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  • 101.
    Kalale Purushotham, Abhishek
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Visual Inspection of robot cell using machine vision: Identification of shapes and parts2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0 is enabling manufacturers to explore the field of automation which consists of integrated systems with robots, machines, and vision systems. Vision systems are used for inspection tasks, quality monitoring, and vision-guided robotic applications. Vision systems are used on manufacturing lines in robot cells which plays a key role in the development of automatization of industries.

    GKN Aerospace is a company that manufactures aerospace components which include jet engines. The research facility at Innovatum, Trollhattan contains a robotic cell that includes a vision system. This thesis work aims to perform a visual inspection of the robot cell using a machine vision system. This includes the detection and identification of parts and objects present in the robot cell. The research performed during the thesis work is aimed at constantly finding an optimal solution to the problem.

    The thesis work is carried out with an ABB camera and an ABB IRB6700 industrial robot for the detection and identification of the objects presented in the cell. The image is processed using the Integrated Vision toolbox available in ABB RobotStudio software. Different tools were tested for building an effective system. From the various tools tested the more efficient and faster routine is chosen and tested. A theoretical study is made on 2D/3D vision systems, acquisition methods, and camera placement from websites, scientific journals, and papers. The result comprises all the work done in the project. The simulation consists of picking up the objects that are presented in the robot cell from a suitable height where the complete module is visible.

  • 102.
    Kashyapagothra Sridhara, Prajwal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Modelling of paint shop production at VBG Truck Equipment: Discrete Event Simulation2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is becoming increasingly important in today's world due to the need to constructor improve projects more rapidly and effectively without incurring financial risk. The plant simulation tool plays an important role since it gives justified visual statistics. VBG Truck Equipment company makes trailer couplings, automatic snow chains, and sliding roofs. In the last decade, VBG has provided more couplings or snow chains to the truck and trailer automotive industry. Adding AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) to update their internal logistics system is part of an endeavor to stay current with industrial technological improvements while cutting long-term operating costs and enhancing material movement.This thesis motivates us on VBG Truck Equipment production one step closer to industry 4.0. They intend to begin this trip by investigating the feasibility of replicating their production flows and extending that simulation into a discrete event simulation and integration of AGV in the automated paint floor plant environment giving results of AGV through putmatching or exceeding the present real-time plant operations. The company aims to replace forklift manual operations and implementation of AGV operations with scheduling of orders as per priority. Aims and experiments were achieved concerning the model and the results have been discussed in the section below. 

  • 103.
    Keyvani, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Structuring and use of motion data for computer manikin work task simulations2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulation of human motions are of great interest for a number of industrial applications such as ergonomics and production planning. Over time, efforts have been made to provide computerized human models with biomechanically accurate underlying skeleton and realistically rendered volumetric representation of muscles, skin, clothes, etc. known as computer manikins. Despite considerable progress in computational methods for human motion generation in these models, there are still major challenges to generate natural looking motions for daily routine tasks for example in manual assembly lines. This research work proposes a software platform, related methods, and data structures to support use of real motion data for simulating and analysing routine work tasks. One contribution of this thesis is to find ways to deploy motion data in a uniform and efficient manner. The outcomes are a data schema, standards for data conversions, and procedures to aggregate motion data in a unified database. Another part of this thesis is dedicated to 'generating new motions by re-using stored data'. This is done by a synthesizer platform consisting of modules which are able to decompose tasks into primary motions, to search and retrieve motion pieces from the motion database, and to compose a new motion based on the required specifications. In addition, this thesis, presents a method to analyse the generated motions using time-varied motion data. Results of this work contribute in extending current tool functionalities by simulating complicate routine motions which, if not impossible, are very hard to simulate using today's computational algorithms. This work also improves the use of time-varied direct measurement analysis tools against traditional static observational methods.

  • 104.
    Keyvani, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Toward motion-capture-based digital human modelling2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Ericsson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Motion synthesizer platform for moving manikins2012In: 2012 AHFE International Conference 21-25 July 2012 Hilton San Francisco, Union Square, California: Conference proceedings, AHFE , 2012, p. 545-554Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Ericsson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Chalmers.
    Schema for Motion Capture Data Management2011In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3rd International Conference on Digital Human Modeling, ICDHM 2011: Orlando, 9-14 July 2011, 2011, p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unified database platform capable of storing both motion captured data and information about these motions (metadata) is described. The platform stores large motion captured data in order to be used by different applications for searching, comparing, analyzing and updating existing motions. The platform is intended to be used to choose a realistic motion in simulation of production lines. It is capable of supporting and handling different motion formats, various skeleton types and distinctive body regions in a uniform data model. Extended annotating system is also introduced to mark the captured data not only in the time domain (temporal) but also on different body regions (spatial). To utilize the platform, sample tests are performed to prove the functionality. Several motion captured data is uploaded to the database while MATLAB is used to access the data, ergonomically analyze the motions based on OWAS standard, and add the results to the database by automatic tagging of the postures.

  • 107.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lämkull, D.
    Virtal Methods and IT, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Extending Functionalities of DHM Tools Using Motion Databases2014In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Chalmers University.
    Using methods-time measurement to connect digital humans and motion databases2013In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 8026, no Part 2, p. 343-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To simulate human motions in DHM tools, using techniques which are based on real human data is one promising solution. We have presented a solution in this study to connect motion databases with DHM tools. We have showed that using a motion database with MTM-based annotations is a promising way in order to synthesize natural looking motions. A platform consists of a Motion Database, a Motion Generator, and a DHM tool was introduced and tested. The results showed successful application of the presented platform in the designed test case. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 109.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Paul, G.
    School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.
    Lämkull, D.
    Virtal Methods and IT, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Standardization of Motion Databases for DHM Applications: Challenges, Issues and considerations2014In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Nilsson, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Model-based Plug & Produce in Assembly Automation2023In: 2023 IEEE 28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): 12-15 September 2023, IEEE, 2023, Vol. 2023-SeptemberConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual assembly systems are featured with high flexibility but with the risk of lower quality, higher cycle time, inefficient resource employment, and affecting sustainability goals in comparison to fully automated ones. Conventional automated assembly is challenged by the desired level of flexibility when compared to what automation through Plug & Produce system represents. Plug and Produce, during the last few decades aimed at addressing highly flexible automation systems handling rapid changes and adaptations as one dominant solution. Multi-agent System (MAS) as a tool to handle different areas of manufacturing control systems can be used in Plug & Produce representing every physical control entity (e.g., parts, resources) as agents. This article aims to describe a model-based configurable multi-agent design in Plug and Produce system together with a prototype implementation of the actual automated assembly use case of a kitting operation highlighting flexibility and reconfigurability and the model functionality. A model-based approach with a few models using UML standards describes the structure and behavior of the system. Model instantiation is introduced and followed by real prototype use case implementation. The use case study of advanced automated kitting operation in the assembly automation domain has been selected. Agent-based operation control systems have been applied during the assembly process. The evaluation was accomplished by testing several scenarios on Plug & Produce for kitting operation. To conclude, several desirable functionality features of the framework during the demonstration such as rapid instantiation and adaptation, and in particular, the flexibility features have been examined and evaluated with several failure-handling testing scenarios. © 2023 IEEE.

  • 111.
    Khade, Gayatri
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Design of Robot Cell with Force Control for Grinding of Wood Structures2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a working in Robotics and automation field, I become a part of the ongoing research work of robotgrinding/milling surface value verification. This research work studies on external force feedback system controller which controls the robot system with external force sensing devices. The Simscape tool of MATLAB software helps in virtual interaction between Robot system and the wooden surfaces. Various designing methods are carried out according to the application. Designing of robot tool and fixture for the machining brings 3D modelling design in scenario. From older version to new editions of grinding operations specifies which the best tool for wood grinding and polishing is. The ABB RobotStudio software is used for offline programming. For grinding, milling, Polishing and sanding purpose we are using ABB’s IRB 4400 Robot system. The developed solution is inspected in practical session with number of iterations. If the offline programming and simulation satisfies the force system requirements then it will consider for surface grinding for furniture. The simulation and design of tool and fixture are executed in real robot cell to get result of the system. We will verify the surface roughness values and which wooden surface is best for the Scandinavian Furniture purpose.

  • 112.
    Khumalo, Nozinhle Primrose
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Implementing a human-centric HMI for Life Sciences Industry2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary focus of this thesis report was to develop an HMI application specifically tailored for the Life Sciences industry, with the overarching goal of enhancing user-centricity. To achieve this objective, the project investigated the crucial factors of HMI adaptability, usability, compatibility, and data integrity. The study explored various methods and approaches for implementing and improving these four key determinants, using Rockwell Automation's FT Optix software and Getinge Manufacturing as the case study.

    To achieve this, the study incorporated functionalities such as recipe management, audit trails, authentication of changes, and in-built report generation to attain CFR Part 11 compliance in line with the Life Sciences requirements for electronic data handling. Additionally, the study also explored the use of Machine Learning models to improve HMI adaptability. 

    Overall, the research successfully showcased the development of an HMI application that effectively incorporated and prioritised the above-mentioned features. Furthermore, the study identified the limitations of the project and highlighted areas that require further improvements. These findings provide valuable insights for advancing the field of man-machine collaboration, which holds significant importance in the realm of robotics and automation. The research contributes to the growing knowledge in this domain, providing a deeper understanding of optimising human-machine interaction and paving the way for future research.

  • 113.
    Kindblom, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Machine Learning for efficient surface inspection of critical aero engine parts2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the aerospace industry, visual surface inspection is an important task in quality control. If automated, there can be a significant reduction in manual work and error rate. For the intention behind this thesis, GKN Aerospace Sweden AB is looking to explore automated visual inspection through Machine Learning. By having the investigated surfaces photographed, the images can be fed to a computer where they are classified as either defective or non-defective. The problem is quite specific as there are limitations to the amount of available data, which is something generally counterproductive to achieving good performance with Machine Learning models. The approach is therefore focused towards utilizing methods that maximizes performance with this limitation in mind. One of the used techniques, data augmentation, concerns expanding the dataset through generating synthetic samples. The thesis covers four different ways of data augmentation, from which all proved to be beneficial (for the given amounts of expansion). Furthermore, the thesis work also investigates the use of transfer learning on common Convolutional Neural Network architectures. This means leveraging previously extracted knowledge from a different classification problem to the visual inspection problem at GKN. Transfer learning was shown to be very useful. In addition, by varying the degree to which the transferred knowledge is allowed to be modified, additional performance increases were observed.Regarding the choice of Convolutional Neural Network architecture there were tendencies for some models to perform better than others, but with no remarkable performance differences. The results showed very high accuracies for many of the suggested models, proving that Machine Learning is indeed very useful for surface inspection and can be advantageous even in cases of very limited datasets.

  • 114.
    Kondubhotla, Sai Sumanth Rohith
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automation of a CNC machine's Tool Transport Process: Using Mobile Robot2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the automation technology is being adopted by several industries for keeping their pace in the competition. Automation of a process is proven to increase efficiency, flexibility and product variety. For some complicated processes, using static industrial robots is not enough to completely automate them where the need of mobile robots comes into place.

    This thesis included such kind of a process where using a mobile robot is mandatory for automation but integrating mobile robots into automation comes with its own perks and downs. It will help in pick, place and transport parts within a defined environment but for it to autonomously transport parts between two machines, a properly setup communication flow is important. There are several different communication protocols available in the market and a proper research is required for choosing between them.

    In this research two protocols are included in the communication setup plan namely TCP/IP and OPC-UA. The work included creating an automation plan for a CNC machine's tool transport process. A mobile robot concept was followed to replace the manual transportation of the tool from CNC machine (GROB G350). For implementation an AGV from mobile robot industries namely MIR100 and a robot arm from Universal Robots namely UR10 are selected. A plug & produce system is present in the process where the tool tip changing process is carried out. The whole process includes picking tool (s) from G350 machine using the mobile robot, transporting it to the plug & produce system and placing it in one of the modules namely the buffer module.

    The automation plan has been created for the above-mentioned process and is validated using several inputs like research papers and expert information. Communication is divided into three phases and ways to build up a proper communication setup are suggested. Safety issues that will pop up in implementation are found through research and ways to overcome these issues are presented. Ways to perform precise positioning of the mobile robot are presented.

  • 115.
    Konrad, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Simulation of Mobile Robots with Unity and ROS: A Case-Study and a Comparison with Gazebo2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation software is becoming an increasingly important tool for automation systems both in industry and research. Within the field of mobile robotics, it is used to evaluate the performance of robots regarding localization, motion planning and control. In order to evaluate the performance of a mobile robot based on a simulation, the simulation must be of sufficient precision and accuracy. A commonly used middleware in robotics with increasing usage and importance is ROS (Robot Operating System). The community and the amount of robots in industry and research that are using ROS is growing. In the ROS community, the built-in simulator Gazebo is most often used for simulating purposes. Apart from Gazebo, popular game engines, like Unity, shift more in the focus of researchers for simulating robots. Those engines provide high capabilities in customized visualisations of simulations, the user interface and for example additional plugins for machine learning. Simultaneously, the physics engines which calculate the physical behaviour of objects in regard to their environment in those game engines are improving their performance. The performance of Unity as a simulatorin the ROS environment should be tested in this thesis work. While testing the performance of the simulator, its ability to adapt to different scenarios and applications should be rated. For that purpose, benchmarks were created and the results were compared to reality and Gazebo.

    The simulations in Unity could depict the basic behaviour of mobile robots for varying circumstances. The simulation for the specific setup in Unity was more detailed and closer to reality than the simulation in Gazebo. A major influence for that result was a non-existing controller for the wheels in Gazebo. Quantitative benchmarks showed a similar behaviour to reality in the Unity simulations. The results were highly dependent on the friction values and other simulation parameters. With the chosen setup, Unity showed systematic and nonsystematic errors in the end-position of predefined paths. A SLAM case study presented the possibility to use Unity in combination with SLAM algorithms on ROS. It was possible to implement other algorithms and simulate required sensors for data acquisition in Unity.

    Overall, Unity was rated to be suitable for the simulation of mobile robots in robotics research if no accurate simulation of the robots' properties is needed. Of major importance when conducting simulations with mobile robots in Unity are the used robot model and the chosen parameters in the simulation. Only if the robot model is validated, the results can be judged accordingly. To reduce the effect of the parameter settings in Unity on the results, no setups to solely examine the robot's hardware should be chosen. Instead, the simulations can be used for testing, improving and evaluating control algorithms on the robot. A huge opportunity is seen in the usage of automatically and synthetically generated simulation data for teaching deep learning algorithms.

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  • 116.
    Kouzoumis, Apostolos
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Designing an HMI for Control andVisualization of Resources in a Plug & Produce System2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a dynamic Human Machine Interface (HMI), designed for use in a Plug & Produce system. The HMI adapts depending on available resources and their signals. APlug & Produce demonstrator, which is referred to as the SMART Cell throughout the project, is used for testing the designed HMI. This demonstrator is reconfigurable in its core. It encases several positions where process modules can be attached, disconnected, or switch places at any time, depending on the needs of production. A system with these characteristics and structure is a viable solution for the production challenges of the future industry. Thus, a dynamic HMI to represent and control the manufacturing system without the need of being reprogrammed each time the system changes is deemed necessary. The solution is using a web-based approach, where a database acts as the communication channel between the HMI and the connected resources. Adapters can be developed for connecting resources to this database using almost any industrial communication protocol. A computer in the SMART Cell takes the role of a server while the HMI, projected in a small tablet computer, is the client, where the operators can interact with it. Testing the proposed solution has shown that the designed HMI can automatically adapt to the available signals given by connected resources. The HMI is also adapting to the current operator, based on several profiles created with different characteristics in the HMI layout.

  • 117.
    Kumar, Shobhan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Development of a Machine Vision System for a Pick and Place Operation2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the development of a machine vision system aimed at automating the Pick and Place operation in small-scale industries, thereby reducing reliance on human workforce. A key objective of this research was to improve the ergonomic conditions within such industries. The vision system's development involved two distinct approaches: Image Processing and Deep Learning techniques, each offering unique advantages and disadvantages. While the Image Processing techniques exhibited robustness, they faced limitations in accurately detecting objects in a manufacturing process. Consequently, Deep Learning, specifically the You Only Look Once (YOLO) algorithm, was adopted for object detection due to its notable benefits, including high speed, accuracy, real-time capabilities, and ease of deployment. The research was conducted utilizing various software tools, such as MATLAB, Python, and Google Collab. The outcomes of this thesis encompass the successful creation of the machine vision system, capable of accurately detecting objects and providing their respective coordinates. Additionally, emphasis was placed on the system's ability to correctly classify objects and assign higher confidence scores, indicative of its proficiency in identifying objects with enhanced accuracy. By implanting this system, the research highlights its potential for enhancing the ergonomics of small-scale industries, contributing to the overall efficiency and productivity of their Pick and Place operation. 

  • 118.
    Larsen, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Robotic disassembly of lithium-ion battery packs: Conceptual design of a robot cell and tool for removing cooling pipes and cables2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of the Electric Vehicle market has driven demand for lithium-ion batteries higher. The expected shortage of raw materials together with the big number of battery packs that will reach their end of lives in the next years has created an immediate demand for an efficient recycling process. To develop an efficient and safe recycling process, an automatic disassembly and recycling process is needed and currently under development.

    In this study, current lithium-ion batteries recycling techniques and robotic disassembly techniques were investigated. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the development of a safer and more effective recycling process. The work was focused on contributing to the first part of the recycling process, where opening and disassembly of the lithium-ion batteries takes place. The aim of this work was to find a robotic solution for disassembly of cooling pipes and cables.

    The study included a detailed investigation of one specific battery pack from NEVS. During the work, it became clear that the design of the battery pack and the disassembly plan was not suitable for robotic disassembly. Therefore, a revised disassembly plan, that is better suited for robotic disassembly, was developed.

    The study resulted in a concept design for the robot cell and the robot tool for the disassembly task. The investigation of the disassembly task showed that a scissor-like tool that could cut off the pipes and cables was most suitable. The proposed tool design was of multi head type, with a cutter and a gripper mounted orthogonal to each other. Both collaborative and conventional industrial robots were investigated for the task. But to fulfil safety requirements an industrial robot was chosen and built into a fenced robot cell.

    The robot cell and the tool were modelled in a computer simulation software and the disassembly task was simulated to verify the concept. The simulation showed that the proposed design was suitable for the task. However, some pipes were difficult to reach with the tool in the simulation and they will likely be difficult to reach in a real scenario as well. The proposed design can be used for building a first prototype and try the concept. But further development or changes to the battery design will be needed before the battery pack can be disassembled in a fully automatic way. The need of a standardized design for lithium-ion batteries was discussed in the literature review and it became clear during the work that the battery design caused issues also in this case. Suggestions for how the design of the NEVS battery pack could be changed to be more suitable for robotic disassembly was also concluded in the study.

  • 119.
    Leroy, Laurent
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Automation of an assembly line for electrical enclosures by screw-fastening method: feasibility study: Master's thesis work2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The screw fastening method is widely used in manufacturing industry. Still, as it comes to automated solutions, special designs are often required.The current work consists of a feasibility study for the automation of the existing system based on the screw-fastening of the housing parts of electrical enclosures at ABB Kabeldon.A simulation using RobotStudio attends to provide answers to the success of the screw in-sertion and define specific requirements of the tool according to the enclosure design. As part of the outlined solution, a tool offsetting the driving of the screw has been designed in collaboration with Dessouter Tools according to the dimensional requirements of the task. A simulation based on the tool has been realised which shows no collisions nor reachability issues.Other requirements of the process automation are discussed. As underlined, it is difficult to be conclusive regarding the success of a full automation. Issues resulting from the galvanizing process are concern as it can result in mismatches and redundant errors in the automated screw insertion procedure and consequently jeopardize the reliability of the process. Only tests on real scale can satisfactory answer the reliability of the system.This work is set as a base for further discussion on the related subject and a support to consider implications of the implementation of the screw fastening method. Further investi-gations should be made.

  • 120.
    Lindberget, Dennis
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automatic generation of robot targets: A first step towards a flexible robotic solution for cutting customized mesh tray2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demands for customization in manufacturing industries require new automation methods. This thesis presents the development of such a method for a cutting procedure of customized mesh trays at WIBE Group. The work aimed to automatically generate robot targets from data extracted from Autodesk AutoCAD and demonstrate the concept in ABB RobotStudio. A literature review was conducted to find an appropriate method for data extraction and conversion into robot targets. This resulted in an approach where data for the cut positions was collected by scripts created with AutoCAD’s inbuilt programming language AutoLISP. The data was then exported to a text file that could be read by the robot in the RobotStudio simulation model. By offsetting a pre-set robot target with the imported data, new robot targets for each cut were created.

    The developed method was tested for different types of mesh trays and cut positions. The conclusion is that the method is fully working and that the concept is user-friendly, but some improvements are needed before the concept is ready to be put into operation. For example, further measures are needed to ensure that the correct data is collected from AutoCAD and that the concept gets easier to troubleshoot. Furthermore, development work is also needed for aspects outside the purpose of this thesis, such as the robot cell layout and design of the robot tool. 

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  • 121.
    Lindqvist, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Multi-axis industrial robot braking distance measurements: For risk assessments with virtual safety zones on industrial robots2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robots are increasingly used within the manufacturing industry, especially in collaborative applications, where robots and operators are intended to work together in certain tasks. This collaboration needs to be safe, to ensure that an operator does not get injured in any way. One of several solutions to this is to use virtual safety zones, which limits the robots working range and area to operate within, and may be more flexible than physical fences. When the robot exceeds the allowed limit of the virtual safety zone, a control system that monitors the robot position, forces to robot to stop. Depending on the current speed and payload of the robot, the initialized stop has a braking distance until the robot has completely stopped. How far the separation distance between human and robot must be, is calculated using ISO-standard guidelines when doing risk assessments. To support affected personnel in their work, an investigation and experimentation of braking distances among several robots has been conducted. These testing experiments have been designed to simulate a collaborative operation which is an excessive risk in a robot cell. The tests have been performed with various speeds and payloads, for comparison between the robot models and for validation against already existing data. The difference with this study compared to existing ones is that several robot axis’ are used simultaneously in the testing movements, which is a benefit since a robot rarely operates with only one axis at a time.  Main results of the performed tests are that the robot doesn’t obtain speeds over 2000 mm/s when axis 1 is not involved, before the virtual safety zone is reached. Axis 1 can generate the highest speeds overall, and is therefore a significant factor of the braking distance. The results and conclusions from this thesis states that these kinds of tests give useful information to the industry when it comes to safety separation distance and risk assessments. When applying the information in a correct way, the benefits are that a shorter safety separation distance can be used without compromising on safety. This leads to great advantages in robot cell design, because space is limited on the factory floor.

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  • 122.
    Ljungkvist, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Nweder, Nour
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Underlagsrapport för tillämpning av AGV/AMR-system i en nyetablerad fabrik2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many changes are taking place today in the industry and especially with a view to conversion to industry 4.0. Through University West, Dana Incorporated has requested a study on automated transports in their planned factory in Åmål. The factory will be at the forefront of automation and efficiency with industry 4.0 as its goal. To find the right system, this report addresses several important aspects that need to be taken into account when transitioning or establishing new AGV / AMR trucks and robots. Studies, interviews and facts are used in the report to find the right system in a changing environment where flexibility is required. The feasibility studies on the packaging of the goods, the model and flexibility of the AGV / AMR system prove to be extremely important factors in the study. There is a big difference between different AGV / AMR systems in both price and design, which means that large costs can be saved during a thorough examination. The more work and time that is put into the feasibility studies, the easier it is to implement and save on the investment cost. The study shows that the longer the time implementation requires, the higher the cost due to contemporary operator costs. Longer implementation time results in higher costs but means lower risk-taking. Finding the perfect balance between these two factors is hard and time consuming. It´s still a good knowledge to know that both a too bold and a too slow investment results in unnecessary costs.

    The structure and flexibility are other parts that influence the choice of system. No AGV / AMR system today can have the same flexibility as a human truck driver. The organization must therefore be structured to the flexibility that is possible to handle for the selected system. The degree of profit and results given through the intended AGV / AMR system is largely based on knowledge before choosing a product.

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  • 123.
    Magalhães, Ana
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Thermo-electric temperature measurements in friction stir welding: Towards feedback control of temperature2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction Stir Welding has seen a fast uptake in many industry segments. Mechanical properties superior to fusion welding, the ability to weld "unweldable" aluminium alloys and low distortion are often described as the main reasons for the fast industrial implementation of FSW. Most existing applications consist of long straight welding joints. Applications with complex weld geometries, however, are rarely produced by FSW. These geometries can induce thermal variations during the welding process, thus making it challenging to maintain a consistent weld quality. In-process adaptation of weld parameters to respond to geometrical variations and other environmental variants allow new design opportunities for FSW. Weld quality has been shown to be reliant on the welding temperature. However, the optimal methodology to control the temperature is still under development.The research work presented in this thesis focuses on some steps to take in order to reach the improvement of the FSW temperature controller, thus reach a better and consistent weld quality. In the present work different temperature methods were evaluated. Temperature measurements acquired by the tool-workpiece thermocouple (TWT) method were accurate and fast, and thereby enhanced suitable for the controller. Different environmental conditions influencing the material heat dissipation were imposed in order to verify the controller effect on the joint quality. In comparison with no controlled weld, the use of the controller enabled a fast optimization of welding parameters for the different conditions, leading to an improvement of the mechanical properties of the joint.For short weld lengths, such as stitch welds, the initial plunge and dwell stages occupy a large part of the total process time. In this work temperature control was applied during these stages. This approach makes the plunge and dwell stages more robust by preventing local material overheating, which could lead to a tool meltdown. The TWT method was demonstrated to allow a good process control during plunging and continuous welding. The approach proposed for control offers weld quality consistency and improvement. Also, it allows a reduction of the time required for the development of optimal parameters, providing a fast adaptation to disturbances during welding and, by decreasing the plunge time, provides a significant decrease on the process time for short welds.

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  • 124.
    Manguin, André
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Virtual Commissioning for education: And preparation to industrial application2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the different technical improvement made in the industrial domain, computers as well as communication systems allowed the development of new technologies such as virtual commissioning. Virtual commissioning is used to design, develop, test, and implement new production solution to the industry, by simulating the hardware and the software part of a single cell or a complete assembly line. Virtual technology is a promising technology, as it can be used in the educational areas to enhance the quality of teaching by creating more accurate visualisations of existing systems. In the following thesis work, a real assembly line instealled in the PTC which is used in a PLC programming course will be virtualized, using virtual commissioning technology. Using Simumatik as the main software, the PLC logic will be handled by TwinCAT3 and the movement of the robot will be coded in RobotStudio, using RAPID language. Also, communication protocols are also a key feature of the system as an OPC-UA communication must be established between TwinCAT and RobotStudio to ensure a complete communication with Simumatik.The goal of the thesis work is to see how Virtual commissioning can be used to create an intuitive solution that can improve teaching quality without over-complexifying the current course.

  • 125.
    Manjunatha, Srinivasa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Flexible robotic sorting solution for wood material biproducts: A conceptual study to evaluate the automated process of sorting wooden blocks2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason for this thesis was that Södra Building Solutions wanted to investigate if it is possible to automate the palletizing process for their new factory to further improvise their production system. This process began with a study of constraints such as available space in the new factory being built, the level of automation expected, man-human interaction, possible variants, and procedures to handle a variety of products as detailed in respective chapters.

    The virtual model is built considering that all the parts are handled automatically without the aid of the operator using an autonomous robotic system that integrates machine vision  to guide this robotic sorting solution. This thesis arose from studying various available concepts of image processing techniques, and robotic solutions for a similar application. Based on the knowledge gained from the literature study, a virtual model is developed to produce a satisfying and optimised solution for sorting operations. This virtual model built on RobotStudio is simulated to see if there are any further considerations to be made to develop the final setup for the sorting operation. The test results are obtained by processing the images captured in the RobotStudio simulation setup. Once the MATLAB is stabilised and fine-tuned by adjusting parameters such as threshold, and blob values in the code to produce reliable results. These results are sent to RobotStudio using TCP/IP communication protocol, which is determined to be a basic and most convenient way to transfer data between MATLAB and RobotStudio tools in a virtual model. The simulation of the overall solution begins with the testing of pre-determined parameters such as sizes, positions, and patterns. Once it is found that the simulation model functions as expected, the parameters such as part size, shape, and pattern are randomly generated to validate the MATLAB code to produce varying and matching results. During image processing, it is determined lighting plays a very important role in the image processing process since the shadows in the captured image results in producing false edges. These false edges detected in the image result to deviate from the estimated part size to the actual. After the machine vision system has been stabilized to properly detect the components, the solution is further enhanced to incorporate path planning for the robot movement, ensuring that the work is completed with the shortest/optimistic travel distance in the shortest possible amount of time. The layout is organized in such a manner that the robot's work is minimized by setting up an optimized layout in such a way that the task is accomplishedefficiently. A complete solution for performing the sorting and palletizing operation has been outlined in this thesis, along with the implementation ideas and suggestions for developing this concept to a detailed solution, though the implementation and testing of the solution occurred outside the scope of this degree project. This thesis work would benefit anyone who employs machine vision for part detection, size estimation, pattern recognition, position, andorientation detection. From the results obtained by the virtual model, the accuracy and repeatability of the measured values are within the acceptable range. And with these results, the simulation model developed in RobotStudio demonstrates the pick and place operationin a proving manner. This thesis also provides evidence of a working concept in which the complete system works autonomously while integrating with other systems.

  • 126.
    Manna, Saqeef Tehnan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Thesis Report on Introducing of Automation in MQB Pin Header Assembly process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Without electronics life is really difficult. It has grown into an integral part. Almost everything these days have electronics components with its heart being the Printed circuit boards. The components after putting on PCB it is called Printed circuit board assembly or PCBA. Printed Circuit Board also known as PCB is becoming important day by day for the modern industrial process. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) isn't a new technology, and industries have been using it from many decades ago. First ever PCB patent was submitted in 1925. From small to large industries, every electronic requires PCBs these days. Industries started to notify the benefits behind this technology. Easily repairable, saving of time etc., are the advantages of using PCBs. To automate the process of PCB assembly, many software's are available in the market. Automated assembly is not achievable for less numbers of PCBs. The first step to make an automated industry is always difficult and expensive. The reason of employing the automation in assembly lines is to lessen the time in the production and to minimize the cost. PCBs are poised to grow stronger in coming years. It is guessed to reach about $80.1 billion by 2023. [1] From aerospace to health care industry this technology has been a key technology to develop their models and grow in their respective sectors. As the demands are growing for high speed data, signal transmission have a direct impact on PCB industry.

    Two case studies are shown where Automation makes it easier for the assembly of PCBs. The case studies results shows the development and how crucial is it in the industrial sector.

  • 127.
    Marsand, Baptiste
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automation of quality inspections of recycled wood2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research thesis explore the implementation of machine vision and artificial intelligence in automating the process of rating the quality of recycled wood. The goal is to contribute to the circular economy by promoting the reuse of wood in the construction industry. The thesis will focus on detecting visual defects such as nails, knots, and cracks on the surface of wood planks using a machine vision system integrated into a mobile station. It also includes a cost analysis of the required hardware and software. The research will utilize software tools such as Visual Studio code with Python 3.10.9 and Google Colab for training the AI model. Key hardware resources include a conveyor, wood samples with different qualities and defects, Raspberry Pi 4, Oak D lite camera, SD card, and a 5V power supply.The method described in this research study uses a machine vision system with a customized object identification neural network to find defects on the wood planks and measure them. Five distinct planks were used to test the object detection model, and the results were reported in a table. The model precision was discovered to be 72.6%. The neural network was shown to have a 67.0% accuracy rate. The model recall, which gauges how accurately it detected defects, was found to be 89.8%. The difficulty of identifying various defect types due to variances in appearance and imbalance in the training data is discussed in the study. The measurement of plank dimensions using machine vision methods is also evaluated in the paper. Five planks had their length, width, and depth measured, and the absolute and relative errors were computed. The width measurements had an acceptable average absolute error of 0.84 mm and a relative error of 0.92%. There was space for improvement in the depth measurements, which had an average absolute error of 1.8 mm and a relative error of 7.98%. The length measurements, on the other hand, revealed a higher absolute and relative inaccuracy, pointing to measurement algorithm limits. It is demonstrating the possibilities of employing AI for measuring and detecting defects in wood planks. It recognizes the length measurement as an area that needs further work and emphasizes the need for a more consistent dataset to increase the accuracy of the detectionproblem. The constraint of not taking into account the internal defects of the planks is also highlighted in the report, which also underlines the requirement for standards in recycled wood quality inspection for the advancement of circular economy activities.

  • 128.
    Mashiur Rahaman, Mohammad
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Extraction of CAD data as an input to a configurable multiagent system: An aspect to build automated prefabricated house using robotics.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of the prefabricated wooden house vastly depends on craft manufacturing. The level of automation in this sector shallow compared to other branches of industries. One reason is with high flexible production where traditional industrial automation with centralized, programmable logic control is not adequate. Skilled workers are still responsible for machining operations like nailing, crewing, drilling, etc. One approach uses a configurable multi agent system (C-MAS) to automate the production, where one or several robots work together collectively and collaboratively. C-MAS does not use any centralized control system, instead uses distributed control agents, making it possible to reduce the downtime during the changeover. But the geometry information from the external sources is neededto support Plug & Produce. A script-based CAD software, FreeCAD is used to build the workbenches of the machining operations and export the geometry information in JSON format to the SQL data server from the depicted CAD model of the prefabricated wooden wall. 

  • 129.
    Massouh, Bassam
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Virtual Commissioning: Possible Empowerment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern-day manufacturing requires a constant change and development in the production means. The virtual commissioning technology provides the tools to validate and verify the changes and the new designs for production plants before the real implementation. The company ÅF, wants to investigate the possible empowerments of the virtual commissioning technologies.

    In this thesis, a method is proposed for reducing the time needed for generating the machine models, which are used in the virtual commissioning simulation. In addition, in this thesis, it is suggested architecture for integration of the virtual commissioning technology within the enterprise information system. The architecture allows gathering information about a planned production plant before the real implementation.

  • 130.
    Mehta, Tanuj
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Real-time production monitoring system for a small-scale industry based on an open-source platform2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the age of Industry 4.0, where data is the key, data must be collected in real-time and the production processes must be monitored efficiently without the need for human intervention. Having a system that can monitor and gather data automatically from the shop floor and notify managers or supervisors in case of unexpected events helps in enhancing productivity in terms of reduced downtime, increasing process quality, and decision-making process. Monitoring and data collection are made easier by various software available in the market in the form of IoT platforms with a variety of features. However, these software subscriptions prove to be expensive and complicated to implement especially for smallscale industries. The purpose of this thesis work is to transform everyday work processes more conveniently and improve production efficiency by developing a Production monitoring system based on the open-source platform. Therefore, replacing manual decentralized information systems on the shop floor. The research approach adopted consists of information gathered through literature study and the implementation of the solution through an action research approach to obtain the optimal solution. The test conducted on the simulation model of the shop floor and the application developed on the open-source platform showed that the functions of this application are meeting the requirements. Associated people can easily and quickly access information from any computer. As a result, this system will increase the speed of the information flow thus managing the resources more efficiently than before.

  • 131.
    Miles, Lukas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ego velocity estimation from a monocular and stereo camera2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is carried out in the field of visual ego velocity estimation, which is simplification of visual motion estimation. The project aims to estimate the velocity using two types of cameras, one monocular and one stereo camera. Research investigated and found the steps needed to complete a feature-based motion estimation algorithm. The final monocular velocity estimation method uses a 2-D to 3-D motion estimation method where 3-D points are extracted using a Perspective-4-Points method. The physical distances between points are known previously and used to solve the well-known scale ambiguity problem of the monocular motion estimation. The implemented stereo method uses a 3-D to 3-D motion estimation method where 3-D points are found by matching KAZE features between left and right images, followed by triangulation. 3-D point matches over consecutive images are filtered asinliers or outliers based on mean absolute deviation.The methods were evaluated by installing a stereo camera onto an articulated arm robot, moving in a straight path in the forward direction of the camera. Ground truth values are extracted from the robot. Motion estimation values were extracted from the velocity estimation algorithms by inserting video files of the recorded robot motion. The monocular algorithm only considered footage from one of the stereo cameras two sensors.

    Results show that the stereo method is less precise than the monocular case due to uncertainties in triangulated 3-D points. A better estimation was found when 3-D points are closer to the camera. The velocity estimated from the Monocular algorithm do have a consistent displacement between estimated and ground truth velocity. This was due to the physical points detected by the algorithm having inaccurate real-world measurements. The estimations of both methods improved when a higher velocity was applied. Then underlying reason was that the translation between images was increased, resulting in uncertainties being less significant.

  • 132.
    Miranda, Jeson Floyd
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Design of a vision-based line tracking system for robot picking sheet metal products2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the developments in science and technology, automation systems have become an important part of manufacturing plant and production lines. Especially with the integrated systems with robots, machines, and vision systems, the production has become efficient. Vision systems are used for inspection task, quality monitoring and vision-guided robotic applications. Vision-based line tracking is a new trend in vision applications. The objects can be tracked or identified while moving and the coordinates of the objects can be sent to the robot for pick and place operations. By using the line tracking in conveyors time to stop the object can be saved which contributes to efficiency. Along with line tracking product inspection also can be made which ensures the quality of the products.

    Cell Impact AB is a company which produces bipolar flow plates for hydrogen fuel cells. Currently, the company has a manufacturing plant in Karlskoga with manual operations. The company is planning to improve the production line by adding robots, conveyors and a vision system. The thesis aims at designing a vision-based line tracking system for a product passing through a conveyor. The research is carried out to investigate requirements to build a vision-based line tracking system.

    The project is carried out to design a vision-based line tracking system with a focus on several factors such as light conditions, type of image acquisition and type of lens. An experiment is carried out with an ABB camera and an ABB industrial robot for defining light conditions and image processing of sheet metal products. The sheet metal products are processed with different vision tools for building aneffective system. The data files of sheet metal products are tested with an Omron and LMI vision simulators to test the tools for image processing. The simulation of the plant is carried out in Visual Components and human machine interface is created in TwinCAT PLC for visualization of the simulation.

    Two different layouts are proposed for a robot pick and place operation. A theoretical study is made on 2D/3D vision systems, acquisition methods and camera placement from websites, scientific journals and papers. The result comprises all the work done in the project. The experiment provided optimum light conditions, different software's provided image processing tools for sheet metal parts and the simulation provided a 3D view of the plant.

  • 133.
    Mohanty, Ritesh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Virtual Simulation of Gantry Robot For Pick and Place Operation2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project, “VIRTUAL SIMULATION of GANTRY ROBOT for PICK and PLACE OPERATION” focuses on simulating a Gantry robot utilizing CODESYS as a framework for PLC programming and a simulator. Development and optimization of the control logic for pick-and-place operations on the Gantry robot in an industrial scenario are the main goals.The setup of the CODESYS development environment and the project's configuration for Gantry robot simulation are the first steps in the project. The project defines the joint types, motion ranges, and extra sensors or actuators for the Gantry robot, as well as its dynamics and shape.Utilizing the motion control libraries and algorithms from CODESYS, motion control features are created. The trajectory planning, velocity control, and accurate position control are all part of the control logic for effective pick and place operations.The development of a graphical user interface (HMI) for real-time monitoring and communication with the simulated Gantry robot is made possible by the visualization capabilities in CODESYS. For a complete user experience, the HMI offers visual feedback, status indications, and control components.The project's capacity to model and improve the control logic of the Gantry robot before actual implementation is demonstrated in the thesis paper, which emphasizes the project's relevance. It highlights the possible advantages in terms of industrial materials handling efficiency, precision, and dependability. In order to increase the functionality of the simulated Gantry robot, the project suggests additional improvements, such as object identification, collision avoidance, or interaction with external systems.

  • 134.
    Moiz, Muhammad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tsoumaris, Konstantinos
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Future forecast of raw materials in Nordic region used in Lithium-ion batteries for Electric Vehicles2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis work is to focus on the key elements used in electric vehicle’s Lithiumion batteries that are available in the form of reserve or as resources in Nordic region. The study investigates how much of these elements will be needed based on the current electric vehicles sales that is forecasted till 2030 in Nordic region. These sales are based on the Sustainable Development scenario of the International Energy Agency. Furthermore, the study focuses on the self-reliance of these critical raw materials (CRM) in the Nordic region and its ability to mitigate their demands till 2030. Since in each battery technology the amount of each CRM is different, ten scenarios based on battery technologies and ratios are assumed to check whether the available raw materials are adequate to cater dynamics in future demand.

    Virgin materials are considered when it comes to resources and reserves, and the recycle and reuse of these CRM are not considered in the calculation. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted based on different parameters to understand the dynamics and inter-relation of critical elements, their availability, battery chemistries and sizes.

  • 135.
    Mosa, Waddah
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Software supported hazards identification for Plug & produce systems2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposed a new automated hazard identification (AHI) approach for Pluge&Produce systems. After going through related standards and research works, the required inputs for automated hazard identification were determined. Then, software was presented to demonstrate using these inputs to perform AHI. This software can identify the resource and the emergent hazards. A new approach for identifying the emerging hazards was proposed.This approach uses the concepts of skill types and lookup tables to cover the wide variety of possible hazards when resources work together. Then display all identified hazards in a Hazard Identification Table (HIT). The proposed HIT is designed to support the persons working in risk reduction by drastically reducing the time needed for hazard identification and preparing them to proceed to the next steps in risk analyses.

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  • 136.
    Moskalenko, Vladimir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Discrete event simulation of production flow at Siemens energy: With focus on decision support system for statistical process control considering AI2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Optimisation of the production workflow is a complicated task, since it is nearly impossible for a person to predict bottlenecks and rising cycle times. Discrete event simulations are built with a purpose of monitoring and predicting such problems occurring. But all information from simulations should be analysed by a final user. In order to create a process for prediction and optimization two automated methods were developed in this project. The first method utilize statistical methods for monitoring separate stations. The second method is using machine learning methods for analysing the whole simulation at once to investigate…

  • 137.
    Nagaraj, Koushik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Simulation of PLC controlled 3D Model of an Imaginary Production: PTC Production Line2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Commissioning is becoming more prominent in the industrial sector like aerospace, automation industries, power sector. Developing a 3D model and simulating any production process helps reduce the time and required resources. The VC process involves modelling, connectivity & testing, and validating the design and programs. Virtual commissioning concept and method is explained through a literature study. VC process has significant benefits like saving cost and time and limitations like the need for additional software and skilled engineers.

    This thesis work presents an approach of creating a VC environment using Visual Components and TwinCAT for testing the PLC programs offline. A previously developed 3D model of the PTC production line using Robot Studio is presented. As an alternative, the 3D model of the PTC production line is created using Visual Components. The VC environment is formed using Robot Studio and Visual Components to a virtual PLC.

    The VC environment formed is later compared for suggesting University West for further use. A sample 3D model is developed of an Imaginary production to test the PLC control. PLC programming is an essential requirement in the industrial sector for an automated process. The VC environment for the developed 3D model of imaginary production in Visual Components and TwinCAT is connected via ADS or OPC-UA server. Two of these interfaces OPC-UA and ADS are used for establishing the connection between Visual Components and a suitable, faster connection is explained.

    After a successful connection between Visual Components and TwinCAT, the PLC program and robot program is developed. Later, the signals in the 3D model and PLC variables are mapped to test the PLC control in the simulation. This paper presents the simulation of a PLC controlled model of an imaginary production line to test the PLC programs offline.

  • 138.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    A faster collision detection method applied on a sheet metal press line2011In: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taiwan, 26-29 June 2011, 2011, p. 833-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical collision detection is a time and resource consuming simulation task. In order to decrease time and resources, a general method has been developed. The method is useful in simulation cases where 3D CAD data is part of an iterative method, e.g. optimization. The method is based on a transformation of a general 3D problem to a 2D problem, eliminating the need of 3D CAD models. Press Line simulations during the last decade have been accepted as a quality improvement method. Today simulations of automated press lines are done for internal collision checks in dies and external collision checks against dies and material handling equipment. If these collisions are not detected in simulations, they result in delays, in introduction of a new product in the line, so called line tryout or later on when the line is ramped up to decided rate. The results of these collisions are used for pre-die design, design of grippers, maintenance and production planning. In this paper a new method, based on 2D simplifications, is developed and tested successfully in a virtual model of a press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing. Die Uppers 2 917 708 triangles and Die Lowers 602 686 triangles where reduced to 58 and 90 points. The result of the method shows substantial reduction of geometry data and a considerable improvement in collision detection evaluation time over general 3D algorithms in the tested case.

  • 139. Nilsson, Anders
    Safe collaboration between human and robot2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To days manufacturing by robots are often designed for only one or a few products and thisin a time that the costumers demands more variation and special designed products thanearlier. This fact force the manufacturer to embrace a more flexible and agile productionmethods. One approach is to let the robots works in a collaboration mode together with anoperator. The robot can do de standard tasks, maybe automatic programmed by informationfrom a CAD drawing of the product and the operator can do task that needs human flexibility,intelligence and sensibility. Robot collaboration is possible after that the new standardof robots and robot devises was released in the end of 2011. But the system integrator hasto build up a technical solution that's guarantee that the safety separation distance betweenthe robot and human continuously will be fulfilled in all situations. Knowledge of the standardsabout the implementation of the sensors and safety devices will help the system integratorto fulfil the demands in the machinery directive. The Aim of this work is to collect relevantinformation from actual directives and standards and then do a conclusion of earlierworks that can be found in the literature, especially collaboration and sensor design. A collaborativerobot cell using laser scanners and a soft rated system which limits the speed andworking area of the robot in a safe way will be designed and built up in this project. Thedifficulties was not to detect the opening of the cell and let the robot slow down when theoperator approach the robot it is harder to find a sensor that continuously detects if someonestill is inside the robot cell when the operator went out from the robot again. The fact that alaser scanner lose resolutions proportionally with the sensor distance is also something toconsider.

  • 140.
    Njie, Tijan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automatic Inspection of Circular Saw Blades using Machine Vision and AI2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis involves the research on the automation of the inspection of circular saw blades using machine vision techniques combined with artificial intelligence. A background study related to the topic of sawblade inspection was initially conducted before carrying out this thesis work.

    Saw blade samples were collected for the creation of image data to be used for the training of the AI of the Cognex vision system that was used. An inspection rig was built onto which the saw blades were mounted for both image acquisition and inspection. The inspection was but in an ABB robot cell. A saw blade with 54 teeth that contained defective and non-defective teeth was used for testing the proposed solution and it could be seen in the results section that the saw blade was successfully inspected for flatness, wear and tear by measuring tooth tip angles, surface defects on the tooth and finally the presence of burn marks. 

  • 141.
    Noori Kourani, Soheil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Monitoring System Based on Laser Line and Camera for Weld Seam Tracking and Feature Points Extraction in Robotic Arc Welding: Edge detection and Gap Measurement2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robots are the key element in today's automation. One of the most common ro-botic applications in the industrial sector is robot welding. Robot-based automation increases the efficiency of welding processes and enables manufacturing more parts in less time, while ensuring welding quality in the end. To get a highly automated welding process, it is necessary to control and monitor the process. Because of numerous errors such as defects that could happen during the process, thermal deformation of the workpiece, positioning, and manu-facturing errors, the welding robots need to be positioned and adjusted in real-time to reduce these errors. This requires monitoring and seam tracking techniques. Welding process is complex, and even though in recent years industrial robotic welding has evolved rapidly, there has always been some complications, obstacles, and challenges along the way to im-prove automated welding process.Siemens Energy AB is manufacturer of world-class, producing low environmental impactsteam and gas turbines for industrial use with high efficiency and low emission levels. Sie-mens Energy AB also has a manufacturing unit in Trollhättan with specialty in welding, pressing, shaping, laser machining stainless, nickel alloy, and heat resistant materials. This unit mainly manufactures combustion chambers for the gas turbines.At Trollhättan site, there is a need to automate the welding station and there have been some difficulties with the vision system, which prevents the welding process to detect the groove's edges and work as expected. This master thesis is an experimental study that in the first step aims to find and assess the problems with the old vision system at the company, and later propose new approaches to solve them by implementing and utilizing optical sensors to obtain target surface data required to realize an automated arc welding process. To achieve this, a vision system is proposed based on a laser line and camera, and the acquired images by the camera are processed using different methods and algorithms. It is shown that the proposed vision system can detect the groove's edges and extract feature points on the work piece with no difficulties.

  • 142.
    Noufiri, Boutaina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automation in reuse sorting for a resource-efficient circular fashion2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robots have played an essential part in the automation of repetitive and time-consuming operations, over the last few decades. Their applications are broad and diversified; nonetheless, it is limited in the automation of garment sorting. In fact, nowadays the most common sorting methods are manual or require at least human intervention to assist the process. Thus, designing a complete process of manipulating garments for sorting, upcycling, or reusing purposes, without human intervention, is becoming an indispensable and challenging task to meet economical and environmental requirements. The main goal of this thesis is to automate the sorting process of garments, starting by picking them from a pile to totally unfolding them, for further recognition. This project covers investigations on bin picking methods and technologies for undeformable and deformable objects, to apply them afterwards to garments. The project focuses also on selecting a solution to unfold the picked garment and to test it on pants and long sleeve shirts. Overall, an adequate setup has been implemented, featuring a 3D sensor, an industrial robot and suitable grippers, for both the bin picking and the unfolding procedure. First, to satisfy the extraction of a single garment from a pile, it has been deducted that its highest point represents an adequate grasp point. Second, once the garment picked, it is placed on a fixed gripper and unfolded by grasping it from it lowest point. The coordinates of these points are determined by a 3D camera and sent to a robot controller. At the outcome of the tests and experiments, 93% of the bin picking trials have been successful, resulting on the extraction of a single garment from a pile. Plus, the grasping of the hanging garment from it lowest point for unfolding, presented a success rate of 73%. After conducting these tests to evaluate the selected solutions and approaches, it was deemed that picking clothes for the highest point of the pile is a valid option; as well as grasping the picked garment from its lowest point to unfold it, as long as it is limited to certain types of clothing.

  • 143.
    Olofsson, Nils
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Simulation in Automation Development: Use of simulation tools to develop and test production cells2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Graniten engineering AB focuses on design of packaging cells for mainly the food and pharma sectors. The time from order do delivery is usually short and the cells are complex. It is of high importance to be as time effective as possible. Because of this they now want to explore the possibility to virtually validate functions as early as possible. In order for such a tool to be implemented it has to be effective. When reading about virtual commissioning the time consumption of these processes is rarely mentioned. The focus is usually on the accuracy of the simulation and if the tool is useful for validation. In this case the focus will be on the implementation of such a tool and the possibility to integrate it into an already existing development process. Not as an isolated step but as something used alongside the whole development process in order to continuously be able to validate functions when they are developed. The abilities of existing programs will be explored. The different concepts regarding virtual tools for PLC programming will be investigated.

  • 144.
    Osman, Hazzaa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Building a Simulation Model for Evaluating Safety Techniques in Plug-and-Produce Robot Cells2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis research aims to develop a virtual model utilizing a simulation robot cell comprising one or multiple robots and establishing seamless communication with CMAS (Configurable Multi-Agent System) for control purposes. The successful implementation of this setup yielded significant benefits, particularly in pre-risk assessment for the robot cell in Plug and Produce (P&P) operations. By leveraging the virtual simulation prior to actual deployment, the identification and prevention of collision scenarios within the robot's paths were effectively achieved. The simulation was conducted using ABB Robot Studio software, which was seamlessly connected to CMAS software through the REST API protocol. This integration facilitated efficient data exchange and real-time control, enhancing the overall performance and safety of the robot cell. 

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  • 145.
    P, Saptha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Path optimization for sampling-based algorithm and Energy calculation: Path optimization and Energy calculation2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this research is path optimization technique. Optimization means finding the best option from the given resource. For path optimization, one should find the optimized path from the given start and goal points. For this research, I choose Sampling based Probabilistic Road Map (PRM) algorithm, which consists of two phase, construction and query phase. In construction phase, a collision free roadmap will be generated. Once roadmap is created, it will be given as the input to the query phase, where start and goal point will be added to it. Then Dijkstra optimization algorithm will be implemented which concludes the query phase. That's how an optimized path will be yielded out, using PRM and Dijkstra algorithm. And, when the robot starts moving through the obtained path, the automatic calculation of energy will be done using RobotStudio add-ins. Interfacing is done by visual studio and ABB Robot Studio for simulated result.

  • 146.
    Padmaraj, Ammannavar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Development of Sequence of Goals Chart: Sequence of Goals for Configurable Multiagent System to Facilitate Flexible Automation Systems2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturers are on the hunt for flexible and mass production facility with automation that is capable of accommodating changes to product specifications. The exigency for flexible automation is in surge due to the desire for customized products and fluctuating market trends. The flexibility of automation insists high level of skill in computer modeling and programming.

    Plug and Produce is a more active system in which production starts automatically equipped with an interface for the mechanical, electrical, and other media modules each process module contains a local controller that make its own decision as they are plugged, this aids in rapid and cost-effective modification of the factory for agile adaptation to the actual production system.

    The configurable multiagent system(C-MAS) is developed by University West to aid flexibility in automation by introducing digital configuration instead of high-level programming for plug and produce which assists manufacturing companies to adapt to customized production with ease and in-house knowledge.

    The thesis work focuses on developing a python script to generate the sequence of goals for the C-MAS, the graphical sequence of goals chart represents manufacturing goals which will enable flexible automation systems, to understand the sequence of goals programming is not a prerequisite, FreeCAD is the tool used to develop the sequence of goals. As part of the research, an extensive literature study is performed to understand different architectures of multi-agent systems and different approaches to flexible automation systems.

    The results of the thesis work developed Python script that generates the sequence of goals chart by reading the configuration data of the product and the literature study on existing architectures of multi-agent systems and flexible automation systems.

  • 147.
    Paredes Buendia, Gemma
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Robotized Deburring2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The superalloy Inconel 718 has low machinability. Therefore, the material removal processes are difficult to carry out in this material. The main goal of this thesis is to perform robotized deburring process in this material with the purpose to get smooth edges of the surface. For that, the simulation of the workcell has been performed in order to achieve more accuracy in the depth paths and the correct robot configuration in a faster and safer way. Moreover, the burrs on the workpiece have been measured by a microscope in order to analyze the size and locations of the burrs generated in the previous process of the workpiece (end milling process).

    Automation of deburring process sometimes requires complexities such as the force control with the purpose to avoid deformation of the piece. Several tests have been performed in the real cell in which the force during the process has been controlled. For that, FC system by ABB has been used which requires a specific calibration to get the correct measure of the force. The purpose to use FC is the validation of this system to control the force through speed and position changes and the estimatio n of the required force (which are based on the test results) to achieve the desired smooth edges of the workpieces..

  • 148.
    Parthasarathy, Prithwick
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Model for energy consumption of 2D Belt Robot: Master’s thesis work2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A production industry with many robots working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week consumes a lot of energy. Industries aim to reduce the energy consumed per machine so as to support their financial budgets and also to be a more sustainable, energy efficient entity. Energy models can be used to predict the energy consumed by robot(s) for optimising the input parameters which determine robot motion and task execution. This work presents an ener-gy model to predict the energy consumption of 2D belt robots used for press line tending. Based on the components' specifications and the trajectory, an estimation of the energy consumption is computed. As part of this work, the proposed energy model is formulated, implemented in MATLAB and experimentally validated. The energy model is further used to investigate the effect of tool weight on energy consumption which includes predicting potential energy reductions achieved by reducing the weight of the gripper tools. Further, investigation of potential energy savings which can be achieved when mechanical brakes are used when the robot is idle is also presented. This illustrates the purpose and usefulness of the proposed energy model.

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  • 149.
    Patil, Ashish Atul
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Robot Operations Based On OPC-UA Communication Protocol2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, automatization is the need of industries because of its variety of products and demands in the market. The industries which are dependent on this automatization are facing var-ious problems such as vendor and platform dependency of devices, data security and modifica-tion cost of existing systems. The industrial communication protocols play an important role in all above situations. Considering all these factors which are affecting the cost and time of production, the community of researchers and engineers along with the coordination of German government introduced the OPC-UA communication protocol. The OPC-UA communication protocol is known as one of the pillars of smart industrialization i.e. Industry 4.0. To testify the OPC-UA compliance, the simulation of the control systems is designed and implemented. The robot cell is considered where communication channel between the robot and PLC is created using OPC-UA. The robot performs the tasks on the given instructions by the PLC through HMI. As OPC-UA protocol model is also known as server-client architecture, the cell PLC is considered as server and the robot simulated in the RobotStudio is considered as client. However, the OPC UA client application is considered as master PLC which contains the main control HMI. For the simulation, the CODESYS demo SoftPLC controller, Visual studio 2015 with .NET SDK and RobotStudio 6.06 with PC SDK is used. The communication between the two OPC UA client applications and one OPC UA SoftPLC server is in the string data format.

  • 150.
    Patil, Sumit Samudragupta
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Disassembly Planning and Assessment of Automation Potentialsfor Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For covering the objectives of this study extensive literature review viz. published papers, books and views of external experts are referred. It has been observed that the study pertaining disassembly of the battery pack with hybrid mechanism comprising robots and human operation is very limited and no economically viable system is developed. Therefore, an attempt was made to design and develop a suitable working platform with the collaborative support of robot and manual operation for disassembly of the battery pack. To improve the efficiency of the recycling process a properly designed disassembly sequence is necessary. To design the sequence an experiment was done on Magna 2009 battery pack composed of Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4). The battery pack is manufactured in Austria during the year 2009. This battery pack is mostly used in hybrid passenger vehicles. The disassembly of a the Magna 2009 battery pack was found to be complex due to different types of screws used for different joints. The design of the battery pack being compact it was difficult to access all parts for dismantling. Depending on the disassembly process an excel sheet was prepared to envisage all steps followed for this process. Accordingly, the 2D drawing of the station layout was prepared. In this process, the use of computervision for the battery disassembly, use of bar code for identification of types of the battery pack, robot controller,etc. was envisaged for better disassembly of the battery pack. With the help of AutoCAD, the design of the station layout was prepared. The designed layout envisages six working stations. The information related to each station like equipment used, operator used is furnished in the tabulated form separately for each activity. The details pertaining design of the workstation are given in chapter no.6. Recycling of spent or used batteries has to be environmentally safe and economically viable. Further, it is time consuming process and therefore has to be planned properly. The usual process adopted in the recycling of waste or used battery is -pyrometallurgical recovery, hydrometallurgical reclamation, physical separation, etc. The process details of different types of batteries are given in chapter no.3. There are many levels of fire safety systems that could be applied in the design of battery to prevent it from short circuits and other malfunctions like overheating and thermal runaway. Though many safety strategies could be included to monitor the cell conditions but its inclusion in large Li-ion batteries is not viable because those safety systems could increase the weight, volume and cost of the battery.

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