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  • 1.
    Engström, Pär
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Erfarenhet och samtal: En studie om yrkeserfarenhetens betydelse i seminariesamtal2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Högskolan Väst startades hösten 2008 en lärarutbildning där barnskötare utbildas till

    lärare. Barnskötarna ska ha minst tre års yrkeserfarenhet av att arbeta inom förskola eller

    fritidshem. Denna yrkeserfarenhet gör att barnskötarna har, genom ett valideringsförfarande,

    fått sig tillgodoräknat den första kursen i utbildningen. Dessutom antas yrkeserfarenheten

    bidra till att studenterna kan, samtidigt som de arbetar, läsa en "förtätad" utbildning som läses

    på kortare studietid än i den reguljära lärarutbildningen. Detta motiverar att yrkeserfarenhet

    studeras närmare i denna utbildning. För detta ändamål bedrivs ett forskningsprojekt där

    relationen yrkeserfarenhet och professionsutbildning studeras.

    Denna rapport redovisar en inledande delstudie i detta projekt. Syftet med denna delstudie

    är dels att beskriva hur yrkeserfarenheten tar sig uttryck när deltagarna innan utbildningen

    diskuterar vardagssituationer i sin yrkespraktik, dels att utveckla kunskaper om

    seminariesamtalets möjligheter att bidra till att deltagare utvecklar ny kunskap. För båda dessa

    syften valdes en seminariegrupp bestående av sex barnskötare och en seminarieledare ut.

    Resultatet av delstudien visar att barnskötarna diskuterade vardagssituationer och dilemman

    i dessa som fokuserar på olika aspekter av förskolans omsorgs- och fostransuppdrag. Den

    första talarens beskrivning av sitt dilemma kom att sätta ramen för övriga deltagares

    samtalsbidrag vilket bidrog till att deltagarna hade svårt att utifrån sin erfarenhet utveckla ny

    kunskap under seminariet. Samtidigt visar studien att deltagarna uttrycker olika synsätt på

    barn och barns utveckling. Exempelvis uttrycker deltagare både en form av sociokulturellt

    perspektiv där förhållanden i omgivningen betonas och ett utvecklingspsykologiskt synsätt

    där barns inre egenskaper betonas. 

  • 2.
    Johansson, Eva
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    What about becoming a professional teacher?: A study on education and experience2009In: Literacy as Worldmaking, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in the other Nordic countries, teacher education programmes have in recent

    years become increasingly scientific. The importance of scientific knowledge and

    understanding has been emphasised and the professional teacher is seen not only as a ‘doer’

    but also, and more importantly so, as ‘a reflective practitioner’. In the education of all new

    teachers - from preschool to upper secondary school – the emphasis is currently on the fact

    that teaching is to be seen as an outcome of a scientific approach and scientifically-grounded

    working methods. Simultaneously, the status of workplace-based learning (VFU) has become

    elevated to form an integral part of the programme of education, on an equal footing with the

    more theoretical content. In preschool settings, educated teachers work side-by-side with staff

    who, although they lack any formal education, nevertheless can sometimes have long

    experience from work in these settings.

    My aim here is to present an exploratory study of a recently started teacher education

    programme in which all of the participants, although they have a long experience from work

    in pedagogical settings in preschools and recreational centres, have no formal teacher

    education. It is a characteristic of this educational programme that, to be accepted, students

    have to work at least 50% of a full-time post in their ordinary workplaces. The aim of the

    study is twofold. One part is to describe and analyse the students’ experiential knowledge as

    well as whether, and if so how, that knowledge is transformed in the interaction with

    theoretical knowledge during the education programme. The other aim is to describe and

    analyse the process of change in professional identity that takes place in the shift from one

    profession to another in the same workplace.

    In this paper I present the results of an initial discourse analysis of the ways in which

    prospective teacher students talk about their pedagogical field of action, the ideas they have

    concerning their forthcoming profession and the forms of experiential knowledge that they

    possess and express. The analysis was performed on texts and recorded discussions produced

    during an introductory course the aim of which was to validate the participants’ knowledge

    using the first year courses studied by students on the university’s regular teacher education

    programme as a benchmark. The study can be regarded as a longitudinal exploratory casestudy

    and I will, in this presentation, also introduce a number of tentative results relating to

    the students’ experiential and theoretically-based knowledge at the end of the two initial

    programme courses. Further, I will also discuss the students’ professional identities and,

    finally, I will present and explore a research design that is intended to comprise participant

    observations, interviews and document-analysis, planned for the next three and a half years.

     

  • 3.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Assessment in Swedish preschool2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool teachers observe children’s behaviors and assess their abilities in relation to explicit or implicit expectations and norms daily. In Sweden as in the OECD generally, the pressure to assess children’s development has increased immensely over the last decade, even in the preschool.

    This ethnographic study investigates assessment as a part of the daily routine of Swedish preschools. The setting is two preschools: a multi-ethnic preschool in a disadvantaged area, and a preschool that teaches children with predominately Swedish middle class background. The study includes data from participatory observations, recorded conversations and interviews with teachers as well as written documentation about the children.

    Using Giddens’ constructs of structuration, rules and resources, I found that preschool teachers (re)structured the institutional practice in everyday activities. In everyday practice they used available resources in order to comply with the curriculum, within the institutional frames of rules. Recently imposed assessments were assimilated to the ordinary routines of the preschool.

    Furthermore, new demands of documenting the development and learning of individual children contradict an earlier statutes that preschool children should not be subjected to assessments. To resolve this conflict, teachers adopt modes of writing and talking about the children, which seemingly focus on the performance of the preschool, but construct the children “between the lines”. The stories of individual children are thus hidden in stories about the institution. This can be understood as soft governance (Foucault) or symbolic violence (Bourdieu).

    Finally, the socializing messages were different in the two preschools: adaptation to given linguistic and social norms predominated at the culturally diverse preschool; whereas creativity and pliability towards children’s wishes prevailed at the culturally homogenous preschool. This suggests that assessment practices both indicate and reinforce different institutional habitus in different preschools which may be seen as a threat to the role of education in promoting equity.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Den avvikande individen i gruppen: specialpedagogik och inkluderande perspektiv2011In: Konsten att navigera mellan individ och grupp: lärares uppdrag i skola, förskola och fritidshem / [ed] Nielsen, Cecilia, Malmö: Gleerups , 2011, 1. uppl., p. 111-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Det motsägelsefulla bedömningsuppdraget.: En etnografisk studie om bedömning i förskolekontext2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the assessment practices and discourses in Swedish preschool in times of changing principles for state control and steering. These practices and discourses are analyzed in relation to theories about state control, and about cultural and social reproduction in education. The study was conducted with an ethnographic approach in two preschools located in areas that differ in terms of socio-economic status and ethnic diversity. The results show that pre-school teachers express ambivalence towards assessment as an aspect of their work. An increased focus on children's learning and on mastery of specific assessment formats and discourses are on the one hand constructed as signs of being professional – and thus function to increase their professional status. On the other hand, by their association with school, the same features seem to conflict with the values and discourses that constitute preschool teachers' professional identity. In their talk about assessments, the preschool teachers tend to focus on how assessments should be expressed (form) rather than what they are targeting (content). Furthermore, the assessments tend to concern social and behavioral aspects rather than the children's learning. As much as promoting institutional development and children's learning, the assessment practice can thus be seen as a sort of assessment game. Finally, the results suggest that the norms and focus of assessments to some extent both indicate and reinforce the institutional culture of different preschools, thereby exposing children to different socializing messages. This is problematized in regard to the role of education to promote justice and equality.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lundström, Marita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hansen Orwehag, Monica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Unika individer och kollektivt samspel2018In: Samhälle, genus och pedagogik: utbildningsvetenskapligaperspektiv : vänbok till Inga Wernersson / [ed] Kerstin von Brömssen, Signild Risenfors & Lena Sjöberg, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 141-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel diskuterar vi kunskaper och kunskapande i förhållande till individ och grupp. Vilka föreskrifter finns i styrdokumenten? Vi dröjer oss också kvar vid hur läraren, i sin undervisning, kan främja elevernas kunskapande? Hur möter läraren de enskilda eleverna och hur kan läraren utnyttja gruppdynamiken? Och, inte minst viktigt, hur kan läraren skapa trygga grupper där varje elev får lära och utvecklas harmoniskt och där ingen blir utanför och tappar landfästet? Slutligen knyter vi ihop detta genom att belysa undervisningen i lärarutbildningen – hur kan studenterna hitta sina segelleder och ankarplatser i fritidshemmet, skolan och förskolan?

  • 7.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hansen Orwehag, Monica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lundström, Marita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Wernersson, Inga
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Vikström, Ragnhild
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Konsten att navigera mellan individ och grupp: lärares uppdrag i skola, förskola och fritidshem2011 (ed. 1. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Individen och gruppen2011In: Läraryrket: ett mångfacetterat uppdrag / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Gurdal, Sevtap, Asplund Carlsson, Maj, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, 1, p. 21-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Wernersson, Inga
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lundström, Marita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hansen Orwehag, Monica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Vikström, Ragnhild
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hur balanserar lärare mellan ansvaret för hela gruppen och för varje enskilt barn?: arbetsrapport från en pilotstudie, maj 2007 – oktober 20082009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller två delar. Den första utgörs av rapporteringen av det arbete som utförts inom projektet under de första 18 månaderna, den andra av det konferenspaper till NFPFs/NERA’s1 kongress i Köpenhamn i mars 2008, där projektet först presenterades för en vidare krets. Den forskningsfråga som undersöks är: Hur balanserar lärare i verksamheten mellan ansvaret för hela gruppen och för varje enskilt barn? Dataproduktionen har skett med hjälp av studenter, som i sin verksamhetsförlagda utbildning (VFU) har gjort observationer och intervjuer med sina lärarutbildare i verksamheten (LUV). De texter som blivit resultatet av dessa observationer och intervjuer har sedan analyserats, dels av studenterna själva i seminarier, dels av projektgruppen. I det senare fallet har analysen inriktat sig mot vad studenterna har valt att observera och vad de har kunnat se, både med tanke på vilka instruktioner de fått och med utgångspunkt i vilka förutsättningar utbildningen gett dem att se vad som händer i verksamheten. Projektet står alltså på tre ben:

    1. En vetenskaplig undersökning av en allmändidaktisk forskningsfråga.

    2. Studentmedverkan i såväl dataproduktion som analys, vilket ingår i studenternas vetenskapliga skolning.

    3. En utvärdering av undervisningen och kurslitteraturen vid lärarprogrammet med avseende på vilka förhållanden studenterna givits förutsättningar att upptäcka i verksamheten.

    Pilotstudien har tydligt bekräftat hur komplex forskningsfrågan är och hur komplicerad situationen på verksamhetsgolvet är. De resultat studien gett antyder också att undervisningen vid högskolan i hög grad styr vad studenterna kan se i verksamheten, och att deras texter ofta är normativa. Projektet har visat sig synnerligen generativt. Intressanta och viktiga frågor för fortsatt forskning inom projektet har utkristalliserats, liksom avgörande problemområden som lärarutbildningen behöver ge sig i kast med.

  • 10.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lundström, Marita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mellan teori och praktik: Vad ser lärarstudenter under VFU? 2010In: At läre at väre lärer -: professionen i läreruddannelsen / [ed] Per Jessen Nielsen, Hjørring: University College Nordjylland , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärarutbildningens uppgift är att utbilda studenter till att kunna leda arbetet i en klass eller en barngrupp, men också att samtidigt kunna möta och utveckla var och en av de enskilda barnen och eleverna. Hur lärare i verksamheten hanterar detta dubbla uppdrag har varit föremål för en studie där också studenter engagerats. Den forskningsfråga som undersökts är: Hur balanserar lärare i verksamheten mellan ansvaret för hela gruppen och för varje enskilt barn? Studen­ter har, under sin verksamhetsförlagda utbildning (VFU), gjort observationer och intervjuer med sina handledare. De texter som studenterna sedan lämnat in har analyserats av forskarna. Här rapporteras vad analysen visar att studenterna har valt att se, men också, i nästa steg, vad de kunnat se med tanke på de förutsättningar den högskoleförlagda utbildningen (HFU) givit dem. Teman som belyses är:

    • Vilket slags situation har studenten valt att beskriva?
    • Ligger fokus på kunskaper eller sociala relationer?
    • Vad innebär ”grupp” rent konkret i denna text?
    • Beskrivningens genre och saklighet.
    • Vem eller vad lyfts fram eller utgör figur i texten?
  • 11.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Strategiskt och operativt arbete med validering av reell kompetens: Ett följeforskningsprojekt vid Högskolan Väst2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a description, among other possible descriptions, of the work done on accreditation and recognition of qualifications at University West. The project was carried out during the autumn and spring terms of 2016 and 2017 respectively. The work on which this report is based was in the form of an on-going evaluation. This study, in turn, was carried out as the result of a government mandate issued by the Swedish Council for Higher Education. It aimed to improve the way work relating to the assessment of practical expertise is done at institutions of higher learning. The aim of the study was formulated as a description that offered an interpretation of the strategic and operational work on accreditation and recognition of qualifications carried out at University West. Two theoretical frames of reference – discourse analysis and chain of command theory – were used to interpret the empirical evidence that was collected. This was done by participating in workshops that were run during the spring of 2017, analysing information that was available via www.hv.se and www.hv.se/en the analysis of notes taken during meetings, and an interview with a focus group. The results show how UW worked with the issue at the strategic and operational levels. The report underscores the possibilities and limitations of the current webpage, which appears to be both time-consuming and opaque. This is worrisome in today's world where more and more people seek information via the Web. Similarly, it is made clear that a limited amount of information reaches all university employees and what the consequences of this lack of transparency can be. Moreover, the results show that work on validation is done in different ways and is not shared with other departments of the university. The report closes with a discussion of the results from three perspectives: that of the individual, of the group, and of the organisation. The possibilities and limitations for working with accreditation and recognition of qualifications are problematized.

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