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  • 1.
    Al Khouri, Jean-Pierre
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Eliasson Dimberg, Jacob Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Trender inom elektrifiering och utmaningar i den variabla pumpmarknaden2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of interviews and lectures provided insights into how the market for variable pumps is affected by electrification and what challenges and opportunities this entails. The interview with Palfinger provided insights that the variable pump market is moving slowly towards electrification, and that there is uncertainty about whether the primary energy source in the future will be electric. It also emerged that the chassis manufacturers choose which electric power takeo-off is used, and that it matters less for the body builders because they are, for example, building on a standard crane. In a lecture with a representative from Volvo Trucks highlighted the importance of sound and price to customers, and discussed how different pump sizes and motor sizes can affect these factors. The study discusses variable pumps versus fixed pumps. It showed that there are no clear advantages or disadvantages to either, and that the choice largely depends on specific application requirements.

    A completed market analysis indicated an increase in newly registered heavy trucks in Europe, with a growing trend towards electrification. Major manufacturers such as Volvo, Scania, DAF and Daimler aim to increase their share of electrified vehicles. A completed competitive analysis identified several manufacturers of variable pumps, including Bosch Rexroth, Sunfab Hydrauliks AB, Danfoss, Hydro Leduc, Linde Hydraulics, Kawasaki and Hawe Hydraulik, all offering similar products but with variations in technical specifications and strategies to meet electrification requirements. SWOT analyses of variable versus fixed pumps and of Parker Hannifin and its competitors, highlighted strengths such as flexibility and adjustability of variable pumps, but also weaknesses such as higher initial cost and greater complexity.

    Finally, Kotler's five product levels showed that Parker Hannifin's VP1 offers strong product quality, opportunities within electrification and additional products to advance electrification. However, there are also challenges and opportunities for future development, including the need to develop the product for energy recovery and to offer services such as status reporting of VP1 in use.Overall, the results show that electrification is an important trend in the variable pump market. The result shows that Parker's VP1 works in combination with the market's E-PTO. The investigation shows that producing a suitable pump for the system can be done in different ways. Through these methods, the VP1 95 with regulated displacement proves to be a good choice for various applications, but that the VP1 60 also works well for less demanding work.

  • 2.
    Anderberg, Staffan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Pejryd, Lars
    3Production Technology Centre, Innovatum AB.
    A survey of metal working companies’ readiness for process planning performance measurements2009In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM 8-11 sep, 2009, Hong-Kong, 2009, p. 1910-1914Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an investigation regarding the potential and the readiness for implementing performance indicators and performance measurement systems of the process planning work for metal working companies. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey distributed to process planners in the Swedish metal working industry. The main outcome of the investigation is a foundation for understanding the implementation of performance measures of the process planning work for CNC machining. The survey revealed a few strengths and short comings in the studied companies.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Clasborn, Oliver
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Förstudie och design av transportutrustning för rymdmunstycke till Prometheus raketmotor2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis initiated by GKN Aerospace with the aim of developing transport equipment for a nozzle for the Prometheus rocket engine. GKN is about to start production of the nozzle and needs packaging that meets the cleanliness requirements specified by the customer. Currently, GKN does not have packaging that meets these requirements and, therefore, needs to develop a new packaging solution.

    A packaging concept is developed through a concept development process described in Ulrich and Eppinger's book "Product Design and Development”. In this process, customer requirements are identified and compiled into target specifications that the concept should fulfill. Solutions are developed based on these target specifications, and several different concepts are generated, each aiming to meet the customer's needs and requirements.

    A final concept is chosen, specified, and described in more detail. A supplier is contacted during the project, offering expertise in the field. The supplier also provides their version of the packaging and a cost estimate. A rough life cycle inventory is conducted to compile the carbon dioxide emissions of the packaging to present the environmental consequences.

    The developed concepts address all the issues presented and offer the company several different solutions to choose from

  • 4.
    Basaran, Hüsnücan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    El Labaki, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Byggprojektledning: att strukturera upp projektledares tillvägagångssätt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor's thesis of 15 credits was carried out in Vara municipality after the property manager stated a need. The task was to standardize the project managers' approach in terms of management and structure, and to improve the possibility of new recruitments and takeovers of existing projects. With the help of interviews, it was identified that the project managers worked in different ways without tools to support structuring and managing their projects.

    In order to be able to answer how the problem image could be sorted out, the writers designed a content for a manual that the project managers could use. By following the contents of the manual, the project managers are expected to be able to more easily manage and structure their projects. As a result of a standardized work method, new recruitments and takeover of projects are also expected to be simplified.

    The introductory chapter of the bachelor's thesis describes how the background to the work looked, as well as the purpose, goal and delimitation.

    The second chapter describes the writers' method for designing the work that followed a scientific starting point.

    The third chapter consists of the writers' theory sections that were needed to create an understanding of how the actual construction process and the project management process could look. This chapter was used as a knowledge base to be able to make decisions about the contents of the manual.

    With the help of interviews and meetings at the municipality, a current situation analysis was formed, which is presented in chapter four. The current situation analysis was used as a basis for designing the contents of the manual.

    In the fifth chapter, the contents of the manual are described using a presented result as well as discussion and analysis of why the content was necessary for the project managers to follow.

    Finally, in the sixth chapter, a conclusion is drawn about how the purpose of the degree project should be fulfilled and a future recommendation for continued work in the subject area.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättringsförslag till tejpenhet i slutpackare TS8102022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis was carried out in the spring of 2022 at Graniten Engineering in Uddevalla, a company that mainly offers machine solutions for pharmaceutical manufacturing and healthcare automation. With the vision of being one of the world's most innovative automation companies that helps its customers increase their productivity and reduce their impact on the environment, Graniten's machine solutions are mainly characterized by a high flexibility, short changeover time and a low footprint. 

    One of Graniten's machine solutions is an End of Line packer, TS810, whose task is to package medical packages in a larger box, seal it and then place it on an European pallet. The sealing of the carton is carried out by the tape sealing unit, which today there are some problems with which leads to unnecessary time of downtime. Therefore, the focus of this thesis is to develop a proposal to improve today's tape sealing unit with the intention of minimizing today's problems and decrease the downtime. The project begins with a current situation analysis where the tape dispenser, its function, installation dimensions and documentation are studied physically with the design engineers, assembly and service personnel who has experience with the tape sealing unit that is used inTS810 to get a comprehensive picture of today's problems. Then the survey begins and with parts from the seven quality control tools, the root of today's problems has been identified. In order to generate an improvement proposal, relevant parts of the generic product development process are applied, but also methods from quality function deployment and risk analyzes.

    The first part of the result is a comprehensive picture of the problems that can be linked to the tape unit and why these problems arise. The second part of the result is a complete documentation in terms of assembly-drawings, detail-drawings and a simpler cost calculation of the improvement proposal. All in all, the work is considered successful because the goal has been achieved. The improvement proposal eliminates a number of problems that can be linked to the tape unit, but not all.

    The improvement proposal could have eliminated more problems and satisfied more customer needs in order to generate a better result for Graniten. The improvement proposal can be ordered and assembled if desired.

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  • 6.
    Blandin, Julien
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Surface finish simulation when using circle segment cutting tools2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each new tool has to be tested and characterized in terms of force, stability, and finish quality. This is true also for the newly developed circle-segment tools that have a large engagement (the surface of the cutting section of the tool that is in contact with the workpiece).The Virtual Model of Finish-Machining with Circle Segment End-mills study shows a model that can be used to create a simulation of these tools. By taking the basis of this simulation it is possible to simulate the surface machined by this tool, so it is possible to study how thetool run-out and the vibration affects the machined surface. And so, the aim of this study is to make this simulated surface and observe how the run out of the tools and how the vibration affects the final surface finish quality. To do it the run-out of a real tool has to be measured, and then the profile of this tool including the run-out must be used to create the tool’s profile to simulate the surface. To simulate the surface, a mesh has to be created. The tool’s profile is then put in the movement to mimic the real action of the tool by updating the surface height of the created mesh. Then the result can be compared with a theoretical one without run-out or vibration. Real machined samples could also be made and then observed with white light interferometry inorder to highlight the influence of the two studied parameters on the surface finish. During the machining, the vibration could be measured and could, after, be used to recreate vibration into this model but also to compare the White Light Interferometry observations. With these experiments, we could see how the tool run-out could affect the surface finish by creating stripes patterns of regular sizes but also that vibration is finally a secondary parameter that affects the roughness but not as much as other parameters. The finding given at the end is hard to generalize but can still be compared to other cases, the program in another hand is useable with all kinds of circle segment tools and could even be modified to improve the model we are currently using.

  • 7.
    Devotta, Ashwin Moris
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Sandvik Coromant AB, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Löf, Ronnie
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Espes, Emil
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quantitative Characterization of Chip Morphology Using Computed Tomography in Orthogonal Turning Process2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 33, p. 299-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The simulation of machining process has been an area of active research for over two decades. To fully incorporate finite element (FE) simulations as a state of art tool design aid, there is a need for higher accuracy methodology. An area of improvement is the prediction of chip shape in FE simulations. Characterization of chip shape is therefore a necessity to validate the FE simulations with experimental investigations. The aim of this paper is to present an investigation where computed tomography (CT) is used for the characterization of the chip shape obtained from 2D orthogonal turning experiments. In this work, the CT method has been used for obtaining the full 3D representation of a machined chip. The CT method is highly advantageous for the complex curled chip shapes besides its ability to capture microscopic features on the chip like lamellae structure and surface roughness. This new methodology aids in the validation of several key parameters representing chip shape. The chip morphology’s 3D representation is obtained with the necessary accuracy which provides the ability to use chip curl as a practical validation tool for FE simulation of chip formation in practical machining operations. The study clearly states the ability of the new CT methodology to be used as a tool for the characterization of chip morphology in chip formation studies and industrial applications.

  • 8.
    Ek, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Frisk, Kasper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättringsarbete för lagerhantering2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, material transfer and inventory management have had a greater impact on the profitability of manufacturing companies. By optimizing inventory- and material handling as well as implementing logistics lift within flow optimization, the conditions for companies to be sustainable and competitive are created. As companies reorganize or invest in material management, extensive information gathering and careful analysis of current operations are required to identify the optimal solution. The company on which the case study is conducted is Norautron AB, a global electronics company based in Vänersborg. The case company intends to invest in a new warehousing system during an upcoming reorganization and therefore needs to identify what improvement opportunities exist in the current material flow and what requirements need to be set for a new warehousing system.The survey design for this study is a case study where interviews, observations and measurements along with a theoretical frame of reference based on scientific articles and student literature form the basis of the study's results. The empirical data showed that there are two major improvement opportunities for the company; long delivery, picking and closing times and low volume and surface utilization. A cost computation was created for these improvement opportunities and they were broken down into root cause using quality tools.The study resulted in the aforementioned improvement possibilities and root causes based on the empirical material, but also a requirements specification consisting of system- and improvement requirements. The system requirements are aimed at numerical factors that affect or limit a new inventory system while the improvement requirements are aimed at improvements that a new inventory system needs to solve or partially solve in order for the investment to be economically justifiable.The conclusion that emerged is that there are currently two main improvement possibilities in Norautron's material flow that are in line with the previously described theory in the logistics field. The study also shows that a new inventory system must be adapted to many different factors without the system generating annual total costs in excess of SEK 300 000, unless these costs are economically justifiable for other reasons that the company considers to be of great importance. The company's next step should therefore not be a new investment, but rather a further development of the existing inventory system.

  • 9.
    Ekström, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Emanuelsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie till implementering av papperslös verkstad2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under sommaren 2012 genomfördes ett examensarbete på Siemens Industrial Turbo­mach­inery AB i Trollhättan gällande möjligheterna att införa pappers­lös verkstad. Syftet med examensarbetet var att kartlägga möjligheterna att minska administrativ hant­ering av produktions­orderkort och öka realtidsuppdatering. För att av­gränsa studien avsåg examens­arbetet endast flödet av produk­tions­­­order­kort ifrån plan­er­ings­avdelningen genom två pro­duk­tions­grupper och vidare in på gods­­­­avdel­ningen.

    För att kartlägga flödet för den manuella hanteringen av produktionsorderkort upprättades värdeflödesanalyser. Dessutom genomfördes ett studiebesök på Volvo Aero Corporation för att se hur ett annat företag har gjort för att eliminera elektronisk produk­tionsorder. Utifrån värdeflödesanalyserna och studiebesöket identifierades tre frågeställ­ningar vilka an­sågs vara betydelsefulla för att kunna införa elektronisk produk­tions­order. Dessa var huru­vida affärssystemet klarar av att hantera införande av elektronisk produk­tions­order, hur spårbarheten av material skall bibehållas samt hur godsavdelningen skall få information om var detaljer skall förflyttas. För att besvara dessa frågor genomfördes 15 inter­vjuer med per­sonal från Siemens Industrial Turbo­machinery i Trollhättan, med per­sonal från huvud­kontoret i Finspång samt med personal från systemutvecklingsföretaget Else AB.

    Informationen från alla intervjuer samt studiebesöket på Volvo Aero Corporation belyser möjligheterna och problemen med att eliminera produktionsorderkorten och samman­ställ­des i en utvärdering. Denna utvärdering ligger till grund för kartläggningen av det fram­tida tillståndet, vilken visar ett tänkbart arbetssätt när produktions­order­korten tagits bort och ersatts med elek­tronisk produktions­order. Det som huvud­sakligen belyses i det framtida tillståndet är att affärssystemet är förberett för elek­tronisk produk­tions­order, dock rekom­men­deras införande av Warehouse Management System samt ett transportssystem. För att under­­lätta implementering av elektronisk produktionsorder skulle införande av ett web­baserat användargränssnitt vara lämpligt.

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    Förstudie till implementering av papperslös verkstad - Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Trollhättan
  • 10.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Frequency Domain Study of Vibrations above and under Stability Lobes in Machining Systems2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 14, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using modified Nyquist contours, the dominant poles of the closed loop delay-differential equation for machining systems such as milling are identified. Contours with constant damping ratio of the dominant poles are constructed using this method. These contours are similar in shape to the stability lobes, but move upwards and to the right as the instability parameter increases. Additionally, it is possible to study the movement of the dominant poles to the right-hand side of the complex plane as the system becomes unstable by increasing the depth of cut at a constant spindle speed. The movement of the dominant pole is shown to be towards the right (unstable) and upward (higher vibration frequency) of the complex plane. In some cases, there would be a jump of vibration frequency due to the change of the lobe number. It is also shown that the damping ratio of the structure strongly affects both the vibration frequency and the damping ratio of the dominant poles in the closed loop system. Finally, in two milling experiments with two different spindle speeds and continuously increasing depth of cuts, vibration frequencies are measured and compared to the theoretical predictions. The measurements agree with the theoretical predictions, particularly in the unstable cutting conditions.

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  • 11.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Accessibility to R&D and Patent Production2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this paper is to study to what extent accessibility to R&D can explain patent production. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated both on aggregated level and for different industrial sectors. The output of the knowledge production is the number patent applications in Swedish municipalities from 1994 to 1999. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the explanatory variables are expressed as accessibilities to university and company R&D. The total accessibility is then decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility to R&D. As often is the case with R&D outputs, the regional distribution of patents is highly skewed with influential outliers. The estimations are therefore conducted with quantile regressions. The main results on aggregated level indicate that high accessibility (local) to company R&D has the greatest positive effects on patent production. The effects are statistically significant for municipalities with a patent production corresponding to the median and to quantiles above the median. Local accessibility to university R&D is only of importance for certain industrial sectors and not on aggregated level. There is also evidence that intra-regional accessibility to company R&D affects patent production positively. A conclusion is that concentrated R&D investments in companies situated in municipalities with a high patenting activity would not only gain the municipalities themselves, but also the patent production in other municipalities in the functional region.

  • 12.
    Hall, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Henriksen, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Identifiering av mätetal för att öka effektiviteten inom inköp2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is performed at GKN Aerospace Sweden AB (GAS) in Trollhättan with purpose to map the purchasing process and find indicators to make the process more efficient. The target is that by the end of March 2016 to be able to determine if the efficiency of the purchasing process can be measured. The thesis has been limited to find metrics for the purchase of production materials and delimited to map the purchasing process from "purchase requisition" to stock. The thesis is a qualitative study and has been carried out through interviews, observations, benchmarking, concept screening and mapping in terms of a BPI-workshop. During the BPI-workshop a number of roles in the process participated to map the "current state", which contained 38 wastes. Based on the "current state" 15 improvement proposals was generated which GAS should implement to achieve "future state". If the proposed improvements are introduced the lead time for the process is expected to reduce from 96 to 42 days.Of the three companies that were visited during the study none of them had metrics for how efficient their process is. The companies including GAS only had measures for how well the suppliers are performing and other measurements for the internal process. The conclusion is that it is difficult to find a single metric that can represent the efficiency of the entire purchasing process, because of its complexity that is influenced by many factors. The only metrics the students suggests GAS to measure for the defined process is: Number of incorrect purchase requisitions The metric does not measure how efficient the process is, the metric will only measure how often errors occur which creates an inefficient process. In order for the metric to be relevant GAS need to implement the proposed improvements that were generated during the BPI workshop.The metric should be measured before and after the implementation of the improvement proposals to achieve the desired effect. Besides this metric, the students suggest GAS to measure the following metrics to eventually get an efficient process: Continuous improvement purchase Finally GAS is urged to continue to implement BPI-workshops for other parts of the purchasing process to identify wastes that are not discussed in this thesis.

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  • 13.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Integrated Management Systems – advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13thToulon-Verona international quality conference. 2-4 sept, 2010: Organizational Excellence in Service, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 14.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. saeid@termisk.se.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    Linköping University.
    Wren, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Thermal non-destructive testing: modeling, simulation and experiments for improved localization of hidden defects2014In: The 12th International Conference on Quantitative Infrared Thermography, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, a substantial amount of research and practical work has been conducted on non-destructive testing of materials using thermography. The performed studies elucidate the potential of various types of thermal non-destructive testing (TNDT) for different materials and applications, including various types of defects. This paper presents a method for detecting in-depth defects in metallic materials and a simulation model for the heat transfer in the material. Experiments are performed on a test specimen with artificial defects (flat-bottom holes). The detection method exploits spatiotemporal analysis in order to find deviations from a model of normality, and shows novel results. Thermal modelling is performed in order to have a base-line simulation model enable us to (a) investigate affecting parameters without repeating the experiments and (b) generalize the results and extend their validity to other cases. Results show that there is an acceptable compliance between simulated and measured thermal data. 

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    Final-QIRT-A8877SH
  • 15.
    Hernández Justicia, Javier
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    From design to Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM): Development of a protocol from G-Code to Rapid Code2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has supposed a revolution in the way of manufacturing parts,from the design to the machining. Many materials can be used with AM, from polymers or ceramics to metals. If talking about metals, Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) has increased its popularity in the last years, most of all, due to its high deposition rates. However, WAAM still has to deal with a series of challenges to be business competitive: residual stresses and distortions, monitoring and process control or the translation of the CAD design to the robotic system in an efficient way are some of the main WAAM challenges. The CAD design is first sliced into a set of layers, and after a deposition strategy is given to each layer. The deposition strategy consists in a set of move instructions codified in G-Code language in order to be understood by CNC machines. Nevertheless, if these move instructions are wanted to be translated to an ABB robotic system, RAPID language is needed. For that purpose, in collaboration with other developer, a method to convert G-Code language to RAPID language was developed in the present work. Additionally, intending to the research of the optimal WAAM process parameters, a tool to modify the orientation of the torch, which is one of the most influent WAAM process parameters, was developed. By the utilization of c sharp programming language in Microsoft Visual Studio, in combination with RobotStudio Software Developer Kit (RobotStudio SDK), which through a set of libraries allows the interaction between Visual Studio and RobotStudio, a method to transform GCode to RAPID code and import it to RobotStudio, and a tool to modify the orientation of the torch were implemented.First, a literature review of the WAAM’s slicing procedures, main process parameters and principal challenges, which lead to the goal of the project, were described. Second, the activities carried out during the project, deepening in the programming part were explained. Finally, the results obtained, and conclusions were presented. The results present a program capable to convert a given G-Code program into its equivalent RAPID program, which can be loaded to RobotStudio, and a RobotStudio tool to modify the orientation of the torch in a simple and quick way.

  • 16.
    Hodzic, Damir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kim, Hojoong
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förebyggande underhåll med industri 4.02022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest cause of the greenhouse effect on earth. The Paris Agreement has accelerated a change in the automotive industri to achieve goals set to reduce emissions from passenger car transport and improve local air quality in cities. Sales of electric cars have increased over the past decade and are expected to increase even more in the future. The combination of increased sales of electric cars and increased demand for batteries means that battery recycling can play a key role in the future.

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type of battery in electric cars due to their energy density, weight, size, and price. Primary production of LIBs entails negative social, economic, and environmental effects in the extraction of the raw materials.

    To reduce these negative side effects, the recycling of electric car batteries needs to be developed.To streamline a process, the implementation of a functioning maintenance system is advantageous. Maintenance is divided into preventive maintenance and remedial maintenance. In this report, the focus will be on preventive maintenance. The purpose of preventive maintenance is to reduce the number of unplanned downtime that affects efficiency, product quality and profitability.

    With technology and methods from industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, preventive maintenance can be improved. Through the implementation of a continuous monitoring of room and machine status, problems can be discovered to increase the condition-based maintenance and reduce the period-based maintenance.

    To create a deeper understanding of the battery recycling process, preventive maintenance,and industry 4.0, literature studies have been performed. To compare theoretical knowledge generated from the literature studies with how preventive maintenance and Industri 4.0 are implemented and used in practice, a case study was conducted at Essity AB in Lilla Edet.

    A concept for preventive maintenance has been developed by creating a maintenance schedule, maintenance instructions, block diagrams and a signal flow schedule for the crushing room in a battery recycling plant. The maintenance schedule consists of a schedule and a maintenance instruction. A CAD model has been created to explain the door lock system, a security feature, which was developed using a concept generation method.

    The results are based on the literature studies, the case study, information from the supervisor, a process FMEA, maintenance manuals from machines and block diagrams.

  • 17.
    Jaradat, Abdallah
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Toughiri, Omid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Simulation, Measurement, and Analysis of the Mechanical Performance of a Prototype Motor2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis examines the mechanical performance of a prototype motor intended for traction use in a small personal car through simulation, measurement, and analysis. The interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is modelled and simulated using finite element analysis (FEA) and CAD (computer aided design) software. The project investigates the discrepancy between the prototype motor's measured performance and simulation results, emphasizing mechanical design and vibrations. In addition, risk assessments for the assembly process and motor operation are conducted to ensure occupational and functional safety. The study is limited by the specific prototype motor used and the accuracy of University West lab equipment. The findings of this project can aid in optimizing and improving the design of the prototype motor, resulting in a more dependable and efficient final product.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tyrberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Improve the outflow of dangerous goods: a case study2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are extensive regulations regarding transporting dangerous goods to maintain safety for people and the surroundings. The regulations are more complex when consigning dangerous goods outside of the EU, and by aviation. This thesis focuses on the process of handling and consigning dangerous goods through Company X´s internal logistic center at building A.

    To collect and analyze data and determine countermeasures the researchers have followed A3 as working method. Collection of data are primarily from interviews with 11 employees within different parts of the process in building A.

    From the interviews the researchers learned that employees inquiring consignments from building A perceive it difficult to classifies the prototypes they wanted to send. Parts of the inquiring employees also perceive it difficult to know all the details required to pack dangerous goods. To prevent employees without proper training consigning dangerous goods the employees can either prepack the goods, which then is inspected, approved and signed by logistics personnel with recommended training. Otherwise, the employees can write a detailed pack instruction to be prepared by the internal Prototype Workshop where personnel with proper training will pack the goods. Employees are unsure of who is responsible for the process and what assistance they can get. The current standard to follow when employees want to consign dangerous goods is more adapted towards the specific process in building B, where the process is different from in building A.

    After development of root causes the suggested countermeasures to implement is a workgroup who will gather trained and experienced personnel and management to reform an understandable process for involved employees. The workgroup will rewrite the standard to include the process in building A but also create new instructions to assist in the classification and packing situation.The researchers plan for implementation and follow-up falls outside the time frame of the study meaning the full PDCA-cycle has not been conducted in this study. This is important to acknowledge when reviewing this study since it may impair the validity of the study and its´ result. Company X is going through a reorganization during the time of the study which further may impair the validity. This may have affected the researchers planning, the employees’ responses in interviews, the suggested countermeasures and follow-up plan.

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Projekteringsunderlag för hydraulisk rörspräckning och granskning av utfört projekt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har utförts på uppdrag av Trollhättan Energi AB, som önskat erhålla ett projekteringsunderlag för ett kommande förnyelseprojekt samt ett granskningsunderlag av ett nyligen utfört arbete. Syftet med rapporten är att förbättra den interna kunskapsnivån angående beräkningsmetodiken för om hydraulisk rörspräckning är en möjlig metod, tänkbara rörmaterial vid metoden och om dimensioneringsmetodiken för rör som föreligger, för att motverka komplikationer i framtida projekt.Rapporten innehåller en ekonomisk kalkyl om huruvida schaktfri ledningsförnyelse är fördelaktigt kontra schaktning, utifrån de projekt Trollhättan Energi AB utfört mellan åren 2009-2015. Därefter följer en redogörelse för om hydraulisk rörspräckning är en möjlig metod vid ett kommande förnyelseprojekt i Sjuntorp, där beräkningsmetodiken för om metoden är möjlig behandlas. Vidare följer en kartläggning av tänkbara rörmaterial vid hydraulisk rörspräckning, som identifierats via en litteraturstudie och ett flertal intervjuer med personer inom branschen. Därpå behandlas dimensioneringsmetodiken för ett rör i samband med en uträkning för projektet i Sjuntorp. Slutligen följer en sammanställning av en enkätundersökning angående hydraulisk rörspräckning som genomförts i projektet och en granskning av ett nyligen utfört rörspräckningsprojekt på Stallbacka industriområde.I slutsatsen konstateras att schaktfri ledningsförnyelseteknik är att föredra, varpå hydraulisk rörspräckning bör utföras där möjlighet föreligger. Det belyses även att hydraulisk rörspräckning är en möjlig förnyelsemetod för det kommande projektet i Sjuntorp utifrån rådande förutsättningar, men att en geoteknisk undersökning krävs för att ytterligare säkerställa det här. Vidare betonas att polyeten, PE100, med en skyddskappa av polypropen är ett lämpligt rörmaterial, men att spaltens storlek har stor inverkan på huruvida dimensionerande värden överskrids för SDR-klass 17, varpå segjärn kan vara ett alternativ beroende på kostnadsskillnaden gentemot en högre SDR-klass. Samtidigt är det möjligt att rör av polypropen med en hög elasticitetsmodul kan komma att användas i allt större utsträckning i framtiden. Slutsatsen av enkätundersökningen är att polyeten är ett vanligt rörmaterial vid hydraulisk rörspräckning och att en noggrann undersökning av de förutsättningar som föreligger är viktigt att beakta. Till sist konstateras utifrån granskningen av projektet på Stallbacka och i likhet med enkätundersökningen, att en utredning av rådande markförhållanden är central. Dessutom kan det fastställas att beräkningen för om hydraulisk rörspräckning är en möjlig metod, var bristfällig, samt att segjärn eventuellt borde använts som rörmaterial motiverat av högre diffusionstäthet.

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  • 20.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Developing a measurement system for health-related quality management2007In: 10th QMOD Conference.: Quality Management and Organiqatinal Development. Our Dreams of Excellence, 18-20 June, 2007 in Helsingborg, Sweden, Linköping University Electronic Press , 2007, p. issue 26:12-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    ESAB AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    A contribution to the study of negative polarity in GMA welding2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 95, no 5-8, p. 2543-2553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GMAW using the electrode with negative polarity (DCEN) has been frequently suggested as a potential means of increasing production capacity. The objective of this work was to further study the performance of negative polarity in GMAW of carbon steels. In this project phase, bead-on-plate welds were carried out in flat position to assess the effect of different potential shielding gas compositions on bead geometry, finishing and spattering. The characteristics were compared with DCEP at the same current, but depositing the same volume of material per unit of length (more industrial related comparison). The arc length was kept the same by adjusting voltage to reach shortest arcs, yet with suitable non short-circuiting metal transfer mode. An approach to measure bead convexity was also proposed and assessed. The results showed that DCEN is feasible as a means of increasing GMAW production capacity. However, to become DCEN applicable with GMAW, the results suggest an Ar based blend with around 6.5 % of O2 is the most appropriate shielding gas, as much as that there is a demand for a standard electronic controlled power source able to work in constant current mode. 

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  • 22.
    Lindgren, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Zach, Christopher
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Analysis of industrial X-ray computed tomography data with deep neural networks2021In: Proceedings Volume 11840, Developments in X-Ray Tomography XIII, SPIE , 2021, Vol. 11840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is increasingly utilized industrially at material- and process development as well as in non-destructive quality control; XCT is important to many emerging manufacturing technologies, for example metal additive manufacturing. These trends lead to increased needs of safe automatic or semi-automatic data interpretation, considered an open research question for many critical high value industrial products such as within the aerospace industry. By safe, we mean that the interpretation is not allowed to unawarely or unexpectedly fail; specifically the algorithms must react sensibly to inputs dissimilar to the training data, so called out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs. In this work we explore data interpretation with deep neural networks to address: robust safe data interpretation which includes a confidence estimate with respect to OOD data, an OOD detector; generation of realistic synthetic material aw indications for the material science and nondestructive evaluation community. We have focused on industrial XCT related challenges, addressing difficulties with spatially correlated X-ray quantum noise. Results are reported on training auto-encoders (AE) and generative adversarial networks (GAN), on a publicly available XCT dataset of additively manufactured metal. We demonstrate that adding modeled X-ray noise during training reduces artefacts in the generated imperfection indications as well as improves the OOD detector performance. In addition, we show that the OOD detector can detect real and synthetic OOD data and still model the accepted in-distribution data down to the X-ray noise levels. 

  • 23.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Ljung, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Nodin, Karin
    University West.
    Funktionsbaserad bemanning : En förstudie 2008Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Mehmood, Faisal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Laser Welding of Aluminium in Automotive Industry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With all the advantages aluminium (Al) carries being the light weight and sustainable material, the laser welding of Al is tricky and complicated. The major challenges in laser welding of Al are the hot cracking, porosity and reflectivity. The experiments are done in order to understand the laser welding of Al process and analyse the process parameters impacts. In this thesis work, laser welding of Aluminium alloy is done in order to understand the process parameters effects on the weld quality. Experiments are done on the 5754-H22 and 6082-T6 alloys. Welding speed and laser power is kept constant for the experiments, however, laser focus position is varied on the plates. Focus position is kept on the surface of the plate as well as above and below the surface. The butt welding of same material alloy is done on the 3 mm plates. It is been analyzed that Al alloy 6082-T6 is easier to weld and give better weld quality as compared to 5754-H22. The overlap weld is done on 1.5 mm thick plates with CW (continuous wave) welding and PW (pulse weld). The laser welding is done with high speed, therefore, CW welding shows quality weld with no significant undercut or concavity as compared to PW welding method. The focus position above the surface shows quality weld in overlap weld with both PW and CW welding methods.

  • 25.
    Mehta, Kamlesh
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (IND).
    Patel, Vivek
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi (CHN).
    Mehta, Nirvesh
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Dahod, Gujarat (IND).
    Badgujur, Amarish
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Navrachna University, Vadodara, Gujarat (IND).
    Experimental Investigations of a Minichannel Heat Sink for Electronic Applications2022In: Iranian Journal of Science and Technology - Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2228-6187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study, a new configuration of minichannels is proposed to improve the thermal performance of conventional plate-fin aluminum heat sink used for the thermal management of the electronic components. The case under consideration to implement the current idea is an aluminum heat sink equipped with rectangular square minichannels. Hence, an enhanced model is investigated, and the obtained results are evaluated as compared with the conventional plate-fin aluminum heat sink. A minichannel heat sink (MC-HS) that has 18 parallel minichannels was developed on the aluminum plate and charged with acetone. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed MC-HS startup was successfully under a heat load ranging from 10 to 40 W in the vertical orientation. From the investigations, a MC-HS is found to be more effective for the thermal management of the electronic components than the conventional method. The thermal resistance of the MC-HS is 20–31% lower in comparison with the conventional plate-fin aluminum heat sink. It is shown that the MC-HS not only surpasses the conventional solution but also provides greater thermal management of the electronic components.  

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Patric
    et al.
    Volvo Aero.
    Appelgren, Anders
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Henrikson, Per
    Volvo Aero.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Automatic Ultrasonic testing for Metal Deposition2012In: Proceedings 18th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing: 16 - 20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa, Durban, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal Deposition (MD) is a method to build three dimensional metal geometries by welding using filler wire or powdered metal. NDT of a MD feature is required when the feature is located in an area of high stress or could be a potential hazard to the part. Ultrasonic testing (UT) can be used to detect pores, linear indications and lack of fusion in welds. This method has limitations when it comes to large parts with complex geometries with various shapes and sizes. A flexible method for inspecting complex geometries is to mount an ultrasonic water flow probe (squirter) on a robot. The robot can then follow a pre-programmed path to achieve full inspection of the feature. This paper shows results and functionality from a system where a squirter probe was used together with a standard industrial robot. Results from a scanning of a three-dimensional MD-structure are also presented.

  • 27.
    Persson, Tore
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology.
    Ottermark, Kenth
    En kritisk analys av företagsnätverk2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har studerat samarbetet i olika företagsgrupperingar inom Västra Götalands län. I studien har vi jämfört de aktuella grupperingarna med bl.a. beskrivningar av grupperingar i industriella distrikt i norra och mellersta Italien. Dessutom har jämförelser gjorts med det nätverkssamhälle, som Castells har beskrivit, samt det samhälle – det gamla agrarsamhället - som Tönnies och Colley studerat m. a. p. sociala relationer. *För det första har vi funnit att det tar lång tid, 5 – 10 år, att skapa ett fungerande nätverk. Alla grupperingar blir inte framgångsrika nätverk. De flesta grupperingar tycks faktiskt aldrig nå fram till ett fungerande nätverk och det är kanske inte heller alltid syftet. Så t.ex.var syftet i de LRF-grupperingar vi studerat främst att få stöd till utbildningsinsatser och för det var man i stort sett tvingad att bilda ett nätverk. Vi tycker oss se att det finns skillnader i arbetssätt mellan grupperingar, som har samarbetat inbördes under en längre tid (ca 5 år) och de som är relativt nystartade (1-2 år). Även attityderna tycks vara annorlunda. Eftersom det statistiska underlaget är begränsat kan vi inte uttala oss med säkerhet i dessa frågor. Vi har dock noterat att man i de studerade grupperingarna i allmänhet ägnar för kort tid åt att bygga nätverket. De tror att grupperingen skall fungera som ett bra verktyg utan närvaro av det sociala kapitalet. *Vi kan inte se tillstymmelse till det ”nätverkssamhälle”, som Castells har beskrivit. Möjligen finns det samhället representerat i vår region, men det har ännu inte kommit till de företag och de grupperingar som denna studie omfattar. Det är troligt att ”nätverkssamhället” finns mer påtagligt i företag, som ingår i globala koncerner. Däremot finns det tecken på att IT-kunnandet och användandet ökar starkt i företagen. *Inte heller passar Tönnies och Cooleys beskrivningar av samverkan och umgänge i agrarsamhället in på de företagsgrupperingar, som vi har studerat. Däremot kan vi se att deras beskrivningar delvis passar in på byalag och utvecklingsgrupper på landsbygden. Dessa grupperingar har ett högt värde på det sociala kapitalet och den sociala väven är relativt tät. Varje byalag är dock för litet för att kunna åstadkomma den utveckling som önskas. Med intensifierad samverkan mellan olika byalagsgrupperingarna inbördes och med andra grupperingar kan resultatet förväntas bli bättre. *När vi jämför de studerade grupperingarna med industriella distrikt ser vi att det sociala kapitalet hos dessa är mycket lägre än i de industriella distrikten. Det tar åtminstone 20-30 år att formas. Traditioner, normer och värderingar skall ha hunnit att bli en del av den lokala kulturen, dvs. de bör ha gått i arv mellan två generationer.

  • 28.
    Repo, Jari
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Pejryd, Lars
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Measurement method for the identification of individual teeth in milling operations2012In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal sensors already available in the machine tools may prove to be an interesting approach to monitor the machining process. Accurate determination of the position of the individual tooth on a milling cutter is important to be able to correlate the measured responses from the machine tool position encoders to the tooth or teeth that may be the cause of the response.

    The aim of the work presented in this paper is to develop a measurement method to identify the individual tooth on a milling cutter by their angular position relative to a specified 0-degree direction. If the lower and upper bounds of the cutting zone are known, together with the actual spindle position and the starting time of the cut, it will be possible to track and identify which teeth are within the cutting zone at a given time in the following off-line analysis of the responses. This may simplify the task of finding potential correlations between the state of individual teeth on the milling cutter with measured responses from various sensors during the milling process. The proposed method is based on a reflectance detector and uses accurate position information provided by the position encoders.

    A validation of the measurement method is also presented which shows that the error of the estimated angular position is approximately +/- 0.15 degrees for the validation setup used in this case.

  • 29.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Vibration Induced Disturbances in Automatic Non-destructive Testing2012In: Proceedings 18th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing 16 - 20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa, Durban, 2012, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in automatic inspection of welds has increased during the last decade. An automatic inspection cell is self-acting both by scanning the inspected test piece and by evaluation of the resulting images. For automatic evaluation, high quality of the resulting images is essential. The non-smooth movement of the NDT-sensor when mounted on a robot-arm will have influence on the results. This paper focus on evaluation of the vibration induced disturbances due to the mounting of the sensor and the movement of the robot in an automatic cell. A thermography system detecting the geometry of welds is used in this study and both stationary and continuous movement of the IR camera are studied. The vibration due to the mounting on a robot arm are quantified and compared.

  • 30.
    Saarela, Karolina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Solberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Risker, möjligheter och gapanalys inför GRI-rapportering på GKN Aerospace Sweden2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor thesis is about sustainability reporting at GKN Aerospace Sweden (GAS) in Trollhättan. Companies that report their impact on the environment and society has increased. One way to report the effects on economic, environmental and social sustainability is through sustainability reporting, where GRI standards can be used. GRI stands for Global Reporting Initiatives and is an independent organization that produces global guidelines for sustainability reporting. The owner of GAS, Melrose Industries, centrally produces a sustainability report for the entire group, but a part of GAS environmental plan is to produce a sustainability report for the unit in Trollhättan.

    The purpose of the thesis was to develop a basis for GAS further assessment of how the company can proceed with sustainability reporting in accordance with GRI. The two main questions identified were what risks and opportunities exists with GRI reporting, and what GAS needs to do before sustainability reporting is possible.

    In order to answer the two main questions, a case study and a survey were performed. The case study consisted of literature studies to form an idea of how the GRI standards work. Benchmarking was performed to see how other companies work with sustainability reporting. The interviewed companies were Goodpoint and Saab, which both use the GRI standards. To get an even broader view of the subject, Melrose Industries and MTU Aero Engines sustainability reports have been studied. The survey consisted of interviews with the management at GAS and two experts at the company, to identify what material topics from the GRI standards were relevant to report. A gap analysis has also been performed to see what GAS have in place and what needs to be done before a sustainability report is possible.

    The results of the work include risks and opportunities with GRI reporting, and a gap analysis on what material topics and indicators were available and measurable. Some of the risks with GRI reporting were that companies can choose not to report negative aspects and that the report can be used to create an idealized picture of a company's situation. The opportunities with GRI reporting were that it can create credibility, strengthen relationships with society, create learning within the organization, show awareness and more. The gap analysis showed 27 gaps that GAS need to handle before a sustainability report is possible. Furthermore, the company needs to clarify what sustainability means to them, and how an organization of the work with sustainability reporting could look like.

  • 31.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Optimum maintenance using knowledge from a complete product population2012In: Proceedings of the 21st International congress on maintenance and asset management: Maintenance excellence for sustainable development / [ed] Vasić, Branko, Belgrad, 2012, p. 851-857Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Company’s today aim towards increased performance and effectiveness in order to stay competitive. Being a part of such development programs, the maintenance function tries to be more precise in their doings and more cost-efficient in order to increase their value contribution. However, as a company only is one of many customers to the various suppliers of systems, machines and equipment being used, the maintenance function will remain a sub optimized small part of the various  product populations. The lack of information and knowledge from the complete product populations hampers development and makes all efforts to optimize maintenance in individual company organizations more or less meaningless. The key to improvement is the ongoing experience and the knowledge developed from use of a whole product population.

    This paper describes how maintenance functions must develop using the knowledge acquired from an as complete product population as possible. The development achievable is described and exemplified and key actors are defined together with estimates of the economic potential that could be realized.

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  • 32.
    Steffenburg-Nordenström, Joachim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Sweden.
    Larsson, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation of the influence of forming on residual stresses and deformations after welding and heat treatment in Alloy 7182014In: / [ed] E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), 2014, p. 1657-1666Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of components in aero engines requires attention to residual stress and final shape of the product in order to meet high quality product standards. This sets very high demands on involved manufacturing steps. The manufacturing of a V-shaped leading edge of a vane is simulated. It is made of Alloy718, which is a nickel based heat resistant material commonly used in aerospace components. The manufacturing process chain consists of forming, welding and heat treatment. The results show that the remaining residual stresses after a manufacturing process chain are affected when the residual history from the formingprocess is considered. The residual stress decrease after heat treatment is about 55-65%. Moreover, the von Mises stress profile through thickness at the centre of the radius at the weld joint is about 25% higher when full forming history is considered.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Christian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Reducering av kvalitetsbristkostnaderkopplat till råämnen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the cost of poor quality is investigated at a manufacturing company, proposals for improvement are presented to reduce the cost for poor quality. The work has been carriedout at Parker Hannifin in Trollhättan, which manufactures hydraulics pumps and motors. 80% of the company's internal costs of quality are linked to casted raw materials, because of this, the work has been carried out as a first step in reducing the costs of poor quality associated with raw materials. The work began with observations, interviews and data gathering to gain an understanding of the production process, the quality process and the quality problems. The information was compiled in a selection of different quality tools to see the development and scope of the various problems over time. The internal costs of quality are divided into four problem areas: "porosity", "unclean surface", "dimension errors" and "rejected products". By using an Ishikawa diagram, various flaws were identified that underlie the company's costs of poor quality. An in-depth study using five why-analysis was conducted on the major problem areas to identify root causes. Most costs of poor quality can be attributed to the supplier, large portions of the goods delivered are not within the specifications. Within the boundaries of this thesis, improvement proposals are presented to reduce the costs of deviations due to defective material. Following selected improvement proposals are recommend by the authors: • Introduction of reception control so that incorrect gods do not reach the production. • Implementation of traceability on casted raw materials to easily locate incorrect gods. Furthermore, we recommend that the company educates the staff in deviation management as well as basic training in causal analysis, to involve more people and create consensus and commitment regarding quality.

  • 34.
    Zou, Yangfan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Li, Wenya
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Yang, Xiawei
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Patel, Vivek
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Shen, Zhikang
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Chu, Qiang
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Wang, Feifan
    Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering, Beijing (CHN).
    Tang, Huawei
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN).
    Cui, Fan
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an (CHN); Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer Co., Ltd, Shanghai (CHN).
    Chi, Minliang
    Minth Automotive Technology R&d Co., Ltd., Ningbo (CHN).
    Characterizations of dissimilar refill friction stir spot welding 2219 aluminum alloy joints of unequal thickness2022In: JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 79, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) is a relatively new solid-state spot welding technology. Reliability of the joint is mainly affected by the macroscopic characteristics and microstructure evolution. This method can be applied to weld plates with different thicknesses. However, the temperature distribution, microstructure and mechanical properties of joints with different thicknesses remain unclear. In the present study, 2 mm thick 2219-O aluminum alloy plates were successfully welded to 2219-C10S plates of various thicknesses (4 mm, 10 mm and 14 mm) via the RFSSW method. The effect of lower 2219-C10S plate thickness on the temperature distribution, microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behavior of RFSSWed joints was evaluated by both experi-mental and simulation methods. The results indicated that the peak temperature decreased, and the isothermal zone became larger as the thickness of the lower plate increased. A relatively flat hook configuration could be identified in the cross-section of the joint fabricated using a 4 mm thick lower plate, while an upward hook was observed for the joints fabricated using a 10 and 14 mm thick lower plate. Lower plate thickness scarcely affected hardness of the upper plate, but HAZ width of the lower plate becomes narrower with increasing lower sheet thickness. The lap-shear load of the joints fabricated using a lower plate thicknesses of 4, 10 and 14 mm was 7.4 +/- 0.3 kN, 6.7 +/- 0.2 kN, and 6.4 +/- 0.4 kN, respectively, all of them failed as a plug fracture mode. According to the simulation results, tensile and compressive stresses were mainly distributed along the direction of the force on both sides of the weld nugget. While shear stress was primarily distributed in the direction perpendicular to the external force. Furthermore, bending stress was also identified in the joints, which increased with the in -crease of the lower plate thickness.

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