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  • 1.
    Buckley, Sarah
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (AUS).
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SWE).
    Pajalic, Zada
    Faculty for Health Sciences, VID Specialized University, Oslo (NOR).
    Luegmair, Karolina
    Institute for Health Care and Nursing Studies, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (DEU).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Dencker, Anna
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (SWE).
    Massarotti, Claudia
    Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Genoa (ITA).
    Kotlowska, Alicja
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk (POL).
    Callaway, Leonie
    Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (AUS).
    Morano, Sandra
    Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Genoa (ITA).
    Olza, Ibone
    European Institute of Perinatal Mental Health, Madrid (ESP).
    Magistretti, Claudia Meier
    Institute for Health Policies, Prevention and Health Promotion, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Luzern (CHE).
    Maternal and newborn plasma oxytocin levels in response to maternal synthetic oxytocin administration during labour, birth and postpartum: a systematic review with implications for the function of the oxytocinergic system2023In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The reproductive hormone oxytocin facilitates labour, birth and postpartum adaptations for women and newborns. Synthetic oxytocin is commonly given to induce or augment labour and to decrease postpartum bleeding.

    AIM: To systematically review studies measuring plasma oxytocin levels in women and newborns following maternal administration of synthetic oxytocin during labour, birth and/or postpartum and to consider possible impacts on endogenous oxytocin and related systems.

    METHODS: Systematic searches of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo and Scopus databases followed PRISMA guidelines, including all peer-reviewed studies in languages understood by the authors. Thirty-five publications met inclusion criteria, including 1373 women and 148 newborns. Studies varied substantially in design and methodology, so classical meta-analysis was not possible. Therefore, results were categorized, analysed and summarised in text and tables.

    RESULTS: Infusions of synthetic oxytocin increased maternal plasma oxytocin levels dose-dependently; doubling the infusion rate approximately doubled oxytocin levels. Infusions below 10 milliunits per minute (mU/min) did not raise maternal oxytocin above the range observed in physiological labour. At high intrapartum infusion rates (up to 32 mU/min) maternal plasma oxytocin reached 2-3 times physiological levels. Postpartum synthetic oxytocin regimens used comparatively higher doses with shorter duration compared to labour, giving greater but transient maternal oxytocin elevations. Total postpartum dose was comparable to total intrapartum dose following vaginal birth, but post-caesarean dosages were higher. Newborn oxytocin levels were higher in the umbilical artery vs. umbilical vein, and both were higher than maternal plasma levels, implying substantial fetal oxytocin production in labour. Newborn oxytocin levels were not further elevated following maternal intrapartum synthetic oxytocin, suggesting that synthetic oxytocin at clinical doses does not cross from mother to fetus.

    CONCLUSIONS: Synthetic oxytocin infusion during labour increased maternal plasma oxytocin levels 2-3-fold at the highest doses and was not associated with neonatal plasma oxytocin elevations. Therefore, direct effects from synthetic oxytocin transfer to maternal brain or fetus are unlikely. However, infusions of synthetic oxytocin in labour change uterine contraction patterns. This may influence uterine blood flow and maternal autonomic nervous system activity, potentially harming the fetus and increasing maternal pain and stress.

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  • 2.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Nurses and midwives professional support increases with improved attitudes: design and effects of a longitudinal randomized controlled process-oriented intervention2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Research Group Family Centered Health (FamCeH) University of Skövde Skövde (SWE);School of Health Sciences University of Skövde Skövde (SWE).
    Thorstensson, Stina
    Research Group Family Centered Health (FamCeH) University of Skövde Skövde (SWE);School of Health Sciences University of Skövde Skövde (SWE).
    Bäckström, Caroline
    Research Group Family Centered Health (FamCeH) University of Skövde Skövde (SWE);School of Health Sciences University of Skövde Skövde (SWE).
    The concept, importance and values of support during childbearing and breastfeeding – A discourse paper2021In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Professional support in childbearing has beneficial effects on childbirth experience, interactions within the family, breastfeeding and medical outcomes. However, more knowledge is needed about prerequisites for professional support to be valuable and satisfactory during childbearing.

    Aim: The aim of this discourse paper is to describe and explore prerequisites for professional support that are of value for women and their families during childbearing as well as how healthcare organizations can be formed to facilitate these prerequisites.

    Design:Discourse paper.

    Methods:This discourse paper is based on our own experiences and is supported by literature and theory.

    Results: Well-functioning structures and processes facilitate professional support that leads to safe, secure, calm and prepared parents with the ability to handle the challenges of childbearing and parenting. When organizing care in childbearing, prerequisites for support needs must also be considered.

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    Nursing Open
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    School of Health and Welfare Halmstad University Halmstad (SWE).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    School of Health and Welfare Halmstad University Halmstad (SWE).
    Thorstensson, Stina
    School of Health and Education University of Skövde Skövde (SWE).
    Åström, Ulrica
    School of Health and Welfare Halmstad University Halmstad (SWE).
    Lundgren, Ingela
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences University of Gothenburg Gothenburg (SWE).
    Roxberg, Åsa
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. VID University Bergen Norway;UiT Harstad Harstad (NOR).
    Meaning of wellness in caring science based on Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wellness is a holistic, multidimensional, and process-oriented property on a continuum. It has been used interchangeably with and is undifferentiated from concepts such as health and well-being without an in-depth clarification of its theoretical foundations and a reflection on its meaning. The concept of wellness is frequently used, but its definition remains unclear.

    Aim

    To conceptually and theoretically explore the concept of wellness to contribute to a deeper understanding in caring science.

    Method

    Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis was applied to the theoretical investigation of data from publications of international origins. The focus was on antecedents, attributes, consequences, surrogate and related terms, and contextual references. A literature search was performed through a manual review of reference lists and an online search in CINAHL and PubMed via EBSCO, and in ProQuest. Abstracts were examined to identify relevant studies for further review. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed papers in English; papers published in scientific journals using the surrogate terms ‘wellness’, ‘health’, ‘health care’, and ‘health care and wellness’; and papers discussing and/or defining the concept of wellness. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria.

    Results

    Based on the findings from this concept analysis, a definition of wellness was developed: ‘a holistic and multidimensional concept represented on a continuum of being well that goes beyond health’. Implications for nursing practice were correspondingly presented.

    Conclusion

    Wellness is defined as a holistic and comprehensive multidimensional concept represented on a continuum of being well, that goes beyond health. It calls attention by applying the salutogenic perspective to health promotion in caring science. It is strongly related to individual lifestyle and health behaviour and is frequently used interchangeably with health and well-being without an in-depth clarification of its theoretical foundation.

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  • 5.
    Granberg, Agnes
    et al.
    Psykologiteamet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences, Post Box 408, S 541 28, Skövde, Sweden.
    First-Time Mothers' Enjoyment of Breastfeeding Correlates with Duration of Breastfeeding, Sense of Coherence, and Parental Couple and Child Relation: A Longitudinal Swedish Cohort Study2020In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. 2020, article id 8194389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Many women do not reach their own breastfeeding goals regarding duration of breastfeeding. Different factors influence breastfeeding, and to learn more about breastfeeding within a multidimensional and longitudinal perspective, further research is needed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate diverse factors correlated with first-time mothers' enjoyment of breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration, between childbirth and two years after birth.

    Methods: In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 324 newly become mothers were followed. The Spearman correlation test was used to investigate factors correlated with the degree to which mothers enjoy breastfeeding and the duration of breastfeeding. The Mann-Whitney test was conducted for comparisons of demographic characteristics between mothers who did or did not breastfeed.

    Results: Among the mothers, 99.2% initiated breastfeeding after birth. Frequencies of breastfeeding were 54.8% at six months, 9.1% at one year, and 1.0% at two years. The degree to which the mother enjoyed breastfeeding was correlated positively with (1) the duration of breastfeeding, (2) more positive feelings for and relation to the child, (3) the partner's perceived relation to the child, (4) a higher sense of coherence, and (5) stronger perceived parental couple's relationship. Longer breastfeeding duration was correlated positively with (1) a higher degree of enjoyment of breastfeeding, (2) more positive relation to the child, and (3) stronger perceived parental couple's relationship. Additionally, breastfeeding during the first two hours after birth, more positive feelings for and relation to the child, and a higher degree of enjoyment of breastfeeding were more frequently reported among breastfeeding mothers, in comparison with not breastfeeding mothers.

    Conclusion: Mothers' subjective experience from breastfeeding, sense of coherence, and couple relationship with partner and relationship with the child are valuable factors in regard to breastfeeding.

  • 6.
    Hrybanova, Yana
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde (SWE).
    First-time fathers' experiences of professional support from child health nurses2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 921-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, in Sweden, fathers are expected to be active in their father role and to share caring responsibilities for their children equally with mothers. This active role of a father in a family can be challenging, especially for the first-time fathers. Child health nurses’ support is an important factor for fathers to become confident caregivers. The Father Perceived Professional Supportscale (FaPPS scale) can be used in nursing practice for better understanding father’s needs of professional support. The aim of this study was to describe first-timefathers’ experiences of the professional support received from child health nurses and to validate the instrument:‘FaPPS scale’. A qualitative design, with inductive and deductive approaches, was used in this study.Twelve first-time fathers participated in the semi-structuredinterviews, thereafter grading the FaPPS scaleitems and commenting on them. The fathersexperienced nurses’ support positively when nursesprovided practical information and stimulated them to be involved in care of their children. In contrast, thes upport was experienced negatively because of nurses’ lack of commitment, availability and adaptation to the fathers’ individual needs. The fathers also felt inequality between the support received by fathers and by mothers. Although some fathers perceived it as negative, others considered it fair, believing that mothers needed more support. In addition, fathers expect nurses to actively offer support to them and supervise them in childcare. The fathers also needed meeting other parents, for example in parental groups.This study also indicates that FaPPS scale can be used both in research and clinical practice, though still needing further development.

  • 7.
    Huusko, Linda
    et al.
    Narhälsan Skövde Women’s Health Clinic, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, S.
    Women’s Health Clinic, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education,Skövde, Sweden.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education,Skövde, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education,Skövde, Sweden.
    First-Time Fathers´ Experience of Support from Midwives in Maternity Clinics: An Interview Study2018In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, article id 9618036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    Research shows that first-time fathers want to take part in preparation for birth and parenthood but they describe being excluded by health professionals. Aim. The aim of this study was to illustrate first-time fathers' experiences of support from midwives in maternity clinics as a step in the validation of "The Father Perceived-Professional-Support" (The FaPPS) scale.

    Methods.

    A qualitative content analysis with an inductive and deductive approach was used; seven first-time fathers were strategically selected and interviewed. In the inductive part the following open question was asked: "How did you perceive the support from the antenatal midwife/midwives?" In the deductive part, the fathers were asked to respond to the FaPPS scale, in order to receive their thoughts and understanding of the scale, inspired by the "Think-aloud" method. Findings. The inductive results showed two main categories: Experience of not knowing what support they needed and Experience of being excluded. The fathers found support from other fathers in parental education classes, but they lack time to discuss. Overall it seems as if the fathers answered both from their own perspective and from the mothers' perspective. This was not evident in the deductive results. The FaPPs scale should therefore include professionals' ability to strengthen social support from other first-time fathers and professionals' ability to offer support to the mother.

    Conclusion and Clinical Implications.

    The fathers experienced exclusion both by themselves and also by midwives. Midwives should offer both parents the opportunity to pose questions. It is important for expectant fathers that time for discussion is planned in parental education classes. The FaPPS scale is useful but needs further development. Parts of our result are in line with earlier research, for decades; therefore it is necessary to focus more on support for fathers.

  • 8.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Ekström-Bergström, AnetteUniversity West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Complementary Care to Promote Mental Health2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Leinweber, Julia
    et al.
    Institute of Midwifery Charité, University Medicine Berlin (DEU).
    Fonstein-Kuipers, Yvonne
    School of Midwifery, Health and Social Work University College Antwerp (BEL); Edinburgh Napier University School of Health and Social Care Edinburgh (GBR).
    Thomson, G.
    Maternal and Infant Nutrition & Nurture Unit, School of Community Health & Midwifery, University of Central Lancashire (GBR).
    Karlsdottis, S.
    School of Health Sciences University of Akureyri (ISL).
    Nilsson, C.
    Munkebäck Antenatal Clinic, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Olza, I.
    Hadijigeorgiou, E.
    Stramrod, C.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology OLVG Hospital Amsterdam (NLD).
    Developing a woman-centred, inclusive definition of traumatic childbirth experiences2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Leinweber, Julia
    et al.
    Institut of Midwifery, Charité—University Medicine Berlin, Berlin (DEU).
    Fontein-Kuipers, Yvonne
    School of Midwifery, Health and Social Work, University College Antwerp, Antwerp (BEL).
    Thomson, Gill
    Maternal and Infant Nutrition & Nurture Unit, School of Community Health & Midwifery, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (GBR).
    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga
    School of Health Sciences, University of Akureyri, Akureyri, (ISL).
    Nilsson, Christina
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University in Borås, Borås (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Olza, Ibone
    European Institute of Perinatal Mental Health, Madrid (ESP).
    Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni
    Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, (CYP).
    Stramrood, Claire
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, OLVG Hospital, Amsterdam (NLD).
    Developing a woman-centered, inclusive definition of traumatic childbirth experiences: A discussion paper.2022In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 585-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Many women experience giving birth as traumatic. Although women's subjective experiences of trauma are considered the most important, currently there is no clear inclusive definition of a traumatic birth to help guide practice, education, and research.

    AIM: To formulate a woman-centered, inclusive definition of a traumatic childbirth experience.

    METHODS: After a rapid literature review, a five-step process was undertaken. First, a draft definition was created based on interdisciplinary experts' views. The definition was then discussed and reformulated with input from over 60 multidisciplinary clinicians and researchers during a perinatal mental health and birth trauma research meeting in Europe. A revised definition was then shared with consumer groups in eight countries to confirm its face validity and adjusted based on their feedback.

    RESULTS: The stepwise process confirmed that a woman-centered and inclusive definition was important. The final definition was: "A traumatic childbirth experience refers to a woman's experience of interactions and/or events directly related to childbirth that caused overwhelming distressing emotions and reactions; leading to short and/ or long-term negative impacts on a woman's health and wellbeing."

    CONCLUSIONS: This definition of a traumatic childbirth experience was developed through consultations with experts and consumer groups. The definition acknowledges that low-quality provider interactions and obstetric violence can traumatize individuals during childbirth. The women-centered and inclusive focus could help women to identify and validate their experiences of traumatic birth, offering benefits for practice, education, and research, as well as for policymaking and activism in the fields of perinatal mental health and respectful maternity care.

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  • 11.
    Möller Ranch, Matilda
    et al.
    Neonatal Care Unit, NÄL Hospital Trollhättan (SWE).
    Jämtén, Sofia
    Pediatric Healthcare Setting, Capio, Lysekil (SWE).
    Thorstensson, Stina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences, Skövde (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences, Skövde (SWE).
    First-Time Mothers Have a Desire to Be Offered Professional Breastfeeding Support by Pediatric Nurses: An Evaluation of the Mother-Perceived-Professional Support Scale2019In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, article id 8731705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, the rate of breastfeeding has decreased worldwide. Breastfeeding is the natural way of feeding a baby, but it is a process that has to be learnt. It is not unusual for problems to occur and hence support for breastfeeding is vital. The aim of this study was to explore first-time mothers' experiences of the breastfeeding support offered by pediatric nurses, as well as to develop and evaluate the Mother Perceived Support from Professionals (MoPPS) scale.

    Methods: A qualitative design involving both inductive and deductive approaches was chosen. Nine first-time mothers were interviewed regarding their experiences of the breastfeeding support offered by pediatric nurses. Semistructured interviews were conducted. The mothers were also asked to grade their experiences of breastfeeding support on the MoPPS scale. A qualitative content analysis was applied when analyzing the data obtained using both the inductive (interviews) and deductive (MoPPS scale) approaches.

    Results: The results revealed that the mothers felt the desire to breastfeed, although they all experienced some difficulties. They wanted the pediatric nurses to be perceptive and provide professional support based on their own experiences. When the pediatric nurses took time and booked extra appointments, the mothers felt supported. The inductive analysis resulted in one theme: "When wanting to breastfeed, mothers have a desire to be offered professional breastfeeding support". Two main categories were identified, namely "Mothers wanted but lacked breastfeeding support" and "Mothers received professional support." The deductive analysis of the MoPPS scale showed similar results, and the questions were perceived as relevant to the aim. The mothers considered it important that the pediatric nurses had sufficient knowledge about breastfeeding. It was also considered important that the pediatric nurses involved the mothers' partners in the breastfeeding support. Therefore, we suggest that these areas should be included in the MoPPS scale for pediatric nurses.

    Conclusions: The MoPPS scale can be a useful tool for helping pediatric nurses to offer mothers professional breastfeeding support. Indeed, when offering breastfeeding support, pediatric nurses can use the items included on the MoPPS scale as guidance.

  • 12.
    Olza, Ibone
    et al.
    University of Alcalá, Faculty of Medicine, Henares, Spain (ESP).
    Uvnas-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Leahy-Warren, Patricia
    University College, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Cork, Ireland (IRL).
    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga
    University of Akureyri, School of Health Sciences, Akureyri, Iceland (ISL).
    Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne
    Zuyd University, Research Centre for Midwifery Science Maastricht, Heerlen, The Netherlands (NLD).
    Villarmea, Stella
    University of Alcalá, Faculty of Philosophy, Henares, Spain (ESP); Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (GBR).
    Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni
    Cyprus University of Technology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Limassol, Cyprus (CYP).
    Kazmierczak, Maria
    Uniwersytet Gdanski, Institute of Psychology, Gdansk, Poland (POL).
    Spyridou, Andria
    Cyprus University of Technology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Limassol, Cyprus (CYP).
    Buckley, Sarah
    The University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Herston, Qld, Australia (AUS).
    Birth as a neuro-psycho-social event: An integrative model of maternal experiences and their relation to neurohormonal events during childbirth2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1-15, article id e0230992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychological aspects of labor and birth have received little attention within maternity care service planning or clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to propose a model demonstrating how neurohormonal processes, in particular oxytocinergic mechanisms, not only control the physiological aspects of labor and birth, but also contribute to the subjective psychological experiences of birth. In addition, sensory information from the uterus as well as the external environment might influence these neurohormonal processes thereby influencing the progress of labor and the experience of birth.

    METHODOLOGY: In this new model of childbirth, we integrated the findings from two previous systematic reviews, one on maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth and one meta-synthesis of women´s subjective experiences of physiological childbirth.

    FINDINGS: The neurobiological processes induced by the release of endogenous oxytocin during birth influence maternal behaviour and feelings in connection with birth in order to facilitate birth. The psychological experiences during birth may promote an optimal transition to motherhood. The spontaneous altered state of consciousness, that some women experience, may well be a hallmark of physiological childbirth in humans. The data also highlights the crucial role of one-to-one support during labor and birth. The physiological importance of social support to reduce labor stress and pain necessitates a reconsideration of many aspects of modern maternity care.

    CONCLUSION: By listening to women's experiences and by observing women during childbirth, factors that contribute to an optimized process of labor, such as the mothers' wellbeing and feelings of safety, may be identified. These observations support the integrative role of endogenous oxytocin in coordinating the neuroendocrine, psychological and physiological aspects of labor and birth, including oxytocin mediated. decrease of pain, fear and stress, support the need for midwifery one-to-one support in labour as well as the need for maternity care that optimizes the function of these neuroendocrine processes even when birth interventions are used. Women and their partners would benefit from understanding the crucial role that endogenous oxytocin plays in the psychological and neuroendocrinological process of labor.

  • 13.
    Thapa, D. R.
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde (SWE); School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping (SWE) .
    Oli, N.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu (NPL).
    Vaidya, A.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Sinamangal (NPL).
    Suominen, S.
    Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde (SWE); Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku (FIN).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde (SWE).
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping (SWE);Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo (NOR): Faculty of Health Sciences, VID Specialized University, Sandnes (NOR) .
    Krettek, A.
    Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde (SWE); Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (SWE); Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (NOR) .
    Determination and Evaluation of Sense of Coherence in Women in Semi-urban Nepal: A part of the Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination, and Intervention in the Community (HARDIC) Trial.2021In: Kathmandu University Medical Journal, ISSN 1812-2027, E-ISSN 1812-2078, Vol. 19, no 73, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is a core concept of salutogenesis which relates to individuals' overall life orientation. Stronger SOC associates with better coping strategies, better health, and better quality of life. Although the SOC-questionnaire is validated in many cultures and languages, it has not, to date, been applied in Nepal. Objective To determine and evaluate women's SOC before and after a health education intervention. Method This study was conducted as a part of the Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination, and Intervention in the Community in the semi-urban JhaukhelDuwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in Nepal. Jhaukhel and Duwakot were selected as the control and intervention areas, respectively. Participants were women with children aged 1-7 years. Eight hundred and fifty-seven women before and 1,268 women after the health education intervention participated in the study. The statistical analysis was carried out with chi-square tests and one-way uni-variate ANOVA. Result Women's total SOC mean values at baseline were 51.1-57.4 and at follow up 54.4-54.9 in the intervention and control area, respectively. At baseline, SOC was significantly weaker in the intervention area compared to the control area (p < 0.001). At followup three months later, SOC was significantly stronger in the intervention area than in the control area (p < 0.001). Conclusion Nepalese women had weaker SOC than women in high-income countries, but comparable to neighboring country India with similar cultural features. Empowerment of women through community participation and health education strengthened SOC. The SOC-13-questionnaire in its Nepali version is recommended to be further evaluated.

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    KUMJ
  • 14.
    Thapa, Dip Raj
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, (SWE);School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, (SWE).
    Ekström Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden;Department of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, (SWE).
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, (SWE);Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE) ;Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, (NOR).
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. Faculty of Health Sciences, VID Specialized University, Sandnes, Norway;The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden;Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Support and resources to promote and sustain health among nurses and midwives in the workplace: A qualitative study2021In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Registered nurses and midwives are in short supply and have among the highest rates of sick leave in the global workforce. The aim of this study was therefore to explore and gain a deeper understanding of how nurses and midwives experience their everyday work, with a view toward promoting and sustaining their work-related health. Nine registered nurses and four registered midwives working in hospitals and community healthcare facilities in Sweden were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. This study is reported in accordance with COREQ. One main category emerged: ‘Quality of organizational and collegial support and opportunities to facilitate recovery, health, and patient care’. From this category, four generic categories describing the overall experiences of registered nurses and midwives could be discerned. Based on these results, it is recommended that employers adopt a systematic health-promotive approach to foster and maintain the workplace health of registered nurses and midwives.

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    Sage
  • 15.
    Thapa, Dip Raj
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde; School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University (SWE).
    Stengård, Johanna
    Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde (SWE).
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University; Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University; Faculty of Health Studies, VID Specialized University (NOR).
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg; Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway (NOR).
    Nyberg, Anna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences BMC, Uppsala University (SWE).
    Job demands, job resources, and health outcomes among nursing professionals in private and public healthcare sectors in Sweden: a prospective study2022In: BMC Nursing, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Nursing professionals exhibit high prevalence of stress-related health problems. Job demands and job resources are parallel drivers of health and well-being among employees. Better job resources associate with better job satisfaction, job motivation and engagement even when job demands are high. To date, there is limited research which explores the association between job demands, job resources and health outcomes among nursing professionals in the Swedish context. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate Swedish nursing professionals’ job demands and job resources in relation to health outcomes, with comparisons between the private and public healthcare sectors. The specific research questions were as follows: (1) Are there differences between private and public healthcare regarding job demands, job resources, and health outcomes? and (2) Are there prospective associations between job demands and job resources in relation to health outcomes?

    Methods

    Data were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2016 and 2018, including 520 nurses and 544 assistant nurses working in the private and public healthcare sectors from 2016 (baseline). Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression.

    Results

    Nursing professionals reported higher threats, lower bullying, lower control, lower social support, and lower cohesion in the public healthcare units compared to the private healthcare units. The prospective analyses showed that job resources in terms of social support and rewards were associated with higher self-rated health and lower burnout. Cohesion was associated with higher self-rated health. Job demands in terms of psychological demands and job efforts were associated with lower self-rated health, higher burnout, and higher sickness absence, while emotional demands were associated with higher burnout.

    Conclusions

    Nursing professionals’ job resources are deficient in public healthcare units. Job resources are associated with positive health outcomes, whereas job demands are associated with negative health outcomes, among nursing professionals. Strengthening job resources among nursing professionals in the private and public healthcare sectors can promote and sustain their work-related health.

  • 16.
    Thapa, Dip Raj
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde; chool of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University.
    Subedi, Madhusudan
    School of Public Health, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (NPL).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University (NOR); Faculty of Health Studies, VID Specialized University (NOR).
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde (SWE); Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (SWE); Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway (NOR).
    Facilitators for and barriers to nurses’ work-related health: a qualitative study2022In: BMC Nursing, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 21, article id 218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Work-related health problems, such as work stress, fatigue, and burnout constitute a global challenge within the nursing profession. Work-related health among nurses is not yet a prioritized phenomenon in Nepal. Health-promoting approaches to maintaining and sustaining nurses’ health are therefore essential. The aim of this study was to explore and thereby gain a deeper understanding of how nurses in Nepal’s hospitals experience their everyday work, with a focus on promoting and sustaining their work-related health.

    Methods:

    A qualitative design with semi-structured individual interviews were used. Nineteen registered nurses working at hospitals in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were individually interviewed between October 6 and December 5, 2018. Transcribed interviews were analyzed through thematic analysis.

    Results:

    Four main themes with belonging eight subthemes were constructed from the analysis: (1) “Sense of mean‑ingfulness and belongingness in work culture” with subthemes; “Open environment” and “Sharing attitude and coop‑erating for the entire team” (2) “Support and rewards from the management team” with subthemes; “Lacking manage‑rial support” and “Fair evaluation and job promotion opportunities”(3) “Workload and protection against work-related hazards” with subthemes; “Stressful and multitasking in workload” and “Lacking equipment for own health and caring”, and (4) “Motivation through opportunities and activities” with subthemes; “Employment benefts that motivate work”, and “Activities outside of work needed to recover”. These main themes and subthemes described nurses’ facilitators for and barriers to their work environment and health.

    Conclusion:

    Our study highlighted nurses’ experiences with facilitators and barriers to their work-related health. Nurses’ work-related health was positively afected by support from colleagues, managers, and the organization. Conversely, less support from managers, lack of equipment, and unfair judgment were barriers to nurses’ work-related health. This study adds new knowledge about nurses’ work-related health from the context of Nepal. Hospital organi‑zations and nursing managers in similar cultural and healthcare settings can apply the results of our study to develop strategies to promote and sustain nurses’ health and prevent work-related illness.

  • 17.
    Thapa, Raj D.
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, PO Box 408, 541 28 Skövde (SWE).
    Subedi, M.
    School of Public Health, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, GPO Box 26500, Lalitpur (NPL).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Box 1026, 551 11 Jönköping (SWE); 5 Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, PO Box 4, 0130 Oslo (NOR).
    Krettek, A.
    Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, PO Box 408, 541 28 Skövde (SWE); Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Box 400, 405 30 Gothenburg (SWE); Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, POBox 6050, Langnes, 9037 Tromsø (NOR).
    A Qualitative Evaluation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Short Form of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in Nepal2023In: Kathmandu University Medical Journal, ISSN 1812-2027, E-ISSN 1812-2078, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 112-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) relates to an individual’s overall life orientation, and stronger SOC is associated with better health, quality of life, and coping strategies. When our research group used the SOC-13 questionnaire for the first time in Nepal, we identified difficulties in response patterns. The findings necessitated further evaluation of the Nepali version of the SOC-13 questionnaire.

    Objective

    To qualitatively evaluate the SOC-13 questionnaire in Nepali for cross-cultural adaptation.MethodNineteen nurses were interviewed. We used the methodological approach of “think aloud” to obtain a deeper understanding of the interferences of the scales. Transcribed materials were analyzed using a deductive approach through qualitative content analysis. The original translated version of the SOC-13 questionnaire in Nepali was modified by replacing words that were easier to understand.

    Result

    Participants found the questionnaire content general and non-specific but easy to complete. The nurses experienced that the meanings and sentences in some of the items and response alternatives were difficult to understand. However, the overall comprehensiveness of most items and response alternatives was perceived as good. Nurses’ interpretation of the SOC-items in the translated version of the SOC-13 questionnaire in Nepali matched the original English version. Items that were experienced as difficult in the Nepali language were modified to increase their comprehensiveness. Modified items and response alternatives had the same content as before, but some words and meanings were substituted with easier language.

    Conclusion

    The current revised version of SOC-13 in Nepali is valid and useful to explore individuals’ overall life orientation and their abilities to deal and cope with various life events in the Nepalese context.

  • 18.
    Thapa, Raj
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Vaidya, A.
    Suominen, S.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Areskoug-Josefsson, K.
    Krettek, A.
    Determination and evaluation of Sense of Coherence in women in semi-urban Nepal: A part of the Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination, and Intervention in theCommunity (HARDIC) Trial2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences, Skövde, Sweden.
    Effects of the "Inspirational Lecture" in Combination With "Ordinary Antenatal Parental Classes" as Professional Support for Expectant Parents: A Pilot Study as a Randomized Controlled Trial2020In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 8, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Both expectant mothers and their partners describe weaknesses in ordinary parental preparatory professional support provided internationally and nationally within Sweden. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the parental preparatory professional support provided by midwives for expectant parents within Sweden. This study will evaluate the effects on expectant parents of receiving a combination of an "inspirational lecture" and "ordinary antenatal parental classes" compared with only "ordinary antenatal parental classes."

    Methods/Design: This block randomized controlled trial included an intervention as a pilot study, in which expectant parents were randomized for (1) the inspirational lecture and ordinary antenatal parental classes (intervention group [IG]) (n = 66) or (2) ordinary antenatal parental classes (control group [CG]) (n = 60). Data collection with repeated questionnaires was conducted in the first week and 6 months after birth. Statistical analyses were conducted for participant characteristics, differences between parents within IG and CG, effects of the intervention, intention to treat, and internal consistency of the included measurements.

    Results: The intervention showed a tendency to be gainful for one out of four outcomes related to birth experience, and parents' perceived quality of parental couple relationship consensus and sexuality and manageability. These results were more prominent for the partners. Parents within both the intervention and control groups reported decreased social support in the first 6 months after birth.

    Conclusion and Clinical Implications: Overall, the concept of the inspirational lecture in combination with ordinary antenatal parental classes as parental preparatory professional support seems to be a valuable care intervention. However, this study was a pilot study and the results should therefore be interpreted with caution. More research is needed since childbirth and transition to parenthood are complex processes in need of comprehension.

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  • 20.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Alverbratt, Catrin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. University of Skövde, Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, Skövde (SWE).
    Antonsson, Helena
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Umeå University, Department of Nursing, Umeå (SWE).
    Caring for Persons With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behavior: Staff Experiences With a Web-Based Training Program2021In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 580923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clear and effective communication is a prerequisite to provide help and support in healthcare situations, especially in health, and social care services for persons with intellectual disabilities, as these clients commonly experience communication difficulties. Knowledge about how to communicate effectively is integral to ensuring the quality of care. Currently, however, there is a lack of such knowledge among staff working in the disabilities sector, which is exacerbated by challenges in the competence provision in municipal health and social care services. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore staffs' experience of web-based training in relation to their professional caring for persons with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. The intention is to move toward well-evaluated and proven web-based training in order to contribute to competence provision in this specific context.

    Methods: Fourteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with individual staff members to gather data regarding their experiences with web-based training in relation to their profession. The collected data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with a focus on both manifest and latent content.

    Results: The staff's experiences with the web-based training program were presented as a single main theme: "Web-based training for staff initiates a workplace learning process by promoting reflections on and awareness of how to better care for persons with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior." This theme contained three categories which are based on eight sub-categories.

    Conclusion and clinical implications: The benefits of web-based training for workplace learning could clearly be observed in the strengthening of professional care for persons with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Staff members claimed to have gained novel insights about how to better care for clients as well as about the importance of interactions in their encounters with clients. Professional teamwork is crucial to providing effective care for persons with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Hence, future research aimed at investigating the views of other healthcare professionals, such as registered nurses, is recommended to improve the competence provision within municipal health and social care services and thereby enhance the quality of care.

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    fulltext
  • 21.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Antonsson, Helena
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Johansson, Catrin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo (NOR); Jönköping University, Jönköping (SWE).
    Staff’s self-reported frequency and management difficulty of challenging behavior among persons with intellectual disabilities in connection with web-based training2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan, 2022, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 42-45Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Healthcare professionals, nationally and internationally, experience that exposure to persons withintellectual disabilities (ID) during education is often insufficient. Professionals within the sector urge enhancedtraining that will better prepare them for working with their clients. Providing care and support to persons with IDis complex and places high demands on the professionals such as knowledge about ID and cha llenging behaviors(CB) as well as communication and interaction. Earlier studies have shown that knowledge deficiencies in theseareas may prevent healthcare professionals from understanding their clients and their behaviors, particularly thosebehaviors considered to be challenging.However, staff working with persons with ID reported CB as a problem they could not always address in thedesired manner while performing their work duties. This predicament was shown to often generate stress, angerand powerlessness among staff, increasing the likelihood of burnout. Helping staff to better understand and bebetter prepared prior to meeting, communicating and interacting with persons with ID, especially concerningaddressing CB, could therefore help to establish and maintain a healthy work environment and sustainable workinglife.In this study, we investigated the impact of web-based training on the staff´s perception of the frequency andmanagement difficulties of CB among persons with ID in residential settings in Sweden. The training addressedthe topics ID and CB as well as communication and interaction and was offered to the staff working in theresidences. Since the basic assumption was that CB is a consequence of interrupted communication and interactionbetween staff and persons with ID, we hypothesized that by introducing web-based training focusing on ID andCB as well as communication and interaction, the frequency of CB and degree of management difficulty of CB indaily care would be reduced.Aim: To explore staff’s perceptions about CB among clients with ID in residential settings before and after a web -based training program, specifically addressing ID and CB as well as communication and interaction.Research questions1. Do staff report a lower frequency of CB among clients with ID in residential settings after the web -basedtraining?2. Do staff report a lower degree of management difficulty of CB among clients with ID in residential settings afterthe web-based training?

    Methods: A within-subjects study design was applied in which the participants were exposed to the treatment –in this case, web-based training – and measurements were made using the survey instrument “Checklist ofChallenging Behavior” (CCB) before and after exposure to examine any potential changes that occurred.Cluster sampling was conducted whereby 20 residential facilities were included. All staff in those residences wereoffered web-based training and invited to participate in this study.A total of 212 participants accepted the invitation to the survey by filling in CCB and accordingly systematicallyrate the frequency of CB among the clients and the own difficulty in managing these behaviors as perceived byparticipating staff. The CCB includes 41 items related to topographies of aggressive and other CB divided alongthe dimensions of physical violence/aggressive behavior, property destruction, miscellaneous behavior and mentalillness. The CCB was developed by Harris and Humphreys, who assessed the instrument’s content validity andinter-rater reliability. The researchers concluded that the instrument was a reliable indicator of the presence orabsence of CB. All measurements were based on five-point scale.43First, descriptive analysis was performed to summarize the characteristics of the sample. Central measurementswere presented as the mean and dispersion by standard deviation. As the data were represented on an ordinal scale,the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine whether a lterations existed between the responses before andafter training concerning the frequency of CB and management difficulty of these behaviors.Considering the number of calculations performed, a significance value of p < 0.05 was established. In addition,p-values < 0.1 were interpreted as tendencies. In order to contribute to indications of practical significance, acorrelation coefficient r was calculated by converting the z-values, as described by Pautz and Olivier, of those subitems with significant values. According to the rule of thumb for interpretation of Cohen’s r: 0.1 = small effectsize, 0.3 = medium effect size and 0.5 = large effect size.

    Results: The demographic description revealed that, of those who provided information about their job ty pe andlevel of education, approximately 87% worked as support assistants in the facilities, and most had completedsecondary education. The analysis showed that, after training, staff self-reported a significantly lower degree offrequency on the dimension of property destruction, on the sub-item “damaging others’ clothes, furniture, or otherobjects”. Similarly, a significant difference was revealed in the dimension of mental illness. In addition, regardingthe management difficulty of CB, the analysis revealed that, after training, staff self-reported a significantly lowerdegree of management difficulty on all sub-items on the dimension of property destruction. However, the effectsizes were considered small. Apart from that, the calculations also showed tendencies towards significance on anumbers of sub-items e.g biting, throwing things at people, breaking windows and absconding.

    Discussions: The observed reduction in the frequency of CB after the web-based training may have been due toenhanced knowledge and understanding by staff of CB among their clients, which could have consequently ledthem to no longer consider these behaviors as challenging. In earlier research, it was found that the amount ofknowledge possessed by staff could act as a significa nt predictor of their behavioral responses to CB. Accordingly,it is reasonable to suspect that the reduced management difficulty of CB as perceived by staff may have been dueto their enhanced knowledge of such behaviors, which impacted their views and behavioral responses to CB.Considering the formal education the majority of the staff have and the complexity of the job within this sector, itwould be unreasonable to expect all of the staff to have the capability to perform all job duties without sufficientopportunities to expand their knowledge and improve their skills with the support of the relevant healthcareorganization. This aspect has been equally emphasized to promote a healthy and sustainable workplace from theview of Work-Integrated Learning.

    Conclusion: Considering the complexity of meeting the needs of persons with ID, in addition to job -specificknowledge, collaboration with multi-professional teams is also recommended. As such, routinely training tosupport Work-Integrated Learning should be offered to all professionals involved in caring for individuals withintellectual disabilities to reinforce social sustainability in the sector.

  • 22.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde.
    Antonsson, Helena
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Department of Nursing, Umeå University.
    Johansson, Catrin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Staff’s self-reported frequency and management difficulty of challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities in connection with web-based training2022In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing care and support to persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) requires in-depth knowledge about ID and challenging behaviour (CB) as well as communication and interaction. Knowledge deficiencies in these areas may prevent staff from understanding their clients and their behaviours, particularly those behaviours considered to be challenging. The aim of this study was to explore staff’s perceptions about CB among clients with ID in residential settings before and after a web-based training programme using the survey instrument ‘Checklist of Challenging Behaviour’ (CCB). The CRe-DEPTH guideline has served as a guide in this study. Upon completion of the training, staff perceived a reduced frequency of CB as well as reduced management difficulty of CB among clients. As such, training should routinely be offered to all staff in residential settings, but also healthcare professionals in general responsible for caring for clients exhibiting CB to ensure, improve and reinforce the quality of care and support provided to them.

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    förlagets fulltext
  • 23.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Johansson (Alverbratt), Catrin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Antonsson, Helena
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Caring for Persons With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behavior: Staff Experiences With a Web-Based Training Program2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 39-41Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The quality of care for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) is affected by many factors, including the knowledge of the professionals. Educational training in, for example, general communication was identified as a priority issue among healthcare professionals working with persons with IDs, as it is the basis for a better understanding of the clients and their behavior, which can otherwise be perceived as problematic and challenging. Challenging behaviors (CB) have been reported by professionals as problems they frequently witness or experience and/or struggle to manage in the daily work. Yet they do not always have access to such training nor to the resources needed to practice skillful communication when supporting persons with IDs. In addition, challenges concerning the competence provision in the sector are likely to contribute to further deterioration of the situation.

    Earlier research has shown that web-based training for staff within healthcare settings can generate good results. In addition to being able to participate during work hours, staff can also overcome access issues in the delivery of training. With this study, we hope to advance an existing web-based training program with the intention to move toward well-evaluated and proven training in order to contribute to competence provision in the context of health and social care.

    Aim: To explore staff experiences with a web-based training program in relation to their professional care for persons with ID and CB. 

    Methods: Staff working in residences for people with ID within municipal health and social care were offered the web-based training. In total 20 residences in a medium-size city in Sweden were included in this study. After completed training, fourteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with individual staff members to gather data regarding their experiences with web-based training in relation to their profession. The informants constituted of 11 women and 3 men, aged 27–55. Of the nine informants who had received upper secondary school education, five had specialized in the care of persons with IDs. More precisely, one informant had received higher vocational education, whereas the remaining four had received university education in the social sciences. The work experience with persons with IDs ranged from 8 to 30 years. The interviews were based on two open -ended questions: “What is your experience of attending the web-based training?” and “What do you think about the web-based training in relation to your daily work with persons with IDs and CB?” Follow-up questions were directed in such a way as to encourage the staff to freely share their experiences. 

    This study has an inductive approach. The collected data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis as described by Graneheim and Lundman (2014). 

    Results: The staff’s experiences with the web-based training program in relation to their professional care for persons with IDs and CB were presented as a single main theme: “Web-based training for staff initiates a workplace learning process by promoting reflections on and awareness of how to better care for persons with IDs and CB”. This theme contained three categories: “Web-based training provides freedom but also requires responsibility, both of which affect the learning outcome”, “The learning process contributes to generating insights about caring” and “The mutual impact of training and the opinions of staff about learning for the care of persons with IDs and CB”. These categories were based on eight sub-categories.

    Overall, the staff claimed that they had gained novel insights into the profession and into the caring process for the clients. Opinions about clients and CB changed somewhat, and the staff was inspired to adopt new ways of working which ultimately benefited interactions with the client. At the same time, requests were made for additional group discussions, and the desire for better planning to enhance learning among the staff was expressed.

    Discussion: In this study, web-based training seemed to have had a stimulating effect on workplace learning. Sharing self-reflections with group members in addition to individual study is essential for stimulating and consequently extracting knowledge from training. In the preparation of the training, close attention was paid to how to enable both individuals and social processes in learning but, judging from the results, further developments should focus on optimizing the effect of social interaction.

    Additionally, organizational support appears to be relevant for improving learning outcomes. However, prior research has shown significant differences in perceived workplace learning support from different occupational groups. Higher-status occupations offer a workplace environment that is more conducive to learning than that of lower-status occupations.These aspects must be addressed and overcome to fully develop the competence provision and counteract potential negative consequences in terms of job satisfaction and well-being among professionals working with persons with IDs.

    Conclusions and clinical implications: Our findings illustrate the complexity of providing staff training in the workplace through a web-based training program. Beyond the benefits of web-based training for workplace learning, some challenges also emerged. We conclude that web-based training, workplace organization, and individuals’ opinions each have an important impact on the learning outcome. To reach the best possible outcome, however, resources need to be invested in all three parts concurrently. This knowledge can contribute to the development of competence provision in municipal health and social care services more generally, where similar circumstances in terms of a notable downward trend in competence provision prevail, a pattern that could have negative impact on the welfare of the professionals.In addition to knowledge, cooperation in both healthcare and social services was also highlighted to improve care for persons with IDs and CB. In order to better meet their needs, professional teamwork is critically important. Hence, future research should investigate the views of other professionals e.g. nurses regarding education and competence development. This approach would enrich our knowledge and understanding of how the competence provision could be enhanced in this context to contribute to social sustainability in the sector. 

  • 24.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Studying intraprofessional and interprofessional learning processes initiated by an educational intervention applying a qualitative design with multimethod approach: a study protocol2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Studying intraprofessional and interprofessional learning processes initiated by an educational intervention applying a qualitative design with multimethod approach: a study protocol.2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e058779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Interprofessional collaboration in education and practice has been highlighted as a premise for providing good care. Both the intraprofessional and interprofessional impacts have bearing on healthcare professionals' performance and learning. Likewise, from the perspective of work-integrated learning, intraprofessional and interprofessional learning play an enduring part in studies about the development of healthcare organisations and professional competence. Educational-intervention research has become significant, which may indicate challenges the healthcare, for example, the area of disabilities is confronting. Earlier studies on intraprofessional and interprofessional learning have often focused on the learning outcome, whereas the learning process remains unexplored. The learning process is complex and is normally influenced by several factors. Therefore, develop knowledge about the intraprofessional and interprofessional learning processes initiated by an educational-intervention and the factors influencing this process may contribute to educational-intervention research, which is also the aim of the forthcoming study.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An inductive qualitative study design with interpretivism as the epistemological stand will be applied. Professionals in healthcare services for people with intellectual disabilities in four residential settings in Sweden are included in the educational-intervention based on web-based training and structured group reflections. Intended data collections are videorecordings of group reflections and individual interviews. An ethnomethodological approach will be applied for studying the details of conversation and interaction in group reflections. The interviews will be analysed using qualitative content analysis to gain participants' viewpoints of the intervention.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval was obtained from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority, Dnr 35 517. In Addition, a supplemental application to the extended part of the intervention in the forthcoming study has been submitted and approval was received on 21 September 2021. Ethical principles following the Declaration of Helsinki will be strictly followed.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03390868; Post-results.

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  • 26.
    Truong, Anh
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Johansson, Catrin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    A Work-Integrated intervention in health and social care: Professionals´ experiences of joint education2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 97-98Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    Worldwide, educational interventions are carried out continuously as an ongoing activity linked to competence provision and development of the organization. In follow-up and evaluation of the interventions, the result, i.e., the effect of the intervention, has usually been the main concern whereas the mechanism behind the operation of the intervention is often obscured. The aim of this evaluation study is to contribute knowledge to the field of intervention research regarding aspects that should be considered in designing a learning-supportive educational intervention. Such knowledge would increase the likelihood that experiences generated from the intervention are implemented in the daily undertaking.

    Accordingly, knowledge within intervention research increased significantly since the field expanded rapidly in the past decade. However, critical voices have been raised regarding aspects that are often overlooked in the field and highlighted the tendency that intervention studies frequently focus on the meth ods used to test the intervention whereas the rigor of intervention development and design has not received the attention it deserves. When it comes to educational intervention, concerning the aforementioned viewpoint, the process of learning cannot be lef t out. Studying learning processes and studies in designing education to support learners´ learning process is one of the main areas of interests in Work-Integrated Learning (WIL), particularly in the matter of learning in relation to working life, where the goal is to help the learners to integrate knowledge from education into practice. From the perspective of WIL, the social dimension has a certain influential effect on learning, which should be taken into account. A key word in this dimension is interaction. 

    Nationally and internationally, within health care, recurring training, intraprofessional and/or interprofessional is given aiming to improve professionals' knowledge, attitudes, confidence levels and practices in care, in addition, to enhancing the collaboration to safeguard the patient safety and the quality-of-care. In Sweden, one area that has been debated and discussed regarding competence and knowledge scarcity among professionals and urged for measures to support competence provision, is health and social care for people with intellectual disabilities. In this context, the knowledge that can be applied in development and design of effective educational intervention appears to be almost zero. We are in the opinion that this knowledge gap should be a matter of concern and an area that needs to be explored.

    Methods:

    Data was gathered by way of semi structured interviews. Qualitative inductive analysis was applied using qualitative content analysis of Graneheim and Lundman.Totally, 24 individual interviews were conducted with the participating professionals. With guidance of the checklist COREQ, our ambition is to make the research process in this study as transparent as possible which further increases the replicability.

    Results:

    By exploring pa rticipants' experiences of the different components in an intervention with regard to their learning and knowledge development, both individual and of the group, in relation to their profession, finding answers to “what works” and “how it works”. Thereby gaining understanding and knowledge that can be applied in the design of future interventions and consequently, fill the existing knowledge gap.

    Ethics:

    Approval was obtained from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority, Dnr 35 517 for the project as whole. In addition, a supplemental application to phase two has made and is approved, on September 21, 2021, Dnr 2021-0460.

  • 27.
    Uvnäs Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Skara, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Buckley, Sarah
    The University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Herston, QLD, Australia (AUS).
    Massarotti, Claudia
    University of Genova, Academic Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Genova, Italy (ITA); Physiopathology of Human Reproduction Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy (ITA).
    Pajalic, Zada
    ID Specialized University, Faculty of Health Studies, Campus Diakonhjemmet, V Oslo, Norway (NOR).
    Luegmair, Karolina
    Berufs Bildung Zentrum Gesundheit Ingolstadt, Ingolstadt, Germany (DEU).
    Kotlowska, Alicia
    Medical University of Gdańsk, Department of Clinical & Experimental Endocrinology, Faculty of Health Sciences with Subfaculty of Nursing and Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdańsk, Poland (POL).
    Lengler, Luise
    Midwifery Education Unit, Freiburg University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany (DEU).
    Olza, Ibone
    University of Alcalá, Faculty of Medicine, Alcalá de Henares, Spain (ESP).
    Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Research Unit for Midwifery Science, Winterthur, Switzerland (CHE).
    Leahy-Warren, Patricia
    University College Cork, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Cork, Ireland (IRL).
    Hadjigeorgiu, Eleni
    Cyprus University of Technology, Nursing Department, Health Science, Limassol, Cyprus (CYP).
    Villarmea, Stella
    University of Alcalá, Faculty of Philosophy, Alcalá de Henares, Spain (ESP); University of Oxford, Faculty of Philosophy, Oxford, United Kingdom, UK (GBR).
    Dencker, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during breastfeeding: A systematic review2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 8, article id e0235806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin is a key hormone in breastfeeding. No recent review on plasma levels of oxytocin in response to breastfeeding is available.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic literature searches on breastfeeding induced oxytocin levels were conducted 2017 and 2019 in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Data on oxytocin linked effects and effects of medical interventions were included if available.

    RESULTS: We found 29 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies had an exploratory design and included 601 women. Data were extracted from the articles and summarised in tables. Breastfeeding induced an immediate and short lasting (20 minutes) release of oxytocin. The release was pulsatile early postpartum (5 pulses/10 minutes) and coalesced into a more protracted rise as lactation proceeded. Oxytocin levels were higher in multiparous versus primiparous women. The number of oxytocin pulses during early breastfeeding was associated with greater milk yield and longer duration of lactation and was reduced by stress. Breastfeeding-induced oxytocin release was associated with elevated prolactin levels; lowered ACTH and cortisol (stress hormones) and somatostatin (a gastrointestinal hormone) levels; enhanced sociability; and reduced anxiety, suggesting that oxytocin induces physiological and psychological adaptations in the mother. Mechanical breast pumping, but not bottle-feeding was associated with oxytocin and prolactin release and decreased stress levels. Emergency caesarean section reduced oxytocin and prolactin release in response to breastfeeding and also maternal mental adaptations. Epidural analgesia reduced prolactin and mental adaptation, whereas infusions of synthetic oxytocin increased prolactin and mental adaptation. Oxytocin infusion also restored negative effects induced by caesarean section and epidural analgesia.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oxytocin is released in response to breastfeeding to cause milk ejection, and to induce physiological changes to promote milk production and psychological adaptations to facilitate motherhood. Stress and medical interventions during birth may influence these effects and thereby adversely affect the initiation of breastfeeding.

  • 28.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Agriculture (SLU), Uppsala (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde (SWE).
    Berg, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Buckley, Sarah
    The University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Brisbane (AUS).
    Pajalic, Zada
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences Oslo (NOR).
    Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni
    University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cyprus, Limassol (CYP).
    Kotłowska, Alicja
    Medical University of Gdańsk, Faculty of Health Sciences with Subfaculty of Nursing and Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdańsk (POL).
    Lengler, Luise
    Midwifery Research and Education Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (DEU).
    Kielbratowska, Bogumila
    Medical University of Gdańsk, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Gdańsk (POL).
    Leon-Larios, Fatima
    University of Seville, Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Seville (ESP).
    Magistretti, Claudia Meier
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Department of Social Work Center for Health Promotion and Social Participation, Luzern (CHE).
    Downe, Soo
    University of Central Lancashire, Research in Childbirth and Health (ReaCH) group, Preston (GBR).
    Lindström, Bengt
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (NOR).
    Dencker, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth: a systematic review with implications for uterine contractions and central actions of oxytocin2019In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a key hormone in childbirth, and synthetic oxytocin is widely administered to induce or speed labour. Due to lack of synthetized knowledge, we conducted a systematic review of maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth, and in response to infusions of synthetic oxytocin, if reported in the included studies.

    METHODS: An a priori protocol was designed and a systematic search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO in October 2015. Search hits were screened on title and abstract after duplicates were removed (n = 4039), 69 articles were examined in full-text and 20 papers met inclusion criteria. As the articles differed in design and methodology used for analysis of oxytocin levels, a narrative synthesis was created and the material was categorised according to effects.

    RESULTS: Basal levels of oxytocin increased 3-4-fold during pregnancy. Pulses of oxytocin occurred with increasing frequency, duration, and amplitude, from late pregnancy through labour, reaching a maximum of 3 pulses/10 min towards the end of labour. There was a maximal 3- to 4-fold rise in oxytocin at birth. Oxytocin pulses also occurred in the third stage of labour associated with placental expulsion. Oxytocin peaks during labour did not correlate in time with individual uterine contractions, suggesting additional mechanisms in the control of contractions. Oxytocin levels were also raised in the cerebrospinal fluid during labour, indicating that oxytocin is released into the brain, as well as into the circulation. Oxytocin released into the brain induces beneficial adaptive effects during birth and postpartum. Oxytocin levels following infusion of synthetic oxytocin up to 10 mU/min were similar to oxytocin levels in physiological labour. Oxytocin levels doubled in response to doubling of the rate of infusion of synthetic oxytocin.

    CONCLUSIONS: Plasma oxytocin levels increase gradually during pregnancy, and during the first and second stages of labour, with increasing size and frequency of pulses of oxytocin. A large pulse of oxytocin occurs with birth. Oxytocin in the circulation stimulates uterine contractions and oxytocin released within the brain influences maternal physiology and behaviour during birth. Oxytocin given as an infusion does not cross into the mother's brain because of the blood brain barrier and does not influence brain function in the same way as oxytocin during normal labour does.

  • 29.
    Van Dijk, Willeke
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology,Amsterdam, (NLD).
    Huizink, Anja C
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology,Amsterdam, Netherland (NLD); University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, (SWE).
    Müller, Jasmin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, (SWE).
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Anthrozoology and Applied Ethology, Uppsala, (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, (SWE).
    The Effect of Mechanical Massage and Mental Training on Heart Rate Variability and Cortisol in Swedish Employees: A Randomized Explorative Pilot Study2020In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 8, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related stress is relatively common in modern society and is a major cause of sick-leave. Thus, effective stress reducing interventions are needed. This study examined the effects of mental training and mechanical massage, on employee's heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma cortisol at their workplaces. Moreover, it was investigated whether baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) can explain differences in effectiveness of the intervention. Ninety-three participants from four workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the five programs: (I) Mechanical massage and mental training combined, II) Mechanical massage, III) Mental training, IV) Pause, or V) Control. HRV and plasma cortisol were measured at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. SBP was measured at baseline. On the reduction of cortisol levels, a small effect of the mechanical massage program was found, whereas no effect was found for the other programs. None of the programs showed any effect on HRV. Nonetheless, when the level of systolic blood pressure was taken into account, some small beneficial effects on HRV and cortisol of mental training and the mechanical massage were found. This exploratory pilot-study provides useful information for future studies that aim to reduce stress among employees.

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