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  • 101.
    Hovling, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Martinsson, Petter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Utvärdering av lagen om riktlinjer för kommunala markanvisningar (2014:899)2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is a major residential shortage in Sweden creating an immediate need to build more housing. The municipalities of Sweden with their monopoly on land ownership must make new housing a priority to ensure that the demand is met. Since January 1, 2015, municipalities have utilized land allocation as the primary means to build; however, they are in the process of adopting new guidelines. The purpose of this study focuses on whether or not guidelines are helpful to developers. Furthermore, it required the municipalities to track their guidelines and report any improvements with their land allocation. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively analyze the land allocations between the municipalities of Gothenburg and Stockholm to see of both follow their guidelines. It would also reveal their process for selecting a developer.

    The data was gathered from a survey sent to 100 different developers that had completed at least one application since 2015. The data collected revealed a substantial divide among the developers regarding their perspective on the law that regulate the land allocation process.

    The results of the survey revealed that the developers had varying views on the guideline processes. Some developers believed that the guidelines are helpful while others criticize that they do not properly fulfill its function. The developer's interviews and surveys revealed the legal significance of transparent reporting as to why the municipalities choose a specific developer. The survey also showed that developers preferred direct land allocations.

  • 102.
    Hugosson, Erika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Detaljplaneprocessen: En studie av allmänhetens kännedom2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A local plan is a tool that municipalities use to implement policy decisions regarding the use of land and water. The local plan can be compared to rules that the municipality authorizes the person who owns the land. The local plan can only be developed and adopted by municipalities. Before a local plan may be adopted by the municipality will it undergo a process with well-defined stages. Briefly are stages, preparation of plan proposals, consultation, disclosure, review and adoption. Process for the preparation of a local plan may also be referred to plan procedure and specifically regulated in Chapter 5. The Planning and Building Act.

    Several of the local plan process stages seeks concerned parties and authorities should be given the opportunity to participate and influence but the main thing is to produce that good decision-making as possible If the public is not aware at what stage of the process there is an opportunity to impact and thus do not feel involved is a risk that planning process objective is not achieved.

    The purpose of the study is to examine what the public knows about the planning process. We will also give an insight into whether social citizens know at what stage of the process there is an opportunity to influence the plan.

    The study is based on a questionnaire answered by the public in Trollhättan and Gothenburg. The quantitative method is complemented with a qualitative approach in the form of interviews with accountable in the same municipalities, Trollhättan and Gothenburg.

    The study shows that public awareness of the planning process and its content was low. Only 36 % of respondents knew about that there is a process to produce plans pretty well or greater. The profound knowledge questions showed that around 40% of the public was not aware of any of the stages of the process, or where in the process the public has the opportunity to influence the planning proposal. Our study indicates that the level of knowledge about the planning process is low

  • 103.
    Hult, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Schönberg, Cassandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommunala friskrivningar: En studie om hur kommunerna hanterar jordabalken 4 kap. 19 d §2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buying a property is one of the biggest and most important investments in a person´s life. When this kind of purchase is being performed it´s important that the Swedish legislation is being considered and followed correctly by both parties when writing the contract.

    After a property is sold it's not unusual that some disputes and uncertainties rises about who´s responsible for the so called "hidden defects" on the property, which can be found after the purchase has become final. According to Swedish law the seller is responsible for these defects for the following 10 years after the purchase is completed. However there is one way for the seller to avoid this kind of responsibility - by using a disclaimer from these hidden defects. When a trader is selling a property to a consumer, this kind of disclaimers, according to jordabalken (JB) 4 cap. 19 d §, is invalid. According to what the writers can interpret by reading the text of law and the legislative history, JB 4 cap. 19 d § also should be applied in those cases where a municipality is selling a property to a private individual.

    The purpose of this study is to map the municipalities awareness of the existence of the law and how they consider that the law should be handled when selling a property to a private individual. To seek the answers to these questions a combination of a juridical and a qualitative method have been used. During the study a total of 46 contracts from 10 different municipalities have been examined.

    The study came across a total of 46 disclaimers, which a percantage of 52 % according to JB 4 cap 19 d § considers as invalid. The majority of these disclaimers was proved to be designed as one of three alternative ways, where every one of them contained some kind of disclaimer from hidden defects and flaws in the property. The study proves that there is big ignorance and lack of knowledge at the municipalities about how the law in JB 4 cap. 19 d § should be interpreted and how this kind of disclaimer therefore should be treated in the contracts. Also, the study shows that the municipalities doesn't seem to be aware that the same purpose that they want to achieve by using the disclaimer, can be accomplished by a detailed description of the property.

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  • 104.
    Hultman, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergsman, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Antagande av detaljplan: Byggnadsnämnd eller kommunfullmäktige?2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag byggs det allt för få bostäder i Sverige vilket resulterar i en bostadsbrist, främst i storstadsregionerna. För att öka byggandet av bostäder har socialdepartementet utformat en proposition "En enklare planprocess". Propositionen är framtagen för att påskynda detaljplaneprocessen som idag tar lång tid. En paragraf i propositionen innebär att kommunfullmäktige kan ge i uppdrag åt byggnadsnämnden att anta detaljplaner. Möjligheten att delegera detaljplanebeslut finns redan i dagens plan- och bygglagstiftning men den nya skulle innebära en tydligare gräns för vilka detaljplaner som får antas i byggnadsnämnden eller kommunstyrelsen.

    Studien har i syfte att undersöka vilka skillnader som kan komma att uppstå i och med det nya lagförslaget vad gäller antagande av detaljplaner. Ett problem som finns är att många detaljplaner innehåller bestämmelser som saknar lagligt stöd i plan- och bygglagen. Att planbestämmelserna saknar lagligt stöd kan leda till att enskilda fastighetsägare utsätts för ekonomisk skada.

    För insamling av data till resultatet användes en webbaserad enkätundersökning som skickades till kommunfullmäktige och byggnadsnämnder i Västra Götaland. För att stärka resultatet från enkäten genomfördes även sex intervjuer med tre personer från byggnadsnämnden och tre personer från kommunfullmäktige i tre olika kommuner. Resultatet utifrån enkäten tyder på att byggnadsnämnden och kommunfullmäktige har liknande kunskaper angående planbestämmelser men att byggnadsnämnden har något bättre kunskaper. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar på att byggnadsnämnden har bättre kunskaper angående planbestämmelser än kommunfullmäktige men att ingen av dem har tillräcklig kunskap för att förhindra detaljplaner med bestämmelser som saknar lagligt stöd i plan- och bygglagen. Enligt intervjuerna litar politikerna på att tjänstemännen har de kunskaper som krävs för att inte använda sig av planbestämmelser som saknar lagligt stöd.

    Slutsatsen är att tjänstemännen behöver utveckla sina kunskaper om detaljplanebestämmelser eftersom politikerna själva tycker att de inte behöver kunna plan- och bygglagstiftningen. En annan slutsats är att det vore lämpligt med ett organ utanför kommunen som granskar detaljplanebestämmelser med tanke på den bristfälliga kunskapen hos politikerna.

  • 105.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Mishal Salem, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Transformation av stomnät till SWEREF 99: Fallstudie Norra Vätö, Norrtälje kommun 2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century different coordination systems have been used in Sweden. Today a common coordination system (SWEREF 99) is used.

    In the municipality of Norrtälje, core networks are listed in different coordination systems that are generated from different earlier missions. These networks normally have poor orientation in the known coordination system; however, the internal accuracy is used to be good.

    In this study, some of the core networks have been selected to be converted to SWEREF 99 18 00. The conversion has been done by measuring points using the GNSS technology, the measured points were then used to transfer the core network to SWEREF 99 18 00. This means that in the future, staking out a building in the area can be performed solely by GNSS technology. The chosen core networks are located on a part of the island Vätö in the municipality of Norrtälje.

    The GNSS equipment used to measure the points with was the Leica 1203 RTK network. The selected points were measured on two occasions with a gap between the occasions of at least 45 minutes. Ten repeated measurements have been done on each point to increase the accuracy. The average of these twenty measurements has been used for conversion.

    After the measuring process, the transformation has been done from three different off-systems to SWEREF 99 18 00. The three off-systems were RT 38 2.5 gon V, RT R09 0 gon and a local 1000/1000-system. Since the areas listed in the RT 38 were poorly oriented towards each others, poor accuracy was achieved during the transformation of the entire RT 38 field at once. Therefore, the RT 38 area has been divided into a number of transformations-areas.

    When the transformation had been done, control measurements were made on a Rix 95-Point entitled Klockarängsberget (Rix 95-point numbers: 119 741) located on the southern part of Vätö. In addition, control measurements were made of housing estate border area, where the border points were uncertain.

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  • 106.
    Ingelsson, Maja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johannisson, Sofie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Nya regler om markanvisning och deras tillämpning i kommunerna2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is a shortage of housing in 240 municipalities in Sweden. It is their responsibility to provide housing for Sweden's citizens by creating conditions for construction. An initial stage of the housing supply process can be land allocation. Land allocation means that a developer has the exclusive right to negotiate with the municipality about a future sale and exploitation on the municipality's land. The land allocation is an important tool for residence supplies.

    On January 1, 2015, the Act (2014: 899) on guidelines for municipal land allocation came into force. The law means that the municipalities that carry out land allocation must adopt guidelines that show the municipality's positions on land allocation. The Act aims to create good competition among builders and a transparency in the land allocation process.

    The aim of the study is to examine the views of twelve selected municipalities concerning the introduction of the Act on guidelines for municipal land allocation and to map their working methods on land allocations. The survey was conducted via interviews of employees at the municipalities' land and exploitation departments and through examination of guidelines, land allocation agreements, legislation, public investigations, proposition and other reports.

    Based on the result, it can be concluded that land allocations are complex and that it is therefore difficult to produce a universal model for allocating land. All municipalities have different prerequisites for allocating land, and they therefore design the guidelines broadly.

  • 107.
    Irwe, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Forsell, Denise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    "Annars går allt åt helvete": en studie om social hållbarhet som kommunal planeringsaspekt i fysisk planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is about social sustainability, more specifically it is about how four different municipal areas handles issues about social sustainability in their spatial planning. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the priority of this topic and which methods that are used to deal with this subject. The purpose is also to investigate the possible connection between social sustainability and mixed use-city. The analysis has been made by studying comprehensive plans, detailed development plans and other documents connected to the plans. The content of these document has then been analyzed in relation to theories about social sustainability and mixed use-city. Municipal officials have been interviewed to get at more nuanced view on how social sustainability is incorporated into the process of planning.

    The result shows that the four comprehensive plans in a similar way talk about the aims of planning for social sustainability. In the detailed development plans the difference however is significant, varying to what extent and in what way social sustainability is described the planning specification. Bigger plans tend to include the subject in a more extensive way, whilst smaller many plans don't incorporate social sustainability at all. During the interviews many of the officials said that planning for social sustainability is difficult matter and called for more concrete methods, and for the municipality to use the methods available, to affect the spatial planning. The methods used were; land allocation, civil dialogue and social impact assessment. One official mentioned that he/she personally used the Gothenburg-matrix and another had regular meetings with local brokers. All officials talked about mixed use in connection to social sustainability.

    The conclusion that the result of this analysis finally led to is about the social impact assessment as a suitable method for planning for social sustainability, but also about the potential need for a legislation. Perhaps that could be the way to include social sustainability into the process of planning.

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  • 108.
    Ishida, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommer kommunernas plan- och bygglovsarbete att svämma över i framtiden?: Klimatförändringar och bostadsbyggande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga och utreda det juridiska ramverk som kommunerna ska följa samt undersöka praktisk tillämpning hos tre kommuner. Studien ska även belysa eventuella svårigheter i planarbetet och ge en kunskapsöversikt. I denna studie analyseras främst plan- och bygglagens innebörd och hur den kan användas vid anpassning till klimatförändringarna vid plan- och bygglovsarbete. Som komplement intervjuas plan- och bygglovshandläggare i tre kommuner samt en planhandläggare på länsstyrelse i Västra Götalands län.

    Klimatförändringarna är ett faktum, och som en följd kommer bland annat vattennivåerna att fortsätta stiga i landet. Klimatforskningen består av prognoser som dock är behäftade med ett viss mått av osäkerhet. På grund av klimatförändringarna har det skett tillägg i plan- och bygglagens 2 kapitel för att kommunerna måste ta hänsyn till framtida översvämningsrisk vid fysisk planering. Det är därmed inte endast dagens förhållanden som ska beaktas vid planläggning och lovgivning. Det finns en stor mängd rekommendationer och riktlinjer som kommunerna har att förhålla sig till och som kan underlätta arbetet för att följa de regelverk som gäller. Att anpassa den fysiska planeringen till framtida klimatförändringar bör påbörjas nu, eftersom byggnadernas livscykel sträcker sig långt in i framtiden.

    Kommunerna kan arbeta fram specifika dokument som är anpassade efter deras förutsättningar och karterade risker för att underlätta sitt arbete i frågan. Det finns en mängd skeden i plan- och bygglovsprocesserna och det är viktigt att en samverkan finns mellan dem, för att det ska bli ett helhetsperspektiv. Det är en viktig förutsättning för att uppnå en hållbar bebyggd miljö. Eftersom klimatförändringar inte stannar vid kommungränser är det lämpligt att kommunerna samverkar i frågan. Samtliga aktörer behöver en aktuell och bra kunskapsgrund för att underlätta arbetet med översvämningsrisker.

    Lagtext och riktlinjer är tydliga med hur kommunerna ska arbeta, detta kan vara enkelt att genomföra om det finns oexploaterad mark, men vid anpassning till befintlig bebyggelse och infrastruktur uppstår problem. I och med intervjuerna framkom komplexiteten med att tillämpa lagtext i realiteten. En av de tre kommunerna har ändrat i befintliga detaljplaner för att klimatanpassa. Två av tre har egna översvämnings-program vilket är goda exempel på integrering av klimatarbetet. Det finns ingen rättspraxis idag, men det finns motsvarande situationer där kommunens ansvar vid lämplighetsprövningen ifrågasatts.

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  • 109.
    Ivarsson, Maja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Sandahl, Rosalie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ternevall, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Detaljplan med enskilt huvudmannaskap: En granskning av planering och genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien omfattar konsekvenserna av detaljplaneläggning med enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmänna platser. Regeringen anser att det behöver göras en översyn över bestämmelserna för genomförande av detaljplaner. Enligt Boverket används enskilt huvudmannaskap mycket oftare än vad som bör ske enligt lag. Detta leder till att det som borde vara allmänna kostnader läggs över på fastighetsägarna. Denna problematik har väckt vårt intresse för ämnet.

    En litteraturstudie har gjorts av Anläggningslagen och Plan- och bygglagen med fokus på enskilt huvudmannaskap. Vi har även granskat 15 detaljplaner med enskilt huvudmannaskap från planering till genomförande. Detta har vi gjort genom att studera detaljplanekartan, plan- och genomförandebeskrivning, aktuella förrättningsakter samt besiktning av områdena. Ett frågeformulär har skickats ut till samtliga 49 kommuner i Västra Götalands län med frågor gällande enskilt huvudmannaskap.

    Vi har kommit fram till att enskilt huvudmannaskap används i en större utsträckning än vad lagen avser. Utformningen av de allmänna platserna har till största delen blivit enligt kommunens intentioner, presenterade i plan- och genomförandebeskrivningen. Dock har vi sett att allmän plats natur i vissa områden lämnats oreglerad.

    Vi har även sett att kommunen inte har reglerat utformningen särskilt utförligt i planbestämmelserna på plankartor då de presenterat omfattande intentioner i plan- och genomförandebeskrivningen.

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  • 110.
    Jacobsson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Klein, Cecilia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Grönområden, hållbarhet och samhällsplanering utifrån ett storstadsperspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Green structure is an important part of creating a pleasant, attractive and sustainable society for people to live in. Today, more than 85% of Sweden's population lives in cities and towns, which means that people's health and well-being are affected by the urban environment they live in. With several political objectives and requirements for a good built environment place a great responsibility on the planning and development of cities by the municipalities. Through research, greenery has been shown to have a multifunctional significance for societal development by promoting ecological diversity, increasing physical activity and strengthening social cohesion.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how Gothenburg works with green structure in practice based on various governing documents and goals. The study will contribute to an increased understanding of how green structure in societal development is prioritized and which factors are behind it, as well as how these can be linked to sustainability aspects. The work is limited to the municipal level. The evidence has been collected by studying the majority of governing documents from the City of Gothenburg and through interviews with civil servants who work in the municipality. The empirical evidence from the study has been analyzed using previous research and Scott Campbell's 'Planner's Triangle' theory.

    The results of the study show that green areas are an important factor to consider in community planning, as they contribute to, among other things, social togetherness and an increased quality of life for people, animals and plant life. However, it is difficult to define the concept of green structure, as there is great uncertainty about what should be included in such an area. Although there are large profits with green areas on several different levels, it is still difficult to justify them, as other factors in community planning, such as the economy, weigh more heavily. It is therefore important to highlight early in the social process the values and functions that green areas bring and to be able to put these in perspective against other factors. 

  • 111.
    Jacobsson, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardiserad manuell hantering av fel- och omärkta lådor på Varner DC2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Varner distribution center in Vänersborg, Sweden, is a part of Varner Retail, which contains brands as Dressman, Cubus, Bik Bok and Volt. The distribution center in Vänersborg was opened in 2016 and will distribute goods to all of the shops included in the group spread across northern parts Europe. The purpose of the newly built distribution center is to make distribution of goods more efficient and lower costs connected to warehouse management and distribution. When the distribution center was built, processes standards was being developed. The tool used to create and manage the standards are called Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). The SOP is presented in a document including determined risks of the process, and a work instruction. Continuous development of the SOP is important to ensure that the documents are up to date and relevant for the process. This project was initiated in response to the demand of a standardized work instruction in managing one of the common failure with handling incoming boxes containing goods. If boxes do not have a bar code or has an incorrect barcode, they have to be managed separately. The automated system will not be able to determine what kind of goods the box contains otherwise. Before this report and its result was presented to Varner Distribution Center no standardized work instruction was available in the existing SOP. This report describes the work progression in developing a work instruction which will be in addition to existing SOP's. It contains description of the methodology used, existing theory, prior scientific work in the subject developing and working with a standardized working instruction. Ending the report will be recommendations for continuous improvement through implementing more standards and educating operating personnel.

  • 112.
    Jakobsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Magnusson, Lukas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Digitala tvillingar i samhällsplaneringen: Kommunernas väg till en digital tvilling2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor thesis is the final work in land surveyor: Urban management and spatial planning and it is about what problems there are in implementing a digital twin in spatial planning. It is also presented which measures that can be taken.

    A digital twin can most easily be explained as a digital copy of a physical object. It has several uses where it can, for example, perform various simulations and analyzes. In recent years, however, it has become increasingly common in urban planning, this creates new problems, and there is no general definition of what a digital twin is in urban planning. Then the city is complex because it contains a social system. This means that in this study it will be investigated what an ongoing digitization work could have contributed with, how a general definition of a digital twin in urban planning can facilitate. A number of aspects will also be presented that should be taken into account if/when national guidelines for digital twins in urban planning will be created.

    The study's questions are answered through an exploratory observational study and interviews conducted with the cities of Trollhättan and Gothenburg. Through these methods, it has been investigated how it looks at present and what problems that exist. Based on this, four questions were raised. A document analysis was performed to produce a theoretical framework that is mirrored against how it looks in practice. The result presents the empirical material from interviews as well as Karlskronas website and videoguides. The aspects that should be taken into account according to what has been presented in the results are artificial intelligence, sustainable development, data collection and processing, and a socio-technical perspective.

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  • 113.
    Jakobsson, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Fastighetsindelningsbestämmelser: en implementeringsstudie av bestämmelser i nya PBL2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the new Planning and Building Act (PBA), which came into force on 2 May 2011, it became possible to account for provisions on property division in a detailed developmentplan in the same way as was done in a property regulation plan in the former legislation.The property regulation plan then ceased as a separate plan. The purpose of the provisionswas to simplify the process and only have one planning process instead of two. Theprovisions on property division allow for a more detailed regulation of the detaileddevelopment plan, but also means a duty to conduct an investigation already in planningwork according law terms that is outside the PBA.The purpose of this work was to contribute new empirical evidence regarding how and towhat extent the Swedish municipalities have applied the provisions on property division,and the importance the implementing officers at the local authorities had for theimplementation. By applying an implementation perspective, the intention is to provide anew perspective on the application of planning and building act. The aim was to investigate and answer my questions and by that further develop this newfoundknowledge in the form of a proposal for a methodology for implementing thelegislation. Since this thesis work was performed at Halmstad Municipality Planning Office,the idea was that the end product will be a user-friendly tool for them in the application ofthe provisions on property division. Method disclosure resulted in a flow chart and achecklist.A case study method was used where the implementation of the provisions on propertydivision was the “case” that was studied and the analysis consisted of 290 municipalities inSweden. Data was obtained from a web based survey among the country's municipalities.It is only just over a year ago, new PBA entered into force and it is still early to draw anyconclusions about the regulatory impact. My conclusions are that the municipalities do notuse the provisions as much. The majority of the provisions introduced concerns propertydivision and joint facilities. The cadastral authority plays a key role in the application of theprovisions, it is usually the cadastral authority which examines that the provision isconsistent with law terms outside the PBA. And in those few cases they have developedroutines it is prepared by the cadastral authority. The implementing officers at the local authorities affect the implementation mainly in twoways. Firstly, by the users not fully understanding the provisions. The consequence of thisis that necessary testing of conditions is not done or that the municipalities do not applythe provisons at all. Second, in that it is unclear which the users of the legislation actually is. This means that the implementation process at the local level will be interpreted in light ofdifferent professional perspectives, such as architects, physical planners, engineers andplanners with a variety of outcomes. To some extent the users are affected by culture andtradition how the municipality previously worked with real estate plan.

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  • 114.
    Jansson, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hedberg, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Nedsättning av byggsanktionsavgifter2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine in how many cases 15 different buildingcommittee’s in differentmunicipalities in Västra Götalands county, administer a building sanction fee for a violationof rules in the Swedish plan- och bygglagen (PBL) and also when the municipalities is unableto administer a fee. The study also aims to present how the buildingcommittee do to calculatethe fee (what they are basing their fee on) which can be found in the Swedish plan- ochbyggförordningen (PBF). It is also regulated in both PBL and PBF when thebuildingcommittee should administer a fee. PBL 11:51 states that the buildingcommittee should administer a fee for a violation that has not been wilful or by negligence.PBF 6:5 states that some procedures that do not require permission from thebuildingcommittee still requires you to notify and a starting permission to be administeredfrom the buildingcommittee. It can as an example be procedures that concern people’s healthand security. This study shall primarily examine when the buildingcommittee in differentmunicipalities is able and also how often they apply PBL 11:53 a, that gives thebuildingcommittee an opportunity in a single case to lower a fee that is not in a reasonableproportion to the violation that has been committed. How do different municipalities do to lower a fee that is not in a reasonable proportion to the violation that has been committed? Is the current jurisprudence and the law strictly applied in all cases or are the municipalities able to interpret the law in a more free way? How well are the decisions the municiplatities do motivated? The preparatory work of the law has been studied and summarized to givethe reader an overview of the lawmaker’s intention with the law.One of the primary purposes of the law was to give municipalities an opportunity to lowerthe building fee, by providing municipalities with a tool and a certain freedom in theirassessment regarding unlawful violations to the rules in PBL and PBF. This is possible withthe opportunity to lower the fee to half or one quarter of the original fee, these twopossibilities has been chosen to lower the chance of unequal treatment for certain individuals.Furthermore, a study of the law and on significant jurisprudence has been carried out andcompared with how the buildingcommittee have resolved their cases when they decide tolower the fee. Lastly a conclusion has been drawn on how well the different municipalitiesresolve their cases in line with current jurisprudence, what problems occur when applyingthe law and if the law has a clear way of interpreting the law or if unequal treatment persists.

  • 115.
    Javanainen, Cassandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Betydande olägenheter: en studie av 2 kap. 9 § PBL2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2 ch. § 9 § The Planning and Building Act is a section that was developed to protect groundwater, the environment in general and people's health and safety. The paragraph states that the planning of land and water areas as well as the location, placement and design of buildings, signs and lighting devices must not take place in such a way that the intended use or the building, sign or lighting device can cause significant inconvenience. This report will focus on the concept of significant inconveniences and try to find out how Sweden's Land and Environmental Courts and the Land and Environmental Supreme Court assess legal cases involving significant inconveniences and investigate whether the view on significant nuisances has changed.

    The legislation regarding significant inconveniences has looked relatively similar since it was drawn up in the older Planning and Building Act up to how it looks today. Some changes and additions have been made to make the law clearer. In the preparatory work, some examples of what could be significant inconveniences appear and some guidance on how the legislator intended the section to be used. 

    In the study, three different legal cases have been analyzed and compared with each other. Two of the cases are very similar in terms of where the areas are located, the design of the detailed plan and other relevant conditions. The third case is slightly different from the other two when it comes to the outcome of the judgment but is still considered relevant to include in the analysis to depict different types of legal cases that may arise. What is interesting about the two similar court cases is that the same Land and Environment High Court will judge these two cases in completely different ways. In one case, Land and Environment High Court concludes that the adoption of the detailed plan will not entail such significant inconveniences for the surroundings that cannot be tolerated, while in the other case, Land and Environment High Court states that the inconveniences that arise in connection with the development of the detailed plan will be significant on such a scale that the detailed plan not allowed to be adopted.

    The study shows that the courts can assess legal cases with very similar conditions in completely different ways. This has led to the conclusion that the courts may now have a new way of looking at how a significant inconveniences should be considered and assessed.

  • 116.
    Jellbo, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Sjöström, Rikard
    PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2006: effektivitet och samverkan i försörjningskedjor2006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Illiberal Think Tanks2023In: The Oxford Handbook of Illiberalism / [ed] Marlène Laruelle, Oxford University Press, 2023, p. [1-15]Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Think tanks, or organizations producing and disseminating policy knowledge to influence policymakers, are a given element of political systems around the globe. Depending on the national opportunity structure, think tanks take different forms. Individual think tanks usually represent a given ideological orientation or set of values. This chapter studies think tanks that align with the illiberal political agenda in Poland. These organizations, most of which self-identify as conservative, have played a significant role in the electoral success of Law and Justice, and after the party gained power, they have helped sustain the illiberal political orientation by providing the government with policy ideas and communicating policy decisions to the broader public domestically and abroad. Conservative think tanks form the intellectual infrastructure for the illiberal government, both proactively inspiring the illiberal agenda and reactively legitimizing it to external audiences. Benefiting from illiberal policymaking, they form the illiberal knowledge regime.

  • 118.
    Johannesson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rosenkvist, Agnes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen: Länsstyrelsernas och kommunernas tillämpning av lagstiftningen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att kartlägga och analysera hur lagstiftningen gällande landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen (LIS) tillämpas, genom att studera länsstyrelserna i Sverige och kommunerna Mariestad, Färgelanda, Munkedal och Mellerud. Möjligheten för kommunerna att kunna peka ut LIS-områden i översiktsplanerna har funnits sedan 1 februari 2010 och det är länsstyrelsernas uppgift att bevaka att inte strandskyddets syften motverkas på ett oacceptabelt sätt.

    Ett antal länsstyrelser i Sverige har tagit fram råd för hur kommunerna ska gå till väga vid utpekandet av LIS-områden. Dessa råd skiljer sig något åt, både vad gäller omfattning och innehåll. Vi tror dock att flera av skillnaderna kan bero på att länsstyrelserna omedvetet har uttryckt sig olika och att det i slutändan är möjligt att en prövning, oavsett länsstyrelse, skulle ge samma resultat.

    Det är tydligt att det finns en intressekonflikt mellan strandskyddets syften och LIS. Länsstyrelserna betonar, i sina råd, vikten av långsiktig planering hos kommunerna och att utpekandet av LIS-områden inte ska göras lättvindigt. De kommuner som vi har studerat har pekat ut ett förhållandevis stort antal LIS-områden, varav ett flertal är belägna vid Vänern. Vid Vänern råder utvidgat strandskydd och dessutom ska LIS användas restriktivt där om det råder ett högt bebyggelsetryck.

    Kommunernas planering ser olika ut och har olika detaljeringsgrad, vissa har tagit fram detaljerade tematiska tillägg till översiktsplanen medan någon har arbetat fram ett översiktligt tematiskt planeringsunderlag. Av länsstyrelsens yttranden framkommer kritik mot flera av LIS-områdena, som gäller alltifrån detaljer till hela LIS-områdens lämplighet. Kritiken beaktas i olika utsträckning av kommunerna, men vad gäller LIS-områden som länsstyrelsen anser olämpliga väljer oftast kommunen att behålla dessa. Detta, i kombination med kommunernas sätt att beskriva och motivera LIS-områdena, gör att vi ibland ifrågasätter hur stora möjligheterna är till genomförande, åtminstone inom en överskådlig tid.

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  • 119.
    Johannesson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Svensson, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Förutsättningar för småhusbyggande i Dalsland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2012 Boverket calculated a Tobins q for all municipalities in Sweden. Tobin q describes the theoretical profit when building a single-family house, by dividing market value of an existing house with the total production costs of a similar house.

    The municipalities in Dalsland had a Tobins q value between 0,0-0,79. Boverket wrote in their report that a Tobins q below 0,8 means worse possibilities for building new houses, which was true for all the municipalities in Dalsland. This makes it interesting to investigate how many single-family houses that are built in Dalsland, if the housing market has changes to a point that makes it possible to build houses with a theoretical profitability and what would enable more houses to be built.

    Method: To answer how many single-family houses that are built, data, from the planning and construction department was gathered and compiled. Tobins q for the Dalslands municipalities was assessed by dividing the average market value for an existing house with a calculated total production costs for a new house with the same standards. The market values were assessed by looking at sales of single-family houses with the same or similar standard as a new house. The analysis showed that it was too few sales that fit the criteria in all the municipalities, instead all Dalsland was divided in to three submarkets. Rural-, waterfront- and urban locations. The cost of building a new house was calculated for each submarket. The costs that were compiled was for building plot, house, foundation and planning permission.

    What it would take for the housing market to be improved to enable more houses to be built was investigated by conducting interviews with chiefs of municipals, the planning and construction department, real estate agent and a banker.

    Result: How much are being built? 2018 in Dalsland 37 single-family houses was built which results in 0,85 single-family houses per 1000 inhabitants. The study reaches from 2013-2018, but it has shown no clear signs of any changes of the amounts of house that is being built.

    Is it possible to build with theoretical profit? No, it's not likely that you will make a profit from building in Dalsland, but in some locations you can build without taking a loss. Waterfront locations got a Tobins q value of 0,99, which are higher than what the national average was in Sweden 2012 which was 0,9. The two other markets got a somewhat worse result. Rural location got a Tobins q value of 0,75 while urban location got a Tobins q value of 0,68. This study shows that you can't build single-family houses on those locations and make a theoretical profit.

    What would it take for the housing market to be improved to enable more house to be built? The two biggest obstacles according to the municipalities are that the County Administrative Board are turning down requests for dispensation from the Beach Protection Act and that it is hard for people to get a loan to build houses because of the low Tobins q value.

    Their proposal for solutions are that the state needs to make changes, especially legislative changes or additions. For LIS to work better from their point of view, the County Administrative Board should apply a more generous interpretation of the Beach Protection Act, which would result in more dispensations from the coastal protection. They had more solutions for raising their Tobins q value. Examples of these are: grants for new construction of small houses in the countryside, higher grants for apartment buildings and lower the VAT on building materials to name a few.

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  • 120.
    Johannesson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Katarina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bristfälliga grundkartor och fastighetsutredningar: En studie om hur stort problemet är och följderna av dem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to PBL 5 chap 8 § it is required to have at least one basemap during the creation of a local plan. However, it is possible to overlook this if it is deemed to be unnecessary.

    The idea for this study was formed after a meeting at the beginning of this year when a group of people learned that the available basemaps were severely flawed and that they did not live up to the standard thus making them unsuited as a foundation for local plans, roadplans and railroadplans. Furthermore, it turned out that property investigations were all too rare. The meeting revealed a couple of cases where things had gone wrong and the consequences that had occurred due to this proved to be delays that lasted for approximately one to two years.

    The study aims to explore different reasons as to if and why there is a problem with the basemaps and property investigations. It also aims to find out what kind of consequences that could possibly arise due to this problem.

    This study is primarily based on interviews with experienced project managers who work at a private housing development companies but also municipal officials who have experience in planning new residences for a more broad study. Furthermore, this study will be based on their personal opinions and experiences regarding the chosen problem which means that not every single professional beyond this study will have the same answers.

    The end result shows that the chosen problem is not considered to be a great problem for the interviewees and that they so far have not come across any consequences caused by flawed basemaps or property investigations. All project managers have however experienced shortcomings, particularly heights, which is a detail that has higher uncertainty in quality. They have also noted that the quality differs between urban areas and countryside areas. The problem is well known amongst the interviewees which means that they are able to fix a problem at an early stage and that reduces the risk for major consequences.

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  • 121.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stefansson, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rättighetshantering vid bildandet av 3D fastigheter: med fallstudie Karlatornet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D real estate enable buildings to be divided into multiple real estates for different purpose and with different ownership. 3D real estates are created through a cadastral procedure according to Swedish law. When establishing a new 3D real estate there are specific requirements that has to be fulfilled so the purpose of the real estate is adequate. This means that all the real estate rights has to be acquired at the time of the cadastral procedure. The rights can be obtained through jointly-owned facilities or easements. Stairwells, hallways and the buildings core are a few examples where rights may have to be acquired. The purpose of this study is to map how creating a 3D real estate can be done and how the real estate rights is acquired in the cadastral procedure. Furthermore, it examines how rights can be managed and sustainable. How developers and cadastral engineers are cooperating to accomplish a sustainable management is also part of purpose of this study. This study examines what possibilities there are for 3D real estate's according to the Swedish law. To examine how the Swedish law is applied in reality, we studied ten cadastral procedure reports from four different municipalities. Interviews have been done with two experienced cadastral engineers and two developers who has been working with projects where 3D real estates were present. The purpose of the interviews was to acquire answers from questions that arose when the cadastral procedure reports were studied and how the developers and cadastral engineers cooperation works. The study shows the different possibilities of creating 3D real estates. How the cadastral procedure is done is based on the unique conditions between the projects, what way of work the cadastral engineer use, how experienced the developers are and if consultants has been used. To make sure that the management of the jointly-owned facilities can be done in a sustainable way they have to be formed to be adequate both from the beginning and even for future needs. The tower Karlatornet is a unique project where around 20 different real estate owners will share the building. Planning and cooperation between the cadastral engineers and the developer is an important part to make sure the project will work. Avoiding more details than what is needed in the jointly-owned facilities to enable future adjustments is a must in a project like this. The study show four different solutions on how the rights can be obtained. To let the core of the building and the foundation be a part of the jointly-owned facilities and the jointly-owned land may not be of essential importance but the conclusion is that they should be included for a simplified future management.

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  • 122.
    Johansson, Filippa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Lenita
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Displacement Analysis of a Geodetic Network: A case study of the Vasa warship2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring coordinates repeatedly in time we can detect movements of an area or an object by establishing and monitoring a geodetic network. Since it is known that the Vasa warship is suffering from decomposition, a geodetic network has been established around the ship to monitor its deformation. This is an important task for preserving and supporting the ship in its place. In this thesis, time series of coordinates are considered over 22 epochs of the ship measurements, a quadratic line is fitted to them and acceleration and velocity for each point on the ship’s hull are obtained. The x-axis is across the ship, the y-axis is along and the zaxis is the vertical one in the local coordinate system of the ship. A method is developed for monitoring displacement and its error at different parts on the ship in two successive epochs, considering the covariances between the point coordinates. The covariances influence the result of the displacement. Significant displacements, calculated with a variance-covariance matrix were compared with the displacements calculated without variance-covariance matrix. Considering the covariances gave 108 more insignificant three dimensional displacements, which means that they are in the order of random errors. The largest acceleration and velocity are found in the upper part of the ship stern in the Zcoordinates, where all points have significant acceleration and velocity. The ship bow has the second highest acceleration and velocity, while the midsection of the ship seems to be more stabile. In the X- and Y-coordinates the acceleration and velocity are smaller, in Ycoordinates almost all points have significant acceleration and velocity. In the Xcoordinates there are several points of data with insignificant acceleration and velocity, most of them located at the midsection of the vessel. The results show that the ship is moving and accelerating at various speeds on different sides of the ship, which indicates that there are parts that suffer from more crucial decomposing. The stern is the part of the vessel that has the highest velocity, acceleration and displacement. The ship is moving downwards with respect to the museum building at the same time as it tilting towards the port. The down pulling force can explain the movements downwards, the strength of the oak can also be one reason. The tilting could depend on the support structure since points in various part of the ship seems to have the same amount of movement in the direction towards the port.

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  • 123.
    Johansson, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vattenskyddsområden i Sverige inrättade 2013 - 2019: föreskrifter och ersättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the current and future generations' access to clean water, water supplies need to be protected with protection areas. When the water protection area is formed, the area is divided in different protection zoned depending on the need of protection. When establishing water protection areas, regulations are issued for which restrictions apply within the protection area. The restrictions may result in restrictions on availability that may, for example, impose a ban on the management of chemical pesticides. Such restrictions on access shall, in accordance with Sweden's constitution, be compensated if ongoing land use within the affected part of the property is made considerably more difficult. However, if these limitations are for health protection, environmental protection or safety reasons, what follows from the law regarding the right to compensation. The general rules of consideration are such rules that each property owner must submit to and restrictions that take place in consideration these are not eligible for compensation.

    The present study focuses on investigating if the decision-making authorities, when establishing a water protection area, prescribe a prohibition or a license requirement under the general rules of consideration and thereby avoids their obligation to pay compensation. The prescribed commitments that have primarily been investigated are the management of pesticides, the management of plant nutrients and the storage of forest products. The study has also intended to investigate whether municipalities or county administrative boards act differently when establishing water protection areas and if the protection regulations indicate different depending on which protection zone applies.

    In the present study, the quantitative method has been applied. The examination of the regulations for the selection of water protection areas was done quantitatively. As a complement, qualitative text has been interpreted. The study investigates various legal sources of law that concern water protection areas and the restriction of access they may entail. The sources of law examined are statutes, regulations, an official investigation and court cases. The investigation of these has been done to clarify the practical function of the law and to ensure how it works.

    The study shows that the decision-making authorities to a large extent announce the regulation that may entail an obligation to pay compensation to the property owner. This, although according to practice, is acceptable to issue regulations that mean that the decision authority can circumvent its obligation to pay compensation. In most cases, the protection regulations in the primary protection zone do not coincide with the protection regulations of the secondary zone. According to the essay, it is concluded that which authority it is that establishes the water protection area has no impact on how the regulations are designed. The municipality and the County Administrative Board thus act equally when establishing water protection areas.

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  • 124.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Paulsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En studie i gällande rätt för ersättning av enskilda va-anläggningar vid delexpropriation2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to have a rational and fair community building, it is important that the rules of the Swedish Expropriation act for negotiations in land access situations are interpreted and treated in an equal way in each situation. This is to contribute to the sustainable development of society where infrastructure is an important part of a country's ability to develop both economically and socially. In land access, you are faced with a variety of parameters that need to be addressed, and by creating a methodology how to solve the compensation issues for different situations, a more efficient process can be created.The work aims to explain what the current law is in matters regarding the Swedish Transport Administration’s obligations in case of partial expropriation for the construction of road and rail. The aim is also to clarify the current law of the individual's right to compensation when their individual water and/or sewerage facilities are part of the land being partially expropriated. Furthermore, the aim is to create a basis in the form of a valuation model so that the Swedish Transport Administration can in the future issue both equal and legal compensations. In order to achieve the goal of clarifying the issue, an interview study has been conducted with experts as well as a study of literature on the subject and relevant legal cases.Our work has led us to the fact that a strict interpretation of the 4 chapter of the Expropriation act means that it is a pure market value reduction that should be replaced.This without including items such as other damages to compensate for the loss of the facility unless it is damage that can be considered personal or of a temporary nature. In order to assess the market value decrease, it should first be ensured that the installation is not manifestlysubstandard, and this is in terms of a lay assessment of the standard of the installation. Then look to a value before, then minus the value after, without an installation. This becomes the difference between value before and after which are supposed to be replaced. This with a flat-rate mark-up of 25%. The value of the system should be attributed to what a replacement of the water or sewage facility costs. 

  • 125.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Chatrine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Genomförandeavtal: Innehåll och reglering av avtal2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation Agreement is a civil contract with public legal basis. No law deals with establishing the implementing agreement, however, the municipality and the developer support from, among other things, the Planning and Building Act (PBA) and the Public Procurement Act (LOU) on the formation of contracts. In previous studies, the problem regarding the lack of legislation regulating the establishment of implementation agreements has been discussed.

    The primary purpose is to analyze six executive agreements in California. The review is based on a text analysis, i.e. a qualitative method to gain a deeper understanding of how contracts are written. A compilation is done to get a good overview of the various provisions of the agreements.

    The three questions answered in this study refers to what the municipality and the developer regulate in the agreements, what possibly has no legal basis and also if the plan is implemented.

    The results of the study show that two of the six contracts that have been included in the study are less detailed, while the other four are more detailed. After reviewing the agreement in the study, a conclusion is drawn that basic information such as parties, exploitation area and the purchase price is included in all contracts.

    In common for the agreements are also that some formulations are imprecise and therefore difficult to interpret. The agreements also contain conditions that may lack legal support. It was also found that the area were basically designed according to detailed plans.

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  • 126.
    Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Landin, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En studie i hur järnvägens möjligheter kan appliceras inom AB Volvo: med hänsyn tagen till företagets logistikkrav2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year of 2011, the new CEO of AB Volvo announced a major reorganization. This reorganization was a contributing factor to the start-up of this thesis.

    Volvo Group Logistics Services (VGLS) is Volvo Group’s global logistics partner, which designs, manages and optimizes all of the group's incoming and outgoing logistics flows. With the reorganization, VGLS started a project regarding responsibilities around railway flows. Within the project a demand to collect logistics requirements occurred. The aim of the thesis was to collect these logistics requirements and analyze the train's ability to meet them.

    The logistic requirements that was identified as joint within AB Volvo was for example logistics solutions in line with core values, high delivery precision, high delivery reliability and high information availability. The identification of logistic requirements was based on qualitative and quantitative methods. Interviews with survey elements are examples of methods that were used. The results are divided into two parts, possibilities with railway transports and joint logistics requirements within AB Volvo.

    Based on the results, an analysis has been made of the railway’s abilities to meet the set requirements. With the current infrastructure, we believe it is difficult for railway transports to compete with trucking. Trains can deliver a high delivery precision to a good lead time, where the right conditions exist. Our impression is that only unit/block trains currently can be compared with road transports. The disadvantage with unit or block trains is that they are volume demanding.

    The railway’s ability to be efficient from a total logistics cost perspective is individual for all flows and depends on factors within the flow. The individual efficiency derives from the nature of the goods, transport distances, infrastructural arrangements, volumes and cargo value. Thus, you can’t say that rail transport is generally more profitable than road transport. 

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  • 127.
    Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Borneskär, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Från plan till verklighet: En helhetsbild av genomförandeprocessen för allmän plats, med enskilt huvudmannaskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study comprises four case studies, in the form of detailed plans from the three municipalities in Västra Götaland. The detailed individual has principal responsibility in a public place, and each case study includes a survey and analysis of the implementation process of a public place. Documents that have been reviewed are flat map, planning and implementation description, contract (development agreements / land use agreements) and ordinances. Finally a visit was performed in each planning area, by a visual inspection. Preliminary work, SOU 's, lagkommentarer, Propositions and previous studies focusing on individual principal on public places, has been read to get a knowledge base for the study. Older laws have been studied, such as the elderly Planning and Building Act 1987, in order to know the legislation of the detailed plans that are subject of the study. The study has its origins from two theses from the year 2012, which covered a similar subject. The difference in this study is that the agreements been added as an additional document, to create an overall picture of the implementation process of a public place with a single principal responsibility. Qualitative method with a hermeneutic approach has been used, where text interpretation has been the central approach, to understand the municipality's underlying intentions for public places. Analyses of the text documents have been conducted to investigate whether they contain the same issues. The aim was to see how the implementation process is complex, and how clearly municipality ensures its intentions for the general location of the plane map into reality. In completed case studies we have seen that municipalities use the agreement to partially regulate the design of public space, and only partial use of the possibility to enter the planning regulations on the design of plan map. We have also seen that the intentions in the general location plan map, doesn´t always agree with the planning and implementation descriptions. Despite this, the site visits revealed that the facilities for the public space is implemented in accordance with the plan map. The experience we had with us is that site visits are an important part in contact with the plans. Site visits gave us a better understanding of the municipality's intentions when text documents interpreted, and assess accessibility in public places. It's something we think should be used more, even when new detailed plans drawn up. The implementation process from plan to reality is a complex process. The process includes several different parts, where communication between officials is important to intentions of zoning should not to change or fall away. The municipality should therefore monitor each document established in the implementation process, to ensure the intentions and reduce the chance that reality will not be that the municipality has planned.

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  • 128.
    Jonassen, Victoria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Brycke, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Villkor för att säkerställa byggnation och bevarande av hyresrätter: En studie om hur kommunerna går tillväga i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's municipalities are legally responsible for creating good housing opportunities for the inhabitants. In the current situation there is a great demand for housing, mainly in Sweden's big-city regions. Municipalities with rather expensive prices on land and growing population create high pressure on the rental apartments. Therefore, it is of interest to local authorities to ensure the construction of rental apartments and that the apartments remain as rental apartments and are not converted to other forms of tenure, in order to prevent conversion of contemplate and profit.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how local authorities can ensure building strategies and keep tenancy rights to the sale of municipal land, with a focus on how regulation is done in practice. To give the study a broader perspective also the building companies were contacted in order to find out their attitude to the municipalities requirements.

    The study is conducted through a qualitative contract review procedure with additional interviews to examine how municipality authorities will ensure the construction of rental apartments in practice. A request for an agreement was sent to Sweden's 20 largest municipalities, counted in population size. 16 of the 20 municipalities contributed with agreements. Selection of interviewees was based on the in-originated agreements to represent all methods to ensure the construction and preservation of rental apartments.

    The result shows that the municipalities apply leasehold, additional consideration, payment and prohibition against conversion to direct tenure. Some municipalities choose not to control tenure in the contract, instead they rely on trust between the municipality and the developer. In the current situation there is no tool in the PBL for controlling tenure and there is neither no obvious solution to contractually guarantee the rental building and its preservation. Con-examination shows that in practice there are differences regarding how local authorities applied different methods.

    In conclusion, there is a great interest of local authorities to design a sustainable and operational approach. To build and maintain rental apartments is a difficult question in the cur-rent situation. It is manifested by the municipality, that there is some lack of knowledge regarding the legality of contracts. In this perspective it would clearly be preferable for both municipal and builder if the procedure was more explicit.

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  • 129.
    Junedahl, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Skapar ett framgångsrikt samarbete förutsättningar för studentbostäder?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a housing shortage in large parts of Sweden today, primarily young people and students. Students in more than half of Sweden's student cities are particularly vulnerable and students are homeless well into their semesters. The shortage is largely due to the fact that not enough housing has been built and that those that are built are often disproportionately expensive compared to the student's income. However, this is not a problem in all cities, in Trollhättan there is a housing guarantee that guarantees students a safe housing within 30 days from the start of the semester. What makes this possible, and what are the factors in the local collaboration that form the basis for its success? 

    This study has examined what collaborations there are in Trollhättan, what makes them successful when it comes to the student housing issue and the value the students have for the city in general. 

    One person each from Eidar, the City of Trollhättan and University West has in digital interviews been able to describe what is the reason that these collaborations have been and are successful. All the interviewees mentions that continuity and commitment is one of the keys to success. Surprisingly, the historical origin of the forms of collaboration is also of great importance. Trollhättan went through a major crisis in 2009 when SAAB went bankrupt and at roughly the same time, in 2008, University West was established in Trollhättan. These two changes created a strong foundation and a common will in the city and its businesses to contribute to the towns development. Crisis breeds development in collaboration. Trollhättan is a small town, a young town with a relatively young university that has grown together. In this, I believe that other Student Cities, higher education institutions and municipalities can watch and learn from what a good collaboration and joint effort can do for the individual students who get housing and for the city's development in the long run.

    Trollhättan is a proud student city that cares about the University and the students who come here. This pride is based on a commitment and a strong will to develop.

  • 130.
    Kahin, Mohammed
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Olsson, Jonathan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kommunala lantmäterimyndighetens insats för en effektivare detaljplane- och genomförandeprocess: En undersökande fallstudie av projektet BoStad2021 i Göteborgs Stad2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, the City of Gothenburg decided to increase the rate of construction by streamlining the detailed planning and implementation process. Previously these processes were dealt with separately and sequentially. To meet the society's needs and be able to build in line with population growth, the streamlining of these processes needed improvement and a new strategy.

    This bachelor thesis aim was to examine the implications of parallel processes and its contribution to the efficiency of the detailed planning process. The study specifically focused on the role of the municipal land surveying authority in the planning process and implementation process.

    A case study was conducted in the City of Gothenburg to address the research questions. BoStad2021 project was established to streamline the detailed planning and implementation process, with the goal of completing 7000 units by 2021. Gothenburg was the first municipality to implement parallel processes, wherein different departments collaborated early on and worked closely together to streamline the entire detailed planning and implementation process. Data was collected through three interviews with two-unit managers and one land surveyor involved in the establishment of BoStad2021 project in the City of Gothenburg. Furthermore, Chalmers University’s follow up research on BoStad2021 was studied to support the examination of changes in the municipal land surveying authority’s work method.

    The result of the study indicates that the municipal land surveying authority’s work method has undergone changes. Their role and work methods have become more proactive through the improved communication strategy. By working with parallel processes and a close cooperation with the other departments they have been able to initiate early land survey proceedings and prepare decision materials promptly after the detailed plan has gained legal force. These changes have contributed to a more efficient land surveying process.

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  • 131.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Plan- och bygglagens krav på detaljplanebestämmelser: En granskning i Skåne län2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have the opportunity to regulate the use of land- and water areas with a detailed development plan. The restrictions of the plan are legally bound after the plan becomes final and the Planning and Building Act, chapter four regulate what a plan may include. The chapter is exhaustive, which means that only what is listed in the chapter may be regulated. The chapter also gives the restrictions clarity requirements. In the Planning and Building Act is also to be read that to plan land- and water areas is an affair that only can be done by the municipalities which gives them a planning monopoly.     

    In cases where the municipality uses provisions in a plan that doesn’t have support in the Planning and Building Act chapter four means that the current legislation is not followed. This can lead to that the credibility of the legal system decreases and also give the property owners difficulties in interpreting the meaning of the provisions.    

    Previous work has shown that the municipality uses plan provisions that are extended beyond the current legislation and in this work further 279 plans get examined to investigate whether they include unclear provisions or provisions without support in law.  

    The provisions in this study which is considered incorrect have been categorized into four different categories according to the manner in which they are considered to be deficient. One category consists of provisions that lack legal support and three categories consist of provisions that are unclear in different ways.

    The result of this survey shows that nearly half of the examined detailed development plans contain one or more provisions which don’t meet the legal requirements for clarity or are not among the enumerated provisions of the Planning and Building Act chapter four. The study also shows that unclear plan provisions are more frequent than the plan provisions that lack legal support.

    Boverket argues that the erroneous provisions shall be deemed invalid but even so, the presence of them could have consequences. The reasons for their occurrence can be many and a number of different solutions can be found, among other things, enhanced examination and reference to legal texts on the plan by each used provision.  

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    Plan- och bygglagens krav på detaljplanebestämmelser - En granskning i Skåne län
  • 132.
    Karlsson, Camia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Utvecklingen av geografiska informationssystem: en studie vid Trollhättan stad och kommun2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 133.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Clusters, Networks and Creativity2011In: Handbook of Creative Cities / [ed] David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E. Andersson, Charlotta Mellander, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 81-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Anderson, William
    Univeristy of Windsor, UK.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Infrastructure Measurement and Management – An Introduction2007In: Management and Meas­urement of Infrastructure. Performance, Efficiency and Innovation / [ed] Karlsson, C., W.P. Anderson, B. Johansson & K. Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.Anderson, William, P.Universty of Windsor, UK.Kobayashi, KiyoshiKyoto Univetsity, Graduate School of Management.
    Management and Measurement of Infrastructure. Performance, Efficiency and In­nova­tion2007Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Karlsson, Kamilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Olsson, Johannes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Finns det behov av att införa blandat huvudmannaskap i detaljplaner?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete går ut på att undersöka om det finns ett behov av att kunna blanda huvudmannaskapet i detaljplaner. I PBL-kommitténs slutbetänkande har man tagit upp frågan för att man anser att plan- och bygglagen inte efterföljs på det sätt som tanken var när den inrättades. Genom vår uppdragsgivare GF konsult AB kom vi i kontakt med ett antal kommuner som visade sitt intresse i frågan. Utifrån de problem som framgår av slutbetänkandet har vi sammanställt ett antal frågor som vi har använt oss av när vi har intervjuat kommunerna. Efter att ha genomfört intervjuerna och gjort en sammanställning av de svar vi fick har vi kommit fram till att de största problemen med huvudmannaskapsfrågan uppstår när en kommun lägger ut allmän plats med enskilt huvudmannaskap. T ex får kommunerna ofta problem med skötsel av naturområden då det inte finns någon som har ansvaret för detta eftersom samfällighetsföreningarna ofta endast ansvarar för vägar och ibland kan det vara svårt att säkerställa allmänhetens tillgång till ett område då man i detaljplanen har lagt ut marken som gx-område. Till följd av dessa problem så var kommunerna överlag positivt inställda till en ändring av lagen som skulle innebära blandat huvudmannaskap.

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  • 137.
    Karlsson, Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    UAS-fotogrammetri för kustnära djupmätning: Göteborgs södra skärgård2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of drone flight altitude and data format on the point cloud and digital bathymetric model in two areas of the southern archipelago of Gothenburg. Two areas were selected for this study: one located on the northern side of Fotö with an approximate area of 0.080 km2, and another situated on the western side of Hönö with an approximate area of 0.180 km2. To examine the impact, bathymetric measurements were conducted using multibeam echo sounders, alongside data collection using a drone. Three different flight altitudes and two camera modes (2D and 3D) of the drone were investigated. The number of ground control points (GCP) was also examined. Five different flight missions were planned and executed, involving varying flight altitudes, camera modes and number of GCPs. A boat-based survey was conducted in each area. The Pix4D Mapper software was utilizing with two different calibration modes to assess their influence on the point cloud and digital bathymetric model. The findings revealed that a flight altitude of 70 m was optimal for the two selected areas with the employed equipment. The 3D camera mode and the “accurate geolocation and orientation” calibration mode resulted in the best quality point cloud and digital bathymetric model. Using this methodology and equipment, UAS photogrammetry can be employed for measuring depths of up to 1.5 m.

  • 138.
    Karlsson, Klas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Omprövningsförrättningar: En studie med fokus på villkor och skäl2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today matters concerning cooperation between properties is regulated in the Swedish facility law. Facilities are formed for eternal time, but due to various reasons conditions can change in a way that affects the facilities. To modify the conditions of the changed circumstances is 35 § applicable, called reassessment. To protect the property owner's interest shall not all situation automatically lead to a reassessment. Three different conditions are therefore listed in the 35 § and one of those must be achieved to allow a reassessment. When a decision is based on a section of a law, the surveyor must specify which condition he based his decision on.

    The study is based on a hypothesis that there seems to be confusions about what reasons for a reassessment should be tested against which condition. The purpose of the study is to find out and clarify the relationship between the conditions and various reasons. This will hopefully contribute to an easier and more time efficient administration of a reassessment. A survey will also be made to see how the relationship is handled by surveyors in completed reassessments.

    The study is based on a combination of a quantitative method which is used for the collection of reassessments and a legal method which is used for reading reassessment files, legal texts, preparatory work and court cases.

    It was hard to clarify the relationship between the conditions and reasons via legal text, preparatory work and court cases because they didn’t give so much information. A joint assessment of legal texts, preparatory work and court cases resulted however in a clarification of which reasons considered to be linked to which condition. Based on the results of the study the survey found that the wrong connection is made in 21% of the cases. The outcome with the most negative effect are those cases where the reasons are considered to be linked to a clear need, but instead they have been tested against substantially change circumstances. This was the outcome in 41% of the acts consisting reasons that were considered related to a clear need. In a third of the files no specific section of the law was tried or an incorrect application was made.

    To sum up the results of this study strengthen the hypothesis of the uncertainties surrounding the application of § 35. Partly through the survey of the actual application of 35 § which proved inadequate but also by the scant support and directives that were available around the issue of reassessments. The authors hope that the results of the study will clarify the links and contribute to a comprehension of the importance to specify the right condition.

  • 139.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Siverbo, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ny strandskyddslag: en generell metod för att utse områden för lättnader i strandskyddet på landsbygden2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En ny strandskyddslag träder i kraft den 1 juli 2009. Anledningen till att ett nytt lagförslag har vuxit fram är att det har ansetts finnas brister i nuvarande strandskyddsregler och det har medfört att dagens regler är på väg att urholkas. Stränderna vid kusten och runt de större sjöarna kommer att få ett förstärkt skydd medan lättnader i strandskyddet kan bli aktuellt vid sjöar på landsbygden. Den nya lagen möjliggör en ökad samordning av miljöbalken och plan- och bygglagen genom att kommunerna kommer att få ansvar för upphävande och dispens från strandskyddet vilket gör att strandskyddsfrågorna blir en naturlig del av den kommunala samhällsplaneringen. Kommunerna ska dessutom i sin översiktsplan utse områden som kommer att bli aktuella för lättnader i strandskyddet på landsbygden. I dagsläget finns ingen vägledning om hur kommunerna ska gå tillväga vid framtagandet av områden. I detta arbete ges ett förslag till en generell metod som kommunerna kan använda sig av för att få fram områden som kan bli aktuella för lättnader i strandskyddet på landsbygden. Metoden består av en översiktlig analys och en fördjupad analys som inom sig rymmer ett flertal kriterier. Metoden tillämpas på Tanums kommun som i stor utsträckning påverkas av den nya lagstiftningen.

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  • 140.
    Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Laga kraft vinning för lovärenden enligt PBL (2010:900)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each municipality in Sweden must have a local building committee. The committee consists of elected politicians responsible for managing the permit process related to construction, dem-olition and ground processing. The committee manages the permit process by delegating the entire task or parts of it to employed officials. If there is no delegation the officials will write a suggested decision to be reviewed and decided by the committee.

    This essay investigates construction-, demolition- and ground processing permit where the of-ficials and the local building committee differ in their decisions and the assessment which led to these decisions. The examination included studies of four municipalities in the county of Västra Götaland: two smaller, Färgelanda and Munkedal municipalities, and two larger, Trollhättan and Uddevalla. The investigation consisted of two parts. One examination of the permit protocols, and a series of interviews with officials. During 2015 there were 1386 cases of permits within the four municipalities. 23 of these were cases of the committee not deciding in accordance with the proposition of the officials. A number of errors were also found, such as there not being a stated reason for the decision, or lack of any clear legal reference. This raises the question of whether or not the rule of law is followed during these circumstances.

    After consulting with Ulrika Nolåker from Byggutbildarna, the issues were expanded further when it was discovered that more errors occur during the municipal management of the con-cerned parties and the announcements of the cases. In order to receive further guidance, knowledge and information on how to interpret the laws handling concerned parties and an-nouncements, contact was made with Ulf Jensen and Eidar Lindgren, professor in real estate science at Högskolan Väst, and lecturer of real estate sciences at Kungliga Tekniska Högsko-lan, respectively.

    The conclusions of the examination is that the building committee puts a lot of responsibility on the officials through delegations. The cases when there is no delegation and the case is decided by the committee are few. The reasons why the proposition and the final decision not always matches is due to different factors such as different knowledge or different assessments. Neither the committee nor the officials are consistent with the law referencing in the decisions. The municipality cannot guarantee that every concerned party have been given the chance to give their opinion, when some of them use what’s called "silent agreement". Only three of the cases has the municipality received and opinion from every concerned party. None of the cases has been announced in the correct time and two has not been announced at all.

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  • 141.
    Karlsson, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En studie av Lantmäteriets beaktande av strandskyddet och samråd i fastighetsbildning för bostadsfastigheter inom strandskyddsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet decided during 2017 to cancel principle consultation with Länsstyrelsen (county administrative board). The goal was to shorten the time for each case and reduce the number of unnecessary consultations. The purpose of this paper was to examine how frequently consultation takes place for residential properties in areas of protection of the Swedish shoreline. To examine this subject a mapping of this type of residential properties were made for Västra Götalands län. This study has been in cooperation with Plan- och bygg avdelningen (The Department of Community Planning and Building) for county administrative board in Västa Götalands län. The data underlying this study consists of cases that have been sent to this department during 2017. In the examination of this study a mapping of this type of properties has been made. The reason for this is to examine how frequently at consultation have taken place with county administrative board or the specific county.

    The mapping showed that there was more of this type of cases in some parts of Västra Götalands län in 2017.

    The study showed that consultation took place in 31 % of the cases for this type of properties in protective shoreline areas. It also showed that in 23 % of the cases no consultation took place and/or the protection was not taken into account. The result of the study showed that cadastral surveyors decide for them self without consolation in 46 % of the cases. The study showed an indication that this subject has to be further resourced, not only in this part of Sweden but in all of Sweden.

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  • 142.
    Karlsson, Per Rune
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Reglering av enskilt och gemensamt vid ägarlägenhetsförrättningar: En analys av de två första årens praktiska tillämpning2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since May 2009, during the first two years with the new rules which allows formation of condominiums inSweden, 394 condominiums in 24 separate projects have been formed.

    According to the Swedish law a condominium is a property unit. In approximately 20 % of the projects the property units have been formed before the building was built. This possi­bility is good for financing but can lead to differences between the borders of the property unit and the final building construction. To make a property formation order and not to conclude the cadastral procedure until the building is in place and the final drawings are made is a good way for the cadastral authority to keep control of the final result.

    Usually there is just one party in the condominium cadastral procedure. This means that it will not be any appeals and no precedents will be formed. Therefore there are requirements for a high standard on the recommendations regarding how to form condominiums.

    In some condominium projects the building construction has been adapted to give less need for the condominium owners to cooperate with the joint property association.

    There are recommendations which states that windows, exterior doors and balcony parapets should be a part of the condominium, but they can additionally be a part of the joint facility. Some of the practical solutions in the dossiers regarding joint facilities do not, according to the author, follow the intentions of the legislator. Better recommendations are needed in this area and enhancements are proposed in the thesis.

    The participatory share for each condominium has been set either with the same share per apartment or by some different models in relation to the apartments floor area. It has not been possible to explain the choice with the spread between the apartments floor area.

    According to the law the joint property association in these cases must set aside funds in a reserve. The amount of money that initially is noted in the articles of  the association differs between the condominium projects, and is either based on a proposal from the developer, calculated as 0,3 % of the construction costs or just arbitrary decided.

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    Reglering av enskilt och gemensamt vid ägarlägenhetsförrättningar
  • 143.
    Karlsson Peters, Oscar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Heikendal Jakobsson, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Hur ser framtiden ut för järn- och bilvägstunnlar vad gäller teknisk säkerhet och regelverk?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tunnlar har byggts av människan i årtusenden för att underlätta och förkorta transporter. De byggdes genom berg och i våra dagar även under vatten. För att undvika dödsolyckor i dem har ett omfattande regelverk växt fram både nationellt och internationellt. Regeringen har beslutat att antalet dödsolyckor på vägar och i tunnlar skall minska kraftigt inom en snar framtid. Idag beprövas nya lagar i trafiktunnlar med hjälp av etablerad praxis. En ide  blir till en standard varefter tillfredsställande resultat formuleras till lag. Den tekniska utvecklingen tros i framtiden leda till att den europeiska unionen istället kommer behöva implementera lagar direkt utan beprövade standarder. Vår rapport visar att säkerhetsarbetet är omfattande och att det förnyas kontinuerligt i alla typer av trafiktunnlar. Framtidens självkörande bilar och höghastighetståg kommer att på olika vis starkt påverka respektive tunneltyp och forma om det säkerhetstänk vi har kring dessa tunneltyper idag. Vägtunnlar tros i framtiden se ut som 90 talets järnvägstunnlar i form av långa rör genom marken till skillnad från den omfattande säkerheten som existerar där idag. I takt med nya säkerhetsrisker kan säkerheten i framtidens tunnlar, i den mån den kommer att existera, även tänkas ändra form på grund av ett annat fokusområde. Dagen sökande satsning på järnvägstunnlarna kommer i framtiden leda till en stor ökning i dess antal samt dess säkerhetstekniska komplexitet. Hastigheten tros bli markant högre och därmed måste den tekniska säkerheten också följa med i samma spår.

    Vi har skrivit denna rapport i syfte att belysa den rådande säkerhetssituationen i väg- samt järnvägstunnlar och vilka regelverk som styr konstruktionen av en tunnel. Vidare har vi undersökt hur säkerheten kan komma att se ut i framtiden och vilka faktorer kopplade till säkerhet som påverkar utformningen av framtida tunnlar. Detta med syftet att få en nyanserad och allsidig inblick i hur framtiden kan tänkas se ut. 

  • 144.
    Karnström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ledningsintrång i enskilt vatten: en studie på djupet2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To provide property units with access to electricity, utilities may need to be located in a privately owned water area. Rights, obligations and compensation between an electricity network company and a private property owner for this infrastructure can be ensured by means of various tools originating from different statues. The aim of the study is to map how the industry assesses encroachment of utility into private water. To investigate this, a survey of the country's electricity network companies has been carried out with some additional interviews. The study shows that the two most common tools to provide legal protection for the utilities are to establish agreement easements according to Jordabalken or to obtain utility easements through a cadastral procedure according to Ledningsrättslagen. Many electricity network companies use agreement easements, which, after enrolling in the real property register, provide in principle the same protection as a utility easement but at a smaller cost. To assess the amount of compensation, flat rates and templates are the dominant methods, due to the difficulties encountered in the use of conventional appraisal methods in connection with this type of encroachment. There are guidelines in the form of a valuation manual from the cadastral authority, policies from the trade association Energiföretagen Sverige and practices from the Supreme Court both on how the encroachment should be perceived and ultimately compensated. Despite this, there are still doubts among the country's electricity network companies, which act in various ways. The conclusion of the Supreme Court case NJA 2007 p. 695 is that the individual should be compensated and receive financial compensation for the decrease in market value resulting from the encroachment, even if the encroachment is only of legal proportions and no real impact on the ability to use the land in question occurs. Energiföretagen Sverige has developed its own method regarding compensation. This compensation shall correspond to the decrease in the market value of the property, even though many of the electricity network companies consider that there is no encroachment and thus no depreciation of the burdened property. Nevertheless, despite the flat-rate approach, many respondents feel that compensation is difficult to assess, which points to uncertainty.

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  • 145.
    Khalil, Joseph
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Abbas, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Lösningsförslag på uppbyggnad av befintlig arbetsstation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The production leadership in the factory is aware of a logistical problem. Because of priority reasons this problem has not been resolved.  At the moment there are several different reverse gears in the assembly station which are rarely ordered by the customer, therefore the need for these articles decreases in production. This means that large areas are occupied by too many reverse gears. The production area should be utilized more effectively. Volvo Penta AB is a division of Volvo AB, which develops, manufactures and markets engines and propulsion systems for recreational, marine and industrial applications. The factory in Vara is specialized in the manufacture of marine diesel engines. The factory also manufactures larger engines. The aim of the project is to change and simplify the work for the operators in the production area and the assembly station that is occupied by the reverse gears. The goal of the project is to present a proposal on how a new assembly station for the reverse gear can be designed. The station will be designed as efficiently as possible. To fulfill purpose and goals a performed data collection was executed, as well as literature studies and fact-finding. The theory treated primarily lean manufacturing, and ergonomic design of the workplace, material supply, proofing, cementing and sequencing. Data collection was conducted through a situation analysis which examined the current station. Benchmarking was carried out at Volvo Powertrain Production AB in Skövde, Swegon AB in Kvänum and Volvo Penta in Vara. Collection of facts and information was made in the form of on-site observations, interviews and workshops with employees. The process of finding solutions started with identifying requirements of the station. In order to find solutions, different types of stations were studied. The existing station was studied to examine whether changes could be made in the racking. Another idea was to move the reverse gear buffer and to introduce sequencing and cementing, alternatively to move the entire station. One alternative is to move the station, unless a better solution for the existing surface is presented. At the same time, there are possibilities to develop ergonomics and efficiency. After a benefit analysis the group went ahead with two suggestions, which were a variable cementing wagon elsewhere in the factory, or cementing at the station. These suggestions were weighed against the benefit analysis, where the benefits were valued, and the chosen alternative was cementing at the station. Our proposal is intended to be a guidance for Volvo Penta, and can be developed further as it is implemented.

  • 146.
    Kihlberg, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Skott, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Särskilda skäl för upphävande av strandskydd genom detaljplan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general shore protection in Sweden applies 100m from the shoreline by the sea, lakes and watercourses but can be extended up to 300m. Sometimes it is required that a building or facility must be adjacent to water where the shore protection applies and it is in these cases the shore protection exemption comes in. The shore protection can be revoked by a repeal in the detailed plan and in cases where this occurs, criteria in 7 ch. 18 c § MB be fulfilled. This thesis aims to investigate which of the reasons in MB that the municipalities in Västra Götaland county use and how often each reason is used. Are there differences between the municipalities depending on geographical location and population? A case study has also been done to show what the courts consider to be valid and invalid reasons for revoking shore protection and an interview study where the manicipalities has answered how they respond to the new bill that is underway regarding changes in shore protection legislation.Analyzes consisting of qualitative and quantitative methods has been used to achieve the result. In the detailed plan study, the quantitative method is the basis for the survey where the municipalities were divided into different categories and a comparison was then made to investigate whether there are differences between the different types of municipalities.The result of the detailed plan study show that there are no major differences between different municipalities. The most common reasons for revoking shore protection are recitals one and five in Chapter 7. 18 c § MB. The case study shows that each case is unique and that it is therefore difficult to draw any conclusions about when the reasons in MB can be considered fulfilled. The study also shows that it is sometimes difficult to assess legal cases as there is a lack of case law within certain reasons. In the interview study, we unfortunalety did not get so many answers, but from the answers we received, it can be seen that the municipalities are generally positive to the part of the bill that involves smoother management of shore protection when a new detailed plan is introduced in an area where shore protection has already been repealed. The Country Administrative Board is more critical of the proposal.

  • 147.
    Kling, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Utformning av tydliga detaljplanebestämmelser: För skydd av byggnaders kulturvärden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a detailed development plan, the municipality regulates the use of land and water areas and the built environment. Cultural values of buildings can, through the Planning and building act, be protected by provisions in a detailed development plan. The caution provision means that when changing a building, its cultural values and characteristics are to be taken care of. Prohibition against distortion is the strongest protection a building can get. It regulates what to preserve and therefore cannot be changed on a building. In order to further strengthen the protection of cultural values on a building, it may be subject to a demolition ban. The Planning and building act require that the provisions in the detailed development plan should be so clearly designed that everyone who reads it should be able to interpret and understand the provisions. In order to apply the requirement for clarity, Boverket has developed general advices on the design of planning regulations as well as a solid material on the theme "cultural value" and how to protect interesting cultural values of buildings in detailed development plans. Previous studies have shown that the design of regulations that protect cultural values is a problem among Sweden´s municipalities.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether communities around Sweden nowadays make clear provisions according to the law´s requirements, as Boverket has published general advices and a lot of material on its website.

    To achieve the purpose, two questions have been answered. To what extent does inadequate planning provisions in detailed development plans among Sweden's municipalities exists, regarding to caution provisions, prohibitions against distortion and demolition bans? In what way are they inadequate? To answer the questions, 323 detailed development plans from 37 municipalities around Sweden have been reviewed.

    Of the 95 provisions on the protection of cultural values found, shortly half were inadequately designed, and therefore difficult to interpret.

    Inadequate provisions can lead to difficulties in understanding which cultural values the municipality wants to protect and how they should be protected. Since certain provisions may lead to economic compensation for property owners, it is imperative that they are used correctly and properly designed.

    Deficiencies can result in property owners losing the possibility of economic compensation and complications in reviewing of building permit. The risk is also that interesting cultural values get lost and thereby parts of our cultural heritage. To overcome the problem, a state review would be preferable.

  • 148.
    Koca, Serhat
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uca, Rodem
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av problemområden i godshanteringen vid införande av en digital truckapplikation: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring term of 2019 a thesis was carried out. The aim and goal were to identify possible problem areas on goods handling before introducing a digital truck application at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The thesis will not address the implementation process of Ubertruck. No recommendations on digital design for eventual adjustments of Ubertruck throughout the thesis was suggested.

    In order to identify possible problem areas when introducing Ubertruck, the goods handling at both SIT-Trollhättan and SIT-Finspång was surveyed with the help of interviews and observation, five interviews was carried throughout this project.

    With the help of the results from the surveys, two problem areas were identified at SIT Trollhättan, lacking traceability and unnecessary transports. It was established that these problem areas occur in inventory and production. The lacking traceability in inventory is because use of a system which only indicates which inventory the goods is placed, however it does not indicate were in inventory (which shelf) it is placed. The lacking traceability in production is because there is no system for tracing the goods to the operations, therefore it is only the goods deliverer and operator who receives the goods that knows where in production the goods is located. Because of that the goods deliverer must look for goods that have undergone an operation and leads to unnecessary transport. The unnecessary transports are also due to the fact that the inventories are spread out throughout the production facility.

    Based on the result, it is considered that the aim and goal of the thesis is fulfilled to the level possible. The drawn conclusion is that the problem areas at the introduction of Ubertruck are lacking traceability and unnecessary transport, which are located in inventory and production at SIT-Trollhättan.

  • 149.
    Kolic, Adelisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Planverktygens möjlighet att skapa trygghet i parker2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parks have long been an important place in the city. It constitutes an important function as a meeting place and recreation area, but also fulfills an important democratic function in society and contributes to a sense of community and belonging. However, the green space has over time become a place in the city that has come under the spotlight of crime and insecurity, which for many people has consequently become a place to avoid. Since the built environment has a direct connection with the human experience of safety, great importance is placed on the urban planners ability to create an environment that contributes to safety in the green space. Above all, the focus should be on planning for an environment that is of positive security, which is based on a safety that comes from within the person, and not only the creation of environments that are of negative security, which means limitations and protection against something.

    The aim of this study is to find out how positive security can be promoted when planning parks by examining how safety aspects can be handled in selected planning tools: Comprehensive plan, detailed plan and social impact assessment tool, and evaluate them against negative and positive security. The research question for this study is “How can you work with safety aspects in the different planning tools to promote positive security inparks?”.

    The study is based on a document analysis of municipal documents and one semi-structured interview and email correspondence. The results chapter presents the collected empirical evidence from interview and email correspondence with Stockholm city, as well as specific examples from the cities Stockholm, Malmö, Gothenburg and Västerås.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from the results of the study is that it is possible to work with natural monitoring and populated places in the comprehensive plan by proposing a mix of functions in areas that consist of a monotonous land use. It is also possible to use the holistic perspective to try to reduce barrier effects and suggest development areas where parks should be within equal distances and work as a gathering place for the city's residents.

    In the detailed plan, can positive security be promoted through strategic placement of buildings towards the park to create natural surveillance, or also ensure a functional mix together with strategic design of streets so that they point out the park as a destination point and increase the population in and out of the park. Lastly, when it comes to the social impact assessment tool, can measures based on activity support and accessibility be worked with to promote positive security in the form of setting requirements for activities so that everyone can use the park.

  • 150.
    Kolton, Hubert
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Moberg Larsson, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommunalt arbete med framtagande av grundunderlag: Kartläggning av kommunernas arbete kring grundkartor och fastighetsförteckningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the need for residential grows such as the usage of land, the usage of zoning plans increases. Conditions of zoning plans regulate the usage of land and water, but also directions for the settlement. Zoning plans are documents which are legally binding for fifteen years. In order for zoning plans to retain its legal binding, it is important that the used base support is of a good and reliable quality. In accordance with comments from Lantmäteriet, Boverket and SOU, the work with creating the base support is considered too be deficient. By deficient, flaws such as defective application, systematic issues but also lack of quality, competence and resources. Due to the struggle with the base support and the lack of previous surveying, it makes the subject interesting to examine.

    The purpose of this study is to establish knowledge concerning municipals and their work with creating the base support. Similar to the purpose of the study, the question at issue is directed towards the municipalities of Sweden and their work with the creation of the base support. In order to fulfill the purpose and question at issue of the study, seven subqueries have been used.

    For the implementation of the study an oppinion poll has been sent out too all the 290 municipalities of Sweden. The forms answered by municipals have been processed with a quantative analysis and compiled as statistics. At the day of the deadline 145 out of 290 municipalities had attended the oppinion poll.

    As can be seen in the results of the study, a majority of all municipalities uses their own resources for creating the base support. This despite all of the other operators available who is producing the base support. Therefore using their own resources is more preferable than hiring private operators that offers services in mapping and measurement. Even though a majority of the municipalities chooses to create the base support themselves, written routines and guidelines regarding the creation is lacking. Other than that the statistics presents several municipalities that has previous experiences of base support lacking in quality, which has caused negative sanctions. In connection with their investigation "Ny PBL - på rätt sätt", the SOU recommends a municipal cooperation in matters concerning PBL. According to the results of the oppinion poll municipal cooperations are rare. Amongst the municipals with a "Kommunal lantmäterimyndighet", there is a majority that indicates the participation of KLM in matters of the base support.

    The largest deviations from the recommendations of SOU is around the municipal cooperation and also the uniformity amongst the municipalities in the country.

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