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  • 1001.
    Axelsson, Malin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Report on personality and adherence to antibiotic therapy: a population-based study2013In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial resistance results from inappropriate use of antibiotics and makes common or life-threatening infections more difficult or sometimes impossible to treat. Proper adherence to antibiotic therapy is one among several measures required to prevent antimicrobial resistance. Knowledge of personality traits could help in identifying patients who need support with their adherence behaviour. Previous research has presented associations between personality traits and adherence to long-term medication treatment in individuals with different chronic diseases. However, there is limited knowledge about associations between personality traits and adherence to both antibiotic therapy and to shorter treatment periods. The aim was to explore the relation between personality and adherence behaviour in people prescribed antibiotics for common infections.METHODS:In a population-based study, 445 respondents reported on their prescribed antibiotic therapy and completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to experience Five-factor Inventory and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Data were statistically analysed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, bivariate correlations, multiple and logistic regressions.RESULTS:Non-adherence was estimated to be 9.4%. The most common reasons for stopping therapy prematurely was that the respondent was now healthy and that the respondents experienced side-effects. Non-adherent respondents scored lower on the personality traits Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. A logistic regression showed that higher scores on Agreeableness decreased the risk for non-adherence to antibiotic therapy. In a multiple regression, Neuroticism was identified as a negative predictor, and both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were identified as positive predictors of adherence behaviour.CONCLUSIONS:Preventive measures to decrease non-adherence may be to inform patients not to interrupt the antibiotic therapy when they start to feel healthy and to inform them about how to prevent and handle common side-effects. As associations between personality and adherence mainly have been described in relation to long-term treatments in chronic diseases, the current study add to the literature by showing that personality traits also seem to be reflected in adherence to shorter treatment periods with antibiotics for common infections. More studies in this specific area of adherence research are recommended.

  • 1002.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Brink, Eva
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    Avdelningen för psykologi, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lötvall, Jan
    Krefting Research Center, Göteborgs universitet.
    Personality traits in relation to health-related quality of life in persons with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis2011In: 30th Congress of the European Academyof Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Istanbul, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1003.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Brink, Eva
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology.
    Lötvall, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Krefting Research Centre, Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    The influence of personality traits on reported adherence to medication in individuals with chronic disease: An Epidemiological study in West Sweden2011In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Limited research exists exploring the influence of personality on adherence behaviour. Since non-adherence is a major obstacle in treating prevalent chronic diseases the aim was to determine whether personality traits are related to reported adherence to medication in individuals with chronic disease. Methodology/Principal Findings: Individuals with chronic disease (n = 749) were identified in a random population sample of 5000 inhabitants aged 30-70 in two municipalities in West Sweden. Data on five personality traits, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and medication adherence behaviour was collected by questionnaires. Statistical analyses resulted in a negative relationship between Neuroticism and medication adherence (P<0.001), while both Agreeableness (P<0.001) and Conscientiousness (P<0.001) were positively related to adherence. At high levels of Conscientiousness, low adherence was related to higher scores in Neuroticism. At high levels of Agreeableness, low adherence was related to low scores in Conscientiousness and high scores in Openness to experiences. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that multiple personality traits are of significant importance for adherence behaviour in individuals with chronic disease. The findings suggest that several personality traits may interact in influencing adherence behaviour. Personality traits could putatively be used to focus efforts to educate and support patients with high risk of low medical adherence. © 2011 Axelsson et al.

  • 1004.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Brink, Eva
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Lötvall, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    A personality and gender perspective on adherence and health-related quality of life in people with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis.2014In: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, ISSN 2327-6886, E-ISSN 2327-6924, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 32-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Poor adherence to medication treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis could challenge a positive health outcome. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important measure of health outcome. Both personality and gender could influence adherence and perceptions of HRQL. The purpose was to clarify the role of personality and gender in relation to adherence and HRQL in people with asthma and/or rhinitis.

    DATA SOURCES: Participants (n = 180) with asthma and allergic rhinitis, selected from a population-based study, filled out questionnaires on the five-factor model personality traits-neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness-HRQL, and adherence to medication treatment. Data were statistically analyzed using t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, bivariate correlations, and multiple regressions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Personality traits were associated with adherence to medication treatment in men. The influence of personality traits on HRQL also differed between men and women. These differences suggest that both a personality and gender perspective should be considered when planning care support aimed at improving adherence and HRQL in people living with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: It is suggested that both a personality and gender perspective be taken into account in care support aimed at improving adherence and HRQL in people with asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  • 1005.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Brink, Eva
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Lötvall, Jan
    Krefting Research Center, Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    Avdelningen för psykologi, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Patients´ adherence reasoning in relation to asthma medication2011In: 30th Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Istanbul, 11-15 june 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1006.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Krefting Research Centre, Göteborgs universitet.
    Lötvall, Jan
    Krefting Research Center, Göteborgs universitet.
    The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma2013In: Patient Preference and Adherence, ISSN 1177-889X, E-ISSN 1177-889X, Vol. 7, p. 1101-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.

    Methods:

    Asthmatics (n=516) selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

    Results:

    Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.

    Conclusion:

    The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.

  • 1007.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Emilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Brink, Eva
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Lundgren, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology.
    Torén, K.
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Community Medicine.
    Lötvall, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Internal Medicine.
    Personality, adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life in young adult asthmatics2009In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 103, no 7, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1008.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing. University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Lötvall, Jan
    Krefting Research Center, Göteborgs universitet.
    Recent educational interventions for improvement of asthma medication adherence.2012In: Asia Pacific allergy, ISSN 2233-8276, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor adherence to asthma medication treatment is a dilemma as it decreases the chance of achieving and maintaining a proper asthma control. Another dilemma is that there seems to be a small range of functional interventions that enhance adherence to long-term medication treatments. The aim was to review the last five years of published educational interventions for improving adherence to asthma medication. Through systematic database searches 20 articles were identified, which matched the inclusion criteria and described educational interventions to improve asthma self-management including adherence. The current review showed that addressing unintentional non-adherence in terms of incorrect inhaler technique by recurrent education improved the technique among many patients, but not among all. Phoning patients, as a means to remove medication beliefs as adherence barriers, seemed to be an effective educational strategy, shown as increased adherence. Involving patients in treatment decisions and individualising or tailoring educational support also seemed to have favourable effect on adherence. To conclude, addressing specific adherence barriers such as poor inhaler technique or medication beliefs could favour adherence. To change adherence behavior, the current review proposes that educational adherence support should be a collaborative effort between the patient and the health-care professional based on each individual patient's needs and patient factors, including elements such as personality traits.

  • 1009.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Lötvall, Jan
    Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Brink, Eva
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Self-efficacy and adherence as mediating factors between personality traits and health-related quality of life2013In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 567-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Personality traits are rather stable dispositions inadulthood, while self-efficacy and adherence may bemodified through targeted interventions. Health-relatedquality of life (HRQL) serves as a vital outcome measure.The present aim was to explore the function of self-efficacyand adherence as mediators for the influencing effect ofpersonality traits on HRQL in people with chronic disease.Methods An epidemiological sample of 786 personscompleted questionnaires on personality, general self-efficacy,adherence behaviour and HRQL. Data were statisticallyanalysed using descriptive statistics, correlationanalyses and path models.Results Self-efficacy mediated the effect of Extraversionand Conscientiousness on mental HRQL. Neuroticism hada direct effect on both physical and mental HRQL.Adherence partially mediated the effect of both Agreeablenessand Conscientiousness on mental HRQL.Conclusions The mental HRQL in people scoring low onExtraversion or low on Conscientiousness could beimproved by strengthening general self-efficacy. Increasingadherence in people scoring low on Agreeableness orConscientiousness could improve their mental HRQL, butthe improvement was small and may be of lesser clinicalrelevance. These results argue for personalized interventionsintended to positively affect health outcomes inpeople with chronic disease.

  • 1010.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Lötvall, Jan
    Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Brink, Eva
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Motivational foci and asthma medication tactics directed towards a functional day2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 809-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    There appears to be an obvious gap between a medical and patient adherence perspective.

    Deviating from a medication prescription could be regarded as fairly irrational, but with respect to patients' goals and/or concerns it could be seen as understandable. Thus, the aim was to elucidate adherence reasoning in relation to asthma medication.

    Methods:

    This was a qualitative study; data collection and analysis procedures were conducted according to Grounded Theory methodology. Eighteen persons, aged 22 with asthma and regular asthma medication treatment, were interviewed.

    Results:

    The emerged theoretical model illustrated that adherence to asthma medication was motivated by three foci, all directed towards a desired outcome in terms of a functional day as desired by the patient. Apromotive focus was associated with the ambition to achieve a positive asthma outcome by being adherent either to the received prescription or to a self-adjusted dosage. A preventive focuswas intended to ensure avoidance of a negative asthma outcome either by sticking to the prescription or by preventively overusing the medication. A permissive focus was associated with unstructured adherence behaviour in which medication intake was primarily triggered by asthma symptoms.

    Conclusions:

    As all participants had consciously adopted functioning medication tactics that directed them

    towards the desired goal of a functional day. In an effort to bridge the gap between a patient- and a medical adherence perspective, patients need support in defining their desired functionality and guidance in developing a person-based medication tactic.

  • 1011.
    Axelsson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Erfarenheter av vården hos patienter med HIV2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HIV is a serious infection that leads to AIDS when it's untreated. HIV-epidemic started in the early 80's. Homosexuals became infected and the disease were seen as a "gay-disease". The disease is still today by some seen as a "gay-disease", and affect the patients well-being. The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of care in patients with HIV. The method was a literature-based study of qualitative scientific articles. The result shows that the patients still experience discrimination and stigmatization. There is a lot of negative attitudes towards the patients, and some health professionals shows a lack of empathy. A lot of the health professionals have a lack of knowledge, and a fear of being contaminated. More knowledge about the diesea, and focus on the patients well-being could make a differens in the patients experiences of care.

  • 1012.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology.
    Hedlund, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Technology.
    Upprustning och modernisering av kraftstation vid Årbols såg och kvarn2003Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 1013.
    Axelsson, Pethra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En begreppslig analys av Rättvisande bild2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemformulering: Begreppet rättvisande bild har sedan införande i svensk lagstiftning varit svårt att definiera. En anledning till detta är att Sverige tillhör den kontinentala redovisningstraditionen medans begreppets hemland, Storbritannien, tillhör den anglosaxiska redovisningstraditionen. USA använder sig av samma redovisningstradition som Storbritannien och har en liten annorlunda definition av begreppet än vad vi har i Sverige. Här i Sverige krockar även begreppet rättvisande bild med det gamla begreppet god redovisningssed. Detta har lett till funderingar och följande forskningsfrågor:  Hur kan begreppet rättvisande bild definieras enligt enhetsteorin respektive ägarteorin? Syftet med denna fråga är att få en förståelse för varför det är svårt att definiera begreppet.  Kan redovisningsskillnader mellan länderna förklaras utifrån rättvisande bild? Syftet med denna fråga är att kunna tydligare se skillnader mellan USA och Sverige vad gäller rättvisande bild.  Vad är begreppsskillnaden mellan rättvisande bild och god redovisningssed? Syftet med denna fråga är att ifrågasätta om verkligen dessa två begrepp behövs eller om man skulle kunna ta bort en ur lagstiftningen. Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att göra en kontextuell tolkning av rättvisande bild. Principer och värderingar formar uttrycket rättvisande bild och ligger till grund för det. Dessa ska jag ta upp för att få fram en större förståelse i vad som ligger till grund i konstitution av rättvisande bild. Lagtexten går bara ytligt in på vad rättvisande bild innebär. Detta ska nu undersökas. Läsaren ska även få en insikt i skillnader mellan Sverige och USA vad gäller rättvisande bild och vad som kan vara relevant referenspunkt när det kommer till detta begrepp. Metod: Studien består av en litteraturstudie med ett hermeneutiskt tolkningssätt. Genom att tolka olika texter önskar jag få fram en ökad förståelse för vad begreppet rättvisande bild innebär. Studien använder sig utav lagtext, forskningsrapporter, läroböcker samt artiklar för att få en så bred och objektiv bild som möjligt av begreppet. Rättvisande bild är ett levande begrepp som rekonstrueras och dekonstrueras hela tiden i samhället och har därmed fått olika betydelser, vilket jag fördjupar mig i några av dessa i studien. Resultat: Genom studiens gång har det visat sig att begreppet rättvisande bild kan definieras som att om man följer riktlinjer och principer inom enhetsteorin eller ägarteorin, beroende på vilken teori man använder, så får man en rättvisande bild. Årsredovisningens resultat måste vara lika sann som fair, vilket inte alltid är så lätt. I USA är fair value och present fairly tydligare förklarat än rättvisande bild i Sverige, vilket kan sägas bero på att både USA och Storbritannien har samma redovisningstradition. Fair value är en utvecklad variant av marknadsperspektivet av rättvisande bild medans present fairly är en utvecklad variant av det etiska perspektivet av begreppet. Teoretiska skillnader mellan begreppet rättvisande bild och god redovisningssed finns, men enligt tidigare studier verkar det inte finnas någon praktisk sådan. Detta leder till slutsatsen att om något av begreppet ska tas bort så blir det rättvisande bild, då god redovisningssed är befäst inom redovisningen.

  • 1014.
    Axelsson, Robin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Wangerås, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Övertagande av huvudmannaskap för allmän plats: En studie av kommuner som behandlat frågan kring övertagande av huvudmannaskap för allmän plats i detaljplan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's 13 municipalities who want or have treated the matter of the choice of the mandatorship for the public space in new and existing detail plans. In Boverkets spaning - Huvudmannaskap innebär svårigheter, they mentioned several problems were arising in detailed with individual mandatorship, for example, no specific reasons for setting up zoning with individual mandatorship, it appears that municipalities do not plan areas that obviously would otherwise be used as a public place. Injustice arises when property owners have to pay construction and maintenance of the road in a public place while they pay municipal taxes that finance public places. Problems in implementation was identified in plans with individual mandatorship. The thought out community unions does not tend work in practice.

    With these problems a thorough study of the problems municipalities had with individual principal responsibility of the plans have been completed, treating how it is supposed to implement a change from the individual to the municipal mandate for the public space.

    The purpose of the study is to examine these municipalities that dealt with the issue surrounding the principal responsibility for the public space in plans. Furthermore to investigate whether the municipality experienced problems with individual principal responsibility for the general location based on the information that Boverket mentions in the spaning - Huvudmannaskap innebär svårigheter. The aim is to examine how local authorities are performing a change from individual mandatorship to municipal mandate in new and existing plans.

    The study was conducted according to a cross-sectional design, which means that both a survey and interviews were used. To find out which municipalities we could use in our study we sent out a survey, 21 municipalities were selected from the answers and 13 of these municipalities were interviewed.

    The result shows that most municipalities want to make a change based on similar grounds. Municipalities have different ways of dealing with the transition from the individual to the municipal mandate in the plans but the most common way is to change the existing plan. In summary, we think it is positive that municipalities address the issue surrounding the principal responsibility. We believe that the majority of municipalities handle the problems properly and make decisions based on the right reasons.

  • 1015.
    Axelsson, Tina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics.
    Johansson, Helena
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics.
    Lunarstorm - Framtidens fritidsgård?: en kvalitativ studie om unga människors användning av Internetcommunities och deras inställningar till betaltjänster2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 1016.
    Axelsson, Viveka
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Ström, Jenny
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Bröstcancer och sexualitet: patienters upplevelser och sjuksköterskans förhållningssätt2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For a woman who has been diagnosed with breast cancer, there can be many negative things that effects her life. It is a great shock that changes her life and can include a sense of lost femininity and a decreased sexual desire which can be both physical and psychological. The basis of this literature review is from 17 scientific articles which evaluate the changes in cancer patient's body image and sexuality during their illness and treatment. This study illustrates patient's experience of the nursing and difficulties which obstructs the nurse from talking about sexuality whit the patient. The study also showed that the patient had a desire to discuss these sexuality issues with a nurse.

  • 1017.
    Axhall, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet som formade studien handlade om de kostnader som uppkommer för företag då det sker uppsägningar av personal. Studiens syfte och fokus låg på att finna sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget. För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes sju intervjuer med personer som har titeln butiksbiträden. På grund av tidsbrist valdes en specifik yrkesgrupp och för att avgränsa studien. Vetenskapliga artiklar tillsammans med övrig litteratur var studiens sekundära källor, medan studiens primära källor var intervjuerna som ägde rum med de sju respondenter från fyra olika företag. I teoriavsnittet presenteras olika teorier och studier som gjorts med olika infall- och synvinklar på begreppet meningsfullhet, vilket var många. Min definition av meningsfullhet var de som ser på meningsfullheten så som jag personligen gör, framförallt sker genom de kundmöten jag står inför som butiksbiträde. Tidigare forskare har poängterat att definitionen av meningsfullhet går att koppla till de relationerna som uppkommer mellan individer, vilket då påvisade att det fanns ett intresse kring denna syn på meningsfullhet i arbetet. I teoriavsnittet sammanställs och presenteras olika forskares synsätt på hur meningsfullhet uppkommer i arbetslivet. Baumeister & Vohs (2002), se Vuori T., m.fl., 2012) tolkade ordet meningsfullhet som "en positiv innebörd och betydelsen av en aktivitet" vilket även poängterades av Vuori T., m.fl. (2012) där meningsfullheten uppkommer med att människor associerar sitt arbete med positiva ting. Enligt Dimitrov, D. (2012) tolkades meningsfullhet som att skapa ordning i innehållet, detta innefattade Dimitrov, D. (2012) med självkänslan för vad personen i fråga tillför sin arbetsplats, arbetsinnehållet att skapa utmaning, kreativitet, lärande, egen makt och självständighet. Medan Hirschi, A., & Terrence, T. (2012) uppfattade meningsfullhet som individers uppfattning om hur betydande deras arbete var. Teoriavsnittet innehåller även olika teorier och tidigare studier om hur företag behåller sina anställda. Slutligen i analysavsnittet sammanför diskussionen och kopplingarna mellan den insamlade empirin och teorin. Slutsatsen av studien resulterade i att ledare inte tycktes ha samma inflytande på meningsfullheten i arbetet, så som de övriga kollegorna och främst kunderna hade. Studien påvisade starka samband mellan meningsfullhet och kundbemötandet.

  • 1018.
    Axhall, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tjärndal, Lina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konsekvenser för organisationskulturen vid en sammanslagning av två organisationer: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig sektor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of change in organizational contexts involves much, what we will focus on in the following study are mergers. Mergers are becoming more common in the dynamic and changing world that we live in. When two different organizational cultures are combined, it´s inevitable to avoid organizational culture being affected. Having knowledge about how interactions affect the organization is important in order to serve as a profitable and giving strategy. Previous research shows that organizational culture is affected by collusion, because the organizational culture has a strong impact on the outcome of the merger. Organizational culture can change in mergers, as the change brings new aspects of the organization, which in turn affects organizational culture. Two recurring factors that existed in the field of research were leadership and communication. Our research questions for the following study are:

    - What consequences can arise in the mergers of two organizations whose cultures differ?

    - How can leadership and communication contribute to developing organizational culture within the organization?

    The aim of the study is to contribute with increased knowledge of how cultural conditions such as organizational culture are affected by a merger. The following study focuses on leaders in raising awareness and awareness of how mergers and organizational culture can be developed and managed to make the transition rewarding and that the organization should have a stronger common organizational culture. In order to accomplish this, a qualitative method was chosen with a hermeneutically interpretative approach. The collected material for the study is based on scientific articles and semistructured interviews with ten selected interviewees. The analysis and conclusion of the study is based on the interviews we received through interviews with both leaders and teachers within the organization. The conclusion showed that geographical distances between organizations can contribute to a reduced degree of cohesion. In order for leadership and communication to develop organizational culture within the organization, clarity and structuring are required.

  • 1019. Axrup, K
    et al.
    Lindqvist, B
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Oral-facial-digital syndrome. A case report1971In: Odontologisk revy, ISSN 0029-8441, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 137-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1020.
    Ayaad, Abed-e
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    AGV solution in production lines2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project describes and discusses the technical issues and the benefits of using the auto-mated guided vehicles (AGVs) solution in production lines to take care of materials handling system in order to increase the flexibility and productivity of a manufacturing system.

    This work started with literature study on AGVs in general and gathering information about existing technologies from the previous and ongoing researches. This gathered knowledge has been used as a base to the practical work. The main aim of the practical work is to implement an AGV in the production line at PTC at University West. In order to per-form the implementation a guidance loop of magnetic tape has been designed. To achieve the goal of this work several tests and experiments have been done to evaluate the validation of the modeled AGV system.

  • 1021.
    Ayers, P. W.
    et al.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Department of Chemistry.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    An electron-preceding perspective on the deformation of materials2009In: Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 130, no 15, p. 4104-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1022.
    Ayewubo, Celestine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Patel, Archana
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Patienters erfarenheter av livet efter hjärttransplantation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When a person needs heart transplantation it means that they are suffering from a serious heart failure, and in order to survive they need to undergo surgery for a new heart from a dead person. A lot of the patients don't know what to expect from the surgery and life after the transplantation but their fear of that will not overshadow the chance they have to take somebody's else's heart and begin to live a new life. The transplantation can be a difficult thing to understand and handle without help. It becomes very important for the nurse to have knowledge of the patients' experiences to adjust an individual care in the future.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe patients' experiences of life after heart transplantation.

    Method: A five-step model was used described by Friberg (2012) to contribute to evidence-based nursing with basis in analysis of qualitative research, for the analysis of ten scientific qualitative articles.

    Results: The findings that emerged from the analysis shows that they can be applied to the nursing profession. The findings formed three themes: New life, Existential thoughts, and Spiritual aspects, with subthemes.

    Conclusion: After the heart transplantation there is no guarantee that the patients wellbeing will improve. It is important that nurses have knowledge in this field so they can care for the patients' and help them to regain their physical and mental health.

  • 1023. Ayyangar, N. R.
    et al.
    Joshi, S. V.
    Srinivasan, K. V.
    Puranik, V. G.
    Tavale, S. S.
    Row, T. N. G.
    Polycyclic compounds. Part III1 1 For Part II, see Ref. 2.-colour and chemical constitution of 2-aryl phenalen-1-one derivatives1986In: Dyes and Pigments, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UV-visible spectra of several 3-substituted 2-aryl phenalen-1-ones and dyes such as C.I. Disperse Red 303 which incorporate the phenalen-1-one as the basic chromophore are recorded and colour-chemical constitution aspects of these compounds have been studied. The fluorescence spectral data of C.I. Disperse Red 303 revealed that the component 1 was more fluorescent than the component 2, although 2 was more bathochromic compared with 1. The difference in the fluorescence intensity has been explained on the basis of difference in polarity of the carbonyl group brought about by the positional difference of the electron donor ring sulphur atom. Confirmation of these observations was obtained by X-ray crystallographic study of component 1 of C.I. Disperse Red 303. © 1986.

  • 1024.
    Azar, Amin S.
    et al.
    SINTEF Mat & Chem, Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Nyhus, Bård
    SINTEF Mat & Chem, Oslo, Norway.
    Effect of crystal orientation and texture on fatigue crack evolution in high strength steel welds2015In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 77, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, electron backscattered diffraction is used to analyze the fatigue crack evolution in a high strength steel weld that was loaded cyclically in the plastic regime. Three prominent regions of a fatigue crack are investigated separately: crack tip, crack trajectory and crack initiation. Taylor and Schmid factors are mapped with respect to the defined loading matrix. Possible effective mechanisms are proposed based on the local plasticity properties like lattice rotation and misorientation. The analyses of the crack tip and trajectory regions show that although the critical resolved shear stresses in some regions are low, small deformation resistance of these regions can compromise the dislocation immobility and cause local fracture. It is shown that if the crack grows transgranularly, at least one side of the crack may show low lattice rotation or strain equivalent values, which indicates the relaxation of elastic stresses after fracture. The crack initiation is determined to be dominantly controlled by transcrystalline mechanism of initiation that takes place under plastic loading conditions. It is also shown that the secondary < 123 >11 (1) over bar type of slip systems were the most activated under such loading conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1025.
    Aziz, Amanj
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Korta byxor, slöjor och skägg: Muslimer, det svenska samhället och interaktion2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar frågan kring fördomar, muslimer och interaktion. Undersökningen sker genom en intervjuundersökning där respondenterna får svara på frågor som berör deras syn på muslimer utifrån deras interaktionsnivå. Tidigare forskning säger att den socialt konstruerade bilden av muslimer är negativ, och att den upprätthålls av samhället, däribland filmindustrin. Som ramverk för att undersöka detta används socialkonstruktivismen och kontaktteorin. Kontaktteorin, som introduceras av Gordon Allport, säger att interaktion mellan grupper minskar fördomar genom att grupperna interagerar som jämbördiga och med gemensamma mål. Dessa grupper beskrivs som ingroup och outgroup. Uppsatsen behandlar således om interaktionen hos respondenterna påverkar perceptionen de har av muslimer i Sverige. Slutsatsen är att interaktionen hos respondenterna påverkar uppfattningen de har av muslimer. De respondenter som hade regelbunden kontakt med muslimer, uppfattade inte gruppen i negativa termer.

  • 1026.
    Azzeddine, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Brimark, Mia
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Livet efter en hjärtinfarkt: en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart and vascular disease are the most common causes of deaths in Sweden and in the rest of the world. Myocardial infarction is by far the most frequent cause of death in Sweden. By using modern intervention methods the number of deaths in myocardial infarction has decreased. As a result of this the demands on healthcare will increase. Risk factors for suffering a heart attack are well known and may be affected by a healthier lifestyle. For many patients who have had a heart attack lifestyle changes become a necessary measure to prevent recurrence which leads to many changes in daily life.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patient´s experiences after myocardial infarction.

    Methods: A literature study was made of twelve qualitative studies.

    Results: Four themes were found: Fear, Limitations in daily life, Support from healthcare and relatives and A new chance. After a myocardial infarction the patient finds himself in a state of crisis. Life after myocardial infarction offers limitations concerning physical, psychological and practical abilities. Long time support from healthcare personal and relatives is very important. The majority of the patients were grateful for having received a second chance to go on with their lives.

    Conclusion: A patient who has survived a myocardial infarction must be given full information that he suffers from a life threatening and from a chronical disease. To bring about this understanding it is necessary to adopt a longtime follow up policy from the health care professionals. Relatives and healthcare personal play an important part in supporting the patient. To give the right kind of support the relatives need more knowledge of the disease. Women and men use different methods to cope with the consequences of myocardial infarction

  • 1027.
    Baatz Asplund, Catarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Gustafsson, Lena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att identifiera patienters alkoholvanor2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Alcohol misuse is a growing problem in the world. In Sweden it is estimated that 1 million Swedes have a hazardous use of alcohol and 330,000 suffer from alcohol addiction. Research shows, that high consumption of alcohol is a contributing factor to the extensive sequelae and suffering for the patient and family. Nurses have an important role in working with the prevention of illness and disease. Nurses meet a lot of patients with hazardous use at work and it is important to identify and help these patients. What experiences have nurses to identify patients' drinking habits?

    Aim:

    The aim of the study was to illuminate nurses´ experiences to identify the patients´ drinking habits of alcohol.

    Method:

    A systematic literature study based on eleven articles, including both

    qualitative and quantitative studies was performed.

    Results:

    Most nurses felt that it was an important work to examine patients drinking habits to promote in the health and prevent disease. Nurses' fears came from experienced emotional negative reactions from the patients. Nurses demand more knowledge about alcohol and its difficulties.

    Conclusion:

    Nurses have a certain ignorance to ask patients about their drinking habits. The result is that they feel uncomfortable with taking up the issue and thus cause a lack of health prevention. Many require information, time and a structured workplace. It also appears that the nurses feel a discomfort in talking about alcohol and a fear of offending the patient or intimidation and violence

  • 1028.
    Baatz Asplund, Catarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Lundgren Andersson, Ann-Katrin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter av att arbeta med patienter med en ohälsosam alkoholkonsumtion: En empirisk studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year 3.3 million people die in the world due to harmful use of alcohol. Alcohol is a public health problem in Sweden as well, where one in ten people considered having risky drinking habits. Research shows that excessive alcohol consumption leads to the development of alcohol-related illnesses. Nurses' dialog with patients is important to support them to change unhealthy habits. What experiences have nurses about discussion concerning the patients' drinking habits?

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' attitudes to, and experiences of, dialog with patients about their alcohol use habits.

    Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with the help of a questionnaire.

    Results: Most nurses felt that they have a good knowledge and were secure in their work with patients who have unhealthy alcohol consumption. They asked the patients about their drinking habits and used the AUDIT screening form for mapping unhealthy consumption.

    Conclusion: Nurses in specialist psychiatric services have a good knowledge of the causes of alcohol problems and can provide consultative support. Their experience of success helping patients with alcohol problems varies.

  • 1029.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 1030.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1031. Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Evaluating Information Systems by using interpretive evaluation approaches and models2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As information systems/technologies (IS/IT) become embedded in organizations, these systems cannot be isolated from important issues such as human intellect, culture, philosophy, politics and socio-organizational changes. Limited business resources on one hand and the various concerns and demands from different stakeholders on the other hand have led to an ever-growing need to evaluate IS/IT investments. In other words, due to the heavy rise of IS/IT costs IS/IT investments must be justified. Evaluation of IS/IT investments is generally taken to mean the identification and the measurement of capital expenditures spent on and the initial anticipated revenues gained from the deployments of these systems (IS/IT). One of the main fundamental characteristics of interpretive approach (IA) is to highlight and facilitate evaluation as an interactive learning process. Interpretive approach concentrates on the lifecycle perspective of IS/IT investments argued to be a complex managerial issue. It is crucial to notice that stakeholders, their claims, concerns and issues are at the core of IEA.

  • 1032.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015In: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, p. 1-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 1033.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 1034.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Systematic Process for Selecting a Typical Case in School Setting2013In: Proceedings IRIS 36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway / [ed] Bratteteig, Tone, Aanestad, Margunn & Skorve, Espen, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2013, p. 461-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the rationale behind the concrete steps how we systematically have gone through the case selection process as the first phase of a research project named Consequences of the Digitalization of Schools. The project is a single-case longitudinal (5-year long) study and adopts a so called Whole-School Approach. Previous research has criticized case studies for lack of both systematic approach and transparency in the presentation of the case selection process. The purpose of the presentation of this case selection process is to contribute to enhancing understanding of and broadening knowledge on systematic and transparent case selection techniques. The SIRIS database has been used to select a typical Swedish primary school in the chosen municipality where the project will be conducted. The SIRIS database contains annually statistics from all primary schools in Sweden, and is available online for public use. We demonstrate how and why a particular school representing a so called typical school was selected as our case. 

  • 1035.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Managing the Digitalization of Schools: an explorative study of school principals’ and IT-managers’ perceptions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of ICT in school setting is in many ways a complex managerial task that involves several stakeholder groups. Firstly, principals and deans have to relate to the local, regional, national, and international policies and governing systems. Furthermore, the voices of teachers, students and their parents have to be considered and negotiated. In this paper, we explore how school principals’ and municipal IT-managers’ perceive the usefulness and the potential role that ICT play in the school context. In a pilot study of a single school district in a Swedish municipality, we have interviewed representatives from the municipal board of education, the municipal IT-support for schools, and two principals. By using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) as an analytical lens to understand the two constructs of “Perceived usefulness” and the possible role of ICT, we conclude that the barriers for successful integration of IT into educational practices requires firstly overcoming the lack of coordinated ICT investment strategy and tracking of ICT. This can be done by having a clearly articulated ICT policy distributed to school staff which we argue will positively influence the perceived usefulness as expressed by principals and their governing body. Secondly, inclusion of ICT in all aspects of teachers’ professional school activities will bring change to school activities and processes.

  • 1036.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Managing the Digitalization of Schools: an exploratory study of school principals’ and IT managers’ perceptions about ICT adoption and usefulness2014In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2014, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2014, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nowadays increasingly ICT-related investments in an overgrowing competitive school setting, the deployment, maintenance, and particularly the effective use of ICT is in many ways a complex multifaceted managerial task involving several stakeholder groups. In a pilot study of a single school district in a Swedish municipality, we have interviewed representatives from the municipal board of education, the municipal IT-support for schools, and two principals. We have used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) as our analytical lens to explore how school principals’ and municipal IT-managers’ perceive ICT adoption, usefulness, and the potential role of ICT. We conclude that the barriers for a successful integration of ICT into school-related activities requires a holistic managerial thinking in order to overcome the lack of coordinated ICT investment strategy and tracking of ICT.

  • 1037.
    Babu, Bijish
    et al.
    Mechanics of Sold Materials, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Charles Murgau, Corinne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Mechanics of Sold Materials, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Physically Based Constitutive Model of Ti-6Al-4V for Arbitrary Phase CompositionArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main challenge in producing aerospace components using Ti-6Al-4V alloy is to employ the optimum process window of deformation rate and temperature in order to achieve desired material properties. Understanding the microstructure property relationship qualitatively is not enough to achieve this goal. Developing advanced material models to be used in manufacturing process simulation is the key to iteratively computeand optimize the process. The focus in this work is on physically based flow stress models coupled with microstructure evolution models. Such a model can be used to simulate processes involving complex and cyclic thermo-mechanical loading

  • 1038.
    Back, Cornelia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av Stockholms, Göteborgs och Malmös hantering av miljonprogramsområden: ur kommunernas och de kommunala bostadsbolagens perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The million programme is a building era that took place between the years 1965 to 1974 when a politic decision was made to build a million new residences in Sweden, to correct the housing shortage. It´s now been more than 40 years since these residences were built and the need to renovate is a necessity, which makes this programme a very current subject. The purpose of this study is to map the three largest city´s handling of the need for renovation. The main question of this study is how the buildings of the million programme is being handled today. Meanwhile a series of other questions have been answered in this study; the difference between laws now and then, how the million programme areas looks in the different cities and how they are treated in the layout plans, what the need for renovation might lead to, and if there is any profit in restoring the buildings.It is a qualitative study as it is a situation in a few cities that are being studied, but through a survey this study gets a quantitative mixture as well. A survey was dispatched to the three municipalities and their communal real estate companies.Malmo, Gothenburg and Stockholm are both similar and different regarding planning and visions. Both Gothenburg and Stockholm placed their million programmes outside of the city´s core, whilst Malmo´s was located close to the centre of the city. They all have visions in their layout plans to create a more unified and connected city through increased integration and better communication between the city areas.There was a wave of renovation in the eighties and nineties because of the ROT-deduction and many projects concerning the million programme are still ongoing to this day. Facade renovation is common in all three cities and, to a certain degree, restoration of balconies and windows. Gothenburg has invested a lot in energy efficient measures and in Stockholm it has become increasingly more common with energy saving interventions like adding increased isolation. The image of the million programme´s constructions is "concrete ghettos", but the most common houses consists of three storeys with apartment size 3 rok.The Swedish legislation are of great importance during the renovation as there now are requirements on energy efficiency amongst other things, but also during the wave of renovation in the eighties and nineties when the demand of discretion was enforced in PBL 1987. The foundation in the million programme houses is satisfactory and they are functionally built which makes a renovation more cost-efficient than it would be to tear it down and build new buildings. The problem then does not reside in the need for renovation, as most houses needs restoration after so many years, but in the sheer number of buildings that would require a renovation.

  • 1039.
    Back, Mariana
    et al.
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Broman, Lars
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Astronomisk allmänbildning: en förstudie2011In: Inre och yttre verklighet / [ed] Aadu Ott, Anders Steene och Gunnar Windahl, Strömstad: Strömstad Akademi , 2011, p. 97-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1040.
    Backelin, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Lejdström, Pontus
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Att fånga upp elever i en unik arena: Förutsättningar för skolpersonal att uppmärksamma och arbeta med elever på högstadiet som lever under hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to get to know the conditions for detecting and working with pupils who live with honour related violence and oppression in a secondary school in Sweden. More specific we were interested in the perspective of school staff, which we collected with semistructured interviews in a small Swedish municipality. Our study was conducted partly in cooperation with the municipality where the school was located. In order to gain a deeper understanding of our object of study, the conditions for detection of and working with pupils that live with honour related violence and oppression expressed by school staff. We used psychological and physical tools, and the zone of proximal development from a culturalhistorical psychology as scientific concepts. These concepts also helped us to present our findings in a more effective way. Our findings pointed to three areas of contact where different professions could detect, get connected and start a relationship with a pupil who might live with honour related violence and oppression. These three areas were identified as each having some different opportunities and conditions regarding the possibility to detect and successively work with this group of pupils. Our findings also point to the need for education about honour related problems for school staff, especially the teachers who were noted to be a group in need of knowledge regarding these issues. One important condition in working with pupils living with honour related violence and oppression was the need for clear rolls of responsibility and knowing who to contact in certain situations.

  • 1041.
    Backelin, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Experimental study of trepanning process with nickel-base superalloy sheet, using CO2 laser.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis experimentally investigates the defect generated at the start and stop zone when trepanning, using CO 2 laser and the nickel-base superalloy Hastelloy X. The project has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT) in Trollhättan. Experiments which investigates the effect of altering entrance radius, exit radius (withdrawal) and nozzle distance have been performed. Samples were created by using a Trumpf 2D-laser machine and they were prepared for evaluation by grinding, polishing and etching. The Sample were then evaluated and measured by using an optic microscope. Experiments have been planned according to the method, design of experiments (DOE).

    By using the programme Minitab, regression analysis and empirical models were created which describes the effect of the tested parameters. The results show that it is possible to decrease the start and stop defects by altering of the process parameters.

  • 1042.
    Backelin, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sakseter, Victoria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Barns perspektiv på matsituationen i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under vår utbildnings gång har vi slagits av tanken på hur mycket det kan skilja sig mellan måltider på olika förskolor. Allt ifrån regler, rutiner och även upplevelse i form av trivsel och miljö. På vissa ställen upplevdes måltiderna av oss som rofyllda där barnen i lugn och ro pratar sinsemellan och med pedagogerna och på andra ställen upplevt måltiden som ett stressigt och negativt laddat rutintillfälle i vardagen på förskolan. Därmed dök tankar upp kring hur barnen upplever måltiderna på förskolan utifrån de regler och rutiner som finns och även barnens egen chans till delaktighet och påverkan vid matsituationen.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på hur barn uppfattar måltiderna på förskolan, hur de upplever dessa situationer och hur barnen upplever sin egen möjlighet till delaktighet och påverkan.

    Forskningsfrågorna vi har utgått ifrån är följande:

    Hur upplever barnen de regler och rutiner som omgärdar matsituationen i förskolan?

    Hur stor delaktighet och möjlighet till att påverka matsituationen upplever barnen att de har?

    Metod: För att undersöka våra frågor har vi använt oss av intervjuer med barn på två förskolor. Vi har suttit tillsammans med barnen två och två och spelat in intervjusamtalen genom ljudinspelning. Vi har sedan utgått ifrån våra övergripande temaområden och delat in intervjuerna under olika rubriker för att på detta sätt få fram ett analysmönster. För att få en insyn i hur måltiderna på förskolorna kan se ut och är uppbyggda ur ett utomstående perspektiv har vi även valt att observera måltiderna på förskolorna under en veckas tid.

    Resultat & slutsats: Det som framkommit under våra intervjutillfällen med barnen är att de har liknande uppfattningar kring många av de fenomen som diskuterades men vi kunde även se att barn upplever samma situation på ibland helt skilda sätt. På förskolorna får barnen vara delaktiga på så vis att de får vara med och duka inför måltiderna och i samtalen som förs under måltiderna. De regler och rutiner som finns vid måltiderna har barnen dock ingen större chans att påverka utan anses av barnen endast vara bestämda av pedagogerna. Måltiderna på en förskola kan skilja sig ganska stort emellan varandra i syn på vad måltiden egentligen innebär och ska innehålla och här har pedagogerna det största ansvaret och även makten att arbeta för en trivsam, social och mättande måltid.

  • 1043.
    Backlund, Angelica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lekens betydelse för barns utveckling: En kvalitativ studie om förskollärarnas syn på barns fria led i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Utifrån en granskning av den tidigare forskningen om lekens betydelse framgick det i den samtliga litteratur att lek är lärande och utvecklande för barn. I den tidigare forskningen lyfts bland annat upp synen på lek och lärande utifrån olika perspektiv där leken tillför lärande och utveckling inom bland annat den sociala förmågan.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studien är att få en mångsidig och djupare förståelse för den fria lekens betydelse för barns utveckling och lärande.

    Metod: I denna studien har jag valt att använda mig av en kvalitativ metod i form av fokusgruppsintervju. Syftet med fokusintervjuerna var att synliggöra pedagogernas perspektiv och tankar kring lekens betydelse.

    Resultat:Mitt huvudsakliga syfte var att skapa en förståelse för lekens betydelse, vilket skedde i ett nära samarbete med förskolornas pedagoger. Pedagogerna gavs möjlighet till utvecklande diskussioner där deras tankar och reflektioner stod i fokus. Syftet med detta var att synliggöra deras perspektiv på barns fria lek och lärande för att kunna ta ställning till hur de arbetar för att främja barns utveckling och lärande. Resultatet av studien visade att pedagogerna såg leken som något positivt för barns lärande och de arbetade medvetet med den fria leken för alla individers utveckling och lärande.

  • 1044.
    Backlund, Linus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Grundvall, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Omvårdnad av anhöriga till traumapatienter: en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During trauma treatment lots of health personal are mobilized under a short timeframe. The focus lies upon the care of the patient which leads to reduced focus on the nursing care for the relatives. The relatives are in a difficult life situation and in a major need for nursing care. Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate the nurses' care for the relatives of trauma patients. Method: This study is a literature review of eleven studies that involves relatives or nurses perceptions of the nursing care provided for the family-members of critically ill trauma patients. The studies were analyzed and categorized into themes and subthemes. Results: A total of three themes emerged. "Communications with the relatives", with subthemes the nurse gives information, nurses' behaviors and accessibility, taking the time to get to know the relatives. "Relatives involvement in care" with the subthemes involving the relatives in care, letting the relatives close to the patient. The last theme was "nurses provide care for the patient" without any subthemes. Conclusion: Information was crucial to the relatives. The nurse had to be calm and accessible to the relatives' needs and when he or she seemed stressed it was considered uncaring for the relatives. The relatives wanted to comfort themselves and the patient by being close to him or her. The subject needs more research especially with focus on what's being done for the relatives of trauma patients.

  • 1045.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wingård, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the recreation of photorealistic images has had a major role within the use of 3D-CGI for visualisation and advertisement. The recreation of something that can be called photorealistic without the use of a camera provides several advantages over photography. Because of this - several companies has begun using CGI as an alternative method within advertisement. There's still however, areas where the use of CGI remains limited - either because of the complexity and thus the expense, or because of how we as human perceive something that is done with CGI. We focused this study on the use of CGI food images used for advertisement. The reason for this is that we interact and consume food everyday, which can mean that our perception of something that we see as a consumable item may be drastically different from other products created with CGI.

    To test the perception of CGI images of food, we created a survey which purpose was to compare images of food utilizing CGI with photographic counterparts to judge the experienced appeal felt towards each image by a group of participants. This was done by having participants rate the images with a score of appeal as well as give written feedback of their thoughts about specific images and their general opinion of the use of CGI for advertisement purposes. Our survey showed a slight preference towards the CGI rendered images compared to the photographs that we used. There were however, several participants who disliked the "plastic" and unrealistic look of the CGI images that severely lowered the amount of appeal that was experienced. We hypothesize that the reason for the preference for CGI images in this study was because the use of CGI can make an image have an unrealistic perfection to it that can provoke a stronger appeal than how the look of the product would do in actuality. The type of product that the image represents may also play an important factor. This study focuses on chocolate bars, and thus the results may vary greatly if the study was conducted with the use of other food products, such as meat, fruit or vegetables.

  • 1046.
    Backman, Anne-Marie
    University West, Department of Technology.
    Beräkning av styvhet i lokaliserade enheter i jiggar med finita elementmetoden2002Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 1047.
    Backman, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Leitgeb, Christina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Garbage in, garbage out: automatiserade redovisningsprogram och deras påverkan på redovisningens kvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitizing advancement that has occured within the accountant segment have impacted what used to be a manually run segment within the industry to now become fully automated. The autonomous and technical aspect within the IT-segment have brought both new possibilities and ways of working, the following leads to an advantage being that you now have the possibility to get rapports in real time, among other things. An increasing number of accounting processes are automated as accounting programs evolve and an important question to be asked is how the quality within the accounting segment is affected.

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the impact of automated accounting processes on the quality of accounting. We chose a qualitative research strategy and abductive research facility.

    Through semi-structured interviews with accountants and auditors at various agencies, we collected data for our empirical analysis. We analyzed based on a thematic analysis based on the themes of the study; comprehensibility, reliability, relevance and comparability.

    The results of the study show that quality is improved and work more efficiently with automation. Reducing the manual work in the form of instancing's and transferring it to an automated process minimizes the risk of errors in the accounting. What is important, however, is that the setup of accounting programs automatic processes must be correct from the start, if the setup is incorrect then the result will be incorrect. Having standard setups in the applications reduces any errors that may arise when loading against, for example, proprietary templates, as they constantly need to be updated. To fully automate all parts within the accountant segment is presently not possible as some parts must be manually handled, such as annual accounts. Although the automated processes minimize the risk of instance, it is still important that some form of quality check needs to be done to assure that the result is correct. The results of the study also show that a good accounting quality requires that the accounting consultant has the correct competence and understanding of accounting. The correct competence in the future also includes IT-management why it should be introduced in the financial studies.

    In conclusion, we have been able to conclude with the help of the study that it is wrong from the beginning in the form of incorrect setup of the automatic process, error of failure or lack of competence of the accounting consultant will also the final result be incorrect, in other words "garbage in, garbage out".

  • 1048. Badgujar, A. C.
    et al.
    Dhage, S. R.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    Process parameter impact on properties of sputtered large-area Mo bilayers for CIGS thin film solar cell applications2015In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 589, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) has emerged as a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiencies approaching those of silicon-based solar cells. To achieve optimum performance in CIGS solar cells, uniform, conductive, stress-free, well-adherent, reflective, crystalline molybdenum (Mo) thin films with preferred orientation (110) are desirable as a back contact on large area glass substrates. The present study focuses on cylindrical rotating DC magnetron sputtered bilayer Mo thin films on 300 mm × 300 mm soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. Key sputtering variables, namely power and Ar gas flow rates, were optimized to achieve best structural, electrical and optical properties. The Mo films were comprehensively characterized and found to possess high degree of thickness uniformity over large area. Best crystallinity, reflectance and sheet resistance was obtained at high sputtering powers and low argon gas flow rates, while mechanical properties like adhesion and residual stress were found to be best at low sputtering power and high argon gas flow rate, thereby indicating a need to arrive at a suitable trade-off during processing. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 1049.
    Badgujar, Amol C.
    et al.
    Centre for Solar Energy Materials, ARCI, Hyderabad, India.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Dhage, Sanjay R.
    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Process Parameter Impact on Selective Laser Ablation of Bilayer Molybdenum Thin Films for CIGS Solar Cell Applications2018In: Materials focus, ISSN 2169-429X, no 4, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 or CIGS absorber layers are a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiency exceeding 22% having already been demonstrated at the cell level and their commercialization been ramped up. Scribing by selective ablation to achieve monolithic integration is an essential step in CIGS module making to divide a large area cell into a series of inter-connected smaller cells. P1 scribing or electrical isolation of back contact is an essential part of the monolithic integration. Laser-induced scribing of Molybdenum (Mo) back contact of a CIGS solar cell is highly sensitive to process parameters like laser power, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency. The above parameters control the scribe width, heat affected zone and process residue directly or indirectly, thereby affecting electrical isolation and module performance. Influence of laser process parameters on scribing of a bilayer Mo thin film back contact has been investigated and is being reported. The scribes obtained employing various laser conditions were characterized for electrical isolation and analyzed by optical microscopy followed by profilometry. High-quality scribing, with a scribe width of 53 μm over a length of 300 mm, was achieved on a bilayer Mo thin film sputtered on a Soda lime glass substrate.

  • 1050.
    Badjie, Fatou
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ghavaed, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En kvalitativ studie kring faktorer som kan påverka personalens hälsa i en organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har författarna valt att titta närmare på vilka faktorer det finns som kan påverka anställdas hälsa i en organisation. Detta genom att först identifiera faktorerna i det valda företaget och sedan med hjälp av intervjuer och den teoretiska referensramen få ett resultat. I den teoretiska referensramen redogör författarna för en historisk bakgrund om hälsa och faktorer som kan påverka medarbetarens hälsa. För att få fram relevant litteratur inom ämnesområdet har författarna använt sig av en kvalitativ metod, vetenskapliga artiklar och intervjuer. I det empiriska avsnittet framgår intervjuerna på fyra anställda i det valda företaget. För att veta hur deras hälsa är gjorde författarna ett urval på grund av att författarna ville få fullständiga svar från personer med erfarenhet. Det ställdes frågor angående arbetsförhållanden, motivation, trivsel etc. Därefter har författarna vävt samman den teoretiska referensramen med det empiriska och analyserat kring det. Detta för att besvara frågeställningen och syftet. Senare visar det sig att personalen i det valda företaget skulle kunna tänka sig att byta jobb om det fanns möjlighet. De känner även att de saknar motivation och tydliga mål från chefen. Slutligen har författarna kommit fram till att det trots några positiva saker på arbetsplatsen finns det en del brister som skulle kunna förbättras som kan gynna personalens hälsa.

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