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  • 101.
    Fuxborg, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Skarström, Patrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur har de svenska hushållens skuldkvot påverkats av reporäntan, bostadspriserna och bostadsbristen i landet mellan år 2005-2016?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The household debt ratio has risen in recent years. The figures speak their clear language when Swedish households are among the highest debt ratios in Europe. This increase has led to several actions on the recommendation of government agencies implemented by the current government. One of these actions is the amortization requirement, which has now come in two stages. The idea of this was to get people to repay more of their loans, thus reducing the debt ratio in society. The effects of the actions will we be able to read in the future as it takes some more time to get appropriate data about this. There is still no one today questioning the high households' debt ratios. The important issue in this context is what lies behind this strongly rising debt ratio. In order to answer this we have chosen to explain the underlying factors through literature study, theory review and regression analysis. Following a review of previous work, we chose to look at housing prices, property prices, population, repo rate and the number of newly built housing in the realm. These variables were used in the report to investigate its effect on the debt ratio. After a regression analysis, it was found that only one of the above variables had a significant impact on the debt ratio, this variable was the repo rate. This means that our report proves with support from data that the repo rate has a negative relation to the debt ratio. That is, reducing the repo rate, the debt ratio will increase. Other variables we can not say with statistical certainty that they have an impact on the debt ratio.

  • 102.
    Gatjetjiladze, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Empirical relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and economic growth in Georgia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth in Georgia over the time period of 1997-2015. With the use of previous research and empirical theories, I expect a positive influence of FDI on economic growth in Georgia both in long-run and short-run. Further, this study considers additional determinant factors based on the previous studies and theories. Concerning the method used in this thesis, I apply Dickey-Fuller test in order to test unit roots for time series and Engle-Granger cointegration test to investigate their equilibrium relationship between the series. Further, I run a regression between the series to obtain the long-run relationship and Error Correction Model (ECM) to obtain the short-run relationship. The result confirms that FDI have a significant and positive effect on economic growth both in long-run and short-run. The result also illustrates that FDI along with other explanatory variables such as inflation have a long-run relationship with economic growth. Further, it is shown that in long run, population have a negative influence and Gross Capital Formation (GCF) have a positive influence on economic growth, however, the coefficients are not quite significant. In short-run, change in FDI, change in GCF, and change in population have a significant explanatory power in change in economic growth. Thus, the study shows that FDI inflow in Georgia has a positive effect on economic growth.

  • 103.
    Gille, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Tevell, Joakim
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Värdepåverkande faktorer på bostadsrätter på Södermalm2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Apartment prices have for a long time been much disputed subject in Sweden. The square foot prices continue to increase and in central Stockholm you find the highest prices for condominiums. The prices of condominiums in the same area varies due to specific factors and characteristics, and that is why it is interesting to investigate how much they affect the sales price. The purpose of the study is to examine how different factors affect the value of condominiums in Södermalm. Through the hedonic pricing model this study is based on 101 observations from the sales of condominiums in Södermalm between 1st of januari to 31st of december 2013. Estimates of prices has been made by using a multiple regression where the independent variables had its purpose to explain the dependent variable price. The study showed that 68.5% of the dependent variable, the price of condominiums, could be explained by the independent variables. The survey shows that living space, monthly fee and fireplace had the greatest impact on the price.

  • 104.
    Glader, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Larsen, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutvecklingen på småhusmarknaden för Sveriges tre storstadsregioner: Vilka makroekonomiska och regionala faktorer har påverkat?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prices of Sweden's housing market has developed strongly since the late 1990s. This is particularly obvious in big towns where pricetrends are significantly higher than in small towns. The purpose of this paper is to examine the macroeconomic and regional variables affecting house prices and the extension, of Sweden's three largest cities. Influencing factors have been chosen based on previous research and a quantitative method has been used. A time series of quarterly data is used between the years 1995 and 2013 have been test for stationarity and unit roots. Subsequently, a regression is made with the OLS- method to investigate the long-term relationship.

  • 105.
    Granath, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Täng, Sofia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Energiprestanda för småhus, en värdefaktor att räkna med?: 10 år efter första energideklarationen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been 10 years since the first energy efficiency certification was established in Sweden. In year 2009 legal requirements for energy efficiency certifications for singlefamily homes were introduced. The energy efficiency certification was developed as an instrument to reduce the energy use of real estate. Housing and service accounts for 40 percent of Sweden’s total use of energy, this must be reduced considerably to be able to achieve the country’s environmental goals. The purpose of the study is to evaluate whether there is a link between single-family homes energy performance and selling price. The aim is also to find out whether the relationship has developed between 2009 and 2017. The research question is answered by multiple regressions based on the hedonistic pricing model. Regressions are based on sales data of single-family homes in Gothenburg municipally, 746 observations in 2009 and 1094 observations in 2017. The results indicate a link between single-family homes energy performance and selling price. The correlation has increased since the legal requirements of energy performance certifications for single-family homes was introduced. The conclusion is that a clear presentation of the energy performance and information regarding benefits with a low energy consumption on the real estate market, would help to increase real estate owner’s knowledge. This would give the homeowners incentive to invest in energy saving improvements. An addition of energy performance as a factor of value in real estate appraisal, would probably have an impact on the opportunities to reach the environmental goals.

  • 106.
    Grek, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Determinants of Entry and Exit: The Significance of Demand and Supply Conditions at the Regional Level2011In: Drivers of In­novation, Entrepreneurship and Regional Dynamics / [ed] Kourtit, K., Nijkamp, P. & Stough, R.R., Berlin: Springer, 2011, p. 121-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Grut Jonsson, Emmie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Tell, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Den svenska växelkursen: Vilka är de påverkande faktorerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the factors that determine the Swedish exchange rate versus Euro in the monetary model Sticky-Price during the period 1998-2016. By testing data in a cointegration test, for long-term results, and the ECM error correction model, for short-term results, the study shows each variables significance for the exchange rate. The results shows that interest rate, GDP and inflation have the greatest impact on the exchange rate SEK/EUR. The longterm analysis indicates that the dependent variable have a negative relation to the two of the significant variables, interest rates and GDP, and can therefore show that a depreciation of the Swedish krona is caused by lower interest rates or reduced national income in the short term.

  • 108.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    A Monte Carlo Simulation Study of Tobit Models2001In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 581-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a comparison of diOEerent kinds of Tobit models. According to the ® ndings, a simple Tobit I method can produce results that are similar to and in some cases better than much more sophisticated methods. This is especially true if the participation or index equation is incorrectly speci® ed.

  • 109.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Accessibility to R&D on Patent Production2009In: Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competition / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie. Johansson Börje. and Stough Roger R., Edward Elgar , 2009, p. 231-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Explaining Variations in Regional Housing Prices: An Accessibility Approach2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 259-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the relative geographical position of a municipality needs to be accounted for when explaining variations in housing prices. In particular, the paper aim to show that travel time distance to important economic centers have an impact on the spatial variation in housing prices across municipalities. A suitableway to model this possible impact is to use the accessibility concept, which takes into account both the time distance and the size of the economic opportunity, measured by gross pay, that can be realized in a another municipality. The model will be estimated for average municipality level housing prices using data on Swedish municipalities in 2015. To a large extent, the expectations are confirmed by the econometric estimation results. Geographical time distance have a negative effect on local housing prices. Good access to economic centers increases average housing prices, even after taking into account a large number of other determinants.

  • 111.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Imports, R&D and Local Patent Production2007In: Uddevalla Symposium tenth anniversary 2007: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Buildning Innovative Capabilities for Regions : Revised papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, University West, Uddevalla, Sweden.  / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 433-450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of national and international knowledge flows on innovative activity. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated with patent applications in Swedish municipalities as the measure of innovation. The knowledge resources applied are R&D investments and high valued imports. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the knowledge resources are expressed as accessibilities. The total accessibility of a municipality is decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility. The main results indicate that knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the innovative activity of another municipality, given that the municipalities belong to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. This result holds for both R&D investments and high valued import products.

  • 112.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Imports, R&D and Local Patent Production2012In: The Regional Economics Of Knowledge And Talent Local Advantage in a Global Context / [ed] Karlsson, C., Johansson, B. and Stough, R., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 343-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the effects of national and international knowledge flows on innovative activity. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated with patent applications in Swedish municipalities as the measure of innovation. The knowledge resources applied are R&D investments and high-valued imports. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the knowledge resources are expressed as accessibilities. The total accessibility of a municipality is decomposed into local, intraregional and interregional accessibility. The main results indicate that knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the innovative activity of another municipality, given that the municipalities belong to the same functional region. Thus the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. This result holds for both R&D investments and high-valued import products.

  • 113.
    Gråsjö, Urban.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Spatial econometrics: Methods and applications2011In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 886-888Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Spatial Spillovers of Knowledge Production: An Accessibility Approach2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of the thesis is on issues concerning production of knowledge. It is a common observation that knowledge activities have a tendency to agglomerate as well as to spill over in space. In order to incorporate geographical proximity, the thesis applies an accessibility approach in which actual travel time distances between locations are used to discount spatial knowledge spillovers. The thesis consists of three individual essays and a joint introduction. The first essay explores to what extent accessibility to R&D conducted at universities and companies can explain the number of patent applications in Swedish municipalities. The second essay analyses the relationship between knowledge accessibility and regional export performance. The knowledge resources used are R&D efforts and university educated labour. Since the distributions of the dependent variables are skewed with a few influential outliers, the estimations are conducted with quantile regressions. The empirical findings indicate that accessibility to university R&D has minor effects on patent production and export performance in Sweden. However, the other used inputs, i.e. accessibility to company R&D and accessibility to university educated labour, are of greater importance. The results also show that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. The third essay investigates how the inclusion of accessibility variables, i.e. spatially lagged explanatory variables, affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation as separate variables reveals spatial dependencies via the parameter estimates. This is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo Simulations also indicate that problems with spatial autocorrelation and biased parameter estimates are reduced.

  • 115.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University-educated labor, R&D and regional export performance2008In: International regional science review, ISSN 0160-0176, E-ISSN 1552-6925, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 211-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University-educated Labour, R&D and Regional Export Performance2009In: Entrepreneurship and Innovations in Functional Regions / [ed] Karlsson C., Stough R. and Johansson B., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 141-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    On the Specification of Regression Models with Spatial Dependence: An Application of the Accessibility concept2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the taxonomy by Anselin (2003), this paper investigates how the inclusion of spatially discounted variables on the ‘right-hand-side’ (RHS) in empirical spatial models affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation in question as a separate variable reveals spatial dependence via the parameter estimate. One of the advantages of this method is that it allows for a direct interpretation. The paper also tests to what extent significance of the estimated parameters of the spatially discounted explanatory variables can be interpreted as evidence of spatial dependence. Additionally, the paper advocates the use of the accessibility concept for spatial weights. Accessibility is related to spatial interaction theory and can be motivated theoretically by adhering to the preference structure in random choice theory. Monte Carlo Simulations show that the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are significantly different from zero in the case of modelled effects. The rejection frequency of the three typical tests (Moran’s I, LM-lag and LM-err) is significantly reduced when these additional variables are included in the model. When the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are statistically significant, it suggests that problems of spatial autocorrelation are significantly reduced. Significance of the accessibility variables can be interpreted as spatial dependence

  • 118.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Human Capital and Productivity in a Spatial Economic System2007In: Annales d'Èconomie et de Statistique, ISSN 0769-489X, no 87/88, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping University.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Regional Knowledge Accessibility and Regional Economic Growth2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2006: Entrepreneurship and Development - Local Processes and Global Patterns: Revised papers presented at the 9th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 June, Fairfax, VA, USA / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 47-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is maintained as a core variable for growth in a large set of contemporary theories. In this paper we have analyzed the relationship between knowledge accessibility and regional growth. The knowledge resource used in our model is R&D conducted at universities and in companies. A precise definition of accessibility was introduced and calculations were based on actual travel time distances. Using data at the municipality level in Sweden, the hypothesis that knowledge accessibility has a positive effect on growth cannot be rejected. The knowledge accessibility in a given period has a statistically significant effect on the growth in value-added per employee in subsequent periods.

    The total accessibility of a municipality was divided into three types (i) intramunicipal accessibility, (ii) intra-regional accessibility and (iii) extra-regional accessibility. The paper has shown that this division gives a clear indication of that there is spatial dependence in the sense that the knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the growth of another municipality, conditional on that the municipalities belongs to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions.

    The findings in the paper provide support for the theories that emphasize the role of knowledge for growth. However, the paper demonstrates that spatial proximity to knowledge resources is important to materialize the positive effect of such resources. Accessibility to knowledge in space is thus imperative.

  • 120.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    The Role of Higher Education and University R&D for Industrial R&D Location2009In: Universities, Knowledge Transfer and Regional Development: Geography, Entrepreneurship and Policy / [ed] Attila Varga, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2009, p. 85-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    University Colleges’ Effect on Economic Growth in Swedish Middle-sized Municipalities2014In: Knowledge, Innovation and Space / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B, Kobayashi, K. & Stough, R, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 287-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    CIRCLE, Lunds Universitet.
    Accessibility to R&D: A Reexamination of the Consequences for Invention and Innovation2014In: Knowledge, Innovation and Space / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B, Kobayashi, K. & Stough, R, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 51-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    Lund University.
    The Effects of R&D on Regional Invention and Innovation2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance : Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan  / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 263-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of regional R&D on patenting for Sweden within an accessibility framework. We use two measures of patenting: number of patents granted per capita and a composite of quality-adjusted patents which we regard as an innovation indicator, respectively. Three conclusions emerge. First, we find that the specification where innovations per capita is used as a dependent variable performs much better than with granted patents per capita for capturing relationships with regional R&D. In fact, quantile regressions over the distribution of different patenting and innovation levels per capita show that R&D efforts within regions affect innovations per capita positively, except for the regions with the lowest levels of R&D. The effetcs on granted patents per capita are less robust and depend inconsistently on the level of R&D. Secondly, accessibility to inter-regional R&D do not affect innovation significantly in our results, which suggests that effects are locally bounded. This implies that studies of the R&D-innovation relationship are plagued by misspecification, since studies tend to show that R&D-effects diffuse to other regions. This is also the case in our study: the inter-regional effects are an important factor for granted patents. Third, the share of university R&D of all regional R&D has no effect on patenting, which suggests that the two types of R&D are substitutes. In view of these results the redommendation must be to use quality-adjusted patents for regional innovation studies rather than patent grants.

  • 124.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Flood, Lennart
    Regression Analysis and Time Use Data: A Comparison of Microeconometric Approaches with Data from the Swedish Time Use Survey (HUS)1999In: Time Use Research, Data and Policy: Contributions from the International Conference on Time Use (ICTU) Baden-Baden / [ed] Joachim Merz and Manfred Ehling, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999, 10, p. 151-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Experience Design: Understanding the Role of Technology for Virtual Experiences2006In: Proceedings of 29th Information System Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 29: Paradigms, Politics, Paradoxes, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies have always teased the imagination of avant-garde artists on how to challenge existing cultural paradigms. For instance, experience design for the creative industries of today provides exciting challenges with a potential to innovate practices and creating new ways of interaction between the artist and her audience. In an ongoing research project we aim at framing the design space for virtual experiences. The paper presents and discusses the role of technology in such context and use three ongoing case studies where ICT has been used to augment and support consumers of cultural experiences. The analysis shows how technology-driven interventions are less oriented towards radical change compared to interventions that are rooted in their nondigital origins.

  • 126.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. Jönköping International Business School.
    Accessibility: An Underused Analytical and Empirical Tool in Spatial Economics2014In: Accessibility and Spatial Interaction / [ed] Condeço-Melhorado, Ana, Reggiani, Aura & Gutiérrez, Javier, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 211-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility has for many years been a widely used tool in transportation research. Many definitions have been suggested and researchers have constructed numerous mathematical formulations to measure its value in order to be able to evaluate the relationships between the nature of the transport systems and the patterns of land use. Such correlations have been used especially in assessing existing transport systems and forecasting their performance to provide decision-makers with ideas about the need for investments in the transport systems. However, accessibility measures can be regarded as the spatial counterparts of discounting. The measures represent the spatial distribution of economic agents and their activities in a simple way that imposes a very clear structure upon the relationship between these agents and their activities and their environment. Various frictional effects arising from geographical distance between economic agents determine their interaction options, that is, their options to trade, to cooperate, to learn, to commute, and so on. Observing that the time sensitivities of the economic agents vary between different spatial scales (and between different economic activities) we may impose a spatial structure (for example, local, intra-regional, interregional and international) which offers opportunities to define variables in such a way that spatial dependencies can be accommodated. These newly defined variables can then be used in empirical explanations of various spatial phenomena, such as patent output, new firm formation, the emergence of new export products, and economic growth in different spatial units. We will in this chapter against this background show that accessibility is an underused analytical and empirical tool in regional science with an underestimated potential.

  • 127.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Entrepreneurial knowledge, technology and the transformation of regions: An introduction2013In: Entrepreneurial knowledge, technology and the transformation of regions / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie, Johansson, Börje & Stough, Roger R, London: Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Knowledgeflows, knowledge externalities and regional economic development2014In: Handbook of Regional Science / [ed] Fischer, M. M. & Nijkamp, P., Springer, 2014, p. 413-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Swedish Perspectives on creative cities2014In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, ISSN 1466-6650, E-ISSN 1741-5136, Vol. 13, no 2-4, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Urban Regions in Europe: Preconditions and Strategies for Growth and Development in the Global Economy2012In: Lacittà nell’economia della conoscenza (The city in the knowledge economy) / [ed] Cappelin, R., Ferlaino, F. & Rizzi, P., Edizioni Franco Angeli, 2012, p. 81-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, CharlieUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. Professor Emeritus of the Economics of Technological Change, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University and Professor Emeritus, Blekinge Institute of Technology.Bernhard, IréneUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.

  • 132.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Introduction: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship2018In: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series / [ed] Gråsjö, U., Karlsson, C. och Bernhard, I., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Warda, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Spatial knowledge spillovers in Europe: A Meta-Analysis2013In: The Innovation Union in Europe: A Socio-Economic Perspective on EU Integration / [ed] Elias Carayannis E. & G. Korres, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 144-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Gunnarsson, Rickard
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lindh, Jonatan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Magic Formula & Net-Nets: Vilken av dessa strategier har resulterat i bäst avkastning mellan 2007 och 2017?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the two investment strategies Magic Formula and Net-Nets, are compared against each other to find out which them has achieved the best return between 2007 and 2017 in the Swedish market. The two strategies are also set against the Swedish indices OMXS30, OMX Stockholm Largecap and OMX Stockholm Midcap, because the selection of companies included in the strategies is medium and large companies. Data have been obtained to calculate the Capital Asset Pricing Model, CAPM, and Fama French three factor model, FF3, performance measurements such as Sharpe ratio and Treynor ratio, and to perform regressions. The result shows that the strategy that is both most diversified and has achieved the best return is the Magic Formula.

  • 135.
    Gustafsson, Cajsa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Louise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Giltigheten av Okuns lag i Sverige: En empirisk analys på makronivå med tillämpning av gapversionen av Okuns lag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the long-run and the short-run relationship between unemployment and real GDP using Swedish data for the period 1995-2015. Specifically, we use cointegration approach and error correction to examine the validity of the gap version of Okun's law. The results show that the negative relationship between unemployment and GDP which Okun's law is based on is present in the Swedish economy for the selected time period. The survey also shows that there is a long run relationship between the variables.

  • 136.
    Hafström, Gustaf
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Liljeroth, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Småhusförsäljningar i Göteborgs kommun: Fastighetsmäklare eller privat?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse if there is a difference in the sale price between sales through a real estate broker and sales managed privately. The real estate broker will from now on be referred to as the broker. This study targets the residential real estate market in the municipal of Gothenburg, and processes data from 1,918 house sales in the municipal of Gothenburg, of type code 220, under the year 2013, both sales with a broker and sales done privately. The Gothenburg area has been chosen because no other study on this topic has been made for this region. The data is gathered from the statistic company Värderingdata that specifies in collecting statistics over residential real estate sales and condominium sales in Sweden. The result of this study is found by detecting the effects of choice between intermediaries that have been used and make a comparison between the purchase coefficient for real estate properties sold privately or through a broker to see the differences in the selling prices. For this analysis, the assess value and the selling price has been applied in several bivariate regression analyses. To examine if the assess value is a reliable dependent variable to use as a base in the regressions in this study; a hedonic pricing theory has been applied. In accordance with this theory, a multivariate regression analysis has been applied. In the regression the assess value is held as a dependent variable and construction year, living area, subface area, plot areal, standard point and congregation are held as independent variables. The multivariat regression analysis illustrates to what degree every variable affects the assess value.

  • 137.
    Hammarquist, Rariba
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur påverkar de svenska hushållens skuldsättning konsumtionen i Sverige?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have for the past few years been able to see a development in Sweden where both household consumption and debt have increased. Consumption has been shown to represent a big part of the country’s GDP and played a vital role in its recovery from the financial crisis 2008. At the same time debt among households can be considered to be a potential risk factor in society and a contributing factor to financial crisis. Hence the relationship between these two variables is of interest to examine. A quantitative analysis will be performed in this study to examine how debt affects consumption among households in Sweden. The dataset used in this analysis reaches from the first quarter 1997 to the fourth quarter 2017. Both a multiple regression without time lags and a time series regression with three time lags will be performed to examine this relationship. The result is that debt affects consumption negatively in both regressions. Also, it is shown to be likely that consumption is influenced by debt through several variables and that debt is influenced by other variables making it a part of those variables effect on consumption. The study indicates that the relationship between debt and consumption is a complex subject which need further study.

  • 138.
    Hansson, Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nordgren, Kristina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Norrmännens fastighetsförvärv i Tanums kommun: Påverkan eller icke påverkan på småhusmarknaden?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to get an overview on the proportion of the house market and of the leisure property in Tanum municipality which is acquired by the Norwegians, in turn to see how and if they affect the pricing of real estate in the municipality? To investigate this issue we have been using information from Värderingsdata and Booli on all the single-family and leisure property transfers during our analysis period 2010-2013. The analysis shows that the exchange rate has a negative correlation to the purchase price, which means that if the Norwegian crown increase the property prices fall. Furthermore, this analysis shows that the acquisition which has been done, that intends to use as permanent households sells cheaper than the leisure properties. The results show that the Norwegian citizens pays more for their acquisitions than other purchaser. The conclusion and the results is based on the hedonic model of prices where a regression analysis been produced. The result of our analysis shows that the variables that mainly affects the prices of the house markets are the coastal view and the living space of the house, also the Norwegians has a big positive impact.

  • 139.
    Hasan, Iehab
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Is the Swedish krona predictable?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the ex-post forecasting ability for the Swedish krona against the American dollar, Canadian dollar, Norwegian krone, British pound and the Japanese yen over the period February 1998 to January 2017 for most of the exchange rates, using famous economic models: Purchasing Power Parity and Quasi-reduced form1. The performance of these models is compared against two specified benchmarks: driftless random walk and interest rate parity. The examined period divided into two samples, in-sample which estimated using ordinary least squares, and out-of-sample and estimated using rolling regression. Afterward, the ot-of-sample forecasts results evaluated using accuracy and usefulness criterias at forecast horizons of three and six months. The evaluation results show that there is no particular economic model can consistently beat the both benchmarks or can consistently put the investors on the right side of the market.

  • 140.
    Heed, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Törnberg, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Regional arbetslöshet: faktorer som påverkar den regionala arbetslösheten i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the determinants of regional unemployment in Sweden during the period 2009-2013. By collecting data we have studied six explanatory parameters covering the financial and social factors. By using Aragon's (2003) model, we studied six variables and examined what impact they had on the regional unemployment. The variables were the number of companies, number of inhabitants, proportion of foreign born, the percentage who are college-educated, average age and median income. The results of the study show that there is a relationship between the variables and the level of unemployment in the regions. The variables that have a statistically significant effect on regional unemployment are proportion of foreign born and median income.

  • 141.
    Hellberg, Sofie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aulin, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aktiv kontra Passiv Fondförvaltning: En Analys av Svenska Aktiefonder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this empirical study has been to draw a conclusion about whether actively managed funds outperform the market or not. This study is based on the following two questions:

    1. Does an actively managed fund provide a higher risk-adjusted net return than the indices OMXS30 and OMXSBGI? and 2. Is there any correlation between Swedish Actively managed equity funds' fees and their excess return?

    Fourteen funds were selected and compared to the indices OMXS30 and OMXSBGI. The period choosen is between 2007-04-04 and 2016-04-04, which resulted in 107 observations as we studied the data on a monthly basis. The model used is CAPM and the risk-adjusted performance measures were Jensen's alpha and Sharpe ratio. The results given from CAPM and sharpe ratio showed that funds on average perform better than OMXS30, but not OMXSBGI. However, the results for CAPM show lack of significance. The conclusions drawn from this study is that actively managed funds can not be proved to have a higher risk-adjusted net return than the indices OMXS30 and OMXSBGI. This study also shows a negative correlation between the funds' fees and their alfa-values.

  • 142.
    Helte, Veronica
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    How well can a simple monetary model explain the depreciation of the Swedish Krona2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the reasons for the fluctuations in the Swedish exchange rate for the period 2005 to 2014. Mainly, focus will be on the nominal bilateral exchange rate measured against the dollar. Although, as an attempt to extend the model and get a better result, the effective Swedish exchange rate, measured as the total competitive weight-index, will also be tested. A simple monetary model, of the Mundell-Fleming approach, and a vector error correction model is used to find the factors of the depreciation, specifically, during the last six months. The result found in the study is that the theory explains what has actually happened in the economy well, and is valid when trying to explain the volatility of the exchange rate. A decrease in the interest rate causes a depreciation in the exchange rate to a great extent, together with an increase in inflation and a decrease in national income.

  • 143.
    Henke, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Petersson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Tobin Q's påverkan på nybyggnationer av småhus i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze the relations between the profitability, as described by Tobin Q, and newly constructed houses in Sweden for the period 1998 to 2014. In addition, we include two counties with the lowest and the highest Q-values, namely, Stockholm and Västerbotten, to highlight the regional differences. We found, through regression analyses, that there is a positive relation between profitability and the newly constructed houses for the whole country and Stockholm, but not for Västerbotten.

  • 144.
    Henriksen, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Blomberg, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Domestic vs international diversification: An empirical study on the performance of Swedish mutual funds2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of Swedish mutual funds with different investment strategies between April 2014 and March 2019. The purpose was to study whether or not international diversification is profitable for the Swedish investor in terms of the risk-return criterion. To establish the relationship between risk and expected return, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Fama and French three-factor model were used, in line with previous studies. The performance of the funds was evaluated by adopting different performance measures such as Sharpe ratio and Jensen's alpha. Data was collected as time series for 30 mutual funds registered in Sweden on a monthly basis, using DataStream and Kenneth R. French's data library. From the elaborated data along with descriptive statistics, the Sharpe ratio could be calculated. Jensen's alpha along with the other coefficients within these models was estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS). The comparison between the performance measures of Sharpe ratio and Jensen's alpha with one another, among the fund categories, does give results that collaborate. The highest risk adjusted return determined by Sharpe ratio as well as the best performance according to Jensen's alpha, was experienced by equity funds investing only on the domestic market. Thus, international diversification is not profitable for the Swedish investor according to this study.

  • 145.
    Heukers, Remco
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sectoral Equity Returns in Europe: An Empirical Study on Reducing Portfolio Risk2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the performances of 16 key equity sectors in the European market. Hereby, the daily sectoral equity indices are used for the period 2000-2017. Different performance measures have been used, including the Sharpe-ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. In addition, the cross-sectoral and cross-countries return correlations have been examined. Furthermore, calendar anomalies have been researched and portfolio optimization techniques have been used to illustrate different diversification scenarios. Four structural models have been tested and the classical linear regression model with the ordinary least squares technique has been used to run regressions, both on the aggregated Europe equity index as well as the sectors individually. This research finds that Consumer Staples/Chemicals have on average the highest risk-to-return ratio and IT/Banks the lowest. Moreover, Health Care and Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals, Financials and Banks were the most correlated while Banks and Leisure, Materials and Leisure were the least correlated sectors. This research also finds that the aggregated European equity index shows a higher correlation with the sectors Banks, Financials and Industrials than the aggregated US and aggregated World indices do. Finally, it is shown that the average return correlations across sectoral indices are lower than the average return correlations across developed countries indices within the European equity market.

  • 146.
    Hindgren, Beatrice
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur den ekonomiska tillväxten påverkas av inkomstojämlikheter: En studie på regional nivå i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the relationship between economic growth and income inequality in Swedish municipalities during 2012 using cross-sectional data. The study uses the measure of economic growth as the total wage sum of the municipality and income inequality as the Gini-coefficient. A subsidiary purpose was to investigate whether there existed varying relationships between the variables in rich and poor municipalities. The study was based on a regression model from Cialani (2013) where several variables was collected and used. Some exchanges were made based on what we felt was more relevant to the study. The variable to be explained in the analysis is the economic growth and this is done by the use of several explanatory variables which are average income, the Gini-coefficient, the municipal tax rate, education costs, elderly care costs, family care costs, total cost per capita, the percentage of highly educated workers, the percentage of unemployment, the percentage of seniors, population density and two dummy variables to distinguish political importance and the difference between a rich and a poor municipality.

    The results were unexpected since we ended up with a negative relationship between income inequality and economic growth as it differs from earlier research done at the regional level in Sweden (Cialani 2013, Nahum 2005) in which they found a positive relationship. Regarding the subsidiary purpose of the study, we found that the negative effect had stronger impact in the poor municipalities than in the rich.

  • 147.
    Hintze, Michael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Mc Cullough Nylén, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bostadsrättsprisets utveckling i Göteborg: En tidsserieanalys om det är en prisbubbla på bostadsrättsmarknaden i Göteborgs kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze whether Gothenburg's tenant-owned housing market is in a housing bubble and its possible definition of it. This thesis aims to study the timeframe between 1998-2018 and focuses only on condominiums. The purpose of the thesis is to determine whether the price development can be explained by the factors population, repo rate, new constructions, employment and income. We will also evaluate whether price developments have followed the trend within the theory for identifying a price bubble. To try answering the questions by a quantities study, a multiple regression model was used. From it, our result and conclusion are linked. Based on our used theories from Stiglitz (1990) and Lind (2008), no price bubble has been identified on the tenant-owner market in the city of Gothenburg. However, in Lind's five-step theory, some criteria are met regarding the existence of the price bubble. In order to fully evaluate the theory, a qualitative study is required, which is not included during our study period.

  • 148.
    Hjalmarsson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lindberg, Berndt
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jämförande studie av prisutvecklingen på småhusmarknaden mellan Jönköpings och Stockholms län2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the price development on the house market in Jönköping and Stockholm County during the time period 2003-2012. Price development for the period examined have shown a rising trend, however, with a slowdown after the 2008 financial crisis. The study examines the extent to which four key macroeconomic factors affect price development in the housing market for the respective counties. The result obtained in this study is that the price of real estate in Jönköping County is affected by classical macroeconomic variables such as mortgage interest rate and inflation. However for Stockholm County price development is affected primarily by changes in population and changes in salary.

  • 149.
    Hjelte, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Garström, Fredrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Förhållandet mellan risk och avkastning hos svenska försäkringsfonder: En kvantitativ studie med stöd av CAPM modellen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is based on the assumption of a positive relationship between risk and return, which many people believes in. The most common mutual funds form in Sweden today is the insurance funds, which affects almost everyone in one way or another. Therefore it's interesting to analyze this relationship on this type of mutual funds. A dominant model in financial economics, which have been used in the study, is the CAPM model which describes the relationship between expected return and market risk of financial assets.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between risk and return of a number of chosen Swedish insurance funds, in order to find out if there was a positive significant relationship between two different risk measures (standard deviation and beta) and return. To be able to accomplish this one simple linear regression and one multiple linear regression which is based on the CAPM model, have been used. The study investigates this relationship in three different time periods (2004-2013, 2009-2013 and 2011-2013) and was based on quarterly data for the Treasury bonds and the benchmark and also annual historical average return and standard deviation. The results presented a positive significant relationship for the funds with the lower risk, both in the simple and the multiple regressions. For the funds with the higher risk no positive significant relationship was found, neither in the simple or the multiple regressions. The conclusion came down to that there was a positive significant relationship between risk and return for the low-risk funds, but not for the high-risk funds

  • 150.
    Holm, Ninni
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Värdepåverkande faktorer vid värdering av bostadsrätter i Uddevalla kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a condominium shall be sold in the market a value judgment is performed in order to create a market-based pricing as a basis for the transfer. It is important to know the factors that influence the price and what potential buyers are willing to pay for different qualities and therefore leads to this thesis problem; which characteristics can explain and have the highest effect on the price of a condominium in Uddevalla? To answer the question has empirical data on 1,578 condominium transfers that occurred during the period 2008 to 2013 received.

    After considerations the ideal method is based on hedonic price theory, where the price implicitly reveals consumer preferences. By use of the logarithmic regression model the results obtained by multiple regression analysis where consumer preferences about different qualities have been identified and analyzed, as well as if population and the repo rate affect the price. In addition, the thesis will find out if the price tends to be higher during some of the year's four seasons.

    The thesis conclusions are that living space is the variable that has the greatest impact on price on condominiums in Uddevalla. Because rooms tend to increase with increased living space, the willingness to pay more for each additional room also increases the price. The condominiums location and monthly fee is also crucial for the price. If the distance from the center and monthly fee increase, it reduces buyers' willingness to pay. Further conclusions about the factors that affect the price are that consumers are willing to pay more for newly constructed condominiums and prefer to stay relatively high in the residential buildings

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