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  • 101.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Andersson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Klang, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Preferensskillnader i ledarskap hos anställda och chefer: Strategi för att minska skillnaden och förbättra ledarskapet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership exists in all organizations and looks different in all organizations as well, the leaders lead in the way that suits them and their organization. There are four different leadership styles that we have chosen to focus on to more easily define and categorize the different characteristics of the leadership styles. Laissez-faire leadership style is characterized by the fact that the leader is not controlled, you can work freely and the leader is very passive. The transformational leadership style is known for its motivation and guidance that allows employees to take their own initiative. The transactional leadership style is very much about the exchange of rewards for work done, while the leader is determined. The last leadership style is called charismatic and the leader is just that, charismatic who engages the employees but the leader is still active.

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate whether leadership and its four different leadership styles, at a smaller engineering company, were perceived differently from an employee and leadership perspective. Thus, the survey was conducted via ten semistructured interviews at the company, which resulted in similar preferences for both parties. However, differences in perceptions of the charismatic leadership style were discovered. The leadership style that was most preferred by both parties was the transformational leadership style, although research shows that the transactional leadership style fits better in organizations where individualistic work is performed, as in the researched organization.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Nanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Johansson, Wilma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur förändrades slutpriserna på fritidshus i Orust kommun under Covid-19?: Vilka är de främsta faktorerna som påverkat prisförändringen?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates how the final prices of vacation homes in Orust municipality changed during the covid-19 pandemic. To carry out the survey, we will use data on final prices for holiday homes in the municipality partly before and partly during the pandemic. Since the individual characteristics of the vacation homes can differ a lot, the factors that affect the prices need to be divided into different variables. Based on the result, it is possible to draw a conclusion as to whether each variable affected the prices. The report will also examine the possible other reasons that have contributed to the price changes. During the pandemic, the government in Sweden introduced restrictions which changed people's behavior patterns and contributed to people having more money to spare. Together with these factors, as well as the introduction of an exception to the amortization requirement, the demand changes and the need to have access to a vacation home in Sweden increases. Many workplaces also introduced that employees, as far as possible, control their work from home, which also led to more people wanting a vacation home to stay in. The demand for these types of homes increased at a rapid pace where the supply was unable to keep up with the demand, which resulted in higher final prices. The result from the statistic investigations shows that the prices on vacation homes in Orust kommun increased by around 25 % during the pandemic.

  • 104.
    Andersson, Oliver
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Aurbakken, Tilde
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Oljeprisets påverkan på Sveriges BNP: En studie om oljeprisets påverkan på ett mindre oljeimporterande land2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The price of oil has changed a lot throughout history. What is often behind the large fluctuations in the oil price are due to the world economy, trade barriers, disturbances in supply chains and wars in the rest of the world. This paper analyzes the effects of the oil price on Sweden's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The study is based on a time which extends from January (Q1) 1999 to December (Q4) 2020. The methods that have been used are Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regressions and the statistics are based on quarterly data. The purpose of the thesis is to examine how Sweden's GDP, as a small oil-importing country, is affected by the oil price and its changes. The variables used to carry out the work are Sweden's GDP, the central bank interest rate, employment, population growth and oil price. The results from the OLS-regression confirm that all selected variables have an explanatory power on GDP. The result regarding the oil price indicates that the oil price, in the long run, has an impact on Sweden's GDP. This result is in line with what similar studies have concluded, namely that the oil price and its impact have a certain time delay.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sjöstedt, Victoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att förändra en högskolas kodplan: fallstudie vid Högskolan Väst2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studie "Att förändra en högskolas kodplan (- fallstudie vid Högskolan Väst)" i kursen Examensarbete i företagsekonomi - kandidatexamen med inriktning mot redovisning, VT 2013 har genomförts av Pernilla Andersson och Victoria Sjöstedt.

    Vi har på uppdrag av Högskolan Väst undersökt hur en kodstruktur kan vara strukturerad för att uppfylla interna och externa redovisningskrav och behov. Bakgrunden till studien orsakades av att de upplevde en problematik med deras befintliga kodstruktur som hade skapats 2002. Organisationen hade förändrats under dessa tio år varför strukturen behövde justeras, dessutom hade de börjat växa ur sina nummerserier. Ett beslutsstödssystem hade också införskaffats där ekonomisystemet eventuellt skulle implementeras varför kodstrukturen även behövde kunna integreras med andra system för att få fram relevant information. Högskolans kodplan vid studiens genomförande bestod av fälten konton, ansvar, verksamhetsgren, motpart, finansiär, anläggning och objekt. Syftet med studien var att lägga en teoretisk grund för en ny kodstruktur som kunde uppfylla verksamhetens krav och behov. Gruppintervjuer med åtta fokusgrupper samt fyra individuella semi-strukturerade intervjuer inom Högskolan Västs organisation användes som metod för datainsamling. De befattningar som intervjuades var beslutsfattare, olika befattningar inom ekonomifunktion, utredare, koordinator för kvalitet samt forskningsrådgivare. För att få med några ytterligare behov granskades även vissa officiella dokument som Högskolans årsredovisning, regleringsbrev, Ekonomistyrningsverkets (ESV) rekommendationer och regelhänvisningar. Vår undersökning grundade sig i en teori kring ABC-kalkylering i relation till traditionella metoder. Empirinsamlingen visade på ett behov av att kunna få ABC-redovisning men att det vid tidpunkten för studien inte var fullt genomförbart eftersom det skulle innebära mycket manuellt arbete varför fler datasystem i så fall behövde integreras som exempelvis ett tjänsteplaneringssystem. Vi kunde konstatera genom empirin och teorin att det högskolan saknade var en ABC-redovisning, med fokus på ansvar och objekt. Kodplanens struktur som vi rekommenderar till Högskolan Väst är en grund för att kunna utvecklas till en ABC-modell efterhand som system implementeras. Vi kunde även konstatera att Högskolan Västs nuvarande kodstruktur inte behövde någon större omstrukturering utan att istället interna rapporter och uppföljningsmallar behövde förändras till att bli mer aktivitetsbaserade istället för kontobaserade som de var vid tillfället för studien.

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    attforandraenhogskolaskodplan
  • 106.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Borg Andersson, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Frivillig redovisning i svenska börsnoterade bolag: En kvantitativ studie av företagsegenskapers påverkan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Annual reports have gone from being a way for companies to report their financial position for stockholders, to being adapted for all stakeholders. All the information that stakeholders demand the companies are not obliged by law to publish, which leads companies to disclose some information voluntarily. The extent of this information differs between companies. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between different firm characteristics and the level of voluntary disclosure, which has resulted in varying results. The aim of the study is therefore to attain knowledge regarding which firm specific characteristics in Swedish listed companies that affect the level of voluntary disclosure and also how change between years affects this. Previous studies and business economics theories is the basis for the developed hypotheses regarding the impact of the characteristics. A longitudinal study was implemented on 21 companies that were chosen through a stratified random sampling. The data collection for the dependent variable of the study, voluntary disclosure, was done with the help of an index where the companies’ annual reports from 2016-2020 were examined. The level of the voluntary disclosure was then analyzed against the independent variables of the study, the companies’ size, age, profitability, debt ratio and liquidity. A multiple regression analysis was performed and resulted in the expected relationships between the level of voluntary disclosure and the companies’ size, age and profitability. The results showed a significant positive relationship for these characteristics. Any significant relationship could not be shown for the characteristics debt ratio and liquidity. A linear regression analysis was performed on the change in profitability between years and its relationships to the voluntary disclosure. This analysis was also in line with the expectations that changes in profitability does not affect the level of voluntary disclosure. 

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  • 107.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Thörngren, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur hanteras dilemman med flerdimensionell styrning?: En kvalitativ fallstudie i två företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different dilemmas faced by companies in a multidimensional control model and in order to maintain competitiveness such dilemmas shall be managed in an effective way. Use of multidimensional control models has increased among companies and when managing the business through such models companies are facing dilemmas within the frame of the control model analysis, and decisions needs to be taken on such dilemmas. In our qualitative study we present and analyze three selected dilemmas, our aim is to create a deeper understanding of how companies manage such dilemmas. In this study we specifically look into how companies handles the dilemma of combining a short-term and long-term perspective, how they combine financial and non-financial objectives and methodologies, and how companies can create clear goals by effective analysis methods and relevant parameters to measure results. We present criticism in the theory section of the essay on the subject of how companies manage dilemmas that can arise in a multidimensional control model where different objectives and methods of analysis may conflict with each other. We also describe how such dilemmas are solved by companies. The essay is based on five interviews with two selected companies. The theory section of the essay is based on scientific articles and literature concerning the chosen problem area within the field of business economics. In the theoretical framework the analysis model is detailed, the model has been developed through the chosen theory. The three selected dilemmas are then examined in the analysis model. Throughout the empirical section and the analysis section the analysis model is being tested. Our study gives examples of different ways of dealing with dilemmas. Our conclusion is that companies need to be consistent in their control when they have a multidimensional control model. This applies to the choice of strategy and when designing the goals and methods of the analysis model. We think it is important that these dilemmas are being managed rather than avoided as it can help to strengthen the company's competitiveness if properly applied.

  • 108.
    Andersson, Simon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Could suppliers take greater transport and owner responsibility?: Evaluation of changed Incoterms at GKN Aerospace2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems acts as supplier to the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft engines and is one owe the largest component manufacturer in the aerospace industry. They purchase raw material from suppliers all over the world. The components are big and heavy which means that transport cost could be saved with ship transport. But since GKN Aerospace Engine Systems use Free carrier agreement as incoterm they tie up capital during the transportation. The capital tied up could instead be used in other investments. To overcome the problem with tied up capital during transport the incoterm agreement has been evaluated. The incoterm Delivery at place means that the supplier owns the material and thereby also the capital cost during the transportation. A production stop due to lack of raw material is expensive and to minimize the risk it is important to evaluate all possible risks. The purpose with this thesis is to identify potential risks. The concept with DAP makes it possible for the suppliers to use their own freight carrier, that could lower the prices, but it also increase the inbound transport to GKN Aerospace Engine Systems. The administration cost in the goods receive tends to increase with a DAP solution. It is also necessary to change place where the delivery precision is measured. The supplier also needs some knowledge in export transportation and have competence in transports.

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  • 109.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Understanding institutional work through social interaction in highly institutionalized settings: Lessons from public healthcare organizations2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 36, no 2, article id 101107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes and analyses how social interactions between individual actors form institutional work in the highly institutionalized setting of healthcare organizations. Based on a qualitative case study, we affirm that social interactions mainly form maintaining institutional work, thus primarily upholding the rigidity of healthcare organizations. Social interactions either preserve distance between different actors or prevent their mutual influence, which decreases the effects of institutional complexity. However, when institutional work goes beyond maintaining, social interaction is characterized by processes of claiming influence and granting influence between individual actors who adhere to different institutional logics, which allows effects of institutional complexity. Such institutional work is contingent upon physicians' strong power position, and granting influence is likely to precede claiming influence.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Wilma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Bergman, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur upplever medarbetare informationen som de tilldelas på arbetsplatsen?: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetares sätt att agera för att inte bli överbelastade av information2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is described as an information society where humans are exposed to large volumes of information in both their private life and at their workplace. Studies show that due to the massive influx of information at the workplace, it can be a contributive factor as to why co-workers feel overladen by the information they are obliged to process. Information overload means that a person assimilates more information than one can handle. Since information mainly passes on through internal communication, it is important that this internal communication is effective within the organization. When the internal communication deficits it causes co-workers not feeling satisfied with the amount of information they are assigned. The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge about how co-workers experience the information that are assigned to them at the workplace. The theory is based on four different themes that are consistent throughout the study. These themes are: How information channels contributes to information flow at the workplace, The impact of information’s qualitative or quantitative characteristic on information overload, The possible contribution of the information flow to information overload and Approaches to counteract information overload at the workplace. To reach a satisfactory result with this degree project; a qualitative study was applied throughout semi-structured interviews at two organizations with large information flows. The results of the interviews are presented in the empirical chapter based on the studies main themes, and then compared with the theory in the analysis chapter. The structure of the analysis chapter is based on the four recurring themes mentioned earlier. The conclusion found that a majority of the respondents did not experience problems with an information overload, but on the other hand, all respondents felt stressed as a result of the information they were pressured to deal with. More importantly, this study showed that both organizations had problems with their information flow and internal communication, however, only one of the organizations were aware of the problem. Lastly this study showed that the co-workers way of handling the information assigned to them were very personal.

  • 111.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Knife in the Heart: Suburban mythology in the new post-industrial order2010In: (Re)searching Gothenburg: Essays on a Changing City / [ed] Holgersson, Helena m. fl., Göteborg: Glänta produktion , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Kniven i hjärtat: postindustriell förortsmytologi2010In: Göteborg utforskat: Studier av en stad i förvandling / [ed] Holgersson, Helena, Göteborg: Glänta produktion , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Andersén, Jim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. University of Skövde Skövde (SWE).
    Green resource orchestration: A critical appraisal of the use of resource orchestration in environmental management research, and a research agenda for future study2023In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 5506-5520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource orchestration (RO) is a strategic management framework that details various processes by which how firms structure, bundle, and leverage resources. Thisstudy reviews how RO has been considered in environmental management research.The review highlights some limitations on how RO has been used in studies on environmental management, and it also illustrates a lack of knowledge accumulation inthe field. To realize the full potential of RO, the concept of green RO is developed.Green RO (GRO) is defined as a firm's capability to coordinate and manage the structuring of resources and the bundling and leveraging of capabilities to create economicvalue for the company while simultaneously creating environmental benefits. Threemain research areas for GRO are described: GRO as an organizational or managerialmeta-capability, management of specific GRO processes, and the synchronization ofseveral GRO processes.

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  • 114.
    Andreasson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Simon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Frivillig informationsgivning i årsredovisningar: värdeskapande eller resursslöseri?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An annual report consists of financial and non-financial information which is required by law, however the annual report is considerably more extensive than that. This additional scope of information consists of information that is not required to be disclosed by law. However, companies still decide to publish a lot of voluntary information, though the amount differs heavily. The reason for this depends on the varying positive effects an increased disclosure entails. This is a balancing act that companies must consider and evaluate. Therefore, it is of interest for companies to know whether the market will reward this increased transparency.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the amount of voluntary disclosure that is published in an annual report had a causal relationship to the market value. This was investigated by analyzing 107 annual reports by Swedish listed companies. A number of key words that were associated with future oriented statements were used as a proxy to measure the amount of voluntary disclosure. This information was quantified and then used in a regression analysis where the relationship between the voluntary information and market capitalization was analyzed.

    The analysis concluded that the amount of voluntary disclosure had a linear relationship with the market capitalization. But the regression analysis, under the control of a number of control variables and after excluding extreme outliers from the data, showed that a causal link did not exist. A conclusion to be drawn from this was that the quantity of voluntary disclosure, in terms of future oriented statements, that a company publishes does not have a causal relationship on the market capitalization.

  • 115.
    Andreasson, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Moa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Earnings Management: En kvantitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar förekomsten av resultatmanipulering i svenska börsnoterade bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earnings Management is a term aimed at discretionary accounting which involves manipulation of a company's results. Earnings Management can be done either upwards or downwards. When manipulation occurs downwards with the aim of lowering the result, it´s called Big Bath Accounting. There are several researchers who have studied this area over time and have come up with conflicting results. Some researchers believe that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occur to a large extent when companies offer bonus programs based on company performance and whether CEO turnovers has occurred. Other researchers have a different opinion. They do not find any statistical evidence that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occurs when the CEO has changed and companies have bonus programs. Some of these researchers also believe that Earnings Management has diminished significantly or even disappeared in recent years. Previous research also shows conflicting evidence about the use of Earnings Management during financial crises and bonus programs. The purpose of the study was thus to investigate factors that underlie Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that may affect the management of a company to apply the theory.

    Results from previous research form the basis of the theoretical framework of the study, which emerged in three hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by multiple regression analysis as well as a time series analysis. The study's selection was limited to companies in the Swedish market on the OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange's Large Cap in 20072015. The original sample was comprised of 747 observations, but when a certain loss occurred, 547 observations remained while testing hypothesis one and two and 567 observations remained while testing hypothesis three.

    The result showed a statistical correlation between performance manipulation and bonus programs, but we found no statistical correlation between profit-decreasing accruals and CEO turnover. On the other hand, we found support for our third alternative hypothesis that the financial crisis affected Earnings Management during 2008-2009. Our conclusion thus became that the factors underlying Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that could affect the management of a company to apply the theory are bonus programs and the financial crisis.

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  • 116.
    André, Anna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Thabet, Lisea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarskap och kommunikation under Covid-19: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetare- och ledares upplevelser av krishanteringsarbetetvid en offentlig verksamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to create an in-depth understanding of employees and leaders’experiences in the public sector with a focus on leadership and communication in connection with the organizational changes that took place during the crisis of the Covid-19 pandemic. To find out how the leaders have managed to navigate through the current pandemic, it was essential for us to shed light on the employee perspective. We not only wanted to create an understanding of how the leaders have managed to get through the pandemic, but also how these crisis management methods have affected the employees. To be able to answer the aim of this study, we focused on two aspects, communication,and leadership. We wanted to find out how communication has changed and how it in return has affected the relationship between employees and leaders. To get an overall picture of leadership, we chose to shed light on the leadership and employee perspective. We wanted to find out how leadership has changed, but also the employees' experience that change. To collect our empirical material, semi-structured interviews were conducted at a social services office in Västra Götaland. A total of seven respondents participated, of which five were employees and two were leaders. To find out to what extent the effects affected the organization, the respondents were selected from two different departments. The results of the collected empirical data were analyzed and divided into the subheadings, crisis management, leadership and relationships, communication with employees, resistance to change and change metaphors.The study concluded that the leaders had a central role in the crisis and that they handled the communication with their employees in a sufficiently informative way so that they have gained good knowledge of what the plan looks like. Therefore, the change has taken place successfully without a noticeable and physical resistance as a negative effect. However, we see that the leaders have failed to review the health perspective, which has been at a disadvantage compared to the economic perspective.

  • 117.
    Andrésson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gunnarsson, Michaela
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att motivera medarbetare på distans: Vad en chef kan göra för att motivera medarbetare iett bemanningsföretag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employment with a temporary work agency often involves a complexity because of the three-party relationship between the agency, the consultant and the client company. It can therefore contribute to the emergence of motivation problems and confusion about how managers should proceed to motivate their consultants. As a temporary work agency has a distance and limited attendance to the consultants, difficulties with creating close relationships arise. Which in turn means that the staffing company’s managers have a far more difficult task to motivate its consultants, in comparison to more traditional businesses.

    The purpose of this study was to examine which motivational factors consultants in a temporary work agency see as motivating, and how the consultant managers can create motivation among their employees, despite the distance between them. To achieve the purpose the problem was examined with qualitative methods, through interviews and a questionnaire. Seven interviews were conducted, two with consulting managers and the others with consultants from the temporary work agency.

    In the theoretical part, four motivation theories were used; Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Vroom's expectancy theory, Hertzberg's two factor theory and McGregor's theory X & Y. In addition, theories concerning leadership at a distance, and approaches to motivating at a distance were also consulted. This has formed the basis for the collection of empirical data and the interpretation of the final result, which shows that motivational factors differ slightly from what the motivation theories show. Meanwhile, the result shows that the approaches that should be used to motivate consultants at a distance, are based on close relationships and opportunities for development.

    The conclusions of the study were that the factors that create maximum motivation of consultants, which are employed by an temporary work agency are; fair working conditions, development opportunities, confirmation/feedback, good results on performance, rewards, responsibility, work task design, salary and relationship with colleagues. Meanwhile, the result shows that the approaches that were the most satisfying when motivating at a distance are; relationship-building activities, continuous communication, and education

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  • 118.
    Antman, Marie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att vara chef i ideella organisationer: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskap, makt, värderingar och politisk styrning2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Being a leader in non-profit organizations. Author: Marie Antman, University Westwithin the framework of the course Master's Program in Leadership in the spring semester 2021. This is a qualitative study that deals with the tasks of leaders in organizations that are characterized by values, power and political control. The background is that the number of employees in the non-profit sector has increased while research on the sector'sintra-organizational aspects has lagged. The research that has been conducted has shown that the sector differs from the private, profit-driven, sector in significant areas. It concerns the sector's political governance, about conflicting demands and goals and intraorganizational expectations to embody the organization's values. The purpose of the studywas to contribute to an increased understanding of how employed managers in the nonprofit sector handled the sector's unique circumstances. In order to respond to the purpose of the study, a study was conducted with a constructivist approach focusing on the participants' own stories. The study was conducted through interviews with ten managers with experience from employment as a manager in at least two non-profit organizations. The selection was appropriate in the sense that it was done with the aim of selecting the participants in a strategic way. The analysis model was chosen to highlight the roles and tasks that managers have based on the study's special focus on the non-profit sector's unique challenges. The study's analysis is based on the basic view that in practice each manager's work is about a combination of management, power and leadership, that leadership is a process that is about relationships and should be understood in different social contexts and that non-profit leadership requires perspective on organizations structural, political and symbolic aspects. The interviews were handled through a thematic approach with inspiration from both grounded theory and narrative analysis method. The themes that crystallized were: understanding of the sector, manager or leader, theworkplace as an arena of democracy, power and conflicts of interest, the pros and cons of commitment, ethical stress and setting goals. In summary, the interviews describes a complex social context with strong values and multifaceted conflicts of interest that the managers had to deal with. The main contribution of the study was an insightful description, provided by the interviews, of how the sector's unique challenges appear to the leaders and the ways they handle it, and to point out that it is not possible to understand the leadership in these organizations without the understanding of the complexity of the social context that each non-profit organization constitutes. There is further development to be done to create a model for visualizing the different parts that such an organization consists of and how they relate to each other. The study also indicates that managers in the non-profit sector have a previously unidentified managerial role that is about acting as a liaison within the various parts of the organization: elected representatives, members, employees, non-profit forces, donors and target groups. The study also shows that a dual leadership is built into these organizations which leads to managers in the non-profitsector not handling all the tasks of a manager/leader. To address the challenges that this study focuses on, managers worked primarily with the structural and political perspective. However, the study showed that they would be helped by also being able to develop opportunities to work with the tools of the symbolic perspective

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  • 119.
    Antonsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fredriksson, Louise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    De sänkta arbetsgivaravgifternas effekt på ungdomsarbetslösheten: En tidsserieanalys mellan åren 2005 och 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has, among many other European countries, struggled with high levels of youth unemployment. As a solution to this arising problem the government decided to implement a two-step reform that lowered the payroll taxes paid by the employer, affecting adolescents between 15 and 26. Earlier research on similar reforms has shown small, or no effects on the employment but in some cases shown positive impacts on wage levels. Research has also shown that youth unemployment levels are significantly more sensitive for changes in the business cycle than the adult unemployment levels.

    In this paper, we examine the effects on youth unemployment levels by the lowering of the payroll taxes by including data from SCB, Riksbanken and OECD covering the years 2005 to 2017. The model used includes the youth unemployment level, real GDP, Term of Trade, real interest rate, inflation, tax wedge and a dummy variable for the payroll tax cut that assumes the value 1 between the period 2007Q2 and 2016Q2.

    The results show no significant effects of the payroll tax cut, as well as for the other variables within the model except for a tiny significant effect of GDP.

  • 120.
    Apell, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Nyborg, Natalie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Intäktsredovisning av pågående arbeten: en studie inom byggbranschen i Skara och Skövde2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the construction industry are ongoing works a common occurrence and companies wrestle with the problems of making a correct accounting of these. Because there are different ways to account revenues, which give different outcomes on the result, the company must ensure to account so that they comply with the laws, rules and recommendations. This is to achieve true and fair view and follow generally accepted accounting principles. The concept of true and fair view is difficult and can be interpreted in different ways by the company. There are two ways to perform con-struction duties, either the current account or fixed price. Based on these two calculations, there are two methods to account revenues during the missions, the per-centage of completion method and completion method. The purpose of this study is to investigate how construction companies reports its revenues during the work in progress and if the revenue recognition is affected by how they comply with laws, rules and recommendations for various accounting methods.

    We have done a study with a qualitative method through interviews with three different construction companies and an accountant. Our study has been focused on a hermeneutic method and we have used an inductive research approach. Our theory takes up definitions of income, revenue recognition, percentage of completion, completion method and true and fair view. We also take up different concepts, laws and regulations e.g. the different accounting principles, the ÅRL and BFL. On the basis of an analysis model, we have since been able to get a basis for our experiments and analysis. In our results we first have seen what an auditor considers whether revenue recognition for work in progress and then we received the interview people's own views on revenue recognition and how they apply accounting of ongoing work in their companies.

    Based on the results, we did an interpretation and analysis of how the different construction companies applied the various accounting methods and compared it with our theoretical section and the section on standards and rules. What we came up with was that construction companies made use of the laws and rules for revenue recognition for work in progress. They used both the current account and fixed price on their behalf. A difference between the companies was the method they used in the report and why. Two of the companies used the completion method and one of the companies the percentage of completion method. They used their method to achieve true and fair view, and this seemed that true and fair view was perceived differently by the companies. Depending on the method used by companies so affected the result at year-end

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  • 121.
    Arfvidsson, G. F.
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (SWE).
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lidbo, H.
    Rumtiden, Stockholm (SWE).
    Falkenberg, K.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Design Considerations for Short Alerts and Notification Sounds in a Retail Environment2021In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences, Sound and Music Computing Network , 2021, Vol. 2021-June, p. 261-267Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and noticeability of alert sounds have been widely researched and reported, and not least, notification sounds are ubiquitous in both software and hardware product development. In an ongoing research project concerning the retail industry, we aim at designing short alert sounds that only grab attention from one group of customers, while others do not register the alerts: this particular aspect has to our knowledge not yet been studied. To establish design guidelines for such alert sounds, we conducted an experiment where test subjects would experience ordinary shopping activity including background music and an ambient soundscape in a virtual reality clothing store, but with added alert sounds. We tested, specifically, six differently designed sound alerts belonging to two classes: contextual-specific congruent sounds, and incongruent sounds that did not fit the sonic context. The results disproved our assumptions that incongruent sounds would outperform the congruent and thus in the context more anticipated sounds. The findings suggest that alert sounds can be designed with subtlety and still be noticeable and that customers will not necessarily be annoyed. We present here a first approach towards design guidelines for short alert sounds in a shop environment. Copyright: © 2021 the Authors.

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  • 122.
    Arnergård, Christopher
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekryterares roll i rekryteringsprocesser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Could it be that there are subjective elements in the recruitment process? Recruitment is an important area for companies and is also something that most workers have to undergo. For companies, it is also a question about costly investments. Furthermore it is the employees who determine how the company develops and performs. Choosing these employees is what recruitment processes are there for. Previous research lacks focus on the individual recruiters role in the recruitment process. This study is based on this issue.

    Through interviews with representatives from various companies in various industries as well as a collection of theory and research on the topic, an overall picture has been created where the recruiter's role in the recruitment process appears. The result shows that recruiters have the confidence and ability to influence recruitment processes, but that the decision-making often lies with the responsible leader's power. The study shows that there are benefits to giving a recruiter a lot of space in the process and for allowing him to be involved from start to finish. It also shows that recruiters and the responsible leader should take decisions together on employment issues. This is to enable recruiters to influence and create a composition of employees who can complete each other with personalities and skills

  • 123.
    Arnosson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhet som strategisk utgångspunkt: En undersökning av utvalda svenska företags hemsidor och års-/hållbarhetsrapporter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study was in the desire to investigate whatchain stores want to convey beyond sustainability through two different communication channels, sustainability reports and websites. Information about sustainability is perceived to be communicated more and more frequently by companies today and what this could mean and include seemed interesting to investigate. This is to try to bring clarity and insight into the stakeholders who gets in contact with the information. 30 well-established establishments in Sweden became the study area and contributed interesting points of view in relation to the theoretical background. The purpose of the study was to investigate how companies worked with sustainability based on sustainability reports, as well as to review how they choose to communicate sustainability marketing on their websites. The companies were further divided into three categories that were compared and then developed the empirical background. Relevant theoretical research areas in this study included sustainability from a social, economic and ecological perspective, as well as legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory and strategic marketing. Furthermore, sustainability and CSR as strategic starting point were relevant orientations in the theoretical reference framework. The study is of a qualitative nature and had interpretation and reflection as a starting point. The empirical material has been examined using a critical of source perspective where the author was aware of the limitations and benefits that studies with angled material may hold. The study was based on information that the chains themselves choose to convey, which means that the reader cannot interpret it as fully truthful. However, the image that the chains convey was the primary focus of the study and the material found was designed for the remainder of the study and helped answering questions and research questions. The study was completed by comparing the empirical material with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and other theoretical backgrounds. GRI was used for the development of indicators from the empirical material using the theoretical background. This contributed to the creation of both conclusions that answers the purpose and proposals for further studies. These conclusions, among other things, showed that work on sustainability reports varied greatly between both business chains and industries. This at the same time as all published sustainability reports had a broad and comprehensive summary of both social, economic and social sustainability. In addition, sustainability communication on websites was used approximately equally in all industries and business chains, although the amount of information varied. Sustainability was generally not used as direct marketing to customers, but was available in the context, which showed that the information fulfills an objective in a different sense than in the form of direct marketing.

  • 124.
    Aronsson, Kim
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hedelin, Robert
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Vilka makroekonomiska faktorer påverkar antalet börsintroduktioner i Sverige?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how stock market developments and other macroeconomic factors affect the number of IPOs on the Swedish stock market between 2010 and 2021. The Swedish stock market are attracting for investors all over the world. The latest numbers from Bloomberg (2021) show that the Swedish stock market are the biggest market in Europe, with 950 registered firms.

    The subject is important to understand why initial public offerings has increased so rapidly since the pandemic started early 2020. To make the analysis we will make a multiple regression using the autoregressive distributed lag model (ADL) for the period 2010 – 2021. The changes in number of IPO’s will be used as the dependent variable with explanatory variables such as interest rate, saving rate, stock index, inflation, and GDP.

    The study refers to interesting literature studies with similar regressions as the study performs, some with similar results but also some differences. The result shows that there is a significant relationship between the changes in number of IPO’s andsaving rate, stock index and the IPO’s lagged one period.

  • 125.
    Aronsson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kunskapsintensiva organisationer och dess ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien cirkulerade kring begreppen kunskap och ledarskap, vilket ledde till inriktningen kunskapsintensiva organisationer och dess medföljande ledarskap. Studiens syfte ansågs vara relevant, då det troddes utgöra en del av utvecklingen av framtidens organisationer och ledarskap. Problemdiskussionen diskuterade ämnenas komplexitet och varför ämnet valdes. Varför valdes det nu och hur var ämnet relevant i ett sammanhang? Med problemdiskussionen hoppades författaren kunna förmedla till läsaren vart på kartan utvalt ämne befann sig. Studien behandlade ett fallföretags ledarskap och hur företaget, i detta fall en butik, kunde kopplas till kunskapsintensiva organisationer. I uppsatsens kommande del presenterades valda metoder. Kunskap erhållen i studien var av kvalitativ natur och studien byggde på två utförda personliga intervjuer, intervjuer med en chef och en medarbetare med hjälp av ett utvalt fallföretag. Övrigt material som användes till uppsatsens underlag, utgjordes av litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar. Studien byggde på att teoretiskt material relaterades till empiriskt material för att författaren skulle kunna undersöka hur ledarskapet inom företaget såg ut i relation till kunskapsintensiva organisationer.

    Uppsatsens kommande del var den teoretiska referensramen, vilken baserades på överskrifterna; Begreppet kunskap, Kunskap inom organisationer, Kunskapsintensiva organisationer, Begreppet ledarskap och Ledarskap i kunskapsintensiva organisationer. Begreppen kunskap och ledarskap ansågs skapa en bakgrund till de övriga delarna, vilka ansågs vara de främsta för att besvara studiens syfte. Därefter har uppsatsens empiriska underlag presenterats, för att ge läsaren inblick i de två intervjuer som utförts för att besvara studiens syfte. Intervjuerna presenterades separat för att ge läsaren tydlighet i resonemanget. Materialet är presenterat i relation till endast kunskap/kunskap inom organisationer och kunskap i relation till ledarskap.

    För att utforma slutsatser i relation till utvalt syfte, utformades sedan ett tolkningsavsnitt, där material vägdes samman och jämfördes. Kunskapsintensiva organisationer sattes här i relation till utvalt fallföretag och ledarskap i kunskapsintensiva organisationer sattes även det i relation till insamlat material från utvalt fallföretag. Detta gav intressanta synvinklar på hur begrepp och fenomen kan utspela sig i verkligheten, vilket formade de slutsatser som dragits i relation till frågeställningar, forskningsfråga och studiens syfte. Det gav också en fördjupad förståelse kring kunskap och ledarskap. Vilken kan vara användbart för alla, men framförallt de som arbetar, eller kommer att arbeta inom handel, som medarbetare och/eller chef. Studien har påvisat att flera av de aspekter som är relevanta i relation till begreppet kunskapsintensiva organisationer är aktuella i det utvalda fallföretaget och likaså är dess ledarskap nära sammankopplat till ledarskap, som i teori, ofta beskrivs i relation till kunskapsintensiva organisationer. Men det finns också en del aspekter som skiljer butiken från de klassiska kunskapsintensiva organisationerna, det konstaterades dock i sammanhanget att detta inte behövde vara något negativt baserat på fallföretagets utformning.

  • 126.
    Arvedal, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aronsson, Hampuz
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Actively managed mutual funds versus index funds: Risk-adjusted performance from an investor's perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the performance of 15 Swedish index stock funds and 30 Swedish actively managed mutual stock funds during the period 27th of March 1995 to 27th of March 2015, from and investor's perspective. Specifically we use Jensen's alpha and capital asset pricing model (CAPM) to examine fund performance. The result indicates that actively managed funds in Sweden do not outperform index funds, according to Jensen's alpha and beta. Actively managed funds are thus not worth their extra management fees and costs.

  • 127.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans: utmaningar och möjligheter2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie designades och analyserades av Högskolan Väst 2016-2017. Undersökningen kompletterar den besökar- och boendestudie som Högskolan Väst tidigare genomförde inom projektet i Lysekil under sensommaren 2016 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 2 Urban Platsinnovation Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 2017). Denna studie genomfördes under tiden 26 maj - 11 augusti 2017 med 363 svarande respondenter, varav 165 var besökare och 198 permanent boende i Lysekil. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både besökares och boendes uppfattningar om Lysekil. Högskolan Väst har även genomfört en intervjustudie med centrumaktörer i Lysekil under 2017 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 4 Urban Platsinnovation Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans - utmaningar och möjligheter). Studierna1 avser även att bidra gränsöverskridande inspiration samt vara ett underlag för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Undersökningen visar att besökare framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att de kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökare är det 88% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av besökarna bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.De permanent boende i Lysekil är också nöjda med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på både maten och servicen. De boende var också nöjda med servicen i butikerna men ställde sig neutrala till utbudet av butiker. Det största missnöjet bland de permanent boende i Lysekil finns kring parkeringssituationen.Studien är i stort samstämmig med den besökar- och boendeundersökning som genomfördes 2016.Ett stort antal förbättringsförslag ges av respondenterna och finns redovisade i rapporten. Dessa förslag är allt från konkreta till visionära.Det är vår rekommendation att denna rapport ihop med rapporten från undersökningen 2016 (se Högskolan Västs Rapport 2) delges och diskuteras med de aktörer och nätverk som finns i Lysekil i arbetet i att ta fram nya centrumutvecklande aktiviteter.

  • 128.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sommaren 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie designades och analyserades av Högskolan Väst 2016-2017. Undersökningen kompletterar den besökar- och boendestudie som Högskolan Väst tidigare genomförde inom projektet i Lysekil under sensommaren 2016 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 2 Urban Platsinnovation Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 2017). Denna studie genomfördes under tiden 26 maj - 11 augusti 2017 med 363 svarande respondenter, varav 165 var besökare och 198 permanent boende i Lysekil. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både besökares och boendes uppfattningar om Lysekil. Högskolan Väst har även genomfört en intervjustudie med centrumaktörer i Lysekil under 2017 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 4 Urban Platsinnovation Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans - utmaningar och möjligheter). Studierna1 avser även att bidra gränsöverskridande inspiration samt vara ett underlag för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi. Undersökningen visar att besökare framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att de kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökare är det 88% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av besökarna bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil. De permanent boende i Lysekil är också nöjda med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på både maten och servicen. De boende var också nöjda med servicen i butikerna men ställde sig neutrala till utbudet av butiker. Det största missnöjet bland de permanent boende i Lysekil finns kring parkeringssituationen. Studien är i stort samstämmig med den besökar- och boendeundersökning som genomfördes 2016. Ett stort antal förbättringsförslag ges av respondenterna och finns redovisade i rapporten. Dessa förslag är allt från konkreta till visionära. Det är vår rekommendation att denna rapport ihop med rapporten från undersökningen 2016 (se Högskolan Västs Rapport 2) delges och diskuteras med de aktörer och nätverk som finns i Lysekil i arbetet i att ta fram nya centrumutvecklande aktiviteter

  • 129.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av besökare och boende i Lysekil genomfördes med 279 svarande respondenter under tiden 26 juli - 14 september 2016. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både boendes och besökandes uppfattningar om Lysekil.Studien syftar även till att ge ett bidrag till ett större underlag för och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.151 besökande och 128 permanent boende besvarade undersökningen.Undersökningen visar att de besökande framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att man kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökande är det 97% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av de besökande bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.Bland de permanent boende i Lysekil är man också nöjd med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på restaurangmaten samt service på restaurang och i butik. Man är också nöjd med stadsmiljön, skyltning/vägvisning, hur lätt det är att ta sig till Lysekil, faciliteter och kvalitén på boende. En majoritet av de tillfrågade är missnöjda med parkeringssituationen i Lysekil. Utbudet av butiker och uteliv har mer utspridda svar.Samtliga respondenter fick tillfälle att ge förslag på vad som kan förbättras i Lysekils centrum. Av 279 respondenter gav 123 besökande och 114 boende i Lysekil förbättringsförslag. Förslagen, som är både konkreta och visionära, rör huvudsakligen följande sju teman; Trivsel och intryck av stadsmiljön, Infrastruktur, parkering mm, Husbilsparkering/ställplatser, Information och Skyltning, Aktiviteter/evenemang, Utbud och Övrigt.Vår rekommendation är att, de nätverk och aktörer som är anslutna till projektet i Lysekil, tar del av och diskuterar studiens resultat inför framtida centrumutvecklande aktiviteter. Vi rekommenderar även att man åtgärdar de förbättringsförslag som går att genomföra på kort sikt och redan nu diskuterar de mer långsiktiga och eventuellt resurstunga förbättringsförslag.

  • 130.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En gränsöverskridande workshop om: Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En gränsöverskridande workshop om Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum? genomfördes den 27 oktober 2016 i Fredrikstad under stormöte 2 i projektet Urban Platsinnovation. Syftet med workshopen var att näringsidkare och kommuner i Sverige och Norge ska knyta kontakter och utbyta erfarenheter. Under workshopen diskuterade de 62 deltagarna undersökningar som beslutsunderlag samt deltagande och samverkan för utveckling av centrum. I anslutning till workshopen redogjordes för tre i projektet genomförda studier. Workshopens genomförande och dokumentation syftar till att ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Workshopsdeltagarna får idag information om kunder, besökare och medborgare genom olika spridda kanaler; via kartläggningar, handelsutredningar, nationella näringslivstudier, egna undersökningar via sociala medier, webbstatistik, kommunens kundtjänst, medborgarkontor, medborgardialoger (brukermedvirkning), samtal och personlig kontakt, sociala möten och nätverk, cafédialoger/dialog med organisationer, företag och föreningar, mässor och genom nyheter i dagstidning (avis). Samtliga deltagare menar att studier av det slag som presenterades vid workshopen är mycket viktiga. Presenterade studier är intressanta då de visar på fakta och statistik – vilket inte alltid stämmer med vad man tror eller hört. Faktaunderlag är viktigt för att kunna arbeta framåt. Kritisk och djupare analys, koordinering, samordning och bättre kommunikation kring studier och resultat behövs. Deltagarna framhåller vikten av att dels ha tillgång till ett kvantitativt datamaterial i form av besöksdata som kan kopplas till annan data såsom omsättning, dels till ett kvalitativt material som fokuserar på vem besökaren är, orsaker till besök samt vilka önskemål besökare men även boende har.Det råder en stark vilja till samverkan mellan de olika aktörerna för centrumutvecklingen. I vissa fall och i vissa kommuner fungerar samverkan riktigt bra mellan framför allt kommun och butiksägare. Dock inses vikten av en bredare representativitet i grupperingar för centrumutvecklingen. Nya aktörer välkomnas samt tydliga strategier och roller. Viljan att engagera sig och delta finns, och många ser möjligheten att genom detta projekt få till en hel del bra grundarbete. Bra exempel ges på kanaler och plattformar för informationsspridning och kommunikation och deltagarna ser gärna en fortsatt utveckling av dessa för samverkan och koordinering av olika aktiviteter.

  • 131.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan Västs Rapport 3 - Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen består av en studie av Gamlebyen Fredrikstads kommune, Norge. Denna studie baseras på 18 djupintervjuer med 21 aktörer i och kring Gamlebyen, Fredrikstads kommune, som genomfördes perioden november 2016 - februari 2017 samt en webb-enkät med 22 elever (blivande hantverkare) vid Plus-skolen i Gamlebyen i mars 2017. Syfte med studien var att fånga aktörernas uppfattning om Gamlebyens attraktivitet, vision, nuläge och utmaningar i samverkan. Syftet var även att ge förslag för samarbete och styrning som potential för framtida näringsutveckling och engagemang. Vidare syftar studien långsiktigt till ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Studien visar på den mångfald av aktörer som verkar i Gamlebyen och den brist på samarbete och kommunikation som denna mångfald ger upphov till. Området saknar en gemensam vision om Gamlebyen skall utvecklas och bevaras. Sammantaget gör detta att Gamlebyen hämmas i sin utveckling och inte får den attraktionskraft som området har potential för. Många aktörer känner att kommunens satsningar på andra områden i Fredrikstad har haft ett negativt inflytande på området.För att Gamlebyen skall kunna nå sin potential behövs en samordnande roll av typen centrumutvecklare som koordinerar dels internt i Gamlebyen men även verkar in mot kommun och centrum för ökad samordning. En gemensam intern kommunikationsplattform för aktörerna i Gamlebyen är av stor vikt för att öka kommunikationen i området och samordna aktuell och korrekt information.

  • 132.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Different Measures of Economic Growth Lead to Different Conclusions?2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects : Revised papers, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, p. 57-70Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When regional growth studies are conducted, a common measure of economic growth is the wage sum. One reason for this may be the limited access to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) data on regional level. However, in Sweden there exists GDP data on municipal level, which enables studies where the effects of using GDP data or wage data can be compared. The aim of the present study is to investigate the difference the use of the measures GMP (Gross Municipal Product) and the sum of wages has on growth models. Since the two measures are similar but not identical the choice of measure of growth can influence the conclusions of an investigation. This might lead to contradictory results on for instance how knowledge activities influence economic growth. Therefore an empirical investigation on Swedish data is conducted in order test whether or not the use of GMP and wage sum respectively in a regional economic growth model give rise to different results. GMP and wage sum data on municipality level are used to calculate two output measures; percentage change and percentage change per employee in two different time periods. Local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility to R&D are the main explanatory variables used in the model. The results indicate that the models using any version of change in wage sum as dependent variable has more statistically significant parameters than the corresponding model using change in GMP.

  • 133.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Do different measures of economic growth lead to different conclusions?2012In: Entrepreneurship, social capital and governance: Directions for the sustainable development and competitiveness of regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 263-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth and regional growth are regularly concepts of current interest. Studies of regional growth have been conducted by numerous scholars but the way that the growth concept is defined and the way it is measured varies a great deal. Lack of proper regional data may be a reason why this discrepancy occurs. Economic growth is closely related to the industrial structure, health, and demography and income distribution of the economy. The measure used for national economic growth is the change in gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures the value added of all goods and services produced in the economy. The production of goods and services generates primary incomes for households; another method of measuring GDP is therefore to add up all incomes. One part of this income consists of the sum of all wages paid to households. Hence wage sum data are sometimes used as an alternative measure of economic growth. There are different ways to use GDP and wage sum data to measure economic growth at the regional level. In Sweden, the gross regional product (GRP) change is used by Statistics Sweden and Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth. The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis (Growth Analysis) on the other hand uses changes in labor productivity as a measure of economic growth in regions. Growth analysis then uses wage sum per employee or wage sum per capita as an estimator of labor productivity.

  • 134.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Employment and economic activity in different Swedish border regions2018In: Globalization, International Spillovers and Sectoral Changes: Implications for Regions and Industries / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Andreas P. Cornett and Tina Wallin, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 265-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Employment and Economic Activity in Different Swedish Border Regions2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 45-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigate how the effect of cross border activities between Sweden and its three Nordic neighbours influence the Swedish local economies along the border using municipal data from 2009. Two measures for the local economies are examined, economic activity (measured by gross pay per inhabitant) and employment rates. The Swedish border regions where divided into four regions: The Swedish border to Finland, The Swedish border to the part of Norway not included in the Oslo labour market, The Swedish border to the Oslo labour market, and the Swedish-Danish border region. The regression models show how the the regions compare to the Swedish average when controlled for market structure and accessibility to population. For Sweden's border regions to Denmark and the Oslo labour market there are significant improvements in both economic activity and employment rates when the border activity is included. The improvement is highest for the Oslo border regions. For the Swedish border to Finland and to the part of Norway not included inte the Olso labour market the border activity has no significant influence on either economic activity or employment rates.

  • 136.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Indicators of Economic Development: An Exploratory Study Using Swedish Municipal Data Contrasting Economic Development and Growth2016In: Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2016, p. 111-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores different definitions of Economic Development and possible measures for Economic Development and how they relate to measures commonly used for studying Economic Growth. The data is from 2013 and 2014 and are found in official Swedish data repositories and include variables such as gross pay per inhabitant, citizen satisfaction with the municipal, Gini-coefficient for Swedish municipals. Our main conclusions are that indicators for Economic Growth and Economic Development in some cases move in opposite directions and hence that driving growth might diminish parts of the development.

  • 137.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Indicators of economic development: an exploratory study using Swedish municipal data contrasting economic development and growth2018In: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series / [ed] Gråsjö, U., Karlsson, C. och Bernhard, I., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 359-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores possible measures of economic development and how they relate to measures commonly used for studying economic growth. Since potential factors for measuring economic development typically differ greatly over large geographical areas, we will study the indicators on a municipality level to avoid large geographical units of analysis. The data is from 2013 and 2014 and is found in official Swedish data repositories, and include variables such as gross pay per employee, citizen satisfaction with the municipality and Gini-coefficient for Swedish municipals. The results indicate that trying to find one overall measure for economic development is not feasible. Our main conclusions are that indicators for economic growth and economic development in some cases move in opposite directions. There is a need for more direct and harmonized, national and international data to further drive the research in the field of economic development.

  • 138.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Productivity and Cross border Accessibility to Human Capital: A Study Comparing Norwegian and Swedish Border Regions2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2014, p. 69-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While border regions are peripheral areas on a national scale, they gain a more central position in the actual border region, due to their location at the interface of domestic and foreign markets. It is a specific location advantage for firms located in border regions that they are close to foreign labour markets making it easier to employ workers from abroad. An increased labour mobility results in a pooling of workers from both sides of the border. With few border impediments, the labour markets located on the two sides of the border might melt into a common labour market, allowing a more efficient allocation of labour. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent economic productivity (gross pay) in the border regions between Sweden and Norway is affected by accessibility to highly educated labour. The southern border between Norway and Sweden is interesting to study since, on the Norwegian side of the border, the local labor market region Sør-Østfold is a neighboring region to the Oslo region, while on the Swedish side of the border, the regions are more considered to be rural areas. As main result we show that the parts of productivity generated by the cross-border workforce is shown to be driven by the accessibility of cross-border human capital both for municipals with an influx of foreign workforce and for the municipals with an outflow of workforce to a foreign country.

  • 139.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Productivity and cross-border accessibility to human capital: A study comparing Norwegian and Swedish border regions2017In: Geographies of Growth: Innovations, Networks and Collaborations / [ed] Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Martin Andersson and Lina Bjerke, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2017, p. 48-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Tentative Indices for Regional Economic Development: An Exploratory Study Using Swedish Municipal Data2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West West , 2018, p. 47-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using variable selections methods this paper examines variables potentially suitable as indicators for different dimensions of economic development. Since potential factors for measuring economic development typically will differ greatly over large geographical areas the study use indicators on municipality level to avoid large geographical units of analysis. The analysis is performed on Swedish municipality data from 2015. An extensive search yielded a number of prospects indicators to use even though the official data gathered in Sweden are not particularly suitable for investigating the softer dimensions of economic development. The results of the study suggest that the indicators of economic development can be categorized into five dimensions/indices that represent "Quality of Living", "Economic Capacity", "Wealth and Stability", "Growing Worries" and "GMP per inhabitant" in the municipality

  • 141.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Tentative indices for regional economic development: an exploratory study using Swedish municipal data2020In: Diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 44-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using variable selections methods this chapter examines variables potentially suitable as indicators for different dimensions of economic development. Since potential factors for measuring economic development typically will differ greatly over large geographical areas, the study uses indicators on municipality level to avoid large geographical units of analysis. The analysis is performed on Swedish municipality data from 2015. An extensive search yielded a number of prospective indicators to use even though the official data gathered in Sweden are not particularly suitable for investigating the softer dimensions of economic development. The results of the study suggest that the indicators of economic development can be categorized into five dimensions/indices that represent: "Quality of Living", "Economic Capacity", "Wealth and Stability", "Growing Worries" and "Gross Municipal Product per inhabitant" in the municipality.

  • 142.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    University Colleges Effect on Municipal Growth in Swedish Middle-sized Municipalities2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance: Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 85-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this paper is to study to what extent accessibility to R&D is an important factor of explaining municipal economic growth. Of special interests is the question whether, the effect of company (private) R&D efforts on economic growth differ if a university college is present in the municipality or not. Therefore the empirical analysis is conducted on a reduced dataset (92 out of 290 municipalities), containing only middle-sized municipalities without traditional ´old´ universities. The idea of the selection process was to find two sets of comparable municipalities with one containing municipalities with university colleges and one with municipalities without university colleges. In the empirical analysis a knowledge production function is estimated with the difference in Gross Municipal Product, GMP, between 1993 and 2001 as the output. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the explanatory variables are expressed as accessibilities to university and company R&D. The total accessibility is then decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility to R&D. The main results show that local and intra-regional accessibility to company R&D has positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, local accessibility to university R&D is of no importance, while there are influential effects of intra-regional university R&D. Moreover, the presence of university college R&D activities decreases the importance of the local accessibilitiy to company R&D or put it differently, local accessibility to company R&D is more important in municipalitites without university college activities.

  • 143.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Identifying Summer Season Segments on the Swedish West Coast: the Case of Lysekil2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 59-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify tourist segments present during the summer season in a northern European seaside resort setting. Demographic changes on a global scale bring with them dramatic changes in tourist demand and behavior. This poses new challenges for places that have a history of being attractive summer tourist destinations, challenges that can only be dealt with by informed actors. The small coastal town of Lysekil was chosen as the case of study since it has a history as a traditional northern European seaside resort, experiencing problems with adjusting to changing tourist demand and behavior. In addition, it is geographically separated from other similar towns which facilitates data collection. Data was collected during the summer season, from May to September, with a structured survey. The results identify five segments, what characterize them and when they are present.

  • 144.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Late Season Tourists on the Swedish West Coast2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 77-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of city centers and tourist destinations it is, as for any development of attractive offers, imperative to be informed about who the customer is and what s/he needs, wants and desires. For tourist destinations, various customer types can be identified, each with different purposes, needs and wishes.Some types may be present around the year, whereas others may show up during specific points in time. The aim of this report is to identify who the late season visitor is and what s/he actually does when visiting the small town of Lysekil on the Swedish West coast. On the basis of a sample of 155 tourists, participating instructured interviews performed in the in the late part of the summer season, including the months of August and September, it can be concluded that the only clearly identifiable segment during this period consist of couples over 50 who spend their vacation in their motor homes, visiting different locations for a couple of day seach, and mainly spending their time and money shopping and dining at restaurants.

  • 145.
    Arvidson, Katarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    What causes household debt to increase in Sweden?: a quantitative study of factors influencing indebtedness of Swedish households2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The level of indebtedness of Swedish households seems to be an upwards going spiral which has no end to it. Warnings are frequently announced from governmental institutions as other sources and the risk households undertake can cause damage not only to the individual household but to the whole economy. If housing prices begin to decrease during a recession, i.e. a housing bubble would start to deflate, it could take a long time for the economy to stabilize. The growing household debt ratio might provide even more fuel to the potential fire. What this thesis is aiming to do is to give better understanding of how Swedish households' indebtedness is composed, or more precisely what might cause it to increase in the way it does. Especially factors beside the disposable income is in focus since the debt to income ratio has risen substantially over the past few decades. An empirical, quantitative analysis is carried out using an OLS multiple regression model and an Error Correction model. Economic theory and insights from previous studies are used as a justification to the variables in the model. The analysis points at development of new properties, increasing housing prices, inflation and rising consumption as being possible explanatory factors in the estimated model. The time series analysis is made using quarterly data with observations of the years 1996 – 2015.

  • 146.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kooperativt företagande och hållbar utveckling: En studie om gemensamma drivkrafter bakom kooperation och hållbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är hållbar utveckling ett ämne som diskuteras på flera plan i samhället och det finns en tendens att företag vill betona sin hållbara inriktning. Detta arbete handlar kooperativa företag och hur de värderingar som kooperativ arbetar med påverkar hållbar utveckling. Kooperation och företag med sociala mål möter problem som är kopplat till valet av associationsform och detta får konsekvenser som påverkar möjligheter till finansiering och trovärdighet. Genom intervjuer med personer som antingen driver ekonomiska föreningar eller arbetar med kooperation presenterar detta arbete gemensamma drivkrafter hos kooperation och hållbar utveckling. Vilka drivkrafter som ligger till grund för valet att starta ett kooperativt företag och vilka värderingar som hållbarhetsbegreppet för med sig visar sig vara liknande på flera punkter. Vidare visar arbetet att forskningen kring dessa ämnen kan upplevas begränsade och att synen på hållbarhetsbegreppet inom forskningen är mer inriktat mot miljöaspekten än som ett helhetsbegrepp.

  • 147.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie om ledare och medarbetares upplevelser av organisationsförändring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To implement an organizational change can be overwhelming for those individuals who work in the organization. Evaluation of results or the process of change rarely occurs and one reason may be lack of resources in the organization or that it´s not a priority. When an organization sees the result they usually compare it to the goals underlying the change, if the result reach the goals it is sees as "successful" if not, the result is "unsuccessful". This study aims to examine how the results are experienced by employees and management who have undergone a change and how they relate it to the goals. The caseorganization has completed a move to new temporary premises while the reconstruction will be completed. We have chosen to study a department within the organization, they have two levels, employee- and management. The study has a qualitative approach where the collection of data is made of semi-structured interviews with twelve respondents, ten employees and two from management. These have been interpreted and presented based on two themes throughout the entire study, communication, and personal experiences.

    There are several elements in the changeprocess that can contribute to employee acceptance. Employees can more easily accept change if they receive information early in the process which gives time to adapt (Shin et al, 2015). Individuals within an organization need to be seen and to be involved in order to be able to feel satisfied with the change (Liljengren et al, 2003). The result of the interviews showed that respondents don´t have the same experience of the result and that everyone did not describe the same goal with the change. All received the same information about the move, some feel that they have been involved and feel satisfied, others feel that they haven´t been involved, which contributed to the discontent of the change. The conclusion of this study is that participation in the process gives a positive experience of the result and a higher acceptance if less satisfying working condition occurs. This study has shown that there are differences between employees and managements experience of organizational change and one way to find these differences is to routinely evaluate the results.

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  • 148.
    Arvidsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Näsmark, Sofia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Digitalt ledarskap för att främja medarbetarnas hälsa vid distansarbete: en studie utifrån två offentliga organisationer2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how managers have acted in their digital leadership to promote the health of their employees during teleworking, and how managers experience health during teleworking from an employee perspective. The questions we intended to answer was: Based on managers managing their staff digitally at a distance, how have they acted and what challenges and opportunities do they experience when it comes to maintaining employee health? From an employee perspective, what challenges and opportunities do managers experience that exist regarding employees' health during teleworking? The theory we used consisted of three themes that crystallized after a literature review which were: balance between work and leisure time, sense of belonging and motivation. The study applied a qualitative method where data were collected through eight semi-structured interviews with managers from two different public organizations. When it comes to work-life balance, the results show that most employees have experience more flexibility in their daily life, but that the boundaries of what is working time and not have begun to blur. The manager has an important role in his or her leadership to clarify the framework within which the work is to be carried out in order for the employees to have a healthy balance between working hours and leisure time. What is perceived as the greatest challenge is the sense of belonging and being able to bridge the social encounter with digitized solutions. In order for no employee to become socially isolated in the telework, it is important that the managers have close individual social contacts with each employee. Regarding motivation, the managers have experienced that this is highly individual where some employees get high motivation based on the distance work, while others lose their motivation. Here, digital continuous feedback and reconnection can be a measure for managers to motivate their employees. Our results show that digital teleworking leads to new demands on managers' leadership. We argue, based on our study, that in cases where the manager succeeds with his leadership, there are great opportunities for employees and their health. The study we have done contributes to an increased understanding of how managers experience digital leadership and the promotion of health in teleworking for their employees. The study also contributes with empirical examples where managers highlight challenges and opportunities they experienced. Proposals for further research in the area are proposed to make a more comprehensive study with more variables to see if it is possible to find out more general connections between the parameters. 

  • 149.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Värdet av investering i kompetensutveckling: En fallstudie på GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, en högteknologisk tillverkningsindustri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The staff is the company’s most important asset is a common expression and compe-tence is considered today as a condition for good results and success (Björklund & Holmqvist, 1999; Johansson & Johrén, 2011). It can though be difficult to concretize increased knowledge in education, which requires a discussion of how the business and employees are affected. Few organizations today have structured systems to track and discover the value and the positive impact that an investment in competence development may entail (Chong et al., 2000). GKN Aerospace Sweden AB is actively working with a training tool for competence development called the "Training Days". The purpose of these training days is that with the help of internal trainers educate the staff to raise skills and to encourage the exchange of knowledge. The purpose of this study is to develop a proposed calculation model for investment in competence development and to study the effects that these internal training days provide, both from an individual perspective and an organizational perspective. The study consists of a qualitative and interpretive appro-ach, in which methods of data collection consists of informants interviews and a survey. The idea of the "Training Days" and internal trainers aims that everyone can share their knowledge, because there is a lot of expertise within the organization. The concept means that employees train other employees, resulting that the company pass on knowledge of key employees to other employees. The results and the conclusions from the study showed that knowledge and information from the "Training Days" was valuable and contributed to improve the participants’ work and led mainly to more general knowledge but also more in-depth knowledge. The model applied to the concept is the bottom-line which according to Smith (2004) is a model of evaluation character, supplemented by monetary measures where the focus of the method lies in determining the effects of investments on a participant level. The effects of these educational interventions considered for the employees to be increased efficiency, improved job performance and improved work quality. From an organizational perspective obtains a competitive advantage as employees possess a deep and general knowledge, as well as it presumably have some impact on the company’s financial performance and success

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  • 150.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015In: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, p. 13-27Conference paper (Refereed)
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