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  • 101.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Explaining Variations in Regional Housing Prices: An Accessibility Approach2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 259-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the relative geographical position of a municipality needs to be accounted for when explaining variations in housing prices. In particular, the paper aim to show that travel time distance to important economic centers have an impact on the spatial variation in housing prices across municipalities. A suitableway to model this possible impact is to use the accessibility concept, which takes into account both the time distance and the size of the economic opportunity, measured by gross pay, that can be realized in a another municipality. The model will be estimated for average municipality level housing prices using data on Swedish municipalities in 2015. To a large extent, the expectations are confirmed by the econometric estimation results. Geographical time distance have a negative effect on local housing prices. Good access to economic centers increases average housing prices, even after taking into account a large number of other determinants.

  • 102.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Imports, R&D and Local Patent Production2007In: Uddevalla Symposium tenth anniversary 2007: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Buildning Innovative Capabilities for Regions : Revised papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, University West, Uddevalla, Sweden.  / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 433-450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of national and international knowledge flows on innovative activity. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated with patent applications in Swedish municipalities as the measure of innovation. The knowledge resources applied are R&D investments and high valued imports. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the knowledge resources are expressed as accessibilities. The total accessibility of a municipality is decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility. The main results indicate that knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the innovative activity of another municipality, given that the municipalities belong to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. This result holds for both R&D investments and high valued import products.

  • 103.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Imports, R&D and Local Patent Production2012In: The Regional Economics Of Knowledge And Talent Local Advantage in a Global Context / [ed] Karlsson, C., Johansson, B. and Stough, R., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 343-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the effects of national and international knowledge flows on innovative activity. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated with patent applications in Swedish municipalities as the measure of innovation. The knowledge resources applied are R&D investments and high-valued imports. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the knowledge resources are expressed as accessibilities. The total accessibility of a municipality is decomposed into local, intraregional and interregional accessibility. The main results indicate that knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the innovative activity of another municipality, given that the municipalities belong to the same functional region. Thus the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. This result holds for both R&D investments and high-valued import products.

  • 104.
    Gråsjö, Urban.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Spatial econometrics: Methods and applications2011In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 886-888Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University-educated labor, R&D and regional export performance2008In: International regional science review, ISSN 0160-0176, E-ISSN 1552-6925, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 211-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University-educated Labour, R&D and Regional Export Performance2009In: Entrepreneurship and Innovations in Functional Regions / [ed] Karlsson C., Stough R. and Johansson B., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 141-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    On the Specification of Regression Models with Spatial Dependence: An Application of the Accessibility concept2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the taxonomy by Anselin (2003), this paper investigates how the inclusion of spatially discounted variables on the ‘right-hand-side’ (RHS) in empirical spatial models affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation in question as a separate variable reveals spatial dependence via the parameter estimate. One of the advantages of this method is that it allows for a direct interpretation. The paper also tests to what extent significance of the estimated parameters of the spatially discounted explanatory variables can be interpreted as evidence of spatial dependence. Additionally, the paper advocates the use of the accessibility concept for spatial weights. Accessibility is related to spatial interaction theory and can be motivated theoretically by adhering to the preference structure in random choice theory. Monte Carlo Simulations show that the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are significantly different from zero in the case of modelled effects. The rejection frequency of the three typical tests (Moran’s I, LM-lag and LM-err) is significantly reduced when these additional variables are included in the model. When the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are statistically significant, it suggests that problems of spatial autocorrelation are significantly reduced. Significance of the accessibility variables can be interpreted as spatial dependence

  • 108.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Human Capital and Productivity in a Spatial Economic System2007In: Annales d'Èconomie et de Statistique, ISSN 0769-489X, no 87/88, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping University.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Regional Knowledge Accessibility and Regional Economic Growth2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2006: Entrepreneurship and Development - Local Processes and Global Patterns: Revised papers presented at the 9th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 June, Fairfax, VA, USA / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 47-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is maintained as a core variable for growth in a large set of contemporary theories. In this paper we have analyzed the relationship between knowledge accessibility and regional growth. The knowledge resource used in our model is R&D conducted at universities and in companies. A precise definition of accessibility was introduced and calculations were based on actual travel time distances. Using data at the municipality level in Sweden, the hypothesis that knowledge accessibility has a positive effect on growth cannot be rejected. The knowledge accessibility in a given period has a statistically significant effect on the growth in value-added per employee in subsequent periods.

    The total accessibility of a municipality was divided into three types (i) intramunicipal accessibility, (ii) intra-regional accessibility and (iii) extra-regional accessibility. The paper has shown that this division gives a clear indication of that there is spatial dependence in the sense that the knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the growth of another municipality, conditional on that the municipalities belongs to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions.

    The findings in the paper provide support for the theories that emphasize the role of knowledge for growth. However, the paper demonstrates that spatial proximity to knowledge resources is important to materialize the positive effect of such resources. Accessibility to knowledge in space is thus imperative.

  • 110.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    The Role of Higher Education and University R&D for Industrial R&D Location2009In: Universities, Knowledge Transfer and Regional Development: Geography, Entrepreneurship and Policy / [ed] Attila Varga, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2009, p. 85-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    University Colleges’ Effect on Economic Growth in Swedish Middle-sized Municipalities2014In: Knowledge, Innovation and Space / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B, Kobayashi, K. & Stough, R, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 287-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    CIRCLE, Lunds Universitet.
    Accessibility to R&D: A Reexamination of the Consequences for Invention and Innovation2014In: Knowledge, Innovation and Space / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B, Kobayashi, K. & Stough, R, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 51-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    Lund University.
    The Effects of R&D on Regional Invention and Innovation2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance : Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan  / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 263-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of regional R&D on patenting for Sweden within an accessibility framework. We use two measures of patenting: number of patents granted per capita and a composite of quality-adjusted patents which we regard as an innovation indicator, respectively. Three conclusions emerge. First, we find that the specification where innovations per capita is used as a dependent variable performs much better than with granted patents per capita for capturing relationships with regional R&D. In fact, quantile regressions over the distribution of different patenting and innovation levels per capita show that R&D efforts within regions affect innovations per capita positively, except for the regions with the lowest levels of R&D. The effetcs on granted patents per capita are less robust and depend inconsistently on the level of R&D. Secondly, accessibility to inter-regional R&D do not affect innovation significantly in our results, which suggests that effects are locally bounded. This implies that studies of the R&D-innovation relationship are plagued by misspecification, since studies tend to show that R&D-effects diffuse to other regions. This is also the case in our study: the inter-regional effects are an important factor for granted patents. Third, the share of university R&D of all regional R&D has no effect on patenting, which suggests that the two types of R&D are substitutes. In view of these results the redommendation must be to use quality-adjusted patents for regional innovation studies rather than patent grants.

  • 114.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Flood, Lennart
    Regression Analysis and Time Use Data: A Comparison of Microeconometric Approaches with Data from the Swedish Time Use Survey (HUS)1999In: Time Use Research, Data and Policy: Contributions from the International Conference on Time Use (ICTU) Baden-Baden / [ed] Joachim Merz and Manfred Ehling, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999, 10, p. 151-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh-Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Experience Design: Understanding the Role of Technology for Virtual Experiences2006In: Proceedings of 29th Information System Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 29: Paradigms, Politics, Paradoxes, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies have always teased the imagination of avant-garde artists on how to challenge existing cultural paradigms. For instance, experience design for the creative industries of today provides exciting challenges with a potential to innovate practices and creating new ways of interaction between the artist and her audience. In an ongoing research project we aim at framing the design space for virtual experiences. The paper presents and discusses the role of technology in such context and use three ongoing case studies where ICT has been used to augment and support consumers of cultural experiences. The analysis shows how technology-driven interventions are less oriented towards radical change compared to interventions that are rooted in their nondigital origins.

  • 116.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. Jönköping International Business School.
    Accessibility: An Underused Analytical and Empirical Tool in Spatial Economics2014In: Accessibility and Spatial Interaction / [ed] Condeço-Melhorado, Ana, Reggiani, Aura & Gutiérrez, Javier, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 211-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility has for many years been a widely used tool in transportation research. Many definitions have been suggested and researchers have constructed numerous mathematical formulations to measure its value in order to be able to evaluate the relationships between the nature of the transport systems and the patterns of land use. Such correlations have been used especially in assessing existing transport systems and forecasting their performance to provide decision-makers with ideas about the need for investments in the transport systems. However, accessibility measures can be regarded as the spatial counterparts of discounting. The measures represent the spatial distribution of economic agents and their activities in a simple way that imposes a very clear structure upon the relationship between these agents and their activities and their environment. Various frictional effects arising from geographical distance between economic agents determine their interaction options, that is, their options to trade, to cooperate, to learn, to commute, and so on. Observing that the time sensitivities of the economic agents vary between different spatial scales (and between different economic activities) we may impose a spatial structure (for example, local, intra-regional, interregional and international) which offers opportunities to define variables in such a way that spatial dependencies can be accommodated. These newly defined variables can then be used in empirical explanations of various spatial phenomena, such as patent output, new firm formation, the emergence of new export products, and economic growth in different spatial units. We will in this chapter against this background show that accessibility is an underused analytical and empirical tool in regional science with an underestimated potential.

  • 117.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Entrepreneurial knowledge, technology and the transformation of regions: An introduction2013In: Entrepreneurial knowledge, technology and the transformation of regions / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie, Johansson, Börje & Stough, Roger R, London: Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Knowledgeflows, knowledge externalities and regional economic development2014In: Handbook of Regional Science / [ed] Fischer, M. M. & Nijkamp, P., Springer, 2014, p. 413-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Swedish Perspectives on creative cities2014In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, ISSN 1466-6650, E-ISSN 1741-5136, Vol. 13, no 2-4, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Urban Regions in Europe: Preconditions and Strategies for Growth and Development in the Global Economy2012In: Lacittà nell’economia della conoscenza (The city in the knowledge economy) / [ed] Cappelin, R., Ferlaino, F. & Rizzi, P., Edizioni Franco Angeli, 2012, p. 81-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, CharlieUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. Professor Emeritus of the Economics of Technological Change, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University and Professor Emeritus, Blekinge Institute of Technology.Bernhard, IréneUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.

  • 122.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Introduction: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship2018In: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series / [ed] Gråsjö, U., Karlsson, C. och Bernhard, I., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Warda, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Spatial knowledge spillovers in Europe: A Meta-Analysis2013In: The Innovation Union in Europe: A Socio-Economic Perspective on EU Integration / [ed] Elias Carayannis E. & G. Korres, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 144-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Gunnarsson, Rickard
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lindh, Jonatan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Magic Formula & Net-Nets: Vilken av dessa strategier har resulterat i bäst avkastning mellan 2007 och 2017?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the two investment strategies Magic Formula and Net-Nets, are compared against each other to find out which them has achieved the best return between 2007 and 2017 in the Swedish market. The two strategies are also set against the Swedish indices OMXS30, OMX Stockholm Largecap and OMX Stockholm Midcap, because the selection of companies included in the strategies is medium and large companies. Data have been obtained to calculate the Capital Asset Pricing Model, CAPM, and Fama French three factor model, FF3, performance measurements such as Sharpe ratio and Treynor ratio, and to perform regressions. The result shows that the strategy that is both most diversified and has achieved the best return is the Magic Formula.

  • 125.
    Gustafsson, Cajsa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Louise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Giltigheten av Okuns lag i Sverige: En empirisk analys på makronivå med tillämpning av gapversionen av Okuns lag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the long-run and the short-run relationship between unemployment and real GDP using Swedish data for the period 1995-2015. Specifically, we use cointegration approach and error correction to examine the validity of the gap version of Okun's law. The results show that the negative relationship between unemployment and GDP which Okun's law is based on is present in the Swedish economy for the selected time period. The survey also shows that there is a long run relationship between the variables.

  • 126.
    Hafström, Gustaf
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Liljeroth, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Småhusförsäljningar i Göteborgs kommun: Fastighetsmäklare eller privat?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse if there is a difference in the sale price between sales through a real estate broker and sales managed privately. The real estate broker will from now on be referred to as the broker. This study targets the residential real estate market in the municipal of Gothenburg, and processes data from 1,918 house sales in the municipal of Gothenburg, of type code 220, under the year 2013, both sales with a broker and sales done privately. The Gothenburg area has been chosen because no other study on this topic has been made for this region. The data is gathered from the statistic company Värderingdata that specifies in collecting statistics over residential real estate sales and condominium sales in Sweden. The result of this study is found by detecting the effects of choice between intermediaries that have been used and make a comparison between the purchase coefficient for real estate properties sold privately or through a broker to see the differences in the selling prices. For this analysis, the assess value and the selling price has been applied in several bivariate regression analyses. To examine if the assess value is a reliable dependent variable to use as a base in the regressions in this study; a hedonic pricing theory has been applied. In accordance with this theory, a multivariate regression analysis has been applied. In the regression the assess value is held as a dependent variable and construction year, living area, subface area, plot areal, standard point and congregation are held as independent variables. The multivariat regression analysis illustrates to what degree every variable affects the assess value.

  • 127.
    Hammarquist, Rariba
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur påverkar de svenska hushållens skuldsättning konsumtionen i Sverige?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have for the past few years been able to see a development in Sweden where both household consumption and debt have increased. Consumption has been shown to represent a big part of the country’s GDP and played a vital role in its recovery from the financial crisis 2008. At the same time debt among households can be considered to be a potential risk factor in society and a contributing factor to financial crisis. Hence the relationship between these two variables is of interest to examine. A quantitative analysis will be performed in this study to examine how debt affects consumption among households in Sweden. The dataset used in this analysis reaches from the first quarter 1997 to the fourth quarter 2017. Both a multiple regression without time lags and a time series regression with three time lags will be performed to examine this relationship. The result is that debt affects consumption negatively in both regressions. Also, it is shown to be likely that consumption is influenced by debt through several variables and that debt is influenced by other variables making it a part of those variables effect on consumption. The study indicates that the relationship between debt and consumption is a complex subject which need further study.

  • 128.
    Hansson, Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nordgren, Kristina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Norrmännens fastighetsförvärv i Tanums kommun: Påverkan eller icke påverkan på småhusmarknaden?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to get an overview on the proportion of the house market and of the leisure property in Tanum municipality which is acquired by the Norwegians, in turn to see how and if they affect the pricing of real estate in the municipality? To investigate this issue we have been using information from Värderingsdata and Booli on all the single-family and leisure property transfers during our analysis period 2010-2013. The analysis shows that the exchange rate has a negative correlation to the purchase price, which means that if the Norwegian crown increase the property prices fall. Furthermore, this analysis shows that the acquisition which has been done, that intends to use as permanent households sells cheaper than the leisure properties. The results show that the Norwegian citizens pays more for their acquisitions than other purchaser. The conclusion and the results is based on the hedonic model of prices where a regression analysis been produced. The result of our analysis shows that the variables that mainly affects the prices of the house markets are the coastal view and the living space of the house, also the Norwegians has a big positive impact.

  • 129.
    Hasan, Iehab
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Is the Swedish krona predictable?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the ex-post forecasting ability for the Swedish krona against the American dollar, Canadian dollar, Norwegian krone, British pound and the Japanese yen over the period February 1998 to January 2017 for most of the exchange rates, using famous economic models: Purchasing Power Parity and Quasi-reduced form1. The performance of these models is compared against two specified benchmarks: driftless random walk and interest rate parity. The examined period divided into two samples, in-sample which estimated using ordinary least squares, and out-of-sample and estimated using rolling regression. Afterward, the ot-of-sample forecasts results evaluated using accuracy and usefulness criterias at forecast horizons of three and six months. The evaluation results show that there is no particular economic model can consistently beat the both benchmarks or can consistently put the investors on the right side of the market.

  • 130.
    Heed, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Törnberg, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Regional arbetslöshet: faktorer som påverkar den regionala arbetslösheten i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the determinants of regional unemployment in Sweden during the period 2009-2013. By collecting data we have studied six explanatory parameters covering the financial and social factors. By using Aragon's (2003) model, we studied six variables and examined what impact they had on the regional unemployment. The variables were the number of companies, number of inhabitants, proportion of foreign born, the percentage who are college-educated, average age and median income. The results of the study show that there is a relationship between the variables and the level of unemployment in the regions. The variables that have a statistically significant effect on regional unemployment are proportion of foreign born and median income.

  • 131.
    Hellberg, Sofie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aulin, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aktiv kontra Passiv Fondförvaltning: En Analys av Svenska Aktiefonder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this empirical study has been to draw a conclusion about whether actively managed funds outperform the market or not. This study is based on the following two questions:

    1. Does an actively managed fund provide a higher risk-adjusted net return than the indices OMXS30 and OMXSBGI? and 2. Is there any correlation between Swedish Actively managed equity funds' fees and their excess return?

    Fourteen funds were selected and compared to the indices OMXS30 and OMXSBGI. The period choosen is between 2007-04-04 and 2016-04-04, which resulted in 107 observations as we studied the data on a monthly basis. The model used is CAPM and the risk-adjusted performance measures were Jensen's alpha and Sharpe ratio. The results given from CAPM and sharpe ratio showed that funds on average perform better than OMXS30, but not OMXSBGI. However, the results for CAPM show lack of significance. The conclusions drawn from this study is that actively managed funds can not be proved to have a higher risk-adjusted net return than the indices OMXS30 and OMXSBGI. This study also shows a negative correlation between the funds' fees and their alfa-values.

  • 132.
    Helte, Veronica
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    How well can a simple monetary model explain the depreciation of the Swedish Krona2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the reasons for the fluctuations in the Swedish exchange rate for the period 2005 to 2014. Mainly, focus will be on the nominal bilateral exchange rate measured against the dollar. Although, as an attempt to extend the model and get a better result, the effective Swedish exchange rate, measured as the total competitive weight-index, will also be tested. A simple monetary model, of the Mundell-Fleming approach, and a vector error correction model is used to find the factors of the depreciation, specifically, during the last six months. The result found in the study is that the theory explains what has actually happened in the economy well, and is valid when trying to explain the volatility of the exchange rate. A decrease in the interest rate causes a depreciation in the exchange rate to a great extent, together with an increase in inflation and a decrease in national income.

  • 133.
    Henke, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Petersson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Tobin Q's påverkan på nybyggnationer av småhus i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze the relations between the profitability, as described by Tobin Q, and newly constructed houses in Sweden for the period 1998 to 2014. In addition, we include two counties with the lowest and the highest Q-values, namely, Stockholm and Västerbotten, to highlight the regional differences. We found, through regression analyses, that there is a positive relation between profitability and the newly constructed houses for the whole country and Stockholm, but not for Västerbotten.

  • 134.
    Henriksen, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Blomberg, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Domestic vs international diversification: An empirical study on the performance of Swedish mutual funds2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of Swedish mutual funds with different investment strategies between April 2014 and March 2019. The purpose was to study whether or not international diversification is profitable for the Swedish investor in terms of the risk-return criterion. To establish the relationship between risk and expected return, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Fama and French three-factor model were used, in line with previous studies. The performance of the funds was evaluated by adopting different performance measures such as Sharpe ratio and Jensen's alpha. Data was collected as time series for 30 mutual funds registered in Sweden on a monthly basis, using DataStream and Kenneth R. French's data library. From the elaborated data along with descriptive statistics, the Sharpe ratio could be calculated. Jensen's alpha along with the other coefficients within these models was estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS). The comparison between the performance measures of Sharpe ratio and Jensen's alpha with one another, among the fund categories, does give results that collaborate. The highest risk adjusted return determined by Sharpe ratio as well as the best performance according to Jensen's alpha, was experienced by equity funds investing only on the domestic market. Thus, international diversification is not profitable for the Swedish investor according to this study.

  • 135.
    Heukers, Remco
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sectoral Equity Returns in Europe: An Empirical Study on Reducing Portfolio Risk2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the performances of 16 key equity sectors in the European market. Hereby, the daily sectoral equity indices are used for the period 2000-2017. Different performance measures have been used, including the Sharpe-ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. In addition, the cross-sectoral and cross-countries return correlations have been examined. Furthermore, calendar anomalies have been researched and portfolio optimization techniques have been used to illustrate different diversification scenarios. Four structural models have been tested and the classical linear regression model with the ordinary least squares technique has been used to run regressions, both on the aggregated Europe equity index as well as the sectors individually. This research finds that Consumer Staples/Chemicals have on average the highest risk-to-return ratio and IT/Banks the lowest. Moreover, Health Care and Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals, Financials and Banks were the most correlated while Banks and Leisure, Materials and Leisure were the least correlated sectors. This research also finds that the aggregated European equity index shows a higher correlation with the sectors Banks, Financials and Industrials than the aggregated US and aggregated World indices do. Finally, it is shown that the average return correlations across sectoral indices are lower than the average return correlations across developed countries indices within the European equity market.

  • 136.
    Hindgren, Beatrice
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur den ekonomiska tillväxten påverkas av inkomstojämlikheter: En studie på regional nivå i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the relationship between economic growth and income inequality in Swedish municipalities during 2012 using cross-sectional data. The study uses the measure of economic growth as the total wage sum of the municipality and income inequality as the Gini-coefficient. A subsidiary purpose was to investigate whether there existed varying relationships between the variables in rich and poor municipalities. The study was based on a regression model from Cialani (2013) where several variables was collected and used. Some exchanges were made based on what we felt was more relevant to the study. The variable to be explained in the analysis is the economic growth and this is done by the use of several explanatory variables which are average income, the Gini-coefficient, the municipal tax rate, education costs, elderly care costs, family care costs, total cost per capita, the percentage of highly educated workers, the percentage of unemployment, the percentage of seniors, population density and two dummy variables to distinguish political importance and the difference between a rich and a poor municipality.

    The results were unexpected since we ended up with a negative relationship between income inequality and economic growth as it differs from earlier research done at the regional level in Sweden (Cialani 2013, Nahum 2005) in which they found a positive relationship. Regarding the subsidiary purpose of the study, we found that the negative effect had stronger impact in the poor municipalities than in the rich.

  • 137.
    Hintze, Michael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Mc Cullough Nylén, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bostadsrättsprisets utveckling i Göteborg: En tidsserieanalys om det är en prisbubbla på bostadsrättsmarknaden i Göteborgs kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze whether Gothenburg's tenant-owned housing market is in a housing bubble and its possible definition of it. This thesis aims to study the timeframe between 1998-2018 and focuses only on condominiums. The purpose of the thesis is to determine whether the price development can be explained by the factors population, repo rate, new constructions, employment and income. We will also evaluate whether price developments have followed the trend within the theory for identifying a price bubble. To try answering the questions by a quantities study, a multiple regression model was used. From it, our result and conclusion are linked. Based on our used theories from Stiglitz (1990) and Lind (2008), no price bubble has been identified on the tenant-owner market in the city of Gothenburg. However, in Lind's five-step theory, some criteria are met regarding the existence of the price bubble. In order to fully evaluate the theory, a qualitative study is required, which is not included during our study period.

  • 138.
    Hjalmarsson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lindberg, Berndt
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jämförande studie av prisutvecklingen på småhusmarknaden mellan Jönköpings och Stockholms län2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the price development on the house market in Jönköping and Stockholm County during the time period 2003-2012. Price development for the period examined have shown a rising trend, however, with a slowdown after the 2008 financial crisis. The study examines the extent to which four key macroeconomic factors affect price development in the housing market for the respective counties. The result obtained in this study is that the price of real estate in Jönköping County is affected by classical macroeconomic variables such as mortgage interest rate and inflation. However for Stockholm County price development is affected primarily by changes in population and changes in salary.

  • 139.
    Hjelte, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Garström, Fredrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Förhållandet mellan risk och avkastning hos svenska försäkringsfonder: En kvantitativ studie med stöd av CAPM modellen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is based on the assumption of a positive relationship between risk and return, which many people believes in. The most common mutual funds form in Sweden today is the insurance funds, which affects almost everyone in one way or another. Therefore it's interesting to analyze this relationship on this type of mutual funds. A dominant model in financial economics, which have been used in the study, is the CAPM model which describes the relationship between expected return and market risk of financial assets.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between risk and return of a number of chosen Swedish insurance funds, in order to find out if there was a positive significant relationship between two different risk measures (standard deviation and beta) and return. To be able to accomplish this one simple linear regression and one multiple linear regression which is based on the CAPM model, have been used. The study investigates this relationship in three different time periods (2004-2013, 2009-2013 and 2011-2013) and was based on quarterly data for the Treasury bonds and the benchmark and also annual historical average return and standard deviation. The results presented a positive significant relationship for the funds with the lower risk, both in the simple and the multiple regressions. For the funds with the higher risk no positive significant relationship was found, neither in the simple or the multiple regressions. The conclusion came down to that there was a positive significant relationship between risk and return for the low-risk funds, but not for the high-risk funds

  • 140.
    Holm, Ninni
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Värdepåverkande faktorer vid värdering av bostadsrätter i Uddevalla kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a condominium shall be sold in the market a value judgment is performed in order to create a market-based pricing as a basis for the transfer. It is important to know the factors that influence the price and what potential buyers are willing to pay for different qualities and therefore leads to this thesis problem; which characteristics can explain and have the highest effect on the price of a condominium in Uddevalla? To answer the question has empirical data on 1,578 condominium transfers that occurred during the period 2008 to 2013 received.

    After considerations the ideal method is based on hedonic price theory, where the price implicitly reveals consumer preferences. By use of the logarithmic regression model the results obtained by multiple regression analysis where consumer preferences about different qualities have been identified and analyzed, as well as if population and the repo rate affect the price. In addition, the thesis will find out if the price tends to be higher during some of the year's four seasons.

    The thesis conclusions are that living space is the variable that has the greatest impact on price on condominiums in Uddevalla. Because rooms tend to increase with increased living space, the willingness to pay more for each additional room also increases the price. The condominiums location and monthly fee is also crucial for the price. If the distance from the center and monthly fee increase, it reduces buyers' willingness to pay. Further conclusions about the factors that affect the price are that consumers are willing to pay more for newly constructed condominiums and prefer to stay relatively high in the residential buildings

  • 141.
    Hägglund, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Izabel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Distance from insolvency in the Swedish banks: A panel analysis of the four largest banks in Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the resent financial crisis in 2007-2009, the terminology of 'too-big-to-fail' has become an increasingly debated topic around the world, referring to risk-taking by banks that causes systemic risk due to their size and complexity. Large capital contribution packages, implicit guarantees, has been paid out in order to prevent financial meltdown while giving banks and its creditors the incentive to take on higher risk, causing moral hazard. This thesis aims to determine what bank activities that influence implicit guarantees that is measured by banks risk-taking, distance from insolvency, in the four largest bank in Sweden during the time period 2001 to 2015. By a panel regression analysis, we can see that total asset and debt securities influences the banks risk-taking. From the findings we can conclude that the problem of 'too-big-to-fail' exists in Sweden.

  • 142.
    Jadidi, Khosro
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Is the market leading ratings, or ratings leading the market?: A case study of the four largest Swedish banks' default probabilities' relationship with their respective ratings2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at finding out whether a bank's default probability measures are capable of predicting its ratings, and vice versa. It also attempts at finding the most useful combination of independent variables for a predictive regression. I analyze the data regarding ratings, distance to default and Z5 scores for the four largest Swedish banks (Handelsbanken, Nordea, SEB, Swedbank), and utilize multiple linear, ordinal and nominal logit regressions in order to reach my findings. I conclude that default probability measures can be reasonably good variables for predicting these four bank's long term ratings. The same can't be said about the short term ratings. The ratings however, fail to be good predictors of default probability measures.

    Also, it has been discovered that a combination of distance to default, Z5, and distance to default interacting with Z5, is the most effective combination of independent variables for predicting the ratings. The fact that ratings weren't capable of predicting default probability measures too well, suggests that the effect of market on ratings is greater than the opposite. In other words, market leads the ratings.

  • 143.
    Jakobsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nässlander, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Reporäntans effekt på hushållens sparande i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies how variations in the repo rate affects the saving rate of Swedish households and in different ages between 1996 and 2016. The central bank of Sweden is the controlling unit of the range for the repo rate. The repo rate affects the inflation as well as the loans and other variables for Swedish households. The time series data used in this thesis are quarterly. Independent values for the variables of the repo rate, inflation, disposable income and saving in relation to age for four different age groups is used. This thesis has developed data that are processed for unit roots and cointegration to estimate the effect on financial savings by using the regression model called "Error Correction Model". The economic model has an explanation power of about 50 % on financial savings in Sweden. This indicates that financial savings can be explained by other variables, such as consumption and psychological effects. With help of previous research, we have concluded that the life cycle hypothesis is the dominant theory when it comes to saving. The conclusions of this study show that the repo rate, as well as the other independent variables such as inflation and disposable income, have an effect on household savings.

  • 144.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    Does immigration affect welfare state generosity? Quasi-experimental evidence2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    his note studies the impact of immigration on welfare state generosity in 12 Western European countries. In estimations not coping with the possible endogeneity problem, there are indications of a negative relationship between immigration and welfare state generosity. However, when the distance to the Balkan wars are used as a source of exogenous variation in the immigrant share, as to overcome potential endogeneity in mobility across countries, our findings suggest that an increase in the immigrant share does not decrease welfare state generosity.

  • 145.
    Johansson, Casper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    De svenska hushållens skuldsättning: En ekonometrisk studie kring dess påverkande faktorer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sharp increase in household debt has lead to a major increase in research done in the subject. We will in this essay analyse how Swedish households indebt themselves and investigate to which degree our explanatory variables affect the total indebtedness in Sweden.

    We will perform a time series analysis of each variable and use a simple multiple regression model to help us interpret which factors are significant in explaining Swedish households indebtedness. The study is based on quarterly data from 2002–2017, which is applied through an econometric model. Our depent variable, the debt ratio, is the ratio between a household's total debt and their disposable income. The explanatory variables used are; the reporate, unemployment, inflation rate, changes in GDP and housing prices in form of a housing price index.

    The results indicate that there is a connection between the debt ratio and the explanatory variables unemployment, changes in GDP and housing price index. This most likely depends on the fact that housing prices have a high explanatory power to household indebtedness.

  • 146.
    Johansson, Emely
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Segle, Jacqueline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur påverkas de svenska storbankernas vinster, under reglering av Basel II?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, there have been several financial crisis and it has shown that banks don´t hold enough capital for the risk their taking. The Basel committee are working on recommendations for banks and how much capital they need to hold. The purpose of Basel recommendations are that banks are going to hold capital for future risks. The Basel committee has released a new regulation, Basel III that is implemented until 2019. This is because the former regulation, Basel II, was not safe enough, which the financial crisis in 2007 proofs. Higher regulations are associated with higher costs and this means lower profit for the banks. By using variables that affects profit, and dummy variables that measures the profit before and during Basel II, we can make a regression analysis. To do the final OLS regression we made a Dickey Fuller tests to test the variables for unit roots.

    This study examine the impact of an increase in capital requirement, as indicated by Basel II, on the profitability of Swedish banks for the period 1998 to 2009. We use the OLS regression model to assess the impact of an increase of Capital requirement and other control variables on Swedish bank profitability (ROA). The results of this report show that the Basel II didn't had any effect on the Swedish banks profitability.

  • 147.
    Johansson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Larsson, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigration and the economy: A study of the costs and benefits of immigration2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between immigration and GDP/capita in Sweden for the period 1993-2015. This period is chosen because of limitations of data and to include the recent refugee flows in Sweden. The analysis is based on a decomposition framework of GDP/capita. This study contains two empirical investigations; First, an analysis of the contributions of foreign citizens to the Swedish GDP/capita derived from the participation rate. Second, an analysis of which underlying factor(s) of GDP/capita that had an effect from immigration. The result states that an increase in the participation rate for foreign citizens will help to increase the growth of Sweden’s GDP/capita. The result further suggests that there exists no direct effect from immigration on Sweden’s GDP/capita. It also shows that the overall participation rate has a negative correlation with immigration, but no significance when investigation the participation rate with other explanatory factors from GDP/capita. The conclusion must therefore be that any negative effect that immigration has on the participation rate will be weakened or canceled out from possible positive effects in the output-capital ratio, capital intensity rate or the employment rate.

  • 148.
    Johansson, Lise-Lotte
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Den privata skuldsättningen i Sverige: Utveckling och möjliga orsaker2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates determinants of the Swedish household debt for the period 2000 to 2016. It used two regression analysis to identify the most important variables, one with the dependent variable debt ratio and one with loans in SEK. The results suggest that the debt ratio depend on cash on the market and to cash on the market in relation to M1. The loans in SEK depended on the short rate (one year), disposable income and house price index.

  • 149.
    Johansson, Simon
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sadrija, Florentina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Utvecklingen av fastighetspriser på den svenska bostadsmarknaden.: Faktorer som påverkar prisutvecklingen.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish housing market has in the recent years been debated since the price development has been tremendous. Conditions of low interest rate and rising disposable income is something that sets off the market and the consumers in particular. This study uses cointegration techniques and error correction models to analyze the long and the short run determinants of the Swedish housing prices for the period of 1997 to 2017. The choice of the period is based on a more variable price trend but also because the period above provides reliable data for the different variables. According to previous studies the market situation is based on supply and demand. With that in mind the general equilibrium model is used which fits in well with the objective, because the theories analyses what it is that affects the prices on real estate. To further prove the results of the work, statistics have been developed and analysed. The variables chosen have been based on the theory of the general equilibrium model and have been tested using various statistical economic programs (Eviews, SPSS). In order to use the data it has been tested for stationary which means the data is correct and useful. Further on the data has been tested for cointegration through a model called Engle-Granger, which shows if the variables are cointegrated, or not. Finally an ECM model is applied with the purpose to clarify a short-term relationship. In conclusion the results show that the tremendous movements in real estate prices mainly depends on rate, financial assets and disposable income

  • 150.
    Johansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University Business School,Örebro University,Örebro,Sweden.
    Siverbo, Sven
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The relationship between supplier control and competition in public sector outsourcing2018In: Financial Accountability and Management, ISSN 0267-4424, E-ISSN 1468-0408, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 268-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to develop theory and contribute to empirical studies about how the effectiveness of bureaucratic controls in public sector outsourcing is contingent upon supplier competition, and why and how this interaction plays out differently for hard and soft types of outsourced services. In previous inter-organizational management control (IOMC) research there is a contradiction between theory and empirical results concerning how bureaucratic control and supplier competition interacts in aligning suppliers. While IOMC theory suggests competition reduces the need for bureaucratic control, empirical studies clearly indicate the opposite. We extend previous research and theorizing by differing between the outsourcing of hard and soft types of services and by testing the joint effect of bureaucratic control and competition on supplier alignment. The empirical case for testing theory is outsourcing by competitive tendering in the public sector. We use transaction level data from 166 local government suppliers in Sweden. In accordance with our prediction, the effect of bureaucratic control in aligning suppliers decreases with supplier competition when hard types of services are outsourced. For soft types of services, our results indicate that bureaucratic control is not contingent upon supplier competition. Furthermore, we show that when supplier competition is low the effect of bureaucratic control on supplier alignment is stronger for hard than for soft types of services. These results constitute an important contribution to the central notion of the interplay between bureaucratic control and competition in the IOMC literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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