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  • 1.
    Crondahl, Kristine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Eklund Karlsson, Leena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Roma Empowerment and social inclusion through Work-Integrated Learning2015In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, no jan-march, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for this article was a health promotion program based on participatory action research and work-integrated learning (WIL). Seven Roma people were employed and trained to work as local coordinators to empower the local Roma community by strengthening their participation in society and their sense of community, as well as to promote self-led integration. The study aimed to analyze the program from the Roma coordinators' perspectives, focusing on perceived individual empowerment and perceptions of contribution to the common good and to community empowerment. The findings, based on qualitative data, primarily interviews with the Roma coordinators, indicated that the WIL approach, the participatory nature of the program, and the trust and support from the Roma colleagues and non-Roma facilitators were essential for the development of empowerment. Three main themes emerged that portrayed the participants' psychological empowerment: strengthened Roma identity, a sense of power, and a sense of enculturated social inclusion.

  • 2.
    Crondahl, Kristine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Eklund, Leena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Perceptions on health, well-being and quality of life of Balkan Roma adolescents in West Sweden2012In: Romani Studies, ISSN 1528-0748, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 153-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the perceptions of Roma adolescents on health, well-being and quality of life (QoL) and how the Roma managed their own life situation within these areas. The data, which consists of interviews, was analysed through content analysis. The most common understanding of health and well-being was to feel good, secure and happy. A wide social network of family and friends was seen as an additional element. The respondents perceived their own health and well-being to be good. A feeling of freedom, the ability to make decisions independently and the possibilities for education and employment were the most important elements of QoL. Quality of life was perceived to have something to do with values and beliefs in the future. Social support from family and friends were the most frequently used coping strategies. The perceptions of the Roma adolescents on health, well-being and QoL turned out to be quite similar to the perceptions of the non-Roma adolescents.

  • 3.
    Crondahl, Kristine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ringsberg, Karin
    Eklund Karlsson, Leena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Work-integrated learning and health literacy: catalysts for Roma empowerment and social inclusion2014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eklund Karlsson, Leena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Crondahl, Kristine
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The meaning of health, well-being, and quality of life perceived by Roma people in West Sweden2013In: Societies, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 243-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Roma people in Sweden are on the margins of society and face problems of social exclusion, institutional discrimination, low education, unemployment, and poor health. The aim is to describe how a group of Roma people, in West Sweden, understand health, well-being, and quality of life within the Roma context, and how they cope with their life-situation. Data consisted of qualitative interviews. The data were analyzed qualitatively using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The respondents mainly understood the concept of Health as "being healthy" and "feeling good". Elements that were crucial part of the respondents' health perception were being employed, having an education, social support from family and friends, freedom and security, and the extent of involvement in society. The results indicate that the respondents perceive their health and life situation as good, despite of their marginalized situation and discrimination.

  • 5.
    Eklund, Leena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Salutogenesis and empowerment as prominent approaches for a sustainable health promotion: Some theoretical comparisons2011In: Health Technology Assessment Society (HTAi): 8th Annual Meeting, 2011, p. 294-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive evidence proposes Antonovsky’s salutogenic theory as a pathway to health promotion. The fundamental concept of salutogenesis is Sense of Coherence (SOC). Salutogenesis is defined as the process of movement towards the health-end of the health ease/dis-ease continuum. The aim of empowerment is to reduce inequity through a learning process and mobilize the uneducated for social action. Empowerment is defined as a process enabling the people to increase control over their health determinants. Empowerment still lacks a coherent theoretical basis. It is claimed that empowerment and SOC have much common and are sometimes overlapping. However, the relationship between these concepts has not been verified by research.

    Objectives: To compare the salutogenic theory with the empowerment concept and approach.

    Methods: Data consists of a worldwide systematic research synthesis (1992-2003) including 471 scientific publications and an on-going follow-up to 2010. The search was performed through PubMed, Libris, ISI, PsychInfo, Cinahl, Social Services Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts. The analysis was conducted by comparing selected indicators of both theories, such as approach, theoretical focus, definitions, orientation, key concepts, measurement instruments, outcomes and applicability.

    Findings: There are both similarities and differences between the concepts, which also somewhat overlap. Several unique and distinctive features for each concept were found. Salutogenesis is based on stress theories whereas empowerment has its roots in pedagogy and social psychology. Both concepts are process oriented. Empowerment can be seen as both means and an outcome whereas salutogenesis is a global life-orientation. Both concepts can be applied at the individual, group, health systems and societal levels. Both proved to be effective in promoting health. The two concepts differ when it comes to definitions and theoretical foundations.

    Conclusion: Both approaches are promising methods that can lead to improved health outcomes and are seen as viable public health strategies.

  • 6.
    Hassler, Sven
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Eklund, Leena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Sense of coherence and self-reported health among Roma people in Sweden: a pilot study2012In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 71, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The Roma people have been known in Europe for a 1000 years, during which they have usually been the subject of discrimination and oppression leading to isolation, powerlessness and poor health. The objective of this study is to investigate the sense of coherence (SOC) in relation to self-reported health among a group of Roma people in southwest Sweden.

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional, quantitative pilot study.

    METHODS: A questionnaire was constructed based on the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) and was distributed among Roma people in southwest Sweden (n =102). Self-reported health was summarised in a physical score (PCS) and a mental score (MCS). Comparisons were made with a general Swedish majority population and a Sami population.

    RESULTS: The health scores were significantly lower among the Roma people compared to Swedes - PCS: Roma 46.0 (Swedes 52.0) and MCS: Roma 47.5 (Swedes 52.6). The SOC score for the Roma people (54.4) was significantly lower than that of the Swedes (65.2) and Sami (65.0).

    CONCLUSIONS: The low SOC with the Swedish majority society is a strong indication of the marginalisation and exclusion of the Roma people from mainstream society. Low scores in self-reported health among the Roma people also establishes the serious health risks the Roma people are experiencing through their present life situation.

  • 7.
    Torp, Steffen
    et al.
    Vestfold University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health Promotion.
    Eklund, Leena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Thorpenberg, Stefan
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg.
    Research on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries: A literature review, 1986-2008[Estudio sobre la promoción de la salud en el lugar de trabajo en los países nórdicos: Revisión de la bibliografía, 1986-2008]2011In: Global Health Promotion, ISSN 1757-9759, E-ISSN 1757-9767, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace health promotion may include approaches focusing on behavioral change among employees and approaches with a holistic system-oriented thinking aiming at changing the physical, social and organizational factors of a setting. This literature review aimed to identify studies on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), to describe when, where and how the studies were performed and to further analyze the use of settings approaches and empowerment processes. Using scientific literature databases, we found 1809 hits when searching for Nordic studies published from 1986 to 2008 with the search term health promotion. Of these, 116 studies were related to workplace health promotion and 33 included interventions. We used content analysis to analyze the abstracts of all articles and the full articles of the intervention studies. Most studies were performed in Sweden and Finland. The focus was mainly on behavioral change rather than on holistic health promotion as defined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This was especially obvious for the intervention studies. In addition to the intervention studies using non-settings approaches with top-down driven behavioral change, we identified studies with participatory settings approaches aimed at changing the setting. We categorized relatively few studies as having a non-participatory settings approach. The studies aiming specifically at improving employees' empowerment were evenly distributed between the categories market-oriented persuasion of empowerment, therapeutic empowerment and empowerment as a liberal management strategy. More studies on workplace health promotion using empowering and participatory settings approaches are needed in the Nordic countries, and a more theory-based approach towards this research field is needed. © International Union for Health Promotion and Education 2011.

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