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  • 101.
    Bergström, Per
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå, Sweden.
    Fergusson, Michael
    Xtura AB, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Folkesson, Patrik
    Xtura AB, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Andersson, Alf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Product and Production Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå, Sweden.
    Automatic in-line inspection of shape based on photogrammetry2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are describing a fully automatic in-line shape inspection system for controlling the shape of moving objects on a conveyor belt. The shapes of the objects are measured using a full-field optical shape measurement method based on photogrammetry. The photogrammetry system consists of four cameras, a flash, and a triggering device. When an object to be measured arrives at a given position relative to the system, the flash and cameras are synchronously triggered to capture images of the moving object.From the captured images a point-cloud representing the measured shape is created. The point-cloud is then aligned to a CAD-model, which defines the nominal shape of the measured object, using a best-fit method and a feature-based alignment method. Deviations between the point-cloud and the CAD-model are computed giving the output of the inspection process. The computational time to create a point-cloud from the captured images is about 30 seconds and the computational time for the comparison with the CAD-model is about ten milliseconds. We report on recent progress with the shape inspection system.

  • 102.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance : papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Bernhardson, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframtagning av produkt för strykning av pärlplattor2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At preschools around the country there is a wide use of pegboards. They are used both to calm kids after a long day of school and to practice finger dexterity for the kids. Most of the kids would like to bring home their creations after they are done, but to be able to do this the beads on the pegboard first has to be ironed so the beads do not just fall apart. In the preschools today there is a problem with a lot of stress for the teachers. A task that takes up a lot of time for the teachers is ironing these pegboards. The kids are not allowed to iron these pegboards themselves because of the risk that they might burn themselves on the hot iron. This study presents a concept development of a product where the user can iron pegboards safely without the risk of burning themselves. The concept development process started out with many different concepts where finally one concept was chosen. To try to keep the decision of what concept to use unbiased the decision was made by doing two different kinds of decision matrixes. The selected concept is similar to an oven in the design, where the pegboards are placed on a tray that slides into the product. By using lights, the product signals to the user when the desired temperature is reached and when the ironing is finished. It also finishes the ironing by itself when the ironing is done. Standards that apply to the product will be investigated. To further explain and develop the concept a 3D-model will be created.

  • 104.
    Berntsson, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Dimgård, Albin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Development of a process for environmental life cycle investigations2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of increasing interest in sustainable development, the subject of this report is the exploration of methods to analyse the environmental impact of car components. The project is conducted as a case study, and the theory section is a literature study where several scientific articles about life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental analysis are examined alongside previously performed LCAs, books about the subject, and ISO standards. The ISO14040-series provides a structure for the basic methodology used in this report, both to organise the theory section as well as the resulting process.

    The theory concludes with a 7-step process for conducting life cycle investigations, primarily for car components. The first step contains the ISO standard’s requirements of defining goal and scope. Steps 2-6 then process the data collection of different phases during the life cycle and the 7th and final step is a compilation and calculation of the data.

    The developed process aims to provide a fast and simple way of analysing the environmental impact for a product as the development work is progressing. To validate the functionality of the process and to further refine the process, it is used to perform an analysis of energy use and CO2 emissions during the life cycle of an active car bonnet device. This validation includes definitions of goal, scope, functional unit, and a Process Flow Chart in the first step.Steps 2-6 includes the data collection for raw materials, additional processes, use phase, end-of-life, and the transports related to the manufacturing of the investigated product. The last step of the validation is to compile the product’s energy use and CO2 emissions. The study also provides a suggestion for a table, called Life Cycle Eco Data Table, to use when conducting a life cycle investigation using the process, to get an overview of the environmental data. The conclusion is that the developed process is easy to use and aspires to high quality as it is based on scientific research.

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  • 105.
    Berntsson, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Henrysson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Livscykelanalys av Universalplåt Imperial 1120H2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ipinium manufactures sustainable kitchen products. The products are intended to be used in professional kitchens within, for example, school canteens, restaurants, on cruise ships, in nursing homes and hospitals. Their range includes oven plates, defrosting cabinets, cooling and heating plates. The products are developed through many years of collaboration between engineers and experts in the food industry.

    Ipinium's vision is, with their products, to simplify and improve the workflow in large kitchens. An improved workflow means that time, space and resources are used more efficiently, without affecting the environment more than necessary. In recent years, Ipinium has also reached out to private customers, thereby expanding their assortment to fulfill the same vision for the private market. Using a life cycle assessment, a theoretical basis for the environmental impact of their universal pan should be produced, where the use of the plate is also compared with the traditional cooking method in large kitchens and restaurants, where cooking tables are used. These are not needed with Ipinium's products. The work may also be used for further sustainability work on Ipinium's products.

    The starting point for collecting data is that the life of the universal plate amounts to 17.5 years since it can be re-coated 6 times. A coating has been found to last about 2-3 years depending on how the usage pattern looks. Since a traditional stainless-steel plate is expected to last about 2-3 years, depending on use, it results in a traditional oven plate having to be manufactured 7 times to reach the life of Ipinium's universal pan. The investigation has been done on school kitchens, as they are the primary customer for the particular universal pan. The number of days of use per year is therefore based on school days. To investigate environmental impact, the EduPack database is used, where energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are available. Since the results showed that use phase had the greatest environmental impact, the oven plate was considered to be a, so called active product. One conclusion that can be drawn is that in this comparing is between the two cooking methods, Ipinium's universal pan is considerably gentler to the environment.

  • 106.
    Berteau-Nguyen, Diep
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Understand fatigue crack propagation threshold of Laser Powder Bed Fusion built Ti-6Al-4V2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Powder Bed Fusion (PBF-LB) built Ti-6Al-4V is frequently selected in aerospace to build components with high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. Previous fatigue tests and studies on PBF-LB built Ti-6AL-4V have demonstrated a lower fatigue crack propagation threshold ΔKth compared to other conventional and additive manufacturing processes, resulting in a lower lifespan. This study aims to understand the correlation between microstructure and ΔKth. Microstructure characterisation and fractography of the fatigue fracture surface will be carried out on PBF-LB processes as well as PBF-EB, L-DED-w, cast and forged Ti-6Al-4V. Compared to other processes, PBF-LB microstructure shows smaller prior-β grains (PBG) but larger width for grain boundaries α (GB-α) and martensite α’ explained by the HIP treatment that coarsen the α grains. Fractography shows a transgranular quasi-cleavage fracture with low crack deviation and branching, decreasing energy dissipation and resulting in a low fatigue threshold. Further studies comparing these results with non-HIPed and low-temperature/high-pressure HIP could give a better understanding of fatigue mechanisms. 

  • 107.
    Bhaskar, Pavan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Investigation of LPBF built JBK-75 stainless steel: Defect density, grain size, and hardness as a function of process parameters2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The additive manufacturing process has immense possibilities within aero-space, automobile, medical, and many other sectors. Additive manufacturing is the process of building parts layer by layer. There have been numerous experiments conducted on different additive manufacturing processes and materials. Each process has various parameters that influence the product produced. So, it is necessary to select the proper set of parameters to obtain the required output. Austenitic stainless steel has combined properties like corrosion resistance, ductility, strength, and weldability. This kind of material is used within applications such as aerospace components. There are different grades of austenitic stainless steels that have applications in various sectors depending on their properties. For example, 316L, 304L, 21-6-9, JBK-75, are some of them used in aerospace parts. To implement the additive manufacturing process for this grade experiments have been taking place to find suitable process parameters so that the output product will have the required properties. This thesis work is mainly concentrated on finding the suitable process parameters to build JBK-75 stainless steel using the laser powder bed fusion process. JBK-75 stainless steel is our interest because it is a modified version of A-286 stainless steel, it is strengthened by precipitation of gamma prime, which gives it a high strength like nickel-based superalloy. For this experiment the build was mainly divided into two sets based on layer thickness i.e., 30µm and 60µm and laser power (200 ± 50W), laser velocity (750 ± 150mm/sec) and hatch distance (0.12 ± 0.02mm) were varied. The results obtained to optimize the parameters are surface roughness, defect density, melt pool width and depth, grain size, and hardness. The results obtained show that sample build with less energy density has less defect density. The gains were an elongated columnar shape, and they were parallel to build direction. Among the samples built and results analysed sample 9 showed the best results when compared to the remaining samples.

  • 108.
    Bhoje, Sourabh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Termisk cykling provuppställning konstruktion och provning av TBCs för dieselmotorapplikation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) thermally insulate the substrate from high temperature exposure. This work attempted to simulate real engine thermal cyclic conditions by designing a test method to evaluate the thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) performance of different coatings applied inside exhaust manifold of a diesel engine. The coatings investigated in this work comprised of two plasmas-sprayed TBCs (conventional 8YSZ and nanostructured 8YSZ) and one bond coat (NiCoCrAlY). Additionally, these coatings were exposed to isothermal testing and their oxidation behavior was evaluated.   All the coatings along with only substrate were exposed to temperature around 525°C for 150 cycles in thermal cyclic testing carried out on Scania’s heavy-duty diesel engine. For isothermal testing, all coatings along with only substrate material were exposed to 650°C and 750°C for 168 hours respectively. Microstructural analysis by SEM/EDS was carried out to compare the microstructural evolution of the tested coatings with the as sprayed TBCs. In the case of thermal cyclic test, all coatings showed no failure and no TGO growth up to 150 cycles. In the EDS analysis for isothermally tested coatings, oxidation of the substrate at bond coat- substrate interface instead of TGO growth was observed. Bond coat showed lowest oxide layer thickness at 650°C and 750°C followed by conventional YSZ and then nanostructured YSZ. But, conventional YSZ showed microcracks in top coat near top coat- bond coat interface after isothermal testing. Thermal cyclic and isothermal exposure test results showed that bond coated substrate and nanostructured YSZ have the potential to be implemented inside the real manifold.   

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  • 109.
    Billett, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Examining the impact of light on the perceivability and compatibility of different materials2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A car's interior uses many different surface materials. For the interior design scheme to uphold a high level of quality, these materials must harmonise and be visually compatible. Experience and research have proven that a material's appearance and colour can be subject to change when under various types of light. Compositions of surface materials can also influence the way they are perceived together when the light they are illuminated by changes.

    A study was performed where 21 interior surface materials were examined under a selection of white and coloured light. The materials consisted of ten décor samples, four grained plastic samples, four grained vinyl and leather samples and three chrome samples. The white light used consisted of daylight (CIE illuminant D65 at 6500 °K), fluorescent light (CIE illuminant F11 at 4000 °K) and incandescent light (CIE illuminant A at 2800 °K). The coloured light used consisted of six colours: red, green, blue, yellow, violet and turquoise. The materials were examined using the paired comparison method under all nine types of light, and the results were documented. Patterns were identified in the results and conclusions regarding different aspects of the materials were drawn.

    The results showed that light has a strong impact on the perceivability and compatibility of materials, which aligned with previous research. Light materials were more affected by changes in light than dark materials, often taking on the colour of the light entirely. Red, green and blue light caused many metameric issues and materials were often straining to observe. Violet light caused less issues, and yellow and turquoise light even fewer. The results were summarised into a list of conclusions relating to the materials and their properties.

    Implications of the results were discussed for three separate aspects: perceived quality, design and environmental. It is also important to keep in mind that conclusions drawn from results based on subjective judgements will always be prone to inaccuracies. Therefore, caution is advised when applying the results of this thesis, and compatibility tests should always be performed in addition to applying the conclusions.

  • 110.
    Birgersson, Eric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Kunéll, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of logistical capacity and future storage needs at the Technical Material Analysis department of Volvo Cars2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been performed at Volvo Car Corporation in Gothenburg, Sweden. Volvo’s Technical Material Analysis department, TMA, has experienced large increases in incoming material quantities since 2015. The objective of the study was to establish a well-founded proposal for improvement that can make the logistical situation at TMA sustainable in a long-term perspective. TMA is a business within Volvo’s Warranty department. Its main purpose is to store material on behalf of other departments within Volvo, and to perform analyses on warranty claims from dealers. In order to collect relevant information, several conventional methods have been used. Semistructured and unstructured interviews were used when studying the business structures and learning about the effects of different departments on TMA. Data collection was performed via archive studies, collecting historical data within Volvo’s internal computer system. Brainstorming and a workshop were used together with TMA staff in order to capture advantages and disadvantages concerning the potential improvement proposals. After the evaluation of a number of concepts, only one remained: to move the business to new facilities. This is considered the only proposal that can establish a long-term sustainable logistical situation for TMA. The other concepts that were considered can potentially solve the current logistical situation, but certainly not tomorrow’s, due to the expected increases in incoming material quantities. The study’s conclusion is thus that the TMA business must be moved to larger facilities, in order to be able to fully maintain its business. The improvements that did not meet the long-term objectives are still considered valuable for the business. They are: Higher inventory turnover and New storage layout with new pallet racks. The implementation of these can establish a better work environment due to decreased amounts of storage, shorter lead times, higher work efficiency and a better over-all control over the storage business.   

  • 111.
    Björklund, Viktor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Falk, Jakob
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av verktyg för PVD i titannitrid2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Dentsply Sirona produces tooth related products. One of these products are abutments, which is one of three components for an artificial tooth. The customer can require a gold colored coating on the abutments for aesthetical reasons. This coating is called Goldhue and consists of titanium nitride.

    Varying shapes and forms on the abutments effect the coatings adhesion ability. The engineers at the company suspect that the horizontal surfaces are the cause of the coating problems. Analyzes show that the problems often occur on abutments with flat undersides. The issues of the work questions if abutments with a flat underside affects the coating quality. Can there be other causes that the coating problems occur?

    To establish that the shape of the abutment is the cause for coating problems, problem analysis, Taguchi and regression analysis are performed.

    Experiments with identical abutments were performed, to minimize deviation in results. A test with an angled tool was also performed to analyze the conjunction between the coating particles direction and the abutments surfaces. That resulted in improved coating quality for the abutments underside but at the same time a bad coating on the top. As a conclusion the project members decided that the abutments must get coated from several directions.

    The solution to the problem includes a tool concept with the ability to rock the abutments backwards and forwards so that the abutments will get a better coating. The tool should utilize the rotation movements provided in the coating machine, the reason is to avoid major modification to the machines vacuum chamber, which is costly. To convert the rotation movement into a rocking movement, gears with elevations are used that stepwise elevates the tool. The concept was designed in CAD so they could be printed out with a 3D-printer. The components were assembled and tested. The result was a success, and all parties were satisfied.

    A concluding discussion was made about difficulties during the thesis work, implementations and the ongoing work with improvements on the concept.

  • 112.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Håkansson, Maria
    Division of Built Environment RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Göteborg (SWE).
    Willis, Morgan
    Division of Built Environment RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Göteborg (SWE).
    The Ghost in the Heat Pump: Examining social flexibility potential in thermal comfort practices through an experiment of remote-controlled heating in detached houses2023In: Conference Proceedings  BEHAVE 2023 the 7th European Conference on Behaviour Change for Energy Efficiency / [ed] Marta Lopes, Kaisa Matschoss, Thijs Bouman, European Energy Network; Netherlands Enterprise Agency , 2023, p. 240-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing energy flexibility in households through smart steering of appliances has received attention as one way to reduce power peaks and adapt demand to a renewable energy system. Heating is a big part of the electricity consumption in households, and heat pump technology is growing in popularity for heating detached houses. While there is ongoing research calculating the technical potential for energy flexibility from heat pumps, few studies combine remote control of heat pumps with qualitative research on how households experience this control. The purpose of this study is to find out how long-term steering of heat pumps is experienced by households, how it affects their heating practices, and how they make sense of remote steering as a service. The data originates from an interdisciplinary project combining a field trial where heat pumps of selected Swedish households were remotely controlled for two winter periods, with qualitative interviews with the households. We conducted interviews with 12 participants, before and after the trial.The results show that households were overall positive towards offering flexibility through remote-controlled heat pumps, and that the steering of the heating blended well with normal temperature variation associated with having a villa in Sweden. However, the respondents were mystified by the procedure, which created a ghost in the heat pump. Furthermore, remote steering as a service comes with challenges related to reliability, security, and agency over the heat pump. Important social conditions for adopting flexibility through remote steering of heat pumps are discussed.

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  • 113.
    Blad, Adrian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Omvärldsanalys för produktsegmentet lastbilspumpar: Parker Hannifin manufacturing Sweden AB2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study on behalf of Parker Hannifin in Trollhättan, which is a production and development unit, aims to assist with the basis for strategic and operational decisions in the truck pump product segment. The goal of establishing an external analysis which includes competitors, trends and marketing channels, has been achieved thru analysis tools which has been studied, modified and utilized to touch on the above-mentioned areas. Parker currently lacks an updated picture of competitors which they require for the basis of the external analysis. The external analysis includes a comparison between product technical and market strategic aspects between Parker and the delimitation of competitors; HAWE, Leduc, Rexroth and Sunfab.

    The result from the selected methods in the study shows that the market segment of hydraulic truck pumps is a homogeneous market with few measurable differences between the companies' truck pumps. Reliability is most significant for truck pumps according to costumers, but since the aspect is not quantifiable the price falls to a significant measurable aspect. Companies within the market segment strive to reduce customers' price sensitivity and raise the reputation of the company's truck pump through relationship marketing. Marketing to customers takes place through trade fairs and by the companies organizing their own fairs for customers. Companies achieve differentiation and creates values for customers through sales channels. Parker and rivals use; direct purchases via their website, distributor programs, various types of service and mobile phone applications.

    The comparison between Parker and the competitors truck pump specifications and the conduct of interviews resulted in the conclusion that Parkers two-flow pumps and variable pumps are more advanced. This reflects a positive reputation for other products and services that Parker offers.

    The study highlights trends such as visualization and impatience. Rexroth markets, via their website, how 5G-network will affect them and what visions they have in the area. HAWE collaborates with STW, enabling complete solutions with connected pumps. Parker and competitors lack similar offers which creates a head start for HAWE. A trend of electrification will affect the truck pump segment which derives from an environmentally conscious society who will provoke new demands for truck pumps.

  • 114.
    Blandin, Julien
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Surface finish simulation when using circle segment cutting tools2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each new tool has to be tested and characterized in terms of force, stability, and finish quality. This is true also for the newly developed circle-segment tools that have a large engagement (the surface of the cutting section of the tool that is in contact with the workpiece).The Virtual Model of Finish-Machining with Circle Segment End-mills study shows a model that can be used to create a simulation of these tools. By taking the basis of this simulation it is possible to simulate the surface machined by this tool, so it is possible to study how thetool run-out and the vibration affects the machined surface. And so, the aim of this study is to make this simulated surface and observe how the run out of the tools and how the vibration affects the final surface finish quality. To do it the run-out of a real tool has to be measured, and then the profile of this tool including the run-out must be used to create the tool’s profile to simulate the surface. To simulate the surface, a mesh has to be created. The tool’s profile is then put in the movement to mimic the real action of the tool by updating the surface height of the created mesh. Then the result can be compared with a theoretical one without run-out or vibration. Real machined samples could also be made and then observed with white light interferometry inorder to highlight the influence of the two studied parameters on the surface finish. During the machining, the vibration could be measured and could, after, be used to recreate vibration into this model but also to compare the White Light Interferometry observations. With these experiments, we could see how the tool run-out could affect the surface finish by creating stripes patterns of regular sizes but also that vibration is finally a secondary parameter that affects the roughness but not as much as other parameters. The finding given at the end is hard to generalize but can still be compared to other cases, the program in another hand is useable with all kinds of circle segment tools and could even be modified to improve the model we are currently using.

  • 115.
    Blom, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Öster, Carl-Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Åtkomststudie för robotiserad svetsning av flygmotordetalj2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate if the robotized welding method FSW (Friction Stir Welding) could be applied for joining a rotating structure in an aero engine at Volvo Aero Corporation. FSW is expected to introduce less defects than today’s welding methods and could therefore be suitable for critical aero components. The material is the nickel based alloy Inconel 718, however a material experimentation is outside the scope of this report.The main goal of this study is to verify if the ESAB ROSIO robot based FSW-system has a suitable work space to be able to weld the rotating structure, and if the welding tool has accessibility to the joints. The FSW-process needs a rigid fixture, and a number of fix-ture concepts are presented based on a proposed weld sequence. A final fixture design is proposed, which requires a new design of the structure.The accessibility studies were performed in the robot simulations software Robot Stu-dio. This showed that the robot was unable to weld the proposed model in all areas in the original design. If the robot and the rotating structure can be redesigned the access will be achieved as shown in Robot Studio simulations.In order to be implemented in real production a number of further actions need to be taken and the result of this study can be a basis for these.

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    Åtkomststudie för robotiserad svetsning av flygmotordetalj.pdf
  • 116.
    Blom, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kahlin, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kortare informationsvägar och tidsbesparing i produktionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is going through a fundamental change, more efficient logistics creates opportunities for global manufacturing chains. The logistics of information is another rapidly evolving process, where standardization is possible, but the end product is far more complex than what it seems at first. The possibility of adaptation in information logistics is endless, but this is a challenge in itself, how can you possibly navigate efficiently and find just the information you need at the correct moment? Industry 4.0 are both driving the changes and addressing these challenges, often the information logistic chains in manufacturing are already set for subprocesses, but the overall connections between them are manually handled, or lacking overall.

    GKN is a manufacturer of details to the flight and space industry, meaning high safety and strong regulations. This means complex challenges for the IT department where information is tied together, everything has to be state-of-the-art secure while highly accessible at all times.

    This thesis is a pre-study with information from interviews, focusing on the overall perspective from the employees using the system. They were given the question "How would digital applications facilitate your daily working routine? This was followed by a summary and another meeting where the suggestions were rated with 3-2-1 points.

    The initial interviews were showing recurrent problematic areas among the different groups, and, as expected, these areas also got the most points in the individual scoring. Non-Conformance handling scored the highest with 19 points, followed by QSYS at 9 points. An application was prototyped with suggestions on layout, navigation and information. According to the calculations, an optimized system for non-conformance handling will reduce the cost by 1,62 MSEK.

  • 117.
    Blomgren, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Konceptförslag på tunnelkonsol med mugghållare och förvaring2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this project is that Volvo Cars AB wants to give the customer more opportunities to store things in their cars. Today, the customer brings many different objects into their cars, for example cups, bottles and cell phones. The customer would like to have the ability to store these things in a practical and easily accessible way.

    Volvo Cars AB wanted new ideas for the centre stack with focus on the cup holder and storage facilities. The centre stack is the component that are located between the driver's seat and passenger seat of the car where the armrest and gear lever are. The concepts that were developed shall make the centre stack into a more efficient and smarter way to store things. The project was to develop a cup holder that can be used as a cup holder and at the same time as a storage space, a dual functional cup holder. It was also included in the task to find other storage facilities that can improve the centre stack.

    In this project a product development process has been used to produce concepts for the centre stack. By analysing the assignment and the use of brainstorming about 70 ideas was produced. They were reduced to 24 through a discussion with the supervisor at Volvo. Then a discussions was conducted with engineers at Volvo from the interior department, that resulted in eleven concepts remained to be developed further. From these eleven concepts three end concepts were chosen with the help of a decision matrix.

    The three end concepts were two dual functional cup holders and one bottle holder. All these end concepts are easy to apply to the centre stack and are also easy for the customer to use.

  • 118.
    Blomqvist, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gundhammar, Kalle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Customer value in leak detection of blow-fill-seal products2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis is conducted at University West in Trollhättan, Sweden. The purpose of the study is to explore the customer value in using automated leak detection for blow-fill-seal products so that suppliers of such equipment can design a value proposition that supports the users' process of value-creation.

    The theoretical framework of this study has its foundation in the service logic perspective of value and the value proposition canvas. A simple combined model of the two theories has been developed to answer our research questions of what creates value for the user of automated leak detection for blow-fill-seal products and how suppliers of automated leak testing solutions can support the customers' process of value creation. The customers' value creating activities are their jobs and gains they want to achieve. The suppliers' activities to potentially co-create value is eliminating customers' pains and support them in achieving gains. Data collection has been performed through semi-structured interviews with manufacturers and suppliers in the blow-fill-seal industry.

    The empirical findings show that there are different technologies for leak testing sterile plastic containers. Regardless of which technology is used, the primary purpose and the value-creating activities of leak-testing is to ensure a sterile product to the end-user and comply with regulations, guidelines, and end-user demands. They also show that properly functioning equipment can be used to validate the manufacturing for improvement and prevent continuous production of damaged products. The relationship between suppliers and manufacturers proves to be of great value for both parties, as the manufacturers especially value the supply of spare parts, technical service, and high supplier presence. Some of the identified customer pains are verifying the size of the leaking hole, complex solutions, failures in machinery, poor product handling, and issues with facility space.

    The essence of marketing in the blow-fill-seal industry with automated leak detection is understanding complex customer processes and interpreting each customer's specific needs to facilitate their value-creating activities and co-create value. Co-creation of value in a collaborative process appears to be possible if suppliers can establish long-term relationships with a high presence to support their customers. In addition, the suppliers can develop devices for hole-size verification along with the users, aim for simplicity to flatten the learning curve, reduce the risk of breakdowns, and develop solutions for visual inspection integrated with leak testing.

  • 119.
    Bloom, Sean
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av en provsändningsprocess för kemikalier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nouryon Stenungsund belongs to a global chemistry group that produces important everyday chemistry for industrial customers worldwide. In most cases, the products that are produced need to be tested within each customer's production before an order for the product can be made. The sample transmission process must work effectively for customers to receive samples to test the products within their respective production. This study examines the sample transmission process between the company's tolling facilities and the sample transmission within the production facility in Stenungsund. A tolling facility is a standalone production facility that produces products that Nouryon Stenungsund does not have the capacity, technology or knowledge of. The process is described by following customer orders from registration in the CSR department, until the sample transmission receives the order. Contact the planning department of the independent production facilities regarding the material availability and send the order to the customer.

    According to the company, the sample transmission process between the tolling sites and the sample transmission sites is inefficient, and thus needs to be streamlined. At present, these types of orders can have a lead time of up to 16 weeks, which is not an acceptable lead time. To prevent the long lead time, a change is needed regarding the company's sample order management. The purpose of the study is to streamline the sample transmission process by eliminating any waste or inefficiency. The goal is to design concrete and realistic improvement proposals. For the study to be conducted a literature study was performed, in which relevant topics linked to the study area were studied. The subjects studied were quality, organizational structures, logistics and Lean.

    To enable improvement proposals, a current situation assessment was needed to map the sample transmission process. The survey was carried out by conducting interviews and observations with the involved departments CSR, tolling and sample transmission.

    Based on the situation assessment and the literature study, problem areas linked to the sample transmission process could be identified as the basis for improvement proposals. The conclusion was drawn from the problem areas of waiting and inventory, which had the greatest impact on the sample transmission process. A product-specific safety stock was suggested to prevent a shortage of material in the sample transmission. The product-specific safety stock streamlines the sample transmission process by eliminating 95 percent of lead time for products that previously had a general lead time of four weeks.

  • 120.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Supporting Tools for Operator in Robot Collaborative Mode2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 409-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making use of robot automation for customized products put high demand not only on the robot but on the efficiency, simplicity and flexibility to actually deploy and use robots in manufacturing stations and production lines in short batches and low volume production. Hence, market oriented product development and production requires more products to be developed and offered in less time than before, and produced for the market with more customizable options. The role of the operator is in this context an important factor and tools are needed to support the operator for highly efficient and flexible production. In this paper, the development and study of supporting tools for operators is presented. A demonstrator has been built for robotic nailing, screwing and manipulation operation in producing scaled down gable wall elements in wood for a family house. Issues raised to support the operator included automatic programming and generating relevant information for the operator for the deployment procedure to prepare for production. During production, different concepts of safety system to support collaboration mode between the operator and the robot was developed and studied. Wearable devices was used for the operator to access the information generated and different safety configurations were developed and evaluated. The baseline for this work has been to identify industrial use cases which has a clear need for automation as well as collaboration between operator(s) and robot(s). Work scenarios were discussed and analyzed with industrial partners and it was concluded that, in addition to the deployment tools, a smart safety system which is able to detect and react on humans entering the robot system work area is needed. This should support for efficient production and less downtime for both automatic mode and collaboration mode. The benefit of operator – robot collaboration is clearly shown as well as the need for supporting tools.

  • 121.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Zhang, Xiaoxiao
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Safety System for Industrial Robots to Support Collaboration2016In: Advances in Ergonomics of Manufacturing: Managing the Enterprise of the Future. Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Christopher Schlick, Stefan Trzcieliński, Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 253-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing trend towards manufacturing of customized products generates an increased demand on highly efficient work methods to manage product variants through flexible automation. Adopting robots for automation is not always feasible in low batch production. However, the combination of humans together with robots performing tasks in collaboration provides a complementary mix of skill and creativity of humans, and precision and strength of robots which support flexible production in small series down to one-off production. Through this, collaboration can be used with implications on reconfiguration and production. In this paper, the focus and study is on designing safety for efficient collaboration operator—robot in selected work task scenarios. The recently published ISO/TS 15066:2016 describing collaboration between operator and robot is in this context an important document for development and implementation of robotic systems designed for collaboration between operator and robot.

  • 122.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Analysis and direct optimization of cutting tool utilization in CAM2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for increased productivity and cost reduction in machining can be interpreted as the desire to increase the material removal rate, MRR, and maximize the cutting tool utilization. The CNC process is complex and involves numerous limitations and parameters, ranging from tolerances to machinability. A well-managed preparation process creates the foundations for achieving a reduction in manufacturing errors and machining time. Along the preparation process of the NC-program, two different studies have been conducted and are presented in this thesis. One study examined the CAM programming preparation process from the Lean perspective. The other study includes an evaluation of how the cutting tools are used in terms of MRR and tool utilization.

    The material removal rate is defined as the product of three variables, namely the cutting speed, the feed and the depth of cut, which all constitute the cutting data. Tool life is the amount of time that a cutting tool can be used and is mainly dependent on the same variables. Two different combinations of cutting data might provide the same MRR, however the tool life will be different. Thereby the difficulty is to select the cutting data to maximize both MRR and cutting tool utilization. A model for the analysis and efficient selection of cutting data for maximal MRR and maximal tool utilization has been developed and is presented. The presented model shortens the time dedicated to the optimized cutting data selection and the needed iterations along the program development.

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  • 123.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Flygmotorvagen 1, Trollhattan, 46138, Sweden.
    Lu, Tao
    University of Kentucky, Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing (ISM), Lexington, KY 40506, United States.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Jawahir, I. S.
    University of Kentucky, Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing (ISM), Lexington, KY 40506, United States.
    Process sustainability evaluation for manufacturing of a component with the 6R application2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 33, p. 546-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability in manufacturing can be evaluated at product, process and system levels. The 6R methodology for sustainability enhancement in manufacturing processes includes: reduced use of materials, energy, water and other resources; reusing of products/components; recovery and recycling of materials/components; remanufacturing of products; and redesigning of products to utilize recovered materials/resources. Although manufacturing processes can be evaluated by their productivity, quality and cost, process sustainability assessment makes it a complete evaluation. This paper presents a 6R-based evaluation method for sustainable manufacturing in terms of specific metrics within six major metrics clusters: environmental impact, energy consumption, waste management, cost, resource utilization and society/personnel health/operational safety. Manufacturing processes such as casting, welding, turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc., can be evaluated using this methodology. A case study for machining processes is presented as an example based on the proposed metrics. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 124.
    Boonnak Jacobsen, Linnfaa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nord, Linda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ett konfigurationsverktyg för Plug & Produce2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for fast and flexible production is increasing every year. Today's automated systems are not effective enough and do not meet the demands. University West is trying to develop a system to increase the level of automation and the efficiency of a production system. University West's framework for Plug & Produce is based on MAS (multi-agent system). One problem with systems based on MAS is the complexity of the configuration. The purpose of this work is to develop a user interface for a configuration tool to Plug & Produce. The user interface should simplify the configuration process of the system which is currently configured by programming in C#.

    Guidelines for how the user interface should be designed and which semantics to use have been reviewed through literature studies. Since the Plug & Produce system should be able to be applied in different industries, has semantics been an important part of the work. This is because generality is a requirement for the user interface.

    The result presents the design of the user interface and the semantic words that have been studied. The design is a proposal for University West to how they can develop the user interface for the configuration tool.

    Discussion of the methods and the validity of the results generated by these methods are presented in section for discussion. Problems encountered are also presented here.

    What the authors believe that the thesis has contributed to is described in the conclusion. The authors also provide recommendations for further work in that section.

  • 125.
    Borgljung, Karl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframtagning av fixtur för mekanisk provning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a time frame of 10 weeks a bachelor’s thesis, by the institution of engineer by University West, has been made with the task of designing and dimensioning a concept proposal for a fixture to be used in mechanical testing for PTC, Production technical centrum. The guidelines for this project are that the fixture shall work with two different machines that are at PTC: s disposal. The fixture is supposed to be able to do tensile-, flexureand compact tension tests For this, a requirement specification has been set up, were interviews with two research groups have been done to assess their needs. Based on the requirements, different concept proposals have been sketched and compared against each other to find an optimal solution. This has resulted in a fixture that meets the given requirements from the reserachsgroups, relevant standards and directives for mechanical testing.

  • 126.
    Borole, Sarang
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Building an Automatic Multi-Voltage system: ROS 2 data acquisition unit2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work explores the possibility to build a breakout box which is used as a testing equipment in the labs to measure multi voltages i.e. as an oscilloscope which generates the electrical signal over time to measure and record the change in voltage data. The introduction to building a new compact system as the working of breakout box creates new challenges as with the accuracy and compatibility. Wiretronics is a company which aims to build an application-based unit, Data acquisition system with ROS 2 as a middleware. This work aims to build a system with the help of Teensy 3.6, Raspberry pi4, microphone sensor where the ROS 2.0 will act as a middleware. Then this built system will be applicable in finding the squeaking, cranking sounds in the cars. Also, this system can be placed over a boat and the variable change in data can be recorded and studied after the journey. Making such a unit will have econom-ically beneficial as it will replace the breakout box i.e. reducing the system cost and more-over the system will be mobile and compact to use.The part of the project will be also concerned about getting the data sets from the microphone in the form of graph and stored it in CSV files. These data sets will be used by the Machine Learning team as training datasets for machines so as to make a system which will be responsible for calculating the speed and distance travelled by any object. Testing and validation of the system described above that the wanted functionality could be obtained. It also showed limitation to the system as getting the output at a faster rate was a challenge. To build a fast system we will require fast processor. The presented concept has proven to work and can be applied not only for the testing industries for variable voltage testing. But also the output of the data can be obtained in form of graphical view than it can created as dataset for machine learning which will help in future projects like calculating the distance travelled by an object when passed through a designated path. This system further has a potential to use it an ECG machine with further reference and research.

  • 127.
    Brattberg, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dirfors, Leo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Implementering av Manufacturing Execution System: Kartläggning av funktioner och behov av ett MES för VBG2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been carried out in VBG Group's machine workshop in Vänersborg, where the communication between machines and business systems is done manually. A proposal has been made on how a Manufacturing Execution System will be implemented in the machine workshop. MES is a system that communicates automatically between machines and business systems.

    Interviews have been conducted along with a visit to a company that has an MES installed in its production. A survey has been sent out to employees that will use the system in the future to get their opinion. The results from the survey provided a better understanding of which data is most important to have access to, in order to ease the daily work for the employees. The survey and the company visit to VBG h§as made it possible to determine the needs, on which the final proposal has been based on. The proposal is to implement Siemens Mindsphere together with Prevas eLIPS. By using both Mindsphere and eLIPS, all current needs can be fulfilled, with the ability to meet future needs, thanks to the modularity of the systems.

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  • 128.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Analysis method for pulsed thermography based on an analytical solution of the heat equation2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical solution to the heat equation is presented, using a simplified physical model of pulsed thermography. This solution was compared to experimental data and showed good correlation, with r=0.97. An analysis method for sizing and determining the depth of a defect was developed using this analytical solution. The shape of the defect was estimated using deconvolution. Results from thermography tests on flat bottom holes show the possibilities of the method to determine the size, shape and depth of the defect, if the physical properties of the material are known.

  • 129.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Imaging and analysis methods for automated weld inspection2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All welding processes can give rise to defects, which weakens the joint and can eventually lead to the failure of the welded structure. In order to inspect welds for detects, without affecting the usability of the product, non-destructive testing (NDT) is needed. NDT includes a wide range of different techniques, based on different physical principles, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The testing is often performed manually by a skilled operator and in many cases only as spot-checks. Today the trend in industry is to move towards thinner material, in order to save weight for cost and for environmental reasons. The need for inspection of a larger portion of welds therefore increases and there is an increasing demand for fully automated inspection, including both the mechanised testing and the automatic analysis of the result. Compared to manual inspection, an automated solution has advantages when it comes to speed, cost and reliability. A comparison of several NDT methods was therefore first performed in order to determine which methods have most potential for automated weld inspection. Automated analysis of NDT data poses several difficulties compared to manual data evaluation. It is often possible for an operator to detect defects even in noisy data, through experience and knowledge about the part being tested. Automatic analysis algorithms on the other hand suffer greatly from both random noise as well as indications that originate from geometrical variations. The solution to this problem is not always obvious. Some NDT techniques might not be suitable for automated inspection and will have to be replaced by other, better adapted methods. One such method that has been developed during this work is thermography for the detection of surface cracks. This technique offers several advantages, in terms of automation, compared to existing methods. Some techniques on the other hand cannot be easily replaced. Here the focus is instead to prepare the data for automated analysis, using various pre-processing algorithms, in order to reduce noise and remove indications from sources other than defects. One such method is ultrasonic testing, which has a good ability for detecting internal defects but suffers from noisy signals with low spatial resolution. Work was here done in order to separate indications from corners from other indications. This can also help to improve positioning of the data and thereby classification of defects. The problem of low resolution was handled by using a deconvolution algorithm in order to reduce the effect of the spread of the beam.The next step in an automated analysis system is to go beyond just detection and start characterising defects. Using knowledge of the physical principles behind the NDT method in question and how the properties of a defect affect the measurement, it is sometimes possible to develop methods for determining properties such as the size and shape of a defect. This kind of characterisation of a defect is often difficult to do in the raw data, and is therefore an area where automated analysis can go beyond what is possible for an operator during manual inspection. This was shown for flash thermography, where an analysis method was developed that could determine the size, shape and depth of a defect. Similarly for laser ultrasound, a method was developed for determining the size of a defect.

  • 130.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Surface crack detection in welds using thermography2013In: NDT & E international, ISSN 0963-8695, E-ISSN 1879-1174, Vol. 57, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermography is today used within non-destructive testing for detecting several different types of defects. The possibility for using thermography for detecting surface cracks in welded metal plates has here been investigated. During testing the weld is illuminated using a high power infrared light source. Due to surface cracks acting like black bodies, they will absorb more energy than the surrounding metal and can be identified as a warmer area when imaged using an infrared camera. Notches as well as real longitudinal cold cracks in a weld are investigated using the presented method. The results show that thermography is promising as a method for detection cracks open to the surface.

  • 131.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Towards Automation of Non-Destructive Testing of Welds2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All welding processes can give rise to defects that will weaken the joint and can lead to failure of the welded structure. Because of this, non-destructive testing (NDT) of welds have become increasingly important to ensure the structural integrity when the material becomes thinner and stronger and welds become smaller; all to reduce weight in order to save material and reduce emissions due to lighter constructions.

    Several NDT methods exists for testing welds and they all have their advantages and disadvantages when it comes to the types and sizes of defects that are detectable, but also in the ability to automate the method. Several methods were compared using common weld defects to determine which method or methods were best suited for automated NDT of welds. The methods compared were radiography, phased array ultrasound, eddy current, thermography and shearography. Phased array ultrasound was deemed most suitable for detecting the weld defects used in the comparison and for automation and was therefore chosen to be used in the continuation of this work. Thermography was shown to be useful for detecting surface defects; something not easily detected using ultrasound. A combination of these techniques will be able to find most weld defects of interest.

    Automation of NDT can be split into two separate areas; mechanisation of the testing and automation of the analysis, both presenting their own difficulties. The problem of mechanising the testing has been solved for simple geometries but for more general welds it will require a more advance system using an industrial robot or similar. Automation of the analysis of phased array ultrasound data consists of detection, sizing, positioning and classification of defects. There are several problems to solve before a completely automatic analysis can be made, including positioning of the data, improving signal quality, segmenting the images and classifying the defects. As a step on the way towards positioning of the data, and thereby easing the analysis, the phase of the signal was studied. It was shown that the phase can be used for finding corners in the image and will also improve the ability to position the corner as compared to using the amplitude of the signal. Further work will have to be done to improve the signal in order to reliably analyse the data automatically.

  • 132.
    Broberg, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Garner, Simon
    TWI.
    Sizing of subsurface defects in thin walls using laser ultrasonics2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser ultrasonics is a non-destructive testing technique where a focused laser is used for generating an ultrasound pulse and a second laser is used for detection. This ultrasound pulse is used for detecting surface or near surface defects. A defect will not only reflect the incoming surface wave, but also alter the frequency contents of the transmitted wave. When the detection laser was scanned along the surface, changes in frequency contents of the sound pulse were detected and could be analysed to give information about the diameter of the defect.

  • 133.
    Broberg, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Analysis algorithm for surface crack detection by thermography with UV light excitation2016In: Quantitative InfraRed Thermography 2016: Abstracts / [ed] Kaczmarek, M. & Bujnowski, A., Gdańsk, Poland: Publishing Gdańsk University of Technology , 2016, p. 160-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface crack defects can be detected by IR thermograpgy due to the high absorption of energy within the crack cavity. It is often difficult to detect the defect in the raw data, since the signal easily drowns in the background. It is therefore important to have good analysis algorithms that can reduce the background and enhance the defect. Here an analysis algorithm is presented which significantly increases the signal to noise ratio of the defects and reduces the image sequence from the camera to one image.

  • 134.
    Broberg, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Comparison of NDT-methods for automatic inspection of weld defects2015In: International journal of materials & product technology, ISSN 0268-1900, E-ISSN 1741-5209, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate different NDT-methods for weld inspection in an objective manner. Test objects are produced with known variation of flaws: internal pores, surface and internal cracks, toe radius and weld depth. The NDT-methods compared are: phased array ultrasound, radiography, eddy current, thermography and shearography. The results show that radiography is the better method for volumetric defects in thin plates while ultrasound is better for flat defects and thicker, non-flat plates. Thermography was shown to have a good ability of detecting surface defects. A combination of ultrasound and thermography results in a detection of all the non-geometrical defects investigated in this study.

  • 135.
    Brohede, Gry
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Konceptframtagning av klimatkammare2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prevas AB is a consulting company that, among other things, develops and manufactures instruments aimed at the pharmaceutical industry. In this report a concept is developed for a climate chamber, using a selection of methods described in Produktutveckling konstruktion och design by Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger. The result was a climate chamber with a lid that opens from above and is sealed with a magnetic strip. A fan circulates the air in the chamber that has rounded corners as well as a partition for directing the airflow. The material cost for the climate chamber is approximately 38000 SEK. The climate chamber can be used in an ISO 14644-1 class 7 certified clean room and be sterilized with ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. The climate chamber has a total weight of approximately 30 kg.

  • 136.
    Brülde, Bengt
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Kvalitet, värde och livskvalitet2013In: Den omätbara kvaliteten / [ed] Lars Strannegård, Lund, 2013, 2, p. 175-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Buvarp, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Cost effectiveness of methods for reducing particulate matter emissions from shipping2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marine diesel engines form particulate matter when the fuel is combusted inside the cylinders. This is due to the fuel and air not being homogenously mixed and chemical processes occurring as a result. These particles are then discarded into the atmosphere together with the exhaust gases, where they then may end up harming humans and the environment. Coal power plants, industry and diesel powered cars and trucks have regulations on them limiting the amount of particulate matter that they may emit. Ships have no such regulations on them yet, but they are expected to come.

    There are many ways that these emissions may be reduced, but the methods also need to have low costs associated with them both considering one time investments and long term maintenance and operation. Since it may soon be relevant for ships to start implementing methods for reducing their particulate matter emissions, there is a need for information regarding both effectiveness and cost for different available mitigation methods. Therefore, this study looked at available methods from this viewpoint and analysed the data. A variety of methods were found, ranging from reducing energy usage aboard, to using nuclear propulsion. Some of the methods were found to be quite effective and others not effective at all. The costs ranged from a net gain to doubling the cost of the ship.

    In the end several recommendations are made in order to provide clear information to the industry about which methods are worth looking in to, and in which circumstances these methods should be used. All ship operators are recommended to increase the fuel efficiency of their ships, reduce energy consumption, and if logistically possible reduce their cruise speed, as well as consider converting to alternative fuels. If those recommendations are not possible or not enough, the use of certain suggested exhaust gas cleaning methods is recommended.

  • 138.
    Byseke, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Thunell, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatic monitoring and control of Laser Metal Deposition Process2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing technique that enables the manufacturing or repair of high-quality metal parts by building fine layers one at a time. To get a stable process with a low number of flaws and irregularities the process needs a fully operational and functioning control system. At PTC in Trollhättan, a production research facility that is a department of University West, several experiments have previously been conducted with an LMD machine. 

    The main objective of this thesis is to deliver input from available methods for automatic control and monitoring of the LMD process. The available methods are explained in the report and previous experiments that have been conducted have been documented in this thesis. Another objective of the thesis is to develop a prototype for monitoring and control of the process.

    Previous work has mainly used a visual-based control system that has used CMOS-, CCD-, or an infrared camera. Pyrometers and structured light scanning have also been used. Non-optical methods such as acoustical sensors and thermocouples have also been used for monitoring and control. 

    With the gathered information about the available control methods, a prototype has been developed to automatically control the LMD machine located at PTC. The control uses a CMOS camera to gather live imaging from the machine in order to adjust machine parameters, in real-time, to automatically control the process. The different parameters have a strong correlation to the final machine output and are also explained in the thesis. 

    The prototype and the gathering of data from the process have been made using Labview as an image-processing software. An evaluation of the developed prototype has been made and the different control methods have been discussed. The developed prototype measures the melt pool by using an algorithm that counts the number of pixels in the melt pool. However, further research needs to be made to determine if the measured width correlates with the actual width of the cladded string.

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  • 139.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    A health‐related quality management approach to evaluating health promotion activities2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe health promotion activities accomplished within a project and to measure the conditions for sustainable health within the case organizations. Also, the purpose is to test a previously developed measurement approach, which measures health-related quality management.

    Design/methodology/approach – A health promotion project currently being carried out at eight Swedish elementary schools has been studied. In earlier research a measurement approach was developed to measure health-related quality management. The approach was handed out to the co-workers at the eight different schools in the initial stage of the project. The leaders at the schools were informed of the results of their own school and the mean value of all the eight schools. The consistency and reliability of the statements within the approach was tested.

    Findings – A description of health promotion activities accomplished and planned within the project can be found. The results from the measurement of the health-related quality management in the eight schools are presented, together with the mean score of all schools. The test of the measurement approach is presented and discussed.

    Originality/value – A description of health promotion activities can help managers and project leaders to plan and carry out valuable health promotion activities in their striving for both sustainable health among the co-workers and efficient organizations. This measurement approach can help managers and project leaders to measure the effects of the health promotion activities

  • 140.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Change of the Quality Management culture through health-promotion activities?2014In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, no 11-12, p. 1236-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great demand for workplace health-promotion programmes that improve co-worker health and provide a return on investment, which is due to the continuous escalation of care costs and the prioritisation of co-worker health by businesses. Early research found that organisations that have achieved good co-worker health with low sickness absence through their conscious and well-structured work were also working according to Quality Management. Health-promotion interventions are possible in every organisation, but before starting a health-promotion programme it is necessary to analyse the organisation and especially its culture. The purpose of this paper is to measure in what way health-promoting activities influence the Quality Management culture, particularly the health-related values 'Leadership commitment' and 'Participation of everybody'. A comparison between the Quality Management culture before starting a health-promotion project and the results a year later is presented. The results show that health-promotion activities do not affect the Quality Management culture, at least not from a year perspective. On the other hand, the results show that health-promotion activities can affect co-workers' perception of their health. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 141.
    Calandre, Bruno
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Mechanical design of combined vertical and horizontal wire EDM machine2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) is considered a non-conventional machining process. It relies on micro erosion on the workpiece via small arcs between the workpiece and a wire. It is well regarded for being a zero-force machining process with the ability to process difficult materials (high toughness, high melting temperature…). WEDM is also able to machine complex geometry or parts that are difficult to handle. To enhance workpiece acceptance, horizontal WEDM can be implemented. It consists of a different machine layout where the wire is in a horizontal position.

    Throughout this project, a horizontal WEDM arm was designed and manufactured. A design procedure was established and it was found that the critical design points to be tackled are:

    • Possibility to adjust the wire nozzle position precisely.

    • Ensuring stiffness of the component.

    • Providing adequate fixture possibilities.

    Those requirements were implemented in a computer-aided design (CAD) model and the manufacturing considerations were expressed. The project outcome is a close-to-definitive working product. Further work is required to finish the implementation of horizontal WEDM.

  • 142.
    Calles, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hjort, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projektkalkylering: En projektkalkyl för prototypverkstad och designcenter2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    TechRoi Engineering AB, TechRoi, is a technology company within engineering services that offers technology consultants, IT and design solutions as well as prototype manufacturing. In order to supervise the different areas an inhouse created excel template is being used for project cost calculations. The aim of the study was to create a tool in Excel that will increase TechRoi's knowledge about how working time and costs is divided between projects connected to the prototype workshop and the design center. Additional to the first goal a tool to manage proposals for new projects, manage the evaluate projects in terms of working time and costs was created. The quotation calculation is the page in the template that is used to fill in how many hours a project is estimated to the design center and prototype workshop as well as externally calculated costs. The summary page is created with the aim of creating an overview of the project and enabling a comparison between projects calculated costs and the price to the customer. The project calculus is created as a complement for the quotation calculation and summary page. The purpose of the project was to create a project calculation tool that is used throughout the project life cycle. The project calculation can be used as early as when the project quotation is created as a sensitivity analysis. This means that it is possible to know before the project starts how much costs can increase before the project shows an economically negative result. During the implementation of the project, it is possible to continuously update hours and costs in order to control the project. If the project calculation has been continuously completed during the project, all values will be filled, and the project calculation will then act as a project costing.

  • 143.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Briefing: Calling for a norm-critical perspective of digitalisation2021In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A question that becomes important as the level of digitalisation increases in society and businesses is accounting for how one interprets digitalisation. There are positive examples of digitalisation in relation to gender, age and physical ability and how digital technologies can positively enhance a workplace, although the norm-critical perspective is seldom represented. A more dynamic perspective such as the norm-critical is needed to depict potential limiting structures or assumptions interpreted by digitalisation. This briefing paper takes on an interpretative approach using the Swedish manufacturing industry as a case to illustrate the perspectives related to gender, age and physical ability relative to digitalisation. The norm-critical perspective has formed the narrative and viewpoints presented in this paper. The aim is to highlight the norm-critical perspective as a potential analytical lens among researchers and industry professionals alike to understand how digitalisation is negotiated and given value and how digitalisation is manifested and interpreted to that given value. 

  • 144.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Social Aspects of Strategizing Industrial Digitalization2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to understanding how contemporary Swedish manufacturing organizations can strategize industrial digitalization with an emerging focus on social aspects. It complements earlier research by highlighting Swedish manufacturing organizations as they stand at the intersection of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0.

    The thesis is a longitudinal case study of interviews and focus groups between early 2019 and spring 2023. The case study follows an explorative approach to give texture to industrial digitalization and to understand the social aspects of strategizing industrial digitalization. It is limited to the Swedish context and the characteristics of original equipment manufacturers.

    The thesis contributes by texturizing industrial digitalization through three social aspects, which are argued to be a way for manufacturing organizations to give shape to industrial digitalization. The social aspects elaborated on and presented in this thesis are: to look beyond digital technologies, to formalize a shared understanding, and to transcend organizational structures. These social aspects are thematic but also interlinked. Together, these social aspects bring insights into how managers can guide the organizational capabilities to ensure synergy between an organization’s actions and objectives when strategizing industrial digitalization. Strategizing industrial digitalization should, therefore, be texturized by each organization to define and redefine its organizational capabilities. This means each organization's social aspects are unique, making the manufacturing organizations' capabilities unique.

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  • 145.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Taking Responsibility for Industrial Digitalization: Navigating Organizational Challenges2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 866-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an employee perspective has been applied in aiming to explore how organizations face challenges and take responsibility for industrial digitalization, thus extending the research on the human-centric perspective in relation to Industry 4.0 technologies. To give emphasis to the human-centric perspective, the co-workership wheel was applied to identify and analyze data. The findings of an explorative longitudinal qualitative case study consisting of 35 in-depth interviews with informants from a manufacturing company were used. Additional data collection consisted of documents and project meetings. By applying a human-centric perspective, llessons learned from this case study show that taking responsibility for industrial digitalization is challenging and the importance of an adaptive organizational culture and a focus on learning and competence are crucial. We argue that the findings give useful implications for manufacturing organizations navigating the challenges of industrial digitalization to sense and seize the benefits of Industry 4.0 technologies.

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  • 146.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Managers’ Perceptions of Industrial Digitalization in the Early Phases of a Pandemic: A Qualitative Study2022In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 8th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in Information Systems Development, STPIS 2022 Reykjavik 19 August 2022 through 20 August 2022 / [ed] Bednar P., Bednar P., Islind A.S., Hult H.V., Hult H.V., Nolte A., Nolte A., Rajanen M., Zaghloul F., Ravarini A., Braccini A.M., CEUR-WS , 2022, Vol. 3239, p. 99-110, article id 183336Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how managers in the manufacturing industry simultaneously accommodated industrial digitalization and the impact of COVID-19. Managers’ views and understanding of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic are narrated through the circumstances that came to their proxy during the spring of 2020. The study result is based on qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with eight small- and medium-sized manufacturing managers. This study contributes by giving empirically informed implications on manufacturing managers’ perception of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings show that industrial digitalization due to the COVID-19 pandemic is viewed differently from previous digitalization processes, causing new ways for managers to perceive how and why digital technologies may be implemented. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

  • 147.
    Chamoun, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Investigating of HDPE & PET materials useability in electric cabling ducts for the car industry2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A research study to evaluate if the materials HDPE & PET are suitable as cabling ducts for the automotive industry. The cabling ducts will be used in places such as the engine compartment and inside the body of the car. The research study was ordered from Lear Corporation. Lear Corporation uses today a material that is called Polyamide 66 and they wanted the student to find out if it was possible to use either HDPE or PET instead. The reason why Lear wanted it is because the previous report that students from University West did for Lear Corporation shows that the material PET looked surprisingly well. Now Lear wanted to dig in more into depth and see if it was possible to use PET as material for the cabling ducts. Lear choose HDPE also because they wanted the student to compare those two materials and to see if any of those will suit in as cabling ducts. 

    Both HDPE and PET are recyclable and environmentally friendly, and the properties (mechanical and thermal) was good. The only reason why HDPE and PET would not work is because they are highly flammable and burns fast. If flame retardant material is mixed with either HDPE or PET, then it will not be recyclable.

    The study was completely based on facts and the student have used different databases as well as student literature and previous reports. 

    The result showed that the material that Lear Corporation uses today is the most suitable for the combustion chamber and PET suits the rest of the car. Both are recyclable and the process method which is injection molding suits perfectly for PET and polyamide 66. 

  • 148.
    Chatham Svanberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Additiv tillverkning med praktisk tillämpning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing is today more accessible than ever thanks to a wide range of hardware with large differences in pricing. There are great benefits when products can be manufactured without waste material, so-called "near net shape", and with low numbers without being tool-bound. For this to be possible, good process integration in a company's order process and clear guidelines for how the selection of suitable components should take place are required. 

    For AB Ph Nederman & Co, through cooperation with those responsible for the project that handles the classification of components, this process integration has been ensured throughout this thesis. Suggestions for process changes with regard to additive manufacturing have been provided and in conjunction, instructions for internal management within this process have been developed. Instructions contain how identification and assessment of whether an item is suitable for additive manufacturing takes place, how orders for these should be handled system wise and how materials are selected for manufacturing. 

    Furthermore, 5 parts have been manufactured and evaluated technically by the person responsible for the test laboratory at AB Ph Nederman and according to the company's internal guide for visible surfaces. Based on the requirements for the components, the results have been positive with the exception of visible surfaces, which was noted in the instruction for identifying suitable components.

    To ensure that the internal climate strategy is met together with the thesis, an analysis has been carried out regarding how the climate impact changes when a component is moved from purchased by supplier to being manufactured internally through additive manufacturing. Positive results are demonstrated with reduced carbon footprint by up to 182 kilograms and reduced energy consumption by up to 4100 megajoules. Premises for this reduction in relation to order quantity have also been discussed to provide clarity for what expectations should arise in the matter. 

    Through this work, this work has thus laid the foundation for the start-up and introduction of additive manufacturing at the company AB Ph Nederman and Co.

  • 149.
    Chatzigiannakou, Maria Angeliki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekergård, Boel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Temiz, Irina
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Numerical analysis of an Uppsala University WEC deployment by a barge for different sea states2020In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 205, article id 107287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave energy converters (WECs) have been deployed onshore, nearshore, and offshore to convert ocean wave movement into electricity. The exploitation of renewable energy sources has restrictions; in the case of wave energy, high installation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs have limited their commercial use. Moreover, these offshore operations can be compromised by safety issues. This paper draws attention to offshore operation safety of a WEC developed by Uppsala University. Specifically, this paper investigates what sea states are suitable for the safe deployment of a WEC from a barge. This study follows recommendations in DNV-RP-H103 for analysis of offshore operations, namely lifting through the wave zone. ANSYS Aqwa is used to find hydrodynamic forces acting on a typical barge, using frequency domain analysis. Based on these hydrodynamic simulation results and methodology given in DNV-RP-H103, tables are created to show the sea states that would allow for the safe installation of a WEC using a typical barge. Considered sea states have significant wave heights varying between 0 m and 3 m and the wave zero crossing periods varying between 3 s and 13 s. The WEC submersions are considered between 0 m and 7 m, i.e. when the WEC is in the air until it is fully submerged. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

  • 150.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan.
    Wigren, Jan
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan.
    Clogging and lump formation during atmospheric plasma spraying with powder injection downstream the plasma gun2007In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 512-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to numerically and experimentally investigate lump formation during atmospheric plasma spraying with powder injection downstream the plasma gun exit. A first set of investigations was focused on the location and orientation of the powder port injector. It turned out impossible to keep the coating quality while avoiding lumps by simply moving the powder injector. A new geometry of the powder port ring holder was designed and optimized to prevent nozzle clogging, and lump formation using a gas screen. This solution was successfully tested for applications with Ni-5wt.%Al and ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3 powders used in production. The possible secondary effect of plasma jet shrouding by the gas screen, and its consequence on powder particles prior to impact was also studied.

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