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  • 101.
    Bäckman, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ekegren, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Möjliga samband mellan upplevda utbildningseffekter,  emotionell och själslig intelligens samt självkänsla2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    

  • 102.
    Bång, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Närmande som försvar: En kvantitativ studie om närmandemotivation och personlighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employers would benefit from increased knowledge in approcah motivation, to aid employees in directing their drive toward constructive goals.

    The purpose of this paper was to examine if there where differences in how people use approach motivation as a defensive mechanism when experiencing goal conflict (when the pursuit of one goal hinders the pursuit of other goals) in the goal domains of work life and personal life.

    Goal conflict was operationalized by randomly assigning participants into two groups, asking one group to describe a personal dilemma concerning their personal life, and the other group to describe a dilemma concerning their professional life. Personality according to the five factor model was then measured, as well as approach motivation towards the two goal domains.

    The conducted study could not show any significant differences between groups in approach motivation towards the two goal domains. A regression analysis showed that the personality factors explaining most of the variance in approach motivation were conscientiousness (β = .43), extroversion (β = .32) and openness to experience3(β = .18).

    Following these results, connections between personality and approach motivation are discussed based on the assumption that human beings are cybernetic (goal directed and self regulating) systems (DeYoung, 2014).

  • 103.
    Carlson, Paula
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En jämförelse mellan ungdomars självkänsla 1999 och 2010 genom faktoranalys, baserat på självskattningsskalan Jag tycker jag är 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to follow up on Ouvinen – Birgerstam to study similarities and differences in adolescents’ ways to value their self-worth in 1999 and 11 years later. Also

    of interest was to see how well the scale fared in relation to young people in 2010 compared to 1999. To do so, the samples from Ouvinen - Birgerstam from 1999 (n = 1470) and Carlson's sample from 2010 (n = 405) were used. The participants in the two samples were high school students and they had all responded to the 72-item scale that I think I am is made of. Conditions were obviously not identical between the two samples. Ouvinen – Birgerstam’s sample were from what was at the time considered an industrial city of immigrants. Carlson’s sample was from an island in Bohuslän. Both analyses were executed by a principal component analysis and then a rotation according to the varimax method. A common feature of the studies was that six factors were preferable to five, and it was the component "Relationship to family" that valued the highest. Considerable differences were that "Relationship to friends" was something that weighed heavily on adolescents self-esteem in 1999 but not in 2010. And that Ouvinen-Birgerstam had a higher proportion of explained variance of 74.1% compared to this six 2

    component analysis that resulted in 37.9%. Carlson (2010) and Ouvinen-Birgerstam (1999) have similar results from their studies, even though they had different samples and a time difference of 11 years. Despite this, the component analysis in this study showed that young people in 2010 seemed more fragmented. The focus was not on any particular component; instead it seemed adolescents were affected by several factors. Young people's perception of the concepts used to measure self-esteem has changed over time. Concepts such as friends, shyness, popularity, etc. may have changed with the development of technology. The author interpreted therefore that the validity of the self-rating scale was not as good in 2010 as it was in 1999

  • 104.
    Carlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Nordqvist, Nathalie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Personlighetsegenskaper och subjektivt välbefinnande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether different personality characteristics are associated with subjective well-being. Of the total sample of 95 participants (Myear = 26), 55 were women and 38 were men. Extraversion, Openness to experience and Agreeableness were found to have positive associations with well-being, and Neuroticism was found to have a negative association with well-being. Women were found to have statistic significantly higher score on Agreeableness than men. Age of the total sample had no statistic significant relationship with any of the personality traits. The participants were divided into two groups according to their age, young adults (< 29) and adults (> 30). A positive relationship was found between the age of young adults and Neuroticism and a negative relationship with Openness to experience. The age of the adult participants were positively associated with Openness to experience as well as Extraversion and a negative association with Neuroticism. The results indicated that the age of young adults were found to have a negative relationship with well-being while the age of adults were found to have a positive relationship with well-being. The Personality traits were to explain 46 % of the variation of well-being in the total sample of this study. The results of this study imply that personality traits to a large extent are important when accounting for people's wellness.

  • 105.
    Carlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lawson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Facilitering och Motivation: Hur påverkar facilitering motivationen hos chefer vidarbete med kompetenssäkring2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if facilitation as a method would create a social context that increases Intrinsic Motivation among managers in work with securing competences. This study was conducted in a public organization and the participants consisted of first line managers. The study is approached in both a quantitative and a qualitative form and consisted of a survey that was emailed to each of the participants. The survey turned to 35 managers from which six responded on the survey that was drawn from WEIMS-test regarding Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation and based on Self-Determination Theory. Other theoretic frameworks that the study touched upon in its work was Replacement planning theory which is a theory of how work with competence securing regarding formal competence, theories about facilitation which is a method that is used in mediation or at meetings and motivation theories such as Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. The results of the study demonstrate the participant didn’t shown any change in Intrinsic or Extrinsic Motivation, however, the result shows a slightly negative level of the Amotivation variable which means a lower motivation for work with competence securing. The study did not demonstrate whether facilitation helped to maintain the level of Intrinsic Motivation the participants had; therefore, further

  • 106.
    Carlsson, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hafstrand, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    En utvärdering av ungdomars akademiska målsättningar: Betydelsen av prestationsbaserad självkänsla, personlighet och kön i samverkan med akademiska målsättningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What goals young people have after their high school studies and how easily they are achieved are influenced by what kind of personality one has (Zhou, 2015).

    This study examined how young people's performance-based self-esteem and personality interacted with their academic goals. To understand how these variables, interact and differentiate, the study has been conducted in two secondary schools where fifty-nine students participated in a survey. The youth were between 15-19 years old and were distributed fairly evenly between girls and boys. Research shows (Spinath, Eckert & Steinmayr, (2014) that girls are more likely to achieve their academic goals than boys. This study has chosen to investigate whether personality and performance-based self-esteem are factors that capture. The questionnaires used in the study was the Big Five Personality Test and Performance-Based Self-esteem Scale (Dåderman, Personal communication, 2018; Hallmer, Josephson & Torgén, 2005).

    The study results showed that girls more than boys intend to study further after high school. There was a positive relationship between performance-based self-esteem and personality trait neuroticism. Individuals with a high degree of conscientiousness show a statistical significance in pursuit of further education after secondary school. These results are in line with previous research results (Furnham, Monsen & Ahmetoglu, 2009).

  • 107.
    Carttenridge, Alexandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Att inte räcka till: En kvalitativ studie om (o)hälsan bland nyexaminerade förskollärare inom förskolans verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the newly graduated preschool teachers (ill)health within the preschool. In the study, the well-being of preschool teachers is examined in relation to the preschool's working environment.

    The informants consisted of four preschool teachers aged 26-33 who have been working for one and a half to three years. The informants work at four different districts within the City of Gothenburg. The study is based on preschool teachers' reports on their own work. The material was collected through interviews and analyzed on the basis of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) transactional theory of stress and coping, Karasek and Theorell's (1990) job demands-control model and Antonovsky's (1979) sense of coherence model.

    In the study, four themes emerged which are to find their role, to create context, to handle challenges and to gain insight. The study shows that the result is in line with the theory, models and previous research. The result shows that the participants in the study experience a high degree of mental and physical (un)health during their first working years.

    The study's results suggest that work-related (un)health is based on external and internal factors. The external factors concern the organizational design such as lack of resources, high workload and high child numbers, while the internal factors are the preschool teachers lack of job satisfaction and motivation.

  • 108.
    Cedervall, Tina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Konflikträdsla: ur den konflikträddes perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att få en inblick i vad som menas med konflikträdsla, vilka former konflikträdsla kan ta och vilka strategier konflikträdda använder sig av. I artiklar och litteratur används inte ordet konflikträdsla utan man talar om konfliktundvikande beteende. Denna undersökning har velat ta reda på om det bara är konfliktundvikande strategier konflikträdda använder sig av. Undersökningen utformades som en kvalitativ studie med sju halvstrukturerade djupintervjuer om ca 30 – 80 min per intervju. Informanterna, tre män och fyra kvinnor, rekryterades via anslag på bl.a. högskolan och arbetsförmedlingen. De fick själva ta kontakt för intervju som hölls på högskolan. Resultatet visade att konflikträdda människor främst använder sig av undvikande konfliktstilar men gärna vill gärna kompromissa. Fyra olika typer av undvikandestilar identifierades: osynliggörande av sig själv, avvärjande av konflikt, inte se konflikt och gottgörelse. Rädslan för konflikter är att själv bli sårad eller förlora relationer.

  • 109.
    Chang, Lei
    et al.
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Lu, Hui Jing
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA; Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Fudan University Department of Psychology, Shanghai, China..
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Humanistic Studies, Napoli, Italy..
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, Zarqa, Jordan; Counseling, Special Education, and Neuroscience Division, Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology , Rome, Italy .
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Department of Psychology, Bogota,Colombia.
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    External environment and internal state in relation to life-history behavioural profiles of adolescents in nine countries2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1917, article id 20192097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The external environment has traditionally been considered as the primary driver of animal life history (LH). Recent research suggests that animals' internal state is also involved, especially in forming LH behavioural phenotypes. The present study investigated how these two factors interact in formulating LH in humans. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1223 adolescents in nine countries, the results show that harsh and unpredictable environments and adverse internal states in childhood are each uniquely associated with fast LH behavioural profiles consisting of aggression, impulsivity, and risk-taking in adolescence. The external environment and internal state each strengthened the LH association of the other, but overall the external environment was more predictive of LH than was the internal state. These findings suggest that individuals rely on a multitude and consistency of sensory information in more decisively calibrating LH and behavioural strategies.

  • 110.
    Chang, Lei
    et al.
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Lu, Hui Jing
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Social Sciences, China.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Chen, Bin Bin
    Fudan University, Department of Psychology, Shanghai, China.
    Tian, Qian
    Fudan University, Department of Psychology, Shanghai, China.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan .
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psycholog , Rome, Italy .
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Medellín, Colombia.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Environmental harshness and unpredictability, life history, and social and academic behavior of adolescents in nine countries.2019In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 890-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is essential for life. To survive, humans and other animals have developed sets of psychological and physiological adaptations known as life history (LH) tradeoff strategies in response to various safety constraints. Evolutionarily selected LH strategies in turn regulate development and behavior to optimize survival under prevailing safety conditions. The present study tested LH hypotheses concerning safety based on a 6-year longitudinal sample of 1,245 adolescents and their parents from 9 countries. The results revealed that, invariant across countries, environmental harshness, and unpredictability (lack of safety) was negatively associated with slow LH behavioral profile, measured 2 years later, and slow LH behavioral profile was negatively and positively associated with externalizing behavior and academic performance, respectively, as measured an additional 2 years later. These results support the evolutionary conception that human development responds to environmental safety cues through LH regulation of social and learning behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 111.
    Christensson, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Johansson, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En kvantitativ studie av förskolelärares personlighet och upplevda arbetstrivsel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine how much of work satisfaction that can be explained from the personality traits extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness and humility-honesty in preschool teachers in Västra Götaland's County. This thesis was based on a quantitative study and used a questionnaire, first part being about work satisfaction, second being a personality test. The study was based on Herzberg's two factor model and the Big Five personality theory. The study included 54 respondents, with a mean age of forty years, all working as preschool teachers. The results of this study showed that the strongest correlations for satisfaction with external factors were neuroticism and openness and that the strongest correlations for intrinsic factors were neuroticism, openness and humility-honesty. Extroversion was also a factor that could predict work satisfaction, in the form of recognition.

  • 112.
    Coster, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Johnsson, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tillfredsställelse med livet bland svenskar: En kvantitativ studie om vad som predicerar tillfredsställelse med livet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many psychological factors that affect how satisfied a person is with his life, and many studies have investigated whether it is possible to predict life satisfaction. To achieve a high level of life satisfaction is a relevant goal that concerns everyone. In this study, life satisfaction was examined and the aim of this study was to study how much of the variance in life satisfaction that could be explained by the variables: income, age, gender and to what extent the participants had creative- and independent work.

    An analysis was performed on already collected data from the World Value Survey. Data consisted of 1204 participants, of which 50 percent were women and 50 percent were men, aged 18-85 years.

    The results revealed that all the variables together accounted for 9 percent of the variance in life satisfaction. Consistent with the other studies in the literature, findings indicate that income could predict the most variance in life satisfaction. Results also revealed that having independent work was important. Furthermore findings also suggest that self-reported creative work was not a vital variable when predicting life satisfaction.

    This study concluded, similar to previous research, that there is a strong relationship between income and self-reported life satisfaction.

  • 113.
    Dahl, Maja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Fransson, Linnéa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Medarbetarens upplevda behov av socialt stöd från chef vid sjukfrånvaro: En kvantitativ studie vid en västsvensk kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to examine the Sense of Coherence and Extraversion could predict individuals´ need of social support. Then purpose was to illuminate individual characteristics to call attention to the different needs of social support during absence due to illness. The survey was a correlational study (N=135). The respondents were municipal employees where the age distribution amounted to M = 44.14 years, SD = 12.16 years, the majority of the participants were women, 74.4 % (N=99). A questionnaire was used consisting of three inclusive measurement tools: The abbreviated version including 13 questions of the Sense of Coherence Scale, Mini IPIP6 (where only questions on the subject of Extroversion were included), as well as five self-designed questions intending to measure the perceived need of social support during absence due to illness. The data was analyzed through a regression model, ANOVA and t-test. The most important results from the study were firstly that SOC (Sense of Coherence) on its own could predict the need of social support during absence due to illness, which means that the higher the individual rated on the SOC scale the higher their need of social support was. Secondly there were gender differences concerning the need of social support, women expressed a greater need of social support during absence due to illness than men. Those who expressed a greater degree of extroversion also expressed a greater degree on KASAM, and those who express a greater degree of extroversion where older. The results showed that there were also differences between the professions social oriented work and administrative work and their measured levels of Extroversion, where those who worked social oriented work express greater degree on extroversion. There was a lack of previous research focusing on the perceived need of social support which provided difficulties in discussing similarities to previous research. The study could be an opportunity to continuing discussion on individual differences and needs which according to the authors are of great importance for future working life.

  • 114.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Räddningsledningens upplevelser av ledning under svåra förhållanden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Community disturbances in the form of major accidents, natural disasters and similar emergencies have in recent years been relatively frequent in western Sweden. This qualitative study’s overall aim was to expand the knowledge concerning some delimiting factors perceived as being facilitating or aggravating for the leadership in the handling of hurricane Gudrun and the collapse of the European Highway 6 in Munkedal. A lesser aim of the study was to connect this study's results to Ronthy’s (2006) theory of leadership intelligence. The basis for this study consisted mainly of how the management personnel in the rescue organization experienced these events, which the author got acquainted to through seven semi-structured interviews. Of those interviewed were six men and one woman, and the age distribution ranged from 40 to 65 years. All participants were well experienced in crisis management with at least ten years of work experience. Collected data were analyzed by thematic analysis. The strengths of leadership that emerged from the study was the importance of having a common objective, well-defined roles, experience, common structure, the opportunity to distance oneself, that the organizations were in place, and personnel replacing available. Difficulties with respect to leadership, as noted, was that the participants were faced with unfamiliar situations, uncertainties, conflicts, emotional impact, and that there could be problems to meet basic needs. The results also showed the many demands made on the leaders, such as expertise and social skills such as humility and ability to produce harmony and trust among employees. Finally, the results showed the importance of continued training and the professional development needs of the leaders who are working in crisis management organizations, which should be considered for future events that require a long-term management work.

  • 115.
    Dahlström, Lisa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Kan svenska sjuksköterskor balansera sitt arbets- och privatliv?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a replication of Dåderman and Basinska’s (2016a) study. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) are based on the problems that can arise when employees feel that working life affects privacy negative and vice versa. In this study, 98 nurses residing in Sweden participated; 94% were women and 6% were men. The study had the quantitative approach and questionnaire used was web-based. The questionnaires used were Swedish translated versions of Quantitative Workload Inventory, Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), which measures the work engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption), and Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict scales. Even questions about the intention to change the current workplace or change of occupation were included. Of the results that could be imposed was the most important result that the WFC was larger, or perceived with a greater intensity than the FWC, and it means that people with high WFC experience a higher workload. This is consistent with previous research.

  • 116.
    Dahnér, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Johnsson, Kim
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Intuitionens vikt som central faktor i rekryteringsprocessen: utbildningens inverkan och framfart2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The steady increase of people in the labor market educated in HR-skills was the foundation of the study's central question of whether the recruiter's age, and therefore access to HR-education, would affect their attitude towards intuition when recruiting. With a survey carried out in one singular occasion the study was conducted with 50 people in various HR-departments in Sweden, all of whom worked with recruitment. The participants were asked to answer a few background questions and then asked to estimate their level of agreement with various statements, all of which measure attitude towards intuition. The study showed a strong correlation between age and the number of years spent working within the organization, in relation to the attitude towards using intuition as a tool when recruiting. However, there was no relationship between age and intuition when it was controlled for other variables. The correlation with age might also imply a correlation between education and intuition, since a younger age and shorter period of time as an employee within an organization may lead to increased likelihood that the person has education in HR. This might also lead to a more positive attitude towards intuition. These results concur with a previous study by Nordin (2015) who found that recruiters with less education were more likely to use their "gut feeling" as a tool for recruiting than were those with higher level of education.

  • 117.
    Danemo, Björn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Schultz, Tobias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En kritisk granskning av riskstyrningsprocessen på Reinertsen Sverige AB: en kvalitativ studie ur projektledarna på Reinertsen Sverige AB perspektiv.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's petroleum industry companies work systematically with risk management to prevent major accidents; despite this major accident have occurred on several occasions in the history of petroleum industry. Many of these accidents are derived from deficiencies in companies' risk management. The purpose of this study is to do a critical research on Reinertsen Sverige AB through the project managers' perspective, and to understand how communications and group dynamics produce conditions for the risk management process. Semi-structured interviews were used on five project managers to gather data which was used in a thematic analysis. Results indicated that project managers experienced variations in the collective engagement which confines the project team possibilities to implement an effective risk management. Results also indicated the need for implications training in risk management which can be affected by lack of education and experience of installations offshore. Project managers also indicated deficiencies in the communication with platforms which affect the risk management. This study clarifies three main areas which have direct impact on the deviancies and are evolvable, group dynamics, communication and experience.

  • 118.
    Darius, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Stroh, Veronika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    En kvalitativ uppsats om socialsekreterares val att lämna sitt yrke2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, it was investigated why social workers in a western Swedish municipality have chosen to leave their professions. The main reason behind this study is that the lack of social workers is a national problem that Sweden's municipalities struggle with, especially in today's society when refugees are pouring in and need to be attended to. The research was conducted using qualitative interviews. To analyse the results of the interviews several theories where used, such as motivation, salutogenic leadership, strategies of coping and role theory. For the interviews, thematic analysis was used. The study showed that the informers felt dissatisfied with several aspects of their work. One of the aspects that resulted from the interviews was that the demand to be available at all times, was too much for them. Some additional aspects to why they quit was the high workload, the lack of appreciation and dissatisfaction with the leadership. The informers would gladly have stayed as social workers since they considered it to be meaningful, but the other aspects weighed more heavily compared to meaningfulness which caused them to leave. One suggestion that was brought up to get the informers to stay was to create a so-called contact centre in the reception area where smaller errands could be handled directly with the client. This would have given more time for the social workers with their own clients and more energy for the more heavy cases.

  • 119.
    Dauman, Nicolas
    et al.
    University of Poitiers, France.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The construction of meaning through psychotherapy: a tinnitus case story2014In: / [ed] Professor Dr. Birgit Mazurek, Charité University Hospital, Berlin, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides considering tinnitus as a complication following a hearing impairment or a sudden noise trauma, it is essential to consider the emotional suffering of the patient as it may be linked to personal experiences in life. Repressed traumatic incidents can manifest itself in the wake of tinnitus onset.  

     

    Objective

    In the case of tinnitus suffering psychotherapy resting on psychodynamic foundations has a very remote place in the literature. Naturally, the narrative of the client is of special quality in the psychodynamic psychotherapy approach. The objective of this study was therefore to illustrate how the narrative of a suffering client can be an inherent part of psychotherapy as well as a source of qualitative data in research on tinnitus (Dauman & Erlandsson, 2012). 

     

    Method

    The patient was a 70 years old woman with tinnitus (Lucie) who experienced her suffering as life threatening, which at times required psychiatric hospitalization. She participated in 16 psychotherapy sessions taken place over a period of eight months. The interview method building on free associations was judged to be the best way to understand the meaning behind evoked narratives of the patient.

     

    Results

    With the purpose to describe the analytical procedure we applied a narrative structure based on the following four labels: Listening to Lucie - Learning from Lucie’s speech - Narrative breakdown and psychotherapy  - Psychodynamic insights on Lucie’s emotional drives. The social dimension of the patient’s suffering was a central theme in her narrative, expressed by others’ reluctance to listen to her despair as well as her own deep sorrow for a broken social bond prior to her psychological brake-down.

     

    Conclusion

    The construction of meaning is a human act of self-preservation. In this case, it helped the patient to overcome alienation and made her tinnitus bearable.

  • 120.
    Dauman, Nicolas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Poitiers, France.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlsson, Sven
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Habituation models: can tinnitus be compared to anexternal sound?2014In: / [ed] Professor Dr. Birgit Mazurek, Charité University Hospital, Berlin, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The process of habituation often remains obscure to those patients most disturbed by tinnitus.

    Since three decades, the Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has promoted a habituation model (Hallam et al. 1984) founded on experimental data regarding the orienting response (OR) (Horvath 1980). Habituation of the OR is the natural extinction of attention to repeated identical stimuli which lose their ability to trigger orientation. Considering epidemiological data, the habituation model (Hallam & McKenna, 2006) hypothesizes that:

    1. tolerance is “a natural and inevitable process” illustrated by three quarter of people with tinnitus;

    2. annoyance is “a consequence of a failure to cease attending” to tinnitus, because of psycho-physiological factors that delay a natural process to occur (i.e., extinction of the OR)

  • 121.
    Dauman, Nicolas
    et al.
    University of Poitiers, France.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlsson, Sven G.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Habituation theories in current models of chronic tinnitus: evidence and criticism2013In: Habituation: theories, characteristics and biological mechanisms / [ed] Buskirk, Arie, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2013, 1, p. 55-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Dauman, Nicolas
    et al.
    University of Poitiers,  CAPS-EA4050, Department of Psychology, Poitiers.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Lundin, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dauman, Rene
    University of Bordeaux and CHU of Bordeaux, Tinnitus Clinic, Department of ORL-HNS, CNRS-UMR 5287, Bordeaux.
    Intra-individual variability in tinnitus patients: Current thoughts and perspectives.2015In: HNO (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0017-6192, E-ISSN 1433-0458, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 302-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most tinnitus studies have attempted to compare groups of individuals, thus revealing inter-individuals differences, i.e., variations between compared subjects. For methodological reasons, inter-individual studies cannot take into account the variability of tinnitus experience, which has been known for decades to be relevant in daily practice with tinnitus patients. The concept of intra-individual variability has been promoted in the research literature, in order to shed light on this aspect of individual perception. In previous studies, unrelated to hearing, the concept of intra-individual variability implied inclusion of the environment (i.e., physical and social interactions) as a factor of individual performance. In tinnitus research, we believe that the concept of variability (within a person) could find a place beside the concept of variation (between groups of subjects). In this paper, four perspectives of tinnitus experiences from the clinical and research fields are described: (1) ENT consultation; (2) short-term group psychotherapy; (3) psychodynamic psychotherapy; and (4) clinical psychological research. Intra-individual variability stresses the importance of defining tinnitus in a dynamic way, contrary to the current definition of tinnitus as the perception of sound(s). In clinical practice, it is useful to embrace the perspective of the perceiverof tinnitus, and to include social and cultural circumstances as well as audiological/physical changes.

  • 123.
    Dauman, Nicolas
    et al.
    University of Poitiers, Department of Psychology, Poitiers , France.
    Haza, Marion
    University of Poitiers, Department of Psychology, Poitiers , France.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Liberating parents from guilt: a grounded theory study of parents' internet communities for the recognition of ADHD2019In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1564520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study presents a qualitative analysis of information posted on the Internet by two communities of French parents promoting the recognition of ADHD in the context of current health and school practices.

    METHOD: Grounded Theory (Strauss & Corbin's approach) was applied to the posted messages, with the aim to discover the main concern and common theme through a constant comparison analysis.

    RESULTS: Liberating parents from feeling responsible for their child's misconduct was found to be the core category. From this perspective, we account for the commitment of the digital communities to formalize the child's conduct as a consequence of a neurodevelopmental disorder. This approach helps to account for the promotion of behavioural expertise and conditioning strategies (e.g., positive reinforcement) for handling the child's so-called disorder as appropriate parental responses. Giving evidence for parenting struggles was the third main concern of the communities, in the face of perceived skepticism from professionals towards ADHD as a medical condition.

    CONCLUSIONS: By using examples from countries that are found to have a more pro-medical approach to ADHD, the communities aim at improving such medical practices in France. Issues surrounding the claim that ADHD would require a specific style of parenting are also discussed.

  • 124.
    de Colli, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Samtidig kriterierelaterad validitet hos ett nytt svenskt arbetspsykologisk test mot arbetsprestation inom polisen2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka validiteten hos ett nytt svenskt arbetslivspsykologiskt personlighetstest, Understanding Personal Potential (UPP) (Sjöberg, 2008).

    Teoretiskt ramverk. Ett vanligt problem inom den tillämpade psykologin är att utifrån det begränsade stickprovets korrelation, uppskatta hur stor den korrelationen hade varit i populationen. Begränsning i spridning (”range restriction”) uppstår när stickprovet inte är perfekt representativt för den populationen som avses att generalisera till.

    Summering av resultaten. Som externa kriterier användes i studie 1 (N = 100) polisens lönekriterier och i studie 2 (N = 46) ett objektivt kriterium i form av antal förhör för utredare.  Resultaten indikerar att vissa variabler i UPP-testet har en rimlig samtidig validitet mot de externa kriterierna. Emotionell stabilitet uppvisar god validitet mot kriterierna i enlighet med tidigare forskning. Noggrannhet uppvisar negativa samband med två av kriterierna, vilket inte bekräftar tidigare forskning. Flera av UPP-testets specifika variabler uppvisar lika god validitet eller bättre jämfört med de generella variablerna enligt FFM.  Studiens resultat ger stöd framförallt för en modell bestående av personlighetsvariablerna emotionell stabilitet, samarbetsvilja, positiv grundattityd, perfektionism, arbetsvilja och balans.

    Slutsatser. UPP-testets sammanslagna variabler jagstyrka, stresskänslighet och chefspotential utgjorde starka prediktorer för kriterierna som mäter arbetsprestation.

    Praktiska och teoretiska implikationer. Personlighet spelar en betydande roll för prestation i arbetslivet. Att välja rätt personal till en organisation är en fundamental nödvändighet för att organisationen ska fungera väl. Studien bidrar till psykometrisk teori då det ansågs vara nödvändigt att korrigera resultaten för spridningsbegränsningar, vilket förespråkas av klassiska teoretiker såsom Gulliksen och Magnusson. 

  • 125.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura,Consultorio Psicologico Popular, Medellín, Colombia.
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psycholog , Rome, Italy .
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Chaos, Danger, and Maternal Parenting in Families: Links with Adolescent Adjustment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries2019In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 22, no 5, article id e12855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current longitudinal study is the first comparative investigation across Low- and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs) to test the hypothesis that harsher and less affectionate maternal parenting (child age 14 years, on average) statistically mediates the prediction from prior household chaos and neighborhood danger (at 13 years) to subsequent adolescent maladjustment (externalizing, internalizing, and school performance problems at 15 years). The sample included 511 urban families in six LMICs: China, Colombia, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed consistent associations between chaos, danger, affectionate and harsh parenting, and adolescent adjustment problems. There was some support for the hypothesis, with nearly all countries showing a modest indirect effect of maternal hostility (but not affection) for adolescent externalizing, internalizing, and scholastic problems. Results provide further evidence that chaotic home and dangerous neighborhood environments increase risk for adolescent maladjustment in LMIC contexts, via harsher maternal parenting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 126. Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    et al.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The association between parental warmth and control in thirteen cultural groups2011In: Journal of family psychology, ISSN 0893-3200, E-ISSN 1939-1293, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 790-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the current study was to investigate potential cross-cultural differences in the covariation between two of the major dimensions of parenting behavior: control and warmth. Participants included 1,421 (51% female) 7- to 10-year-old (M = 8.29, SD = .67 years) children and their mothers and fathers representing 13 cultural groups in nine countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America. Children and parents completed questionnaires and interviews regarding mother and father control and warmth. Greater warmth was associated with more control, but this association varied widely between cultural groups.

  • 127.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Skinner, AnnT.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailan.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Rome University ‘La Sapienza, Department of Psychology,’ 00118 Rome, Italy.
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, 1000 Metro Manila National Capital Region, Philippine.
    Al-Hassan, Suha
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, 13133 Hashemite, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Faculty of Psychology, 80121 Napoli NA, Italy.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Bornstein, MarcH.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20810.
    Chang, Lei
    Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Psychology, Blacksburg, VA 24060.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, 40105 Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 30, p. 9310-9315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested a model that children’s tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children’s chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child’s chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior.

  • 128. Drysdale, Maureen
    et al.
    Ward, Lisa J.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Zaitseva, Elena
    Sheri, Dressler
    Comparing the Attributes of Students in Cooperative Education or Work-Integrated Learning Programs in Four Countries2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies, the internalization of markets, and higher numbers of university graduates have led to greater competition for employment and greater needs for higher-order employment skills, practical experience, and a strong sense of competence. An increasing number of students are turning to work-integrated programs of learning (WIL) –where they can gain the necessary skills to enhance their future employment and career prospects.

    The aim of this international project was to examine the relationship between work-integrated learning and the psychological variables believed to play a role for success in the transition to the labour market.

    Students from four countries (Canada, Sweden, England, and the USA) completed the same online questionnaire measuring self-concept, self-efficacy, hope (goal-setting, goal achievement), procrastination, motivation, study skills, and work ethic. Results indicated there were many attitudes and behaviours shared by WIL and non-WIL students in the four countries – however there were also significant differences that shed light on WIL outcomes and/or the type of students who select WIL, regardless of where they reside. WIL students appear to have a stronger math self-concept and problem-solving self-concept. Non WIL students appear to have more confidence to attain academic and career goals, but it decreases by the end of their studies. On the other hand, confidence increases substantially for WIL students. Gender effects and achievement differences between the two groups will also be discussed. In summary, Students in WIL programs –regardless of where they reside -appear more similar than different.

  • 129.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Silva, Karol
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Banich, Marie T.
    University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, United States.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Cyprus.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Delhi, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, India.
    A cross-sectional examination of response inhibition and working memory on the Stroop task2018In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 47, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined the association between working memory and response inhibition on the Stroop task using a cross-sectional, international sample of 5099 individuals (49.3% male) ages 10–30 (M = 17.04 years; SD = 5.9). Response inhibition was measured using a Stroop task that included "equal" and "unequal" blocks, during which the relative frequency of neutral and incongruent trials was manipulated. Competing stimuli in incongruent trials evinced inhibitory functioning, and having a lower proportion of incongruent trials (as in unequal blocks) placed higher demands on working memory. Results for accuracy indicated that age and working memory were independently associated with response inhibition. Age differences in response inhibition followed a curvilinear trajectory, with performance improving into early adulthood. Response inhibition was greatest among individuals with high working memory. For response time, age uniquely predicted response inhibition in unequal blocks. In equal blocks, age differences in response inhibition varied as a function of working memory, with age differences being least pronounced among individuals with high working memory. The implications of considering the association between response inhibition and working memory in the context of development are discussed.

  • 130.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, HJordan .
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Lei, Chang
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, Macau .
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Dheli, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, India .
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth .A
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology,Cyprus .
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenya .
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Skinner, AnnT.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Tapanya, Somabt
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Thailand .
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, France .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Philippines .
    Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model2016In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1593-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

  • 131.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University,Department of Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, USA and King Abdulaziz University.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Delhi, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, New Delhi, India..
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Kallipoleos, Cyprus..
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Roma, RM, Italy.
    Skinner, Anne T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Metro Manila, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education, Al Zafranah, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Zarqa, Jordan..
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Department of Psychology, Caserta, CE, Italy .
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology,Zhuhai Shi, China..
    Age patterns in risk taking across the world2018In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1052-1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological data indicate that risk behaviors are among the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with this, laboratory-based studies of age differences in risk behavior allude to a peak in adolescence, suggesting that adolescents demonstrate a heightened propensity, or inherent inclination, to take risks. Unlike epidemiological reports, studies of risk taking propensity have been limited to Western samples, leaving questions about the extent to which heightened risk taking propensity is an inherent or culturally constructed aspect of adolescence. In the present study, age patterns in risk-taking propensity (using two laboratory tasks: the Stoplight and the BART) and real-world risk taking (using self-reports of health and antisocial risk taking) were examined in a sample of 5,227 individuals (50.7% female) ages 10-30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 Western and non-Western countries (China, Colombia, Cyprus, India, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the US). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) risk taking follows an inverted-U pattern across age groups, peaking earlier on measures of risk taking propensity than on measures of real-world risk taking, and (2) age patterns in risk taking propensity are more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Overall, risk taking followed the hypothesized inverted-U pattern across age groups, with health risk taking evincing the latest peak. Age patterns in risk taking propensity were more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Results suggest that although the association between age and risk taking is sensitive to measurement and culture, around the world, risk taking is generally highest among late adolescents

  • 132.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet.
    Haas, Linda
    Indiana University.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sweden Country Note2015Report (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Dzieminski, Anca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Mirzayeva, Ruxsara
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sambandstudie mellan koncentration, sömn, stress ochkost hos ungdomar: En kvantitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between concentration, sleep, stress and diet and to examine which of the variables has the most effect on concentration for adolescents. The survey also focused on the differences between the sexes. The study used a quantitative method, using questionnaires that were distributed to young people entering the third year of the science program in Västra Götaland. The sample was 65 students, including 32 girls and 27 boys. Students were between 18 and 19 years old. The results of the study showed that there is a very strong positive correlation between concentration and stress as well as between concentration and sleep. The relationship between concentration and diet, stress and sleep, stress and diet, sleep and diet had a positive strong correlation. The study showed that stress had the most impact on the ability to concentrate. The results also showed that girls experience more stress, insomnia, less intake of food and less concentration than boys. Several scientific studies and literature have also shown that there is a very strong relationship between sleep, concentration, diet and stress

  • 134.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lindgren, May
    Lund University.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of dyslexia and AD/HD in a sample of forensic psychiatric rapists2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 371-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (DSM-IV) is markedly increased among those who are sentenced for criminal offences. The aim of the study was to identify developmental disabilities, dyslexia and AD/HD among severely disturbed men in forensic psychiatric care, and to study the co-occurrence of such disabilities, with the objective to discuss the importance of the diagnoses in forensic psychiatry. The participants were 10 males who had committed rape on adult women, and included two murder-rapists, one of which had murdered more than one victim (i.e. a serial murderer). All had been assigned to special long term forensic psychiatric care, based predominantly on a psychodynamic ground. In order to be identified as having dyslexia, a participant’s performance on at least three out of four tests of academic skills had to be markedly below the expected level (more than two stanine steps), given the participant’s non-verbal intellectual capacity and considering the length of his education. AD/HD was investigated by studying the participants’ forensic psychiatric files and by a clinical interview. Seven of the 10 participants met the DSM-IV criteria for dyslexia, and six of them met the DSM-IV criteria for AD/HD. Four participants had AD/HD and dyslexia, three had AD/HD but no dyslexia, and two had dyslexia but no AD/HD. Only one participant had neither dyslexia nor AD/HD. The participants with dyslexia performed well in tests assessing non-verbal reasoning, visuo-spatial capacity and visual memory. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, the results indicate the importance of assessing dyslexia as well as AD/HD in people who are admitted for forensic psychiatric assessment. The lack of correct diagnoses may negatively influence the choice of appropriate forensic psychiatric care. Early assessment of those disorders might have a positive influence on the psychological development and socialization process in people with dyslexia and/or AD/HD.

  • 135.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    The work-family interface: Job demands, work engagement and turnover intentions of Polish nurses2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conflict between one's professional life and one's family life may lead to lower well-being both at work and home. Most nurses are women who have traditionally reconciled their professional life with family life. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC),the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised Polish registered nurses. The following instruments were used:Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales (Netemeyer, Boles, &McMurrian, 1996), the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index (Spector & Jex, 1998), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006), and measures of turnover intentions (intention to leave the present workplace and intention to leave the nursing profession). The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of theintention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory.

  • 136.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Colli, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The significance of the sense of coherence for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers in on-the-beat service2014In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, E-ISSN 1896-494X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPolice officers meet many stressors as part of their occupation. The psychological resource "sense of coherence" (SOC) protects against ill-health, but its impact on coping resources for stress situations has not been studied in the population of police officers. Different approaches to investigate the significance of SOC for different outcomes have been identified in literature, leading to some difficulties in the interpretation and generalization of results. The aim was therefore to explore SOC and the coping resources, and to examine the significance of SOC for various coping resources for stress using different models in a sample of Swedish police officers providing on-the-beat service.

    Materials and MethodsOne hundred and one police officers (age: mean = 33 years, SD = 8; 29 females) were included, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29) and the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) were used. The dependent variable in each regression analysis was one of the coping resources: cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical, physical, and a global resource. Global SOC-29 and/or its components (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were investigated as independent variables.

    ResultsAll CRI and SOC-29 scores except for that of spiritual/philosophical resources were higher than those of reference groups. Manageability was the most important component of SOC for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers.

    ConclusionA deeper study of manageability will give useful information, because this component of SOC is particularly significant in the variation in resources used by police officers to cope with stress. Salutogenesis, the origin of well-being, should be more in focus of future research on workplaces with a high level of occupational stress.

  • 137.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ingelgård, Anders
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Mölnlycke Health Care .
    Koopmans, Linda
    Sustainable Productivity & Employability, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Cross-cultural adaptation, from Dutch to Swedish language, of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire2020In: WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, Vol. 65, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for a short, self-rated, validated and reliable instrument for individual work performance suitable for generic use in the Swedish work and organizational context. The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), comprising originally 47 items, was initially developed in the Netherlands, based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. During the development process, IWPQ was shortened to 18 items with three scales formally labeled as Task performance, Contextual performance, and Counterproductive work behavior (CWB), capturing three work performance types. The current version of the IWPQ, consisting of 18 items and three scales, was then translated as well as cross-culturally adapted to American-English and Indonesian contexts.

    OBJECTIVES: To translate and adapt the current IWPQ version, consisting of 18 items, from the Dutch to the Swedish context, to assess its content validity through cognitive interviews, to apply it to a pilot group to present descriptive statistics, to calculate the questionnaire’s internal consistency, as well as to clarify whether the translated items capture three or four performance types.

    METHODS: The Dutch version of the IWPQ, consisting of 18 items, was translated into Swedish. A six-stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back translation, harmonization, cognitive interviews, revision, and sampling and analyses of pilot data for 206 managers (149 women) from five Swedish municipalities.

    RESULTS: IWPQ instructions, wording of a few items and one response form were slightly modified. The pilot testing showed Cronbach’s alphas similar to the Dutch version of the IWPQ, ranging between 0.73 and 0.82, good mean-inter-item correlations (all above 0.36). In deciding how many factors to retain, we employed both parallel analysis (PA), and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) test. The number of factors to retain was, as indicated by PA, four, and by MAP, three or four. Exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factoring) revealed clearly separate factors, corresponding to four, rather than three, performance types. A new factor, roughly representing adaptive performance, comprised in the original, longer version of the IWPQ, emerged.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish version of the IWPQ was successfully translated and adapted in a pilot group of managers. Before it is used, it should be validated in a larger group of managers and in more heterogeneous groups of both white- and blue-collar workers.

  • 138.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Det har blivit populärt att vara psykiskt sjuk i Kalifornien: konsekvenser av den nya lagen Three-strikes and you're out law2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 51-52, p. 6038-6039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the new Three-strikes and you're out law, the law which first came into effect on 1994, was to protect innocent members of the community. A person convicted of his or her third conviction after two prior serious convictions under Three-strikes will typically receive a sentence of no less than 25 years to life in state prison. This law is well-known in California among criminals, especially repeat offenders and many of them left the state. The rate of homicides in the state has decreased by 50%. Many repeat offenders remained in California and continued to commit new crimes. Before Three-strikes was enacted, it was very uncommon for forensic psychiatrists to see criminals malingering symptoms of mental illness in any but the most serious of cases of murder or rape. Since the implementation of the new law, it has been found malingering to be much more common. Hundreds of patients at state mental hospitals fake insanity to avoid prison, costing taxpayers far more than the cost of incarceration in a prison. The most common types of malingers are discussed.

  • 139.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Developing courses in quantitative methods for undergraduate psychology students: teaching facilitated by experimental exercises with work-related elements2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers need to develop and implement effective teaching methods when educating students who come to the university through “broadened recruitment”, that is, students with parents without higher education, and also older students who want to supplement their previous university education. These groups have, at least theoretically, more practical experiences and possible poorer study outcomes.

     

    University West tops the list of Swedish universities in the percentage of students with parents without higher education. In addition, during recent years, unemployment in the region around University West increased (by about 75%). This fact leads to a higher percentage of older students with work-related experience. These rapid changes have put us who teach methods and statistics before the question of how to teach more effectively, so that a high “throughput” can be maintained in combination with a constantly decreasing number of teaching hours. Broadening participation and high throughput: how can we make it happen?

     

    This study was an attempt to implement “learning by doing”, an activity-based teaching method where theory, practice, reflection and action are combined. In their learning of experimental methods and statistics, students at University West were expected to integrate their past and present working skills in an experiment that simulated two work-related situations (applying for employment as a manager, and applying for leave of absence from prison). In a three-group experiment, an attempt was made to manipulate the applicant’s degree of empathy, which was then measured with the IRI scale. Collected data were used in statistics education, and results were discussed with students. In subsequent knowledge tests, the proportion of the grade “fail” was low. Course evaluations reflected a high degree of student satisfaction.

     

    Therefore, the use of “learning by doing” in the teaching of statistics, which is normally considered to be difficult to understand and apply, is recommended in order to increase motivation to learn statistics.

  • 140.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits1999In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 827-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits among a group of 47 severely conduct-disordered (C-D) juvenile males from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offences were studied. The Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I), including an impulsivity scale from the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy (IVE) inventory, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS) form V, were administered to the C-D juveniles. The scores from the KSP for this group were compared to scores from a presentative group of 82 normal juvenile male subjects from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the KSP scales and scales from the EPQ-I, and between the SSS and scales from the EPQ-I and KSP inventories. The C-D juveniles displayed notably higher scores than the mean normal scores on psychopathy-related personality scales. The present results are consistent with earlier findings concerning personality dimensions in adult criminal psychopaths: high scores on impulsivity and sensation seeking, and low scores on conformity reflected in low socialization and high psychoticism.

  • 141.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Fallet Thomas Quick: ”Bortträngda” minnen och hans diagnoser2016In: Diagnoser / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse , 2016, 1. ed., p. 55-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Hur kan ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL) synliggöras inom ämnet psykologi?2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna presentation är att tydliggöra hur vi inom ämnet psykologi synliggör AIL, genom att beskriva resultaten från genomförda studier inom ett samverkansprojekt med aktörer från arbetslivet och akademin. Resultat från detta projekt ledde till ett nyligen avslutat verifieringsprojekt, finansierat av Innovations Kontor Väst, Chalmers. Båda projekten kommer att presenteras. Exempel ges på hur dessa psykologiska forskningsprojekt kunnat bidra till implementeringen av AIL i psykologiundervisning.

    Syfte med projektet ”Studier om en ny svensk ledarskapsmodell som bygger på teorin om ledarintelligens” var att utveckla en praktiskt tillämpbar ledarskapsmodell som bygger på Ronthys teori (2006, 2013) om ledarskapets intelligens. Detta gjordes genom att validera teorin bland chefer och ledare i ett samarbete mellan forskare inom akademin och externa aktörer (organisationer och företag). Teorin är sprungen ur Ronthys erfarenheter av att undervisa och att handleda omkring 4 000 chefer i utvecklingssamtal.

    Ett flertal examensarbeten har skrivits inom projektet, och några har resulterat i konferenspresentationer och i vetenskapliga publikationer. Genom sitt deltagande i projektet får våra studenter kontakter med ansvariga i kommuner, företag och organisationer, och ökar därigenom sina möjligheter att bli anställda. De får även bättre förståelse av arbetslivets villkor och kan på ett djupare sätt diskutera sina resultat, och får därmed bättre studieresultat. Genom examensarbeten bedrivs en reflexionsdrivande undervisning, där studenter lär sig vad det kan innebära att vara chef eller ledare i ett arbetsliv som är i förändring. Allt detta kräver eftertanke: ”Vem är jag?”, ”Vad vill jag jobba med?”. Studenterna får även en närmare relation till yrken och verksamheter utanför akademin, samt utvecklar sin yrkeskompetens genom att reflektera kring användningen av testmetodik.

    Slutsatsen är att AIL kan synliggöras i såväl psykologisk forskning som undervisning på samma sätt som AIL synliggörs i andra ämnen, exempelvis pedagogik eller informatik.

  • 143. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract

     

    State-administered correctional institutions in Sweden take care of approximately 600 juvenile delinquents every year. The treatment for these institutionalized young people is based mainly on environmental programs and milieu therapy.

    Fifty-six conduct-disordered juvenile delinquents (mean age 17 years) from four institutions were studied with respect to their personality traits, and the prevalence of psychopathy (measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised, PCL-R). One objective was to study the reliability and validity of commonly used personality inventories. In particular, the validity of psychopathy-related personality traits, included in Schalling’s psychopathy model (1978), was examined by studying the relationships between personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R), the occurrence of previous treatment occasions, and relapse into crime. Four groups, the delinquent participants, a group of high sensation-seekers (air force pilot recruits), normal male adolescent participants, and another group of normal young males, completed a number of personality inventories, which enabled us to obtain measures of personality traits. The personality inventories used were the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales. In addition, the delinquent participants were rated on psychopathy according to the modified version of the PCL-R, designed to be used with young people (Fort, Hart, & Hare, 1990). Both variable-oriented (factor analysis, MANOVA) and person-oriented statistical methods (cluster analysis) were applied.

    As expected, most personality traits in the delinquent participants deviated from published norms and from our control groups. The delinquent participants showed a high level of pathology or vulnerability for developing mental disorders (such as substance abuse). About 60% of the delinquent participants had scores above 30 on the PCL-R, and were thus classified as psychopaths according to the manual. Further, 73% had scores between 27 and 40, indicating a high level of psychopathy. Delinquent participants showed a different pattern of sensation-seeking behavior than air force pilot recruits and normal adolescent participants, and differed also in other personality traits. They had a low level of socialization, indicating a lack of ability to take the role of the generalized other, and a tendency to impulsiveness, somatic anxiety and extraversion-sociability. The construct validity (convergent and divergent) of the KSP scales was found to be adequate. Some of the personality traits in delinquent participants, however, showed a different correlation pattern than that found in noncriminal people. Some of the basic scales from the KSP had high reliability, but many were not reliable when used on delinquent participants. Four factors were extracted using the maximum likelihood method. No significant correlations were found between the personality scale scores and the PCL-R scores. Finally, cluster analysis of the reliable and valid psychopathy-related personality scales from the KSP (Impulsiveness, Monotony avoidance, Socialization, Verbal aggression, and Somatic anxiety) identified seven different clusters of delinquent participants.

    The uncertain validity of some personality traits (e.g., psychoticism or detachment), the poor reliability of many of the KSP scales (e.g., Guilt, Suspicion, and Inhibition of aggression) when used on this population, together with some minor limitations of the studies (e.g., sample size) are discussed.

    In conclusion, the high prevalence of psychopathy in the present sample of male delinquent participants may have important clinical treatment implications, particularly since some researchers have suggested that milieu therapy increases relapse rates into crime in adult psychopaths. Hopefully, appropriate assessment of personality traits and psychopathy (in addition to obvious routine assessments of mental disorders, such as substance abuse or disabilities such as dyslexia), supervision, and the implementation of effective correctional programs, may prevent young people with deviant personalities from aggravating their deviant style of living.

     

    Key words: Personality traits, psychopathy (PCL-R), juvenile delinquents, reliability, validity, assessment.

  • 144.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Exploring the factor structure and the validityof the abbreviated Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales2013In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 242-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original longer versions (Forsman & Johnson, 1996) and abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales have been used in clinical and non-clinical settings, but little is known about the factor structure and the validity of these scales in their abbreviated forms. The original longer versions of the scales comprise several dimensions, but both abbreviated versions of the scales have been interpreted as if they were 1D. The abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales have been translated into Polish from Swedish and administered to 175 students (103 female; mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 3.3 years) studying management at the Gdansk University of Technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure and the validity of the abbreviated versions of the scales. We were also interested in the differences between women and men. Exploratory factor analyses identified one dimension of the Basic Self-Esteem Scale, compatible with Rosenberg’s et al. (1995) and Rogers’ (1951) concepts. We identified two components (High Ambition and Others’ Appraisal) of the Earning Self-Esteem Scale, similar to the original longer version. Convergent and discriminant validity proved to be theoretically solid. The abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales are appended. Further research on these scales involving other groups is needed, as is further development of these self-esteem scales for adults. Evidence of the derived factors’ internal consistency and of the convergent and discriminant validity suggests that the factor structure and the reliability of the abbreviated versions of psychological tools need to be investigated.

  • 145.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2018In: Psychosocial job dimensions and distress/well-being: issues and challenges in occupational health psychology / [ed] Renato Pisanti, James Campbell Quick, Montgomery Anthony, Frontiers Media S.A., 2018, 1, p. 91-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims:

    This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method:

    This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results:

    WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion:

    The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  • 146.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  • 147.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Performance profiles (”happy performer”, ”enjoys life”, ”forced performer” or ”goes without”) in two cultures2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    •Aim. The aim was to validate four empirically derived, and in research suggested “performance” profiles, and to discuss the results from these profiles in two culturally different populations in light of the psychometric qualities of the used instruments.

    •Theoretical framework and background. According to Johnson and Forsman (1995), a combination of low and high values ​​of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem (SE) scales may result in, what is by the scale constructors’ called performance profiles. Studies show that people with these profiles are different in, among others, Type A behavior, fear of failure, performance requirements, neuroticism and extraversion. These characteristics have been identified to be important for the working life, and, thus, the profiles are worth to be studied in depth.

    •Summary of the results. Validation of the performance profiles was made in 120 participants, educated in Sweden (almost all were born in Sweden) ranging in age from 21 to 54 years, by studying the relationships between a score from a self-assessment question "I am like this when I perform" (Dåderman, in preparation), and the results indicated a good concurrent validity for the profiles. Comparative study among 84 students from the University West in Sweden and 176 students from Gdansk University of Technology in Poland (Dåderman & Basinska, in preparation) showed that the distribution of the profiles was the same across categories indicated by non-significant values of the Mann Whitney U test.

    •Practical and theoretical implications. In our multicultural society, where in some sectors a large percentage of people not born in the country of question  work, it might be interesting to study performance profiles, provided that the SE scales are reliable and valid across different populations. Generalizations of results of this kind must be, however, very cautiously made.

  • 148.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Reply to Maarit Johnson’s Letter to the Editor2014In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 2p. 233-235Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 149.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Work-family interference: Occupational demands, work engagement and turnover intentions in nurses2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to manage incompatible professional and non-professional demands has attracted attention from both scholars and practitioners in recent decades. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC), the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised 98 nurses (mean age 41, SD = 6 years). The following instruments were used: Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of turnover intentions. The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The FWC was positively related to absorption. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of the intention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. Health organizations should develop guidance and counselling to promote good and efficient work with decent working conditions and a happy family life for nurses.

  • 150.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallberg, Angela
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Sandra
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    A Leadership Meta-Resource Factor Explicates Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research links emotional leadership resources (e.g., emotional intelligence) positively with important working life outcomes, such as health, job satisfaction, job performance, organizational commitment, and leadership effectiveness. However, no study has yet described emotional leadership resources based on traits linked with work motivation and stress resilience. The aim was to describe emotional leadership resources based on traits in a novel fashion (meta-traits, based on structural trait analysis). Our hypothesis was that an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would converge with motivation and stress resilience. Participants (N = 344) were leaders aged between 23 and 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) who completed an online questionnaire including measures of common traits (e.g., trait emotional intelligence, Big Six), and coping resources. We estimated work motivation by self-rated work engagement, and stress resilience by the level of perceived stress. We used an exploratory factor analysis approach to describe and structure our data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to test whether an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would converge with work motivation and stress resilience. Our findings revealed that the investigated traits and resources could be described along four broad emotional leadership resource factors, namely (1) Externalizing, (2) Moral goodness, (3) “Destrudo”, and (4) Rational mastery. As expected, the emotional leadership meta-resource factor showed a strong convergence (~.80) with both work motivation and stress resilience. “Externalizing” and “Rational mastery” were the most important emotional resource factors. The findings are discussed using Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. It is concluded that common traits, including personality traits, and coping resources comprise an emotional leadership meta-resource factor, which to a high degree converges with work motivation and stress resilience. The results imply that organizations may strengthen work motivation and reduce stress by recruiting leaders possessing valuable emotional leadership resources.

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