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  • 101.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Raja, D. C.
    Division of mechanical engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore (IND).
    Balachandramurthi, Arun Ramanathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Harlin, P.
    Sandvik Additive Manufacturing, Sandviken (SWE).
    Tailored ductility and strength for enhanced impact toughness of laser powder fusion built Alloy 7182021In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 884, article id 161374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact toughness of Alloy 718 built via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) in as-built and thermally post treated conditions were investigated. The effect of various stages in the thermal post-treatment, including stress relief, hot isostatic pressing, solution treatment, and aging on the microstructure, texture, ductility, hardness, and impact toughness were studied. The greatest impact toughness was found in the as-built Alloy 718 material, associated with the high ductility of the material. The ductility results were also inversely related to the hardness of the investigated materials. Where the material with the highest ductility had the lowest hardness etc. Anisotropy in the impact toughness behavior was present in the as-built and post-heat treated specimens, which was explained by the presence of texture in all of the investigated material. With the applied heat treatments, recrystallization occurred and the preferential crystal orientations were randomized, decreasing the texture. The thermal post-treating conditions rendered different types of microstructures, with various grain sizes. The carbide content remained the same for the three investigated thermal post-treating conditions. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds
  • 102.
    Nordström, Michael
    et al.
    Saab Automobile AB.
    Järvstråt, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    An appearance-based measure of surface defects2009In: International Journal of Material Forming, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Ott, Eric
    et al.
    General Electric, Cincinnati, USA.
    Liu, XingboWest Virginia University, Morgantown, USA.Andersson, JoelUniversity West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.BI, ZhongnanChina Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing, China.Bockenstedt, KevinATI Specialty Materials, Monroe, USA.Dempster, IanWyman Gordon Forgings Inc., Houston, USA.Groh, JonGeneral Electric, Cincinnati, USA.Heck, KarlCarpenter Technology, Philadelphia, USA.Jablonski, PaulUnited States Department of Energy, Albany, USA.Kaplan, MaxPratt & Whitney, East Hartford, USA.Nagahama, DaisukeHonda Motor Co. Ltd.SaitamaJapan.Sudbrack, ChantalQuesTek Innovations, Evanston, USA.
    Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 & Derivatives: Energy, Aerospace, and Industrial Applications2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical meeting will focus on Alloy 718 and Superalloys in this class relative to alloy and process development, production, product applications, trends and the development of advanced modeling tools. The symposium provides an opportunity for authors to present technical advancements relative to a broad spectrum of areas while assessing their impact on related fields associated with this critical alloy group. There are continuing innovations relative to these alloys as well as novel processing techniques which continue to extend applications in very challenging environments ranging from corrosion resistance in the deep sea to high-stressed space applications.

  • 104.
    Panwisawas, C.
    et al.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, UK.
    Sovani, Y.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, UK.
    Anderson, M.J.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, UK.
    Turner, R.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, UK.
    Palumbo, N. M.
    Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, UK.
    Saunders, B. C.
    Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, UK.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brooks, J.W.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, UK.
    Basoalto, H.C.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, UK.
    A Multi-scale Multi-physics Approach to Modelling of Additive Manufacturing in Nickel-based Superalloys2016In: Superalloys 2016: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Superalloys / [ed] M. Hardy, E. Huron, U. Glatzel, B. Griffin, B. Lewis, C. Rae, V. Seetharaman och S. Tin, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2016, p. 1021-1030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-scale, multi-physics modelling framework of selective laser melting (SLM) in the nickel-based superalloy IN718 is presented. Representative powder-bed particle distribution is simulated using the measured size distribution from experiment. Thermal fluid dynamics calculations are then used to predict melting behaviour, sub-surface morphology, and porosity development during a single pass scanning of the SLM process. The results suggest that the pores and uneven surface structure are exacerbated by increasing powder layer thicknesses. Predicted porosity volume fraction is up to 12% of the single track when 5 statistical powder distributions are simulated for each powder layer thickness. Processing-induced microstructure is predicted by linking cellular automatons – finite element calculations indicate further that the cooling rate is about 4400 o C/s and grain growth strongly follows the thermal gradient giving rise to a columnar grain morphology if homogeneous nucleation is assumed. Random texture is likely for as-fabricated SLM single pass with approximately 8 Pm and 6 Pm grain size for 20 Pm and 100 Pm powder layer thickness fabrication. Use has been made of the cooling history to predict more detailed microstructure using a γ" precipitation model. With the short time scale of solidification and rapid cooling, it becomes less likely that γ" precipitation will be observed in the condition investigated unless a prolonged hold at temperature is carried out. Future work on extension of the proposed multiscale modelling approach on microstructure predictions in SLM to mechanical properties will be discussed.

  • 105.
    Rakoczy, Lukasz
    et al.
    Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków (POL).
    Grudzien-Rakoczy, Malgorzata
    Lukasiewicz Research Network-Krakow Institute of Technology Kraków (POL).
    Hanning, Fabian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Cempura, Grzegorz
    Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków (POL).
    Cygan, Rafal
    Investment Casting Division, Consolidated Precision Products Corporation, Rzeszow (POL).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Zielinska-Lipiec, Anna
    Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology,Kraków (POL).
    Investigation of the y´ Precipitates Dissolution in a Ni-Based Superalloy During Stress-Free Short-Term Annealing at High Homologous Temperatures2021In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 4767-4784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The equiaxed Ni-based superalloy Rene 108 was subjected to short-term annealing at five temperatures between 900 degrees C and 1100 degrees C. The phase composition, phase lattice parameters, microstructure, stereological parameters, and chemical composition of y´ precipitates were investigated by thermodynamic simulations, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Analysis of the y and y´ lattice parameters using the Nelson-Riley extrapolation function showed that the misfit parameter for temperatures 900 degrees C to 1050 degrees C is positive (decreasing from 0.32 to 0.11 pct). At 1100 degrees C, the parameter becomes negative, delta = - 0.18 pct. During the short-term annealing, gamma ‘ precipitates dissolution occurred progressing more rapidly with increasing temperatures. The surface fraction of y´ precipitates decreased with increasing temperature from 0.52 to 0.34. The dissolution of gamma ‘ precipitates did not only proceed through uninterrupted thinning of each individual precipitate, but also included more complex mechanisms, including splitting. Based on transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that after y´ precipitates dissolution, the matrix close to the y/y interface is strongly enriched in Co and Cr and depleted in Al.

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    Springer
  • 106.
    Ramjaun, T.
    et al.
    University of Cambridge.
    Stone, H. J.
    Unversity of Cambridge.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Gharghouri, M.A.
    Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. K0J 1J0, Canada.
    Dalaei, K
    ESAB AB, Lindholmsalln 9, 417 55 Göteborg.
    Moat, R..J
    Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.
    University of Cambridge.
    Surface residual stresses in multipass welds produced using low transformation temperature filler alloys2014In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 623-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tensile residual stresses at the surface of welded components are known to compromise fatigue resistance through the accelerated initiation of microcracks, especially at the weld toe. Inducement of compression in these regions is a common technique employed to enhance fatigue performance. Transformation plasticity has been established as a viable method to generate such compressive residual stresses in steel welds and exploits the phase transformation in welding filler alloys that transform at low temperature to compensate for accumulated thermal contraction strains. Neutron and X-ray diffraction have been used to determine the stress profiles that exist across the surface of plates welded with low transformation temperature welding alloys, with a particular focus on the stress at the weld toe. For the first time, near surface neutron diffraction data have shown the extent of local stress variation at the critical, fusion boundary location. Compression was evident for the three measurement orientations at the fusion boundaries. Compressive longitudinal residual stresses and tensile transverse stresses were measured in the weld metal.

  • 107.
    Ramjaun, T.
    et al.
    University of Cambridge.
    Stone, H. J.
    Unversity of Cambridge.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kelleher, J.
    ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Moat, R. J.
    The Open University.
    Kornmeier, J. R.
    Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz.
    Kemellia, Dalaei
    ESAB AB, Lindholmsalln 9, 417 55 Göteborg.
    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.
    University of Cambridge.
    Effect of interpass temperature on residual stresses in multipass welds produced using low transformation temperature filler alloy2014In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weld filler alloys that exploit transformation plasticity through low austenite to martensite transformation temperatures offer an effective method of reducing residual stresses in strong steel welds. However, in multipass welds, the heat input from later weld passes may be insufficient to retransform prior welding passes, leading to the accumulation of thermally induced strains and elevated residual stresses. In this work, the residual stress distributions produced around arc welds fabricated with a martensitic weld filler alloy that transforms at a low temperature have been studied as a function of the number of passes deposited and the interpass temperature. It is found that when the interpass temperature is above the transformation temperature of the weld metal, the entire multipass weld transforms as a single entity, thus permitting the optimum exploitation of the transformation plasticity. In contrast, the deposition of new metal with a relatively low interpass temperature leads to increased residual stresses in the underlying layers, reducing or eliminating the beneficial stress states previously created.

  • 108.
    Ramjaun, T.
    et al.
    University of Cambridge.
    Stone, H. J.
    Unversity of Cambridge.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Kelleher, J.
    ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Ooi, S.W.
    University of Cambridge.
    Dalaei, K
    ESAB AB, Lindholmsalln 9, 417 55 Göteborg.
    Kornmeier, J. R.
    Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz.
    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.
    University of Cambridge.
    Effects of dilution and baseplate strength on stress distributions in multipass welds deposited using low transformation temperature filler alloys2014In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 461-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation plasticity can be utilised to control residual stresses in steel welds. This requires special filler alloys that transform at a sufficiently low temperature to compensate for accumulated thermal contraction strains. However, the welding parameters needed to optimise the effect in multipass joints have yet to be established. This topic has been investigated by characterising the residual stress distribution in multipass welds fabricated with different welding alloys and baseplates using neutron diffraction to assess the effects of dilution and baseplate strength. While the use of richly alloyed weld metal does enhance fatigue performance in single pass joints, the extent of stress relief that can be derived from transformation plasticity is reduced due to incomplete martensitic transformation when further layers are deposited. For all cases studied, compressive stresses were measured in the weld metal with balancing tensile stress in the heat affected zone of the plate. The magnitude of the tension was observed to be a function of the strength of the baseplate. Recommendations are also presented for the combination of welding and material parameters that lead to the optimum exploitation of transformation plasticity as a method for boosting the fatigue performance of multipass welded joints.

  • 109.
    Sadeghi, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Multi-Scale Additive Manufacturing Lab (MSAM), The University of Waterloo, Ontario (CAN).
    Asala, Gbenga
    Technology Access Centre for Aerospace & Manufacturing, Red River College, Manitoba (CAN).
    Karimi Neghlani, Paria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Multi-Scale Additive Manufacturing Lab (MSAM), The University of Waterloo, Ontario (CAN).
    Deng, Dunyong
    Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, Linköping (SWE).
    Moverare, Johan
    Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, Linköping (SWE).
    Hansson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Fatigue crack initiation and propagation in Alloy 718 with a bimodal grain morphology built via electron beam-powder bed fusion2021In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 827, article id 142051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique melting strategy was implemented in electron beam-powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) of Alloy 718, resulting in the formation of a bimodal grain morphology consisting of fine equiaxed and columnar grains. The microstructure was preserved following various thermal post-treatments. The post-treated specimens were exposed to low cycle fatigue (LCF), and fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests in ambient air at 600 °C under pure and dwell-time (120 s) fatigue cycles. Clustered inclusions spanned a region of 100-600 µm in length acted as the crack initiation site, reducing the specimens' total fatigue life. When compared to pure fatigue cycles, dwell-time fatigue cycles reduced LCF life by approximately 35%, regardless of the thermal post-treatments. Due to a high fraction of grain boundary area in the as-built EB-PBF specimens, oxygen diffusion across the grain boundaries was enhanced. The intergranular fracture mode was favored in the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip, leading to rapid crack growth. No unbroken ligaments behind the crack front were found by high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, which was consistent with a large crack opening displacement linked to severe deformation around the crack tip. 

  • 110.
    Sadeghi, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Karimi Neghlani, Paria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Israelsson, Niklas
    GE Additive – Arcam EBM, Mölnlycke, Sweden.
    Shipley, James
    Quintus Technologies AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Månsson, Tomas
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Hansson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Sweden.
    Inclusion-induced fatigue crack initiation in powder bed fusion of Alloy 7182020In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 36, article id 101670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue crack initiation of Alloy 718 additively manufactured via electron beam-powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) process was investigated. The melt parameters were chosen to achieve sufficient energy input and minimize process-induced defects. A line offset of 200 µm with enough line energy was used, leading to the formation of wide and deep melt pools. This strategy facilitated the formation of equiaxed grains at the melt pools bottom, and short columnar grains within the melt pools aligned parallel to the build direction. The mixed grain morphology and texture were retained after various thermal post-treatments, including heat treatment (HT), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and HIP-HT. Micron-sized non-metallic inclusions in the feedstock powder, such as Al-rich oxide and titanium nitride clustered during the EB-PBF process, and remained intact during the post-treatments. Low cycle fatigue cracks mainly originated from the non-metallic inclusions found near the surface of the test specimens. HIPing was able to remove a portion of the internal defects, including round-shaped and shrinkage pores; therefore, a small fatigue life enhancement was observed in HIP-HT compared to HT.

  • 111.
    Sadeghi, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Karimi Neghlani, Paria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Momeni, Soroush
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Erlangen, 91058, Germany.
    Seifi, Mohsen
    Case Western Reserves University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Cleveland, 44106,USA; ASTM International, Washington, DC 20036, United States .
    Eklund, Anders
    Quintus Technologies AB, Västerås, 721 66, Sweden.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Influence of thermal post treatments on microstructure and oxidation behavior of EB-PBF manufactured Alloy 7182019In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 150, p. 236-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermal post treatments consisting of heat treatment (HT), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and combined HIP-HT on microstructure and oxidation behavior of Alloy 718 manufactured by electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) technique was investigated. Oxidation of the as-built and post-treated specimens was performed in ambient air at 650, 750, and 850 °C for up to 168 h. Directional columnar-grained microstructure, pores and fine Nb-rich carbides were observed in the as-built specimen. The HT specimen presented the columnar microstructure, plate-like δ phase at grain boundaries, and pores. The dominant grain crystallographic orientation was changed from 〈001〉 in the as-built specimen to 〈101〉 after HT. No grain boundary δ phase was observed in the HIPed specimen, but recrystallization occurred in both the HIP and HIP-HT specimens due to a rapid cooling after HIPing motivating the nucleation of fine grains with limited time to grow. After oxidation exposure at 650 and 750 °C for 168 h, no big difference between weight changes of the as-built and post-treated specimens was noted, whereas at 850 °C, the combined HIP-HT specimen showed the most promising corrosion resistance with the least weight change. At 850 °C, a protective scale of Cr 2 O 3 rich in Cr, Ti, and Ni as well as an internal oxide (branched structure of alumina) developed in all the specimens, while, only a protective Cr 2 O 3 scale was found at 650 and 750 °C. The HIP-HT specimen at 850 °C developed an oxide scale, which was denser and more adherent in comparison to the oxide scales formed on the other three specimens, associated with its limited defect distribution and more homogenized microstructure. Moreover, the δ phase formed close to the surface of the exposed specimens during the oxidation exposure at 850 °C most probably led to nucleation and growth of the oxide scale. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 112.
    Sadeghi, M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Diaz, A.
    REM Surface Engineering, Brenham (USA).
    McFadden, P.
    REM Surface Engineering, Brenham (USA).
    Sadeghi, Esmaeil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Chemical and mechanical post-processing of Alloy 718 built via electron beam-powder bed fusion: Surface texture and corrosion behavior2022In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alloy 718 specimens manufactured via electron beam-powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) were subjected to post-processing techniques, such as thermal post-treatment and surface finishing. Hot isostatic pressing followed by solution-aging heat treatment (HIP-HT) was used as the thermal post-treatment. Surface finishing techniques, such as turning (TU), shot peening (SP), chemically accelerated vibratory finishing (CAVF), and electro-polishing (EP), were applied on the as-built and HIP-HT specimens. The surface texture of all the specimens was characterized, with the HIP-HT specimen having the highest area arithmetical mean height (Sa) value of 52 ± 1.8 µm and the TU specimen having the lowest at 1.1 ± 0.1 µm. The corrosion performance, typically associated with surface texture, was not always tied to the overused Sa value. CAVF had the highest polarization resistance of 75.8 kΩ.cm2 among the studied methods, followed by TU with polarization resistance of 43.8 kΩ.cm2, showing that the two techniques have a great potential for improving the surface characteristics of the EB-PBF-built Alloy 718 parts. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    Materials & Design
  • 113.
    Sadeghimeresht, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Eklund, Johan
    University of Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Phother Simon, Julien
    University of Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Liske, Jesper
    University of Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    HVAF spraying for biomass boiler applications:: Oxidation behavior of Ni-based coatings in moisture-laden environment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Sadeghimeresht, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Karimi Neghlani, Paria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Zhang, Pimin
    Linköping University,Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University,Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Pejryd, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of EBM-Additive Manufactured Alloy 7182018In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 & Derivatives: Energy, Aerospace, and Industrial Applications / [ed] Ott, E., Liu, X., Andersson, J., Bi, Z., Bockenstedt, K., Dempster, I., Groh, J., Heck, K., Jablonski, P., Kaplan, M., Nagahama, D. and Sudbrack, C., Springer, 2018, p. 219-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidation of Alloy 718 manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM) process has been undertaken in ambient air at 650, 700, and 800 °C for up to 168 h. At 800 °C, a continuous external chromia oxide enriched in (Cr, Ti, Mn, Ni) and an internal oxide that was branched structure of alumina formed, whereas at 650 and 700 °C, a continuous, thin and protective chromia layer was detected. The oxidation kinetics of the exposed EBM Alloy 718 followed the parabolic rate law with an effective activation energy of ~248 ± 22 kJ/mol in good agreement with values in the literature for conventionally processed chromia-forming Ni-based superalloys. The oxide scale formed on the surface perpendicular to the build direction was slightly thicker, and more adherent compared to the scale formed on the surface along the build direction, attributed to the varied grain texture in the two directions of the EBM-manufactured specimens. The increased oxygen diffusion and high Cr depletion found on the surface along the build direction were attributed to the fine grains and formation of vacancies/voids along this grain orientation.

  • 115.
    Sadeghimeresht, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Reddy, Liam
    The University of Nottingham, Faculty of Engineering, Nottingham, UK.
    Hussein, Tanvir
    The University of Nottingham, Faculty of Engineering, Nottingham, UK.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Chlorine-induced high temperature corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni-based alumina and chromia forming coatings2018In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 132, no March, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine-induced corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni21Cr and Ni5Al coatings was investigated in 5 vol.% O2 + 500vppm HCl + N2 with and without KCl at 600 °C up to 168 h. Both coatings were protective in the absence of KCl. With KCl, Ni21Cr degraded through a two-stage mechanism: 1) formation of K2CrO4 followed by diffusion of Cl− through the oxide grain boundaries to yield chlorine and a non-protective oxide, and 2) inward diffusion of chlorine though defects in the non-protective oxide, leading to breakaway oxidation. Cl−/Cl2 could not diffuse through the protective alumina scale formed on Ni5Al, hence the corrosion resistance increased.

  • 116.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Review of Laser Deposited Superalloys Using Powder as an Additive2014In: 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Ott, E., Banik, A., Andersson, J., Dempster, I., Gabb, T., Groh, J., Heck, K., Helmink, R., Liu, X. & Wusatowska-Sarnek, A, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 393-408Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Singh, Sukhdeep
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology,Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, William
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brederholm, Anssi
    Aalto University School of Engineering, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hänninen, Hannu
    Aalto University School of Engineering, Helsinki, Finland.
    Varestraint Weldability Testing of ATI 718Plus®: Influence of Eta Phase2018In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 & Derivatives: Energy, Aerospace, and Industrial Applications / [ed] Eric Ott, Xingbo Liu, Joel Andersson, Zhongnan Bi, Kevin Bockenstedt, Ian Dempster, Jon Groh, Karl Heck, Paul Jablonski, Max Kaplan, Daisuke Nagahama, Chantal Sudbrack, Springer, 2018, p. 929-937Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of eta phase on hot cracking susceptibility of ATI 718Plus®. Two heat treatment conditions of 950 °C/1 h and 950 °C/15 h having different amounts of eta phase were tested by longitudinal Varestraint testing method. The heat treatment at 950 °C/15 h exhibited the highest amount of cracking. This was related to the higher amount of eta phase precipitation during the long dwell heat treatment which aided to extensive liquation during welding.

  • 118.
    Singh, Sukhdeep
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Investigation on effect of welding parameters on solidification cracking of austenitic stainless steel 3142018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, p. 351-357Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the solidification cracking susceptibility of the austenitic stainless steel 314. Longitudinal Varestraint testing was used with three different set of welding test parameters. Weld speed, current and voltage values were selected so that the same heat input resulted in all the test conditions. From the crack measurements it was seen that the test condition with the lowest current and welding speed value also produced the least amount of cracking with very good repeatability.

  • 119.
    Singh, Sunkhdeep
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, SE-41296, Sweden.
    Hanning, Fabian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Influence of homogenisation treatments on the hot ductility of cast ATI® 718Plus®: Effect of niobium and minor elements on liquation characteristics2021In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 799, article id 140151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    homogenisation heat treatments. The hot ductility deteriorated significantly after long-dwell homogenisation heat treatments for 24 h at temperatures of 1120 and 1190 °C as compared with those treated at a short dwell time of 4 h at the same temperatures. The observed ductility deterioration was related to more extensive liquation along the grain boundaries caused by different mechanisms, e.g., liquation by solute segregation mechanism, Laves melting, constitutional liquation of MC carbides and supersolidus grain boundary melting, with the effect and extent depending on the solute changes after the homogenisation heat treatments. Furthermore, the role of Nb as the solute element and as the precipitate former, as well as the effect of minor alloying elements segregating along the grain boundaries, is discussed in connection to grain boundary liquation, which contributes to a better understanding of heat-affected zone liquation cracking susceptibility of cast ATI® 718Plus®. © 2020 The Authors

  • 120. Sjöberg, Göran
    et al.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Sjunnesson, Anders
    New Materials in the Design and Manufacturing of Hot Structures for Aircraft Engines: Allvac 718Plus2009In: XIX International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines 2009: ISABE 2009, Montreal, Canada, 7-11 September, 2009., Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2009, Vol. 3, p. 1406-1415Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Sreekanth, Suhas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Effect of process parameters and heat treatments on delta-phase precipitation in directed energy deposited alloy 7182022In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article outlines a detailed study of solution treatments and delta precipitation treatments carried out on laser-directed energy deposited (DED) alloy 718 specimens. Two different sets of DED process parameters were used in high and low energy conditions that yield different microstructural features to study the effect of process parameters on delta precipitation. These two conditions were subjected to solution treatment at 1010 °C and 1050 °C each for 1 h, which improved homogeneity and altered grain texture with introduction of annealing twins. The as-built and solution-treated specimens served as the initial reference condition for subsequent delta processing treatments (DPT) performed at three temperatures of 850 °C, 900 °C, and 950 °C to study the effect of short- and long-term exposures ranging from 1 to 48 h. When as-built specimens were subjected to DPT, interdendritic delta precipitates were observed at Nb-rich regions. In contrast, solution-treated specimens under short-term exposure to DPT resulted in intergranular delta phase precipitates whereas under long-term exposures to DPT yielded predominantly intragranular delta precipitates, which grew denser and longer with increased time of treatment. For longer exposure times of 24 and 48 h, a continuous film of intergranular delta phase was noticed. The morphology, location, and volume fraction of delta phase precipitates studied in this research are imperative for designing the performance of alloy 718 built by DED process.

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  • 122.
    Steffenburg-Nordenström, Joachim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Sweden.
    Larsson, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation of the influence of forming on residual stresses and deformations after welding and heat treatment in Alloy 7182014In: / [ed] E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), 2014, p. 1657-1666Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of components in aero engines requires attention to residual stress and final shape of the product in order to meet high quality product standards. This sets very high demands on involved manufacturing steps. The manufacturing of a V-shaped leading edge of a vane is simulated. It is made of Alloy718, which is a nickel based heat resistant material commonly used in aerospace components. The manufacturing process chain consists of forming, welding and heat treatment. The results show that the remaining residual stresses after a manufacturing process chain are affected when the residual history from the formingprocess is considered. The residual stress decrease after heat treatment is about 55-65%. Moreover, the von Mises stress profile through thickness at the centre of the radius at the weld joint is about 25% higher when full forming history is considered.

  • 123.
    Stenbacka, Nils
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Kan man svetsa i äldre stålkonstruktioner2011In: Stålbyggnad, ISSN 1404-9414, no 3, p. 52-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Teixeira, Felipe Ribeiro
    et al.
    Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG(BRA).
    Scotti, Fernando Matos
    Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG (BRA).
    Vilarinho, Louriel Oliveira
    Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG (BRA).
    da Mota, Carlos Alberto Mendes
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA (BRA).
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG (BRA).
    Transferability of the working envelope approach for parameter selection and optimization in thin wall WAAM2021In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 119, no 1-2, p. 969-989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to propose and assess a methodology for parameterization for WAAM of thin walls based on a previously existing working envelope built for a basic material (parameter transferability). This work also aimed at investigating whether the working envelope approach can be used to optimize the parameterization for a target wall width in terms of arc energy (which governs microstructure and microhardness), surface finish and active deposition time. To reach the main objective, first, a reference working envelope was developed through a series of deposited walls with a plain C-Mn steel wire. Wire feed speed (WFS) and travel speed (TS) were treated as independent variables, while the geometric wall features were considered dependent variables. After validation, three combinations of WFS and TS capable of achieving the same effective wall width were deposited with a 2.25Cr-1Mo steel wire. To evaluate the parameter transferability between the two materials, the geometric features of these walls were measured and compared with the predicted values. The results showed minor deviations between the predicted and measured values. As a result, WAAM parameter selection for another material showed to be feasible after only fewer experiments (shorter time and lower resource consumption) from a working envelope previously developed. The usage of the approach to optimize parameterization was also demonstrated. For this case, lower values of WFS and TS were capable of achieving a better surface finish. However, higher WFS and TS are advantageous in terms of production time. As long as the same wall width is maintained, variations in WFS and TS do not significantly affect microstructure and microhardness.

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  • 125.
    Tofeldt, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Pierce, S.G.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Smillie, G.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Kerr, W.
    Advanced Forming Research Centre, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire, UK.
    Flockhart, G.M.H.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Macleod, C.N.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Blue, R.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Gachagan, A.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Stratoudaki, T.
    University of Strathclyde, Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow, UK.
    Olsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    McMahon, D.
    Advanced Forming Research Centre, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire, UK.
    Investigation of fundamental ultrasonic propagation characteristics in NDT of Electron Beam Melted additive manufactured samples: Inconel 7182018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New approaches for efficient NDT inspection of modern additively manufactured metallic components are required urgently to qualify and validate the next generation of metallic parts across a range of industries. Ultrasonic testing is a fundamental component of NDT for such additive manufacturing processes. This work studies the ultrasonic propagation characteristics of EBM manufactured sample coupons in Inconel 718material. Fundamental longitudinal and shear wave velocity measurements are experimentally measured in 3 orthogonal build directions of the sample coupons. Results show a dependency of the ultrasonic velocities and the build direction. The measured velocities are further verified in a phased array measurement showing successful results that highlights the potential of continued studies with synthetic apertures techniques.

  • 126.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    DebRoy, Tarasankar
    University Park, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College PA 16801, USA.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Towards a Map of Solidification Cracking Risk in Laser Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels2015In: Physics Procedia, E-ISSN 1875-3892, Vol. 78, p. 230-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, two series of specimens with Hammar and Svensson's Cr- and Ni-equivalents (Creq+Nieq) = 35 and 45 wt% were used to cover a wide range of austenitic grades. These were laser welded with different energy inputs achieving cooling rates in the range of 103 °C/s to 104 °C/s. As high cooling rates and rapid solidification conditions could favour fully austenitic solidification and therefore raise susceptibility to solidification cracking, the solidification modes of the laser welded specimens were compared to the ones experienced by the same alloys under arc welding conditions. It was found that high cooling rates experienced in laser welding promoted fully austenitic solidification for a wider range of compositions, for example specimens with (Creq+Nieq) = 35% under arc welding cooling conditions at 10 °C/s showed fully austenitic solidification up to Creq/Nieq = 1.30, whilst the same specimens laser cooled at 103 °C/s showed fully austenitic solidification up to Creq/Nieq = 1.50 and those cooled at 104 °C/s showed it up to Creq/Nieq = 1.68. Therefore, high cooling rates extended the solidification cracking risk to a wider range of Creq/Nieq values. This work also compares the cooling rates experimentally determined by thermocouples to the computed cooling rates calculated by a highly-advanced computational model. The distance between the thermocouple's wires and the thermal resistance of thermocouples together with the small size of the weld pools proved to be practical limitations in the experimental determination of cooling rates. However, an excellent agreement was found between computed and experimental solidus isotherms at high energy input settings. For low energy input settings cooling rate was in the order of magnitude of 104 °C/s, whilst for high energy input settings cooling rate was found to be in the order of magnitude of 103 °C/s.

  • 127.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    DebRoy, Tarasankar
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Influence of low energy laser welding on solidification and microstructure of austenitic stainless steel welds2013In: 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan, Hans Engström, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2013, p. 3-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary austenitic solidification is related to increased hot cracking susceptibility in welding of austenitic stainless steels. It is also recognised that high cooling rates and rapid solidification conditions, like those achieved in laser beam welding (LBW), increase the stability of austenite versus ferrite as the primary solidification phase. Knowledge about the solidification mode under LBW conditions is therefore of utmost importance. A series of austenitic stainless steel alloys were prepared using an electric arc furnace and cooled at a rate of 10 ºC/s. The overall alloying composition was kept constant at [Cr eq+Nieq] = 40 wt% while changing the Cr eq/Nieq ratio from 1.52 to 1.84. These alloys were then laser welded using a continuous wave ytterbium fibre laser at two different energy input levels. Cooling rates were experimentally determined to be in the range of 10 3 ºC/s to 104 ºC/s and the values were confirmed by computational modelling. The compositional border between primary austenitic and primary ferritic solidification was found to shift to higher Cr eq/Nieq values at higher cooling rates. However, all the alloys showed coexistence of regions of primary austenitic and primary ferritic solidification for both laser settings although ustenite tended to more abundant at higher cooling rates. Austenite content and refinement of microstructure is discussed in terms of effects of cooling rate on solidification behaviour and solid state transformations.

  • 128.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Thalavai Pandian, Karthikeyan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Alfa Laval Tumba AB, Tumba .
    Harati, Ebrahim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. ITW Welding AB, Partille .
    Kisielewicz, Agnieszka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Microstructure of laser metal deposited duplex stainless steel: Influence of shielding gas and heat treatment2021In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 65, p. 525-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research work is the first step in evaluating the feasibility of producing industrial components by using Laser Metal Deposition with duplex stainless steel Wire (LMDw). The influence of Ar and N2 shielding gases was investigated in terms of nitrogen loss and in the microstructure and austenite content of different deposited geometries. The evolution of the microstructure in the build-up direction of the Ar and N2-shielded blocks was compared in the heat-treated and as-deposited conditions. The susceptibility for oxygen pick-up in the LMDw deposits was also analyzed, and oxygen was found to be in the range of conventional gas-shielded weldments. Nitrogen loss occurred when Ar-shielding was used; however, the use of N2-shielding prevented nitrogen loss. Austenite content was nearly doubled by using N2-shielding instead of Ar-shielding. The heat treatment resulted in an increase of the austenite content and of the homogeneity in the microstructure regardless of the shielding gas used. The similarity in microstructure and the low spread in the phase balance for the as-deposited geometries is a sign of having achieved a stable and consistent LMDw process in order to proceed with the build-up of more complex geometries closer to industrial full-size components.

  • 129.
    Valleti, Krishna
    et al.
    International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad, India.
    Puneet, C.
    International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad, India.
    Rama Krishna, L.
    International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad, India.
    Joshi, Shrikant
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Studies on cathodic arc PVD grown TiCrN based erosion resistant thin films2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium chromium nitride (TiCrN) coatings with varying Cr content in two configurations, mono- and multilayer, were deposited on high speed steel substrates using a cylindrical cathodic arc physical vapor deposition technique. The physical, mechanical, and erosion behavior of the coatings were investigated. Among the monolayer coatings, the thicker Ti0.48Cr0.52N coatings yielded the best erosion resistance property. But with the increase in thickness, a considerable increase in residual stress is observed. Toward minimizing the stress accumulation, the effect of multilayering with periodic in situ heat treatment (after each 1 μm film growth) was studied by growing films in Ti0.52Cr0.48N/Ti0.40Cr0.60N bilayer configuration. A new approach based on % area of erosion damage for measuring relative wear rate of thin films has been proposed and implemented. The multilayer coatings exhibited superior erosion performance compared to the well-known erosion resistant TiN coatings that are in use for compressor blades from past few decades. Further, the erosion failure mechanisms in TiCrN coatings were also studied and found to be clearly different for mono- and multilayer configurations. The results reveal that the thicker multilayer TiCrN coatings (20 μm) exhibit promising choice for erosion resistance applications.

  • 130. Vassen, Robert
    et al.
    Cernuschi, Federico
    Rizzi, Gabriele
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Östergren, Lars
    Kloosterman, Arien
    Mevrel, Remy
    Feist, Jorg
    Nicholls, John
    Overview in the field of thermal barrier coatings including burner rig testing in the European Union2008In: Ceramics Japan, ISSN 0009-031X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 371-382Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Vuoristo, Petri
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Industrial and research activities in thermal spray technology in the Nordic region of Europe2007In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 466-471Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Zachrisson, Jan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Environment Production Technology West.
    Börjesson, Johan
    ESAB AB, Lindholmsallén 9, Box 8004, SE-40277 Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    A new EBSD based methodology for the quantitative characterisation of microstructures formed by displacive fcc–bcc transformations2013In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 45, no February, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is concerned with a new methodology that can be used to quantify the degree to which grains in the microstructure are aligned in the form of packets. The methodology is based on a crystallographic definition of the term packet which is used to deduce the theoretically ideal misorientations of intra-packet grain boundaries. A misorientation distribution obtained from extensive EBSD mapping can thus be split into intra- and inter-packet misorientations and the corresponding fractions can be determined by integration. The theoretical framework of the methodology is explained and a step-by-step description of the procedure is given. Results from a trace analysis are provided to justify the assumptions made regarding habit plane and examples are included showing how the grain boundary network can be split into two separate parts, one for lath boundaries and the other for packet boundaries. Moreover, example weld metal microstructures along with the corresponding misorientation distributions as well as quantitative values of the microstructures are presented.

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