

    den självständige livsnjutaren. Vi har därigenom bidragit till en ökad förståelse för spagäster som kundgrupp och vi vill uppmuntra till ytterligare forskning inom området där andra metoder än den vi använt tillämpas. Detta med ändamålet att nyansera bilden av den typiska spagästen och nå den djupa kundförståelse som krävs för att kunna upprätthålla ett troget kundvärdesskapande på ett långsiktigt plan. 

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  • 119.
    Avrin, Tove
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Gustafsson, Camilla
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Medarbetarskap och Ledarskap: Hur påverkas individen i organisationen vid implementering av ett nytt arbetssätt?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den berörda organisationen hade implementerat ett nytt arbetssätt, "Medarbetarskap och Ledarskap". Studien är en utvärdering på individnivå av hur arbetssättet påverkat undersökningspersonerna. Nitton personer med olika befattningar deltog i undersökningen som utgjordes av enskilda intervjuer och fokusgrupper. Samtliga intervjuer spelades in med diktafon och transkriberades därefter ordagrant. Resultatet visade att medarbetarna var negativa till arbetssättet, delvis på grund av hur pengarna satsades, men det framfördes även kritik beträffande innehållet. Cheferna var över lag positiva, då de såg materialet som ett användbart verktyg i sin chefsroll. En slutsats av studien är att arbetssättet var dåligt förankrat hos medarbetarna. Värdet av att delge sina medarbetare information vid en organisationsförändring kan inte nog betonas, då risken är att dessa annars känner sig förbigångna. 

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    C-uppsats Tove och Camilla
  • 120.
    Axelsson, Gustav
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Raun, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Marknadsföring inom bemanningsbranschen: Fördjupning kring analys-modellers användning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport kommer läsaren till en början att få kort insikt i företaget Lernia samt anledningen till vår rapport. Därefter kommer vi att djupare gå igenom några analysmodeller vilka man kan använda sig vid marknadsföring. De modeller som kommer att tas upp är marknadsföringsmixen med sina 4P och 7P, SWOT-analys och relationsmarknadsföring. I empiri och analys går vi sedan igenom de insamlade materialet från teorin och de intervjuer vi sammanställt för att ge svar på frågan om hur man arbetar med marknadsföring inom bemanningsbranschen. I slutsatsen knyter vi ihop arbetet med våra egna tankar kring modellernas varande i samband med dess faktiska användande inom dagliga arbetet.

  • 121.
    Axelsson, Pethra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En begreppslig analys av Rättvisande bild2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemformulering: Begreppet rättvisande bild har sedan införande i svensk lagstiftning varit svårt att definiera. En anledning till detta är att Sverige tillhör den kontinentala redovisningstraditionen medans begreppets hemland, Storbritannien, tillhör den anglosaxiska redovisningstraditionen. USA använder sig av samma redovisningstradition som Storbritannien och har en liten annorlunda definition av begreppet än vad vi har i Sverige. Här i Sverige krockar även begreppet rättvisande bild med det gamla begreppet god redovisningssed. Detta har lett till funderingar och följande forskningsfrågor:  Hur kan begreppet rättvisande bild definieras enligt enhetsteorin respektive ägarteorin? Syftet med denna fråga är att få en förståelse för varför det är svårt att definiera begreppet.  Kan redovisningsskillnader mellan länderna förklaras utifrån rättvisande bild? Syftet med denna fråga är att kunna tydligare se skillnader mellan USA och Sverige vad gäller rättvisande bild.  Vad är begreppsskillnaden mellan rättvisande bild och god redovisningssed? Syftet med denna fråga är att ifrågasätta om verkligen dessa två begrepp behövs eller om man skulle kunna ta bort en ur lagstiftningen. Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att göra en kontextuell tolkning av rättvisande bild. Principer och värderingar formar uttrycket rättvisande bild och ligger till grund för det. Dessa ska jag ta upp för att få fram en större förståelse i vad som ligger till grund i konstitution av rättvisande bild. Lagtexten går bara ytligt in på vad rättvisande bild innebär. Detta ska nu undersökas. Läsaren ska även få en insikt i skillnader mellan Sverige och USA vad gäller rättvisande bild och vad som kan vara relevant referenspunkt när det kommer till detta begrepp. Metod: Studien består av en litteraturstudie med ett hermeneutiskt tolkningssätt. Genom att tolka olika texter önskar jag få fram en ökad förståelse för vad begreppet rättvisande bild innebär. Studien använder sig utav lagtext, forskningsrapporter, läroböcker samt artiklar för att få en så bred och objektiv bild som möjligt av begreppet. Rättvisande bild är ett levande begrepp som rekonstrueras och dekonstrueras hela tiden i samhället och har därmed fått olika betydelser, vilket jag fördjupar mig i några av dessa i studien. Resultat: Genom studiens gång har det visat sig att begreppet rättvisande bild kan definieras som att om man följer riktlinjer och principer inom enhetsteorin eller ägarteorin, beroende på vilken teori man använder, så får man en rättvisande bild. Årsredovisningens resultat måste vara lika sann som fair, vilket inte alltid är så lätt. I USA är fair value och present fairly tydligare förklarat än rättvisande bild i Sverige, vilket kan sägas bero på att både USA och Storbritannien har samma redovisningstradition. Fair value är en utvecklad variant av marknadsperspektivet av rättvisande bild medans present fairly är en utvecklad variant av det etiska perspektivet av begreppet. Teoretiska skillnader mellan begreppet rättvisande bild och god redovisningssed finns, men enligt tidigare studier verkar det inte finnas någon praktisk sådan. Detta leder till slutsatsen att om något av begreppet ska tas bort så blir det rättvisande bild, då god redovisningssed är befäst inom redovisningen.

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  • 122.
    Axhall, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet som formade studien handlade om de kostnader som uppkommer för företag då det sker uppsägningar av personal. Studiens syfte och fokus låg på att finna sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget. För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes sju intervjuer med personer som har titeln butiksbiträden. På grund av tidsbrist valdes en specifik yrkesgrupp och för att avgränsa studien. Vetenskapliga artiklar tillsammans med övrig litteratur var studiens sekundära källor, medan studiens primära källor var intervjuerna som ägde rum med de sju respondenter från fyra olika företag. I teoriavsnittet presenteras olika teorier och studier som gjorts med olika infall- och synvinklar på begreppet meningsfullhet, vilket var många. Min definition av meningsfullhet var de som ser på meningsfullheten så som jag personligen gör, framförallt sker genom de kundmöten jag står inför som butiksbiträde. Tidigare forskare har poängterat att definitionen av meningsfullhet går att koppla till de relationerna som uppkommer mellan individer, vilket då påvisade att det fanns ett intresse kring denna syn på meningsfullhet i arbetet. I teoriavsnittet sammanställs och presenteras olika forskares synsätt på hur meningsfullhet uppkommer i arbetslivet. Baumeister & Vohs (2002), se Vuori T., m.fl., 2012) tolkade ordet meningsfullhet som "en positiv innebörd och betydelsen av en aktivitet" vilket även poängterades av Vuori T., m.fl. (2012) där meningsfullheten uppkommer med att människor associerar sitt arbete med positiva ting. Enligt Dimitrov, D. (2012) tolkades meningsfullhet som att skapa ordning i innehållet, detta innefattade Dimitrov, D. (2012) med självkänslan för vad personen i fråga tillför sin arbetsplats, arbetsinnehållet att skapa utmaning, kreativitet, lärande, egen makt och självständighet. Medan Hirschi, A., & Terrence, T. (2012) uppfattade meningsfullhet som individers uppfattning om hur betydande deras arbete var. Teoriavsnittet innehåller även olika teorier och tidigare studier om hur företag behåller sina anställda. Slutligen i analysavsnittet sammanför diskussionen och kopplingarna mellan den insamlade empirin och teorin. Slutsatsen av studien resulterade i att ledare inte tycktes ha samma inflytande på meningsfullheten i arbetet, så som de övriga kollegorna och främst kunderna hade. Studien påvisade starka samband mellan meningsfullhet och kundbemötandet.

  • 123.
    Axhall, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tjärndal, Lina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konsekvenser för organisationskulturen vid en sammanslagning av två organisationer: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig sektor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of change in organizational contexts involves much, what we will focus on in the following study are mergers. Mergers are becoming more common in the dynamic and changing world that we live in. When two different organizational cultures are combined, it´s inevitable to avoid organizational culture being affected. Having knowledge about how interactions affect the organization is important in order to serve as a profitable and giving strategy. Previous research shows that organizational culture is affected by collusion, because the organizational culture has a strong impact on the outcome of the merger. Organizational culture can change in mergers, as the change brings new aspects of the organization, which in turn affects organizational culture. Two recurring factors that existed in the field of research were leadership and communication. Our research questions for the following study are:

    - What consequences can arise in the mergers of two organizations whose cultures differ?

    - How can leadership and communication contribute to developing organizational culture within the organization?

    The aim of the study is to contribute with increased knowledge of how cultural conditions such as organizational culture are affected by a merger. The following study focuses on leaders in raising awareness and awareness of how mergers and organizational culture can be developed and managed to make the transition rewarding and that the organization should have a stronger common organizational culture. In order to accomplish this, a qualitative method was chosen with a hermeneutically interpretative approach. The collected material for the study is based on scientific articles and semistructured interviews with ten selected interviewees. The analysis and conclusion of the study is based on the interviews we received through interviews with both leaders and teachers within the organization. The conclusion showed that geographical distances between organizations can contribute to a reduced degree of cohesion. In order for leadership and communication to develop organizational culture within the organization, clarity and structuring are required.

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  • 124.
    Backlund, Liza
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Isacson, Sarah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Komponentredovisning inom kommuner: En kvalitativ studie kring komponentredovisningens utmaningar2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Component accounting means that assets are divided into several components, where each component is depreciated separately. In 2014, component accounting became mandatory for all municipalities to apply in their accounting. Previous research shows both high and low compliance with new accounting standards, as well as an expectation of increased administrative work when adopting new standards. The study aimed to gain an increased understanding of how municipalities approach component accounting and its challenges. The study also aims to investigate whether it has developed a common practice regarding component accounting for municipalities. A qualitative multiple case study has been conducted through interviews with four municipalities located in Western Sweden. The results showed different levels of compliance with the new standards. In addition, it did not show any common practice regarding component accounting by municipalities. The results also showed that the adoption of component accounting has contributed to an increased administrative burden. Furthermore, it was discovered that municipalities consider themselves to be in compliance with generally accepted accounting principles, but that it differs whether their component accounting presents a true and fair view.

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  • 125.
    Backman, Jessica
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konstruktion av identitet och förmedling av image vid varumärkesuppbyggnad i en mindre stad: Fallet Trollhättan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the mobility of the population and the development of the economy, much more attention is paid to the competitiveness between nations, regions and cities. City branding is a development strategy where there is a need to build cities own identity through marketing and convey their image. However, the understanding of how large cities work cannot be transferred to smaller cities, which, among other things, may face economic constraints. Instead, smaller cities must let their creativity flow and try to benefit from what can already be used. The purpose of the study is to find out how a small city can construct its identity and to convey its image in order to develop its brand. Based on this, previous research has been used to search for important information about city branding as well as a city's identity and image in order to find out important variables to investigate further in the study. Some variables in the construction of identity that were important in my study included the city's personality, appearance, significance of place, distinctive features and also leadership and planning. Some variables that were important to investigate when conveying the image included characteristics of the city, general feelings about the city, appearance, the significance of the place and its development. To fulfill the purpose, a qualitative case study has been performed of the city Trollhättan. To get important information about the city's identity, the City of Trollhättan has been contacted to understand how they try to construct their identity. This has been collected through a presentation by the City of Trollhättan, with a series of interview questions and also through available documents. To get relevant information about the city's image, a qualitative focus group interview was conducted. Itconsisted of six people with different ages, gender, ethnicity and different connections to Trollhättan to get a broader perspective on their perceptions of the city. Based on this method and the variables that were important for the study, the empirical data has been collected. The analysis illuminates connections between previous research and empirical data based on the selected variables. It also illustrates similarities and differences between how Trollhättan constructs its identity and how the respondents perceive it. It states, among other things, that the construction of identity can affect people's image. It is therefore important to communicate what happens in the city, so that people feel involved and feel proud of the city.The conclusion that can be drawn regarding to the construction of identity is that a smaller city should constantly strive to work with the gaps between the existing city and the desired one. They should take advantage of the city's conditions and adapt to their stakeholders as much as possible. It can also be concluded that the decisions that a city makes in its construction of identity can affect the city's image in both positive and negative ways, which may depend on how people choose to perceive the decision or of the lack of communication.

  • 126.
    Backman, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Leitgeb, Christina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Garbage in, garbage out: automatiserade redovisningsprogram och deras påverkan på redovisningens kvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitizing advancement that has occured within the accountant segment have impacted what used to be a manually run segment within the industry to now become fully automated. The autonomous and technical aspect within the IT-segment have brought both new possibilities and ways of working, the following leads to an advantage being that you now have the possibility to get rapports in real time, among other things. An increasing number of accounting processes are automated as accounting programs evolve and an important question to be asked is how the quality within the accounting segment is affected.

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the impact of automated accounting processes on the quality of accounting. We chose a qualitative research strategy and abductive research facility.

    Through semi-structured interviews with accountants and auditors at various agencies, we collected data for our empirical analysis. We analyzed based on a thematic analysis based on the themes of the study; comprehensibility, reliability, relevance and comparability.

    The results of the study show that quality is improved and work more efficiently with automation. Reducing the manual work in the form of instancing's and transferring it to an automated process minimizes the risk of errors in the accounting. What is important, however, is that the setup of accounting programs automatic processes must be correct from the start, if the setup is incorrect then the result will be incorrect. Having standard setups in the applications reduces any errors that may arise when loading against, for example, proprietary templates, as they constantly need to be updated. To fully automate all parts within the accountant segment is presently not possible as some parts must be manually handled, such as annual accounts. Although the automated processes minimize the risk of instance, it is still important that some form of quality check needs to be done to assure that the result is correct. The results of the study also show that a good accounting quality requires that the accounting consultant has the correct competence and understanding of accounting. The correct competence in the future also includes IT-management why it should be introduced in the financial studies.

    In conclusion, we have been able to conclude with the help of the study that it is wrong from the beginning in the form of incorrect setup of the automatic process, error of failure or lack of competence of the accounting consultant will also the final result be incorrect, in other words "garbage in, garbage out".

  • 127.
    Badjie, Fatou
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ghavaed, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En kvalitativ studie kring faktorer som kan påverka personalens hälsa i en organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har författarna valt att titta närmare på vilka faktorer det finns som kan påverka anställdas hälsa i en organisation. Detta genom att först identifiera faktorerna i det valda företaget och sedan med hjälp av intervjuer och den teoretiska referensramen få ett resultat. I den teoretiska referensramen redogör författarna för en historisk bakgrund om hälsa och faktorer som kan påverka medarbetarens hälsa. För att få fram relevant litteratur inom ämnesområdet har författarna använt sig av en kvalitativ metod, vetenskapliga artiklar och intervjuer. I det empiriska avsnittet framgår intervjuerna på fyra anställda i det valda företaget. För att veta hur deras hälsa är gjorde författarna ett urval på grund av att författarna ville få fullständiga svar från personer med erfarenhet. Det ställdes frågor angående arbetsförhållanden, motivation, trivsel etc. Därefter har författarna vävt samman den teoretiska referensramen med det empiriska och analyserat kring det. Detta för att besvara frågeställningen och syftet. Senare visar det sig att personalen i det valda företaget skulle kunna tänka sig att byta jobb om det fanns möjlighet. De känner även att de saknar motivation och tydliga mål från chefen. Slutligen har författarna kommit fram till att det trots några positiva saker på arbetsplatsen finns det en del brister som skulle kunna förbättras som kan gynna personalens hälsa.

  • 128.
    Bagge, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Johanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Orden bakom siffrorna: Hur tydliggörs tillvägagångssättet vid värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i noterna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research have pointed out that the regulatory framework IAS 40 is not detailed enough. There are therefore no clear directives on how specified information that should be included in the notes regarding the approach of investment properties. The purpose of this study was therefore to obtain deeper understanding concerning the way Swedish listed real estate companies presents the approach of valuation of investment properties in the notes and get a deeper knowledge about similarities and differences with focus on; input level, method of valuation and external valuation. The study is based on a hermeneutical approach since a qualitative method in form of a content analysis has been done. The content analysis included all Swedish real estate companies listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. The notes of the real estate companies´ annual report from 2016 were examined. The study found out that all companies applied input level three when they clarified fair value. Furthermore, many of the companies based the fair value on similar calculations and this phenomenon can be explained by coercive and mimetic isomorphism which are presented in the theoretical section. The study also discovered that the extent of the external valuation differs between the companies. Further, the study also revealed that the notes overall included the same type of information concerning input level, method of valuation and external valuation. However, there are some differences in how much details that are included.

  • 129.
    Bahtijari, Agon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Deyab, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Den nytillträdde verkställande direktörens möjlighet och incitament till Earnings Management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial statements submitted by the companies will form the basis for various financial decisions taken by external stakeholders. This assumes that the information presented in these reports is valid and consistent with reality. However, the reliability and validity of these reports has been contested by previous studies whichmean that surrounding companies CEO turnover, both the incoming and the outgoing CEO have opportunities and incentives to Earnings Management. The possibility of Earnings Management arises as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as a principle-based accounting system, creates scope for subjective assessments and estimates that can be utilized by the management to conduct Earnings Management. This opportunity is complemented by the management's opportunistic perspective and the seek after own interest. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge if the newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process, as well as whether the presence of Earnings Management surrounding CEO turnover is affected, depending on whether the newly appointed CEO is promoted from within or recruited outside the company. To carry out the survey, we have used a quantitative research method. The study contains 49 companies registered on the OMX Stockholmsbörsen Large Cap. All companies' annual reports have been analyzed between 2005 and 2015, which resulted in 539 observations. The study's result indicate that it can't be ensured that a newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process. Nor can we be ensured that an external newly appointed CEO has greater opportunities for Earnings Management than an internal newly appointed CEO.

  • 130.
    Bajraktari, Lirije
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Abdallah, Rosanne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikter och kommunikation: Hur konflikter och kommunikation hanteras på en arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi valde att göra en undersökning på en skola inom kommunen i Trollhättan som heter Kronan. Studien handlar om hur man hanterar konflikter på arbetsplatsen och hur kommunikationen påverkar konflikterhanteringen. Till hjälp av vår studie ville vi få besvarat på hur konflikter sköts och hur kommunikationen kan leda till konflikter för att kunna få inblick på hur detta kan hanteras på bästa sätt. För att få hjälp med undersökningen kontaktade vi Kronan för att utföra vår undersökning. Vi har utgått från en kvalitativ metod och valt att intervjua fem anställda på organisationen angående deras syn på ämnet. För att kunna genomföra vår studie har vi utnyttjat oss av litteratur för att jämföra med resultaten från våra intervjuer. Resultatet från vår undersökning visade att konflikter inte trängs bort utan det hanteras till en bättre arbetsmiljö där kommunikation har en stor påverkan. De anställda väljer att hantera konflikterna på olika sätt, vissa väljer att låta individerna sköta problemen själva medan andra väljer att försöka lägga sig och hantera konflikterna på direkten.

  • 131.
    Bajwa, Humera
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Karawan, Liza
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledningens roll i arbetsmiljön: En studie inomhemtjänsten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vårdens styrning måste väsentligt förbättras samt utvecklas, det allvarligaste problemet ledningen handskas med inom äldreomsorgen är det faktum att personalens ansvar gällande arbetsprestationen är otydlig samt att det finns en brist på återkoppling gällande utfört arbete. Det saknas konkreta insatser som kan implementeras för att förbättra personalens arbetsvillkor. Detta leder i sin tur till att personalen är omotiverade i sitt arbete. Utifrån ovan diskuterade perspektiv skapar äldreomsorgen en bild av att vara en dysfunktionell organisation. Problemet är att arbetsmiljön inte är särskilt bra inom äldreomsorgen då högsjukfrånvaro, brist på motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter är de vanligaste förutsättningar som skapar en dysfunktionell organisation.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka ledarskapets roll i den dysfunktionella organisationen samt hur ledningen kan förbättra arbetsmiljön. Genom att kvalitativt intervjua sju personer, fyra enhetschefer samt tre medarbetare, kunde vi uppnå studiens syfte.

    I teoridelen definierade vi ledarskapets innebörd genom att presentera fyra olika ledarskapsstilar vilket är karismatiskt, transaktionellt, transformellt samt Laissez - faire ledarskap. Dessutom presenterades definitionen av arbetsmiljö samt friskfaktorer för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Därefter presenterade vi ledningens roll i att skapa en god arbetsmiljö genom att belysa faktorer som motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter.

    Det som framkom av studien var att ledningens har en väsentlig roll i att förbättra arbetsmiljön inom äldreomsorgen genom att implementera ett ledarskap som präglas av gemenskap, motivation samt kommunikation. Respondenterna ansåg även att återkoppling, varierande arbetsuppgifter, inre motivation samt att en god gemenskap är väsentlig för att skapa en tillfredställande arbetsplats.

  • 132.
    Bankel, Selma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rosengren, Tove
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Onboardingprocessen under Covid-19-pandemin: en kvalitativ fallstudie kring introduktionen av nyanställda på distans2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the Covid-19 Pandemic, organizations have had to change the way they work, and more employees have had to work from home. This means that even new employees commence their employment remotely and are introduced to the organization remotely, meaning they go through the onboarding process remotely. Since the pandemic started approximately one year ago, there is limited research on how the onboarding process has been impacted and how the remote onboarding process has been experienced. This study’s purpose has been to create knowledge about how the onboarding of newemployees has been affected or changed during remote work. This has been created byexamining how new employees and those responsible for the onboarding have beenaffected by the onboarding process taking place remotely. To specify the purpose, the research questions were focused on employees from the same organization and who had worked the majority of their working hours remotely. The theory consisted of previous research around onboarding activities, organizational culture, socialization, and remote work. A case study design was chosen for this study. The selection of respondents was chosen through specific criteria’s, which included being from one organization, and the new employees had been working in the organization for a minimum of three months and not more than a year. To create an understanding of the experience of the onboardingprocess, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight respondents, where three were in charge of the onboarding process, while the remaining five were new employees in the same organization. After the interviews, the material was transcribed and later became the empiricism for the study. The empiricism from these interviews showed above all that it was a challenge for the new employees to get to know their coworkers while working remotely. It was also difficult for the new employees to get an understanding of the organizational culture, this is supported by the theory as it shows that it can take a long time to understand the organizational culture. Additionally, there were only two out of five new employees who had a mentor from the start of the employment, and it was shown that a mentor would have been wanted. An analysis model was used, which was based on a previous model from Bauer (2010) called “The Four C’s” that consisted of four levels of what a successful onboarding process should consist of for new employees. Based on this model the organization reached the first level, which consisted of informing about rules, laws, and policies, while the remaining levels were partially achieved. The study shows that previous onboarding activities are still relevant, as well as mentorship, and the social aspect is extra important when the onboardingprocess is remote.

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  • 133.
    Barceló, Lídia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The impact of company specific and foreign country factors on the choice of foreign market entry mode in the hotel industry: A case study of Meliá Hotels International entering Asia Pacific2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism sector is the key driver of the Spanish economy, especially the hotel industry. Due to different reasons, Spanish hotel chains have started their internationalization process. In the other part of the world, Asia Pacific, is considered a region with an enormous tourism potential, in which the region receives a great number of international travellers every year. Additionally, due to the increase of the middle class, the number of domestic tourists has also increased. The study on the choice of entry mode is a topic very much discussed in the existing literature, since its choice is a key decision in the process of internationalization, and many factors influence this strategic decision. However, the motivation for this thesis is the lack of previous studies on the internationalization of Spanish hotel companies in Asia Pacific.

    From this perspective, the objective of this master's thesis in International Business is to gain a deeper understanding of the company specific and foreign country specific factors that influence a particular Spanish hotel chain in choosing an entry mode for internationalization into Asia Pacific. The Majorcan hotel chain, Meliá Hotels International, has been selected due to having its main focus the growth expansion into Asia Pacific.

    From here, a conceptual model has been developed on how different factors influence the decision of equity or non-equity entry modes. The study follows a qualitative research design and case study. The data has been collected through interviews and various documents published by Meliá. The major finding is undoubtedly Meliá's strong decision to follow a business model based on asset light and to establish itself in Asia Pacific by operating under management contracts. But the results also suggest factors that go beyond the characteristics of a company, such as foreign country factors, also accumulation of great influence, as specifically is the case for Meliá Hotels International into Asia Pacific.

  • 134.
    Barkman, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Forsler, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motives for voluntary sustainability reporting: A study of SMEs in Sweden and the U.K.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate is rapidly changing due to an increasing amount of emitted carbon dioxide which will lead to problems for future generations to meet their needs in terms of resources. More and more organizations have started acknowledging that their activities affect the environment surrounding the organization. Multinational organizations are forced by law to present a sustainability report to declare their contribution to a more sustainable development. Small and medium-sized organizations (SMEs) do not need topublish a sustainability report by law, but an increasing number of SMEs publish a sustainability report voluntarily. Therefore, it is of interest to gain knowledge about what motives SMEs have to present a voluntary sustainability report. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting by SMEs in Sweden and the U.K. To gain knowledge about the subject, a quantitative approach was used. In order to limit the scope of this study, SMEs in Sweden and the U.K. was targeted to answer a web-based survey. The survey was based on the theoretical framework, which consisted of the triple bottom line, the legitimacy theory and the stakeholder theory. Based on the theoretical framework, four hypotheses were formulated. Hypothesis 1 was that organizations have more motives for presenting information about environmental sustainability. Hypothesis 2 was about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting and legitimacy. Hypothesis 3b was that organizations prioritize certain stakeholders' demands. Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3b were all confirmed by descriptive statistics and one sample t-tests. Hypothesis 3a was about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting and satisfying their stakeholders' demands. Hypothesis 3a could not be confirmed or rejected due to scattered results in the descriptive statistics and the one-sample t-test. Two major conclusions could be drawn from the conducted survey. The first conclusion was that organizations have more motives to sustainability report about the environment rather than about the social or economic aspects of sustainability. The second conclusion was that both gaining legitimacy and satisfying certain stakeholders' demands are motives for sustainability reporting for SMEs.

  • 135.
    Bartczak, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Keca, Tatjana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Transformativt ledarskap under en pågående förändring2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to gain in-depth knowledge of how the hotel industry exercises transformative leadership during organizational changes with a focus on the Covid-19 pandemic, which has hit the tourism industry hard. To fulfill the purpose and answer the research question, a qualitative method was used during the study, which is also based on six interviews with leaders from a hotel. Furthermore, the study shows that the chosen organization uses transformative leadership during the Covid-19 pandemic. Above all, it is shown by the leaders working to motivate and encourage their employees. The leaders involve the employees in the decision-making process and let the employees be creative and come up with their own suggestions. The leaders have also emphasized that there have been difficulties in working with the employees on an individual level as the leaders during the Covid-19 pandemic have had to prioritize the organization as a whole. At the same time, all respondents emphasize that employee well-being was also a decisive factor during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

  • 136.
    Basiri, David
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Val av redovisningsregelverk och vilka faktorer som styr: En kvalitativ studie utifrån Auktoriserade Revisorernas perspektiv om småföretags val mellan K2 och K3 regelverken2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On February 13, 2004, The Accounting board (BFN) decided on an adapted direction on the work on norming. Some of the motives for this was that the supervisory background remained extensive due to previous ways of producing norms. Another reason for the choice was that since there was an occasion for companies to choose recommendations from different norm providers, it was given the opportunity to choose which result they would like to report, which meant that information presented by the unlisted companies could be difficult to interpret. This resulted in the development of BFN's category rules, which divide Sweden's companies into four categories based on the volume of the company, where each individual category has its own rules that contain inclusive general recommendation. The intention of this study is to show the accounting profession's experiences of which factors were decisive for smaller companies when choosing between these two K-regulations and to gain an understanding of how companies’ accounting choices go. The study also shows the respondents' views on BFN's category rules and its impact on the reporting in smaller companies, the respondents' views on principle-based regulations and rule-based regulations as well as their views on K2 and K3, respectively. An interpretivist approach takes remained with the intention of presenting the accounting career's own opinions and experiences. Furthermore, a qualitative method in the form of semi-structured interviews takes remained. The primary data of the study has been collected through the interviews, while the secondary data has been obtained through scientific articles, non-fiction literature and websites. The theory that has been linked to the problem area of the study, i.e. the way in which corporate accounting choices go, are Positive Accounting Theory, Institutional Theory and research on varieties between rule-based and principle-based theories. The study has shown that smaller companies often rely on the accounting profession's expertise and advice when it comes to accounting choices. In addition, it can be acknowledged that many companies center of attention on simplicity and that they themselves need to make such a small effort as possible. The business sector and special conditions at the companies are important for how they choose. For example, certain specific accounting rules are crucial, mainly for companies with slightly more complicated conditions, such as component decrease for real estate companies, the possibility in K3 to value financial assets at fair value and the activation ban for selfgenerated intangible assets that affect innovation companies. Generally, the accounting profession needs to be better at passing on the meaning of the different regulations to the companies, but also on informing that there actually is an opportunity to choose regulations.

  • 137.
    Bcharri, Monir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Andersson, Oscar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Budgetprocessens skillnader och påverkan på motivation: Upplevelser av budgetansvariga från två företag2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined whether the budget process differs between two companiesand whether it has a motivating effect on the budget managers. The survey was conducted through a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews. Four respondents participated from two different companies in Gothenburg. Previous research indicates differences in the results regarding how motivated the budget managers have been in the budget process. When analyzing the respondents answers the motivation seems to be high among the participants. Three out of four respondents indicate an increased motivation the more they were involved in the budget process. Those who felt an increased motivation stated that the common goal of meeting the budget targets contributed to more effective communication. Thus, an interesting factor was that a harsh nature of budgeting created an increased communication that clarified the budget targets which created a better forecast in the face of difficult budget decisions. It turned out that there are both similarities and differences in the budget process. The similarities that existed were that the steps of the budget process were done in a similar order. However,the differences arose mainly in how the companies handled the various steps of the budget process where communication proved to be the biggest difference.

  • 138.
    Bellstam, Jennifer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bergqvist, Therés
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröms inverkan på autonom motivation: Inom offentlig sektor2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations use some form of reward system, ether financial or non-financial, as instruments for control. The point of reward systems is to motivate employees within organizations in various ways. In previous studies praise, a form of non-financial reward, has been shown to have a positive effect on motivation. However, what type of motivation praise affects has not been adequately researched. Within the public sector resources are scarce and earlier research shows that most of the employees in that sector are autonomously motivated. To be motivated in that way means to be driven by a selfinterest and many people working in the public sector do so because they feel that their work is meaningful. Research has shown that increased motivation has a positive effect on the performance and it is therefore important for managers within the public sector to be able to keep the staff motivated. The purpose of this study is to further develop knowledge about how praise, a form of cost efficient non-financial reward, can influence the autonomous motivation in employees within the public sector. A qualitative research method has been applied to achieve the purpose of this study. A total of eight interviews have been conducted with people working in the public sector and which all get praise in their workplace. With the help of the conducted interviews and earlier research concerning praise and motivation we have been able to find out how praise is given within the public sector and how it affects the employees three psychological needs; experienced competence, experienced belonging and experienced autonomy as well as their autonomous motivation. Praise is often given verbally within the public sector it is the praise for individual performances that has the most impact. Praise from managers is often considered as the least significant since they are not considered to be present enough to see what the employees accomplish. This study concludes that praise has an impact on autonomous motivation and may also affect the controlled motivation.

  • 139.
    Benayed, Elie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jama, Issa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bitcoin: An empirical study on the future developments2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bitcoin has over the years dominated the headlines for good and bad reasons. Examples of this range from the first introduction of a Bitcoin Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to the recent attack on the Bitcoin exchange, MT Gox, where 850000 bitcoins were stolen worth hundreds of millions USD. The fundamental questions that this research answers are what Bitcoin exactly is and whom the actors are using this digital currency. Furthermore, an empirical research is conducted to highlight how actors expect Bitcoin to develop in the future.

    Bitcoin is depicted as a self-evolving system that has its own community. This research draws similarities with the traditional theory of ecosystem and the business ecosystem theory by Moore (1996). The Bitcoin ecosystem is presented as a model that consists out of internal and external factors.

    The methods that are used in this research are mostly of quantitative nature, though a qualitative way of analysing is also incorporated in this research. An electronic questionnaire was sent to users, investors and companies that use Bitcoin. These electronic questionnaires were sent to companies by email and to different Bitcoin forums to reach users and investors in Bitcoin. A total of 51 actors have completed the questionnaire.

    The empirical analysis focused on the present and the future of Bitcoin. The subjects that are covered consisted of legal, economic and technological factors that determine the Bitcoin system. The present situation shows that the main reason people use Bitcoin is that it offers the actors an alternative for fiat currencies and low transaction costs when making payments. The current drawbacks of the Bitcoin system are, regarded by scholars and actors, to be the high volatility in the value of Bitcoin and the security concerns that are caused by hackers of the system.

    Finally, the overall sentiment amongst users, investors and companies is that the future of Bitcoin is considered to be a bright one based on the legal, economic and technological factors

  • 140.
    Bengtsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Blomén, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hållbara fonder: En kvalitativ studie om storbankernas digitala kommunikation2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Man´s work towards a more sustainable world is a very current topic. Commercial banks have a unique role in influencing climate changes by directing capital to sustainable investments. The purpose of this study is to examine the marketing communication done by the three big banks in Sweden in regards to sustainable funds. This has been examined by studying the communication on the banks websites, how many sustainable funds that are supplied and the similarities and differences between the banks.

    To collect the data, a document study has been done. The data is collected from three of Sweden's major banks. The study has shown that it is difficult to define what a sustainable fund is. The study has also shown that none of the banks has information regarding sustainable funds on the homepage of the website. On the sustainability side of the website, however, all three banks use recognizable images to create a need for the recipient, but the presentation of sustainable funds differs between banks. 

  • 141.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Feldt, Denise
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kompetensförsörjning som en del av HR-funktionen: HR-funktionens förändringar och dess betydelse för strategisk kompetensförsörjning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to get a good economic growth in the community, as well as a fully functioning labor market, competence is an important prerequisite. Competence is not only about the amount of years a person has studied at the university, instead its more about lifelong learning that takes place outside traditional education systems. During the passage of time, human resources and skills gained in importance while today's employees have much higher education. Despite this, there seems to be a shortage in some organizations when it comes to skills development.

    The purpose of this study is to examine what the work of strategic competence can look like. In the work we have chosen to interview three organization employees with HR responsibility to see what tools they use to plan and work with skills development. We've chosen to adopt a qualitative approach in the form of interviews to get a picture of how the tasks are done.

    The result of this work has been based on empirical data, wich later is linked to the theory section parts. Based on this we have drawn connections and interpretations which are later summarized in the analysis and conclusion. The result we reached was that the concept of competence was interpreted differently between the various organizations we worked with. Organizations' common view was that competence has a significant role to achieve success.

  • 142.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jörgensen, Mimmi
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kundrelationer: Vikten av goda kundrelationer inom detaljhandeln2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How should the retail stores work with their customer relationships to successfully retain their customers in a time of increased competition in the form of accessible e-commerce?

    This work aims to provide a deeper knowledge of how a company should work on creating good customer relationships. The work also provides an updated view on how an established retail company such as Hennes & Mauritz works with customer service and how well it meets the service requirements of todays customers.

    The work includes a literature survey, which refers to the customer and their service expectations. To get a better view on how actual customers and shop assistants look at customer relationships, the work also include an empirical study that is prepared in the form of a questionnaire survey, two shorter interviews with employees at Hennes & Mauritz and an organizational survey. These two parts will in the end be the answer to our question

  • 143.
    Bengtsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hög arbetsbelastning och stress: En kvalitativ fallstudie inom läraryrket2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag i ett kravsamhälle där vi har höga förväntningar på oss, både inom arbetslivet och privatlivet. Det kan vara svårt och mycket påfrestande för oss att leva upp till alla dessa krav och förväntningar, det märks inte minst då den psykiska ohälsan kraftigt ökat i Sverige under de senaste åren. Psykisk ohälsa har blivit vår stora folksjukdom och står idag för över 40 procent av sjukfallen i Sverige. Det är ett hett ämne som ständigt diskuteras inom nyheter och media. Dålig arbetsmiljö en är bidragande faktor till psykisk ohälsa och vi vet att hög arbetsbelastning och stress är ett vanligt problem inom många branscher idag, som påverkar människor negativt. Debatten har nu resulterat i en ny föreskrift, som trädde i kraft den 31 mars 2016, i syfte att förbättra de organisatoriska och sociala förhållandena på arbetsplatsen.

    Vi har gjort en fallstudie på en högskola i Västsverige för att undersöka hur lärare upplever och hanterar hög arbetsbelastning och stress. Vi har gjort intervjuer med sex lärare som även fört dagbok under två veckor, som en del i undersökningen.

    Lärarna uppger att deras arbetssituation är mycket påfrestande i vissa perioder. Främst handlar det om tentaperioder samt vid överlappningen mellan kursslut och kursstart. Stressen och den höga arbetsbelastningen påverkar lärarna på olika sätt. Vissa menar att de på grund av arbetet har ett minskat socialt liv och några nämner att de ibland har en störd nattsömn. Att arbetet ibland går ut över deras privatliv är samtliga lärare överens om, då de ofta arbetar både under kvällar och helger. Arbetssituationen hanteras genom att lära sig strukturera arbetet och hitta rutiner som fungerar för sig själv.

  • 144.
    Bengtsson, Micaela
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur kan ett HRM-system påverka det strategiska HR-arbetet inom organisationer?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HR (Human Resource) has a significant role for organisations, as they have the main responsibility for their personnel. Organisations use HR functions in various extent, while some organisations only have one pronounced HR manager, others have an HR department where personnel issues are distributed between managers and line managers. It is the personnel within the organisation that are the human resources and are the ones who develop the organisation. It is a key factor to have personnel that feel satisfied in their work assignments, as it can make them perform better. Organisations can use an HRM system (Human Resource Management) to collect data in one place, for example data about the employees. It can be difficult for organisations to work with strategic HR work, this is because they have a lot of administrative personnel management as well as organisations rarely choose to invest in HR. The purpose of this study was to examine how an HRM system can affect the strategic HR work within organisations. To examine this, I have used semi-structured interviews at an organisation in Västra Götaland. At this organisation, six people were interviewed where three of them have managerial roles and the other three are employees. The conclusion shows that an HRM system that is administered, updated and maintained continuously will provide added value to the organisation. Therefore, the system needs to be maintained in order for it to be a successful investment for the organisation, otherwise it will be more work to maintain the HRM systems than it would be useful. The study has shown that an investment in an HRM system contributes to more strategic HR work. That is because the system takes care of the administrative work, which then allows HR to work more with strategic work. 

  • 145.
    Bengtsson, Siri
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Coronakrisens påverkan på internkommunikationen: En kvalitativ studie på en statlig myndighet2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is being carried out as a B-thesis in business administration at University West spring 2020. I, as an author, have been studying the personnel economics program for two years and will therefore study the impact of the corona crisis on internal communication at a government agency. This is being done with a qualitative method with structured interviews and from an abductive approach with a total of five respondents.In recent times, Swedish society has undergone major and unusual changes as a result of the Covid-19 virus, which has created concern and uncertainty within organizations. Leadership and how the leader communicates is often described as of great importance, especially during uncertain times and thus it is currently being tested. Previous research has shown that leadership and communication are extremely important for how well an organization recovers after a crisis and how internal communication is complex in the way that what the management wants to communicate to the employees is not always interpreted by the employees as intended. The purpose of this study is therefore to study any differences in the internal communication at a government agency in order to investigate how the crisis affects the internal communication and any difficulties that arise.To find out, interviews were conducted with three department heads and two employees of a government agency. When selecting respondents, there were no major requirements regarding education, age, gender, etc. but what was sought were people who could give a good picture of the business and that themselves had an experience they could convey. The material collected from the interviews is compared with the theoretical frame of reference that has been developed that deals with topics such as leadership, communication, crisis and digital tools. Through analysis, a conclusion was reached which was that the biggest difference before and during the corona crisis is the increased use of digital tools and the reduction of physical contact. This has created an increased workload at the same time as messages about how the work is to be conducted have been communicated differently from different quarters and that as an employee it has thus not been possible to know what information to relate to. Despite this, it turns out how the, sometimes, lack of communication still worked because of the leaders' strong and open relationship with the colleagues.

  • 146.
    Bennis, Isabel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mattila-Markus, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Hur utformningen av rapporterna skiljer sig åt mellan branscher i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem - Negative environmental impacts are increasing due to various global development trends and sustainability reporting is growing among companies. To get a comparability between companies' sustainability work GRI can be used which publishes guidelines for what and how companies should report. Previous research shows that there are differences between sectors in what they choose to report.Purpose - The study aims to examine how sustainability reporting differs between industries in Sweden and what these differences are caused by.

    Delimitation - The study has been limited to analysing major Swedish listed companies' sustainability reports, published in 2014, which applies the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. Only companies' work on environmental and social responsibility have been studied. Method - In the study a quantitative survey approach has been used to make it easier to measure and compile the collected empirical data. Information has been gathered from companies' annual and sustainability reports, as well as their web pages. Data has through content analysis been reworked to facilitate the information management.

    Results and conclusions - The study shows that there are differences between the analysed industries since some of them reported a greater extent than others. The material industry is the sector that accounts for most information while the health industry reports the least. Greenhouse effect, energy usage and information about employees are those indicators that are reported most frequently among all companies. Proposal for further research - In continued research, a similar survey can be done but where interviews are conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the corporates sustainability work. A comparison between the public and private sectors as well as examining sustainability reporting over time are also suggestions for further research.

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  • 147.
    Benzein, Magnus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hansson, Carina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Välmående, mental hälsa och den psykosociala arbetsmiljön i kommunal äldreomsorg efter covid-192023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pandemic of covid-19 has affected the psychosocial work environment and well-being for workers and staff of elderly care homes across the country of Sweden. There are a various number of factors that can be related to the increased number of workers experiencing mental health problems due to changes in the psychosocial work environment such as workload, jobstrain, stress, worry or fear of being infected by the virus either spreading it to patients or family members. The purpose of this thesis is to achieve an increased understanding about eldercare in the form of home care staff and their experiences of the present psychosocial work environment compared with the peak of covid-19. The study uses assumptions in the form of hypotheses and explores connections between mental well-being and psychosocial work environment by the theory of self-determination. A quantitative research approach was used, and the study was carried out in the form of a digital survey by email to a population of workers. The data provided by the home care staff was compared to a previous survey at the University Hospital of Sahlgrenska, and the result does not support the hypothesis that the psychosocial work environment has improved as the pandemic restrictions lessen. On the contrary, the comparison between the two surveys shows that the experienced psychosocial work environment has further decreased in score, even if a straight comparison is questionable. Further research is necessary to achieve more knowledge in the subject.

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  • 148.
    Berg, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Relationen mellan företagsledare och revisor inom ägarledda bolag: Förtroende eller kontroll?: En kvalitativ studie om relationens påverkan på revisorns oberoende och revisionskvalitén2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of auditor independence is based on providing reliable information to stakeholders. If the auditor is partial in the audit, the financial report is at greater risk to provide deceptive information to stakeholder and their decisions will be based on inaccurate information. Based on previous research, three critical situations, where the auditor independence could be threatened, were identified. These situations are when the auditor offers consulting services, when there is a long-term customer relationship and when the customer is either financially or personally important to the auditor. Previous research differs from what consequences this implies, for example how audit quality is affected. Furthermore, accurate statement regarding the company's going concern can be equated with good audit quality. These statements do not in itself constitute a threat to independence, but an effect that the auditor in his audit is not independent may be that he does not make correct statements about the company's going concern. Based upon this, the intention of the study was to provide increased knowledge of how the relationship between auditors and business executives can affect the independence of the auditor and the perceived audit quality. Furthermore, also how the auditor's statements of going concern was affected by independence. Previous research formed the semi-structured interviews conducted with auditors and business executives. The study included responses from seven respondents, three of whom are auditors and four whom are business executives. The study revealed that the auditor's independence, in appearance, was affected in some of the critical situations, but is not questioned in owner managed businesses, based upon that they do not have any external stakeholders of essential importance. The auditor's independence, in fact, is not threatened in any of the critical situations as there is no conflict of interest between shareholders and business executives. Furthermore, the study also distinguished that both consulting services and long-term customer relationships improved the perceived audit quality. This because that business executives gained a greater trust in the auditor of the company and that this reduces the information asymmetry between the company and the auditor. On this basis, this also leads to that the statements of going concerns did not became affected since the auditor's independence was maintained in all situations.

  • 149.
    Berg, David
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sediqi, Elhamuddin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm som motivation inom vården: en kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector in Sweden comprises businesses within the municipality, state and county councils. Of all employed people in the country, one third works in the public sector. Major challenges are reported in healthcare where poor working conditions, low salaries and a lack of motivation are common issues. This study has the purpose of creating a better understanding and knowledge of how praise affects the motivation of the employees in the healthcare. We also investigated the form of praise that motivates the employees and consequently contributes to higher motivation. Previous research on motivation has to a greater extent focused on the private sector, hence there is a need for more empirical studies of praise in the public sector. The study is based on an empirical study on motivation and a qualitative research approach where we have chosen to do six semi-structured qualitative interviews with employees in healthcare. These interviews were later transcribed, and the data was used for the empirical work. Much of the empirical data showed that praise affects motivation differently depending on the recipient's characteristics, which were also in line with the theoretical basis of the study. The study also shows that most employees have a greater desire to receive praise individually rather than other alternatives, even though some felt that receiving praise in front of others was also important. These differences can be explained with Maslow's hierarchy of needs - depending on how the employee’s needs have been met. Those who have their basic needs met (step 1) and feel safe (step 2) and feel social belonging (step 3) need for self-esteem (step 4) are more receptive to praise. The study shows that praise as motivation in healthcare is used to a lesser extent than desired. It is also desirable for employees to receive praise and there are virtually only positive effects except if the praise is given to an individual in front of a collective group. Then it can contribute to negative effects in the form of jealousy or negative feelings

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  • 150.
    Berg, Victor
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rydén, Linda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Ursäkta, kan du upprepa frågan?: En kvalitativ studie om videointervjuers hållbarhet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, there are demands that companies should not only act according to the outcome that produces the most profit or results, they must also act sustainably. Sustainability is about resources being used in a sensible way without risking the needs of future generations. Specifically, sustainability is usually described from three perspectives, ecologically, economically and socially. As a result of the extensive digitalization of society, companies have gained new opportunities in their efforts to act sustainably. One of these areas is how companies recruit and the use of video interviews. In comparison to traditional Face to face (FTF) interviews, video interviews are said to contain several positive sustainability aspects, including that it is better for the environment. However, research has shown that there are not only positive sustainability aspects with video interviews. Job seekers find it more difficult to show personality and potential. One of the explanations for this is said to be video interviews' limitation of the nonverbal signals that provide the ability to show body language, facial expressions, eye contact and gestures. Furthermore, research highlights that video interviews mean that the recruiter gets a "rattler" picture of job seekers than if the interview had been conducted FTF, which can increase the risk of wrong recruitment. In light of video interviewers' presented doubts about the sustainability of video interviews, the purpose of the following essay was to create a greater understanding of the sustainability of video interviews by examining the perspectives of both recruits and job seekers. The study's theoretical frame of reference is based on articles that highlight sustainability in relation to video interviews. Among other things, previous research discusses the limitations of video interviews in the form of nonverbal cues with body language, eye contact and gestures. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a qualitative method was used where we interviewed six job seekers and four recruiters. The empirical evidence shows that it is above all the social sustainability of video interviews that there are divided opinions about. Some argue that the limitations of nonverbal cues are a problem, while others don't see the problem with it. Overall, the study has highlighted that in comparison with FTF interviews, there are significant positive sustainability aspects with video interviews from an ecological and economic perspective from the perspective of both recruiters and job seekers. However, it is difficult to draw a solid conclusion about the social sustainability of video interviews, within both recruiters and job seekers, opinions differ and there are both positive and negative aspects.

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