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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Henric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    General Time Synchronisation Method for PLC Programs Aiming at Virtual Verification and Development2008In: 17th IFAC World: Congress Proceedings of the 17th World Congress. The International Federation of Automatic Control. Soel, July 6-11, 2008, p. 4440-4445Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest state-of-the-art Computer Aided Production Engineering (CAPE) simulation technology offers OPC integration for PLC verification. A critical drawback with this technology has been identified and described within this paper. A new time synchronisation method and a simulation architecture are therefore presented and proposed. The time synchronisation method together with the architecture can be used when verifying and developing real-time dependent control logic for industrial control system, e.g. PLC with CAPE tools. The method described in this paper is general and should work on any PLCs that are compatible with the IEC 61131-3 standard. A test case was also carried out, showing that by disregarding time synchronisation it is impossible to verify real-time dependent PLC functions together with CAPE tools in a reliable way. However, the test case also shows that by applying the proposed time synchronisation method together with the described simulation architecture a successful industrial verification method is achieved

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Automated Generation of Discrete Event System Simulation Models for Flexible Automation2011In: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taichung, Taiwan, June 26-29 2011, 2011, p. 825-832Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible automation cells with rapid product changes are an important competitive advantage for industries today. These cells can increase a company’s productivity and thereby increase their profits. A flexible cell shall be able to handle different products with none or minimal changes to the cell itself. A powerful tool, which can be used to analyse and verify such cells, is discrete event system simulation. Problems such as potential bottlenecks, deadlocks, answers to "what-if" questions and the level of resource utilisation can be gathered. The drawback of discrete event system simulation is that the modelling task is both time consuming and difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, state-of-the-art discrete event system simulation tools that are used in the industry today are not suitable for flexible automation. If the production scenario is changed, e.g. introduction of a new product, the simulation and modelling has to be redone and this is both time consuming and tedious. In this paper a new approach will be presented that enables discrete event simulation models to be generated automatically. The models are generated from information retrieved from a PLM/PDM database system, which is shared among other engineering tools such as robot simulation, CAD and process planning. Hence, when the cell and the database are updated a new model can easily be generated. The database is also connected to the real cell so up-to-date data can be retrieved from the real cell. The model generator described in this paper was implemented and tested in a discrete event system simulation tool and showed promising results. With this approach it is possible to handle flexible automation cells more effectively in a process planning stage.

  • 3.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimisation for interacting production stations2015In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 78, no 1-4, p. 673-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimisation of the control function for multiple automated interacting production stations is a complex problem, even for skilled and experienced operators or process planners. When using mathematical optimisation techniques, it often becomes necessary to use simulation models to represent the problem because of the high complexity (i.e. simulation-based optimisation). Standard optimisation techniques are likely to either exceed the practical time frame or under-perform compared to the manual tuning by the operators or process planners. This paper presents the Constructive cooperative coevolutionary (C3) algorithm, which objective is to enable effective simulation-based optimisation for the control of automated interacting production stations within a practical time frame. C3 is inspired by an existing cooperative coevolutionary algorithm. Thereby, it embeds an algorithm that optimises subproblems separately. C3 also incorporates a novel constructive heuristic to find good initial solutions and thereby expedite the optimisation. In this work, two industrial optimisation problems, involving interaction production stations, with different sizes are used to evaluate C3. The results illustrate that with C3, it is possible to optimise these problems within a practical time frame and obtain a better solution compared to manual tuning.

  • 4.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Riazi, Sarmad
    Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Productivity/energy optimisation of trajectories and coordination for cyclic multi-robot systems2018In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 49, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coordination of cyclic multi-robot systems is a critical issue to avoid collisions but also to obtain the shortest cycle-time. This paper presents a novel methodology for trajectory and coordination optimisation of cyclic multi-robot systems. Both velocity tuning and time delays are used to coordinate the robots that operate in close proximity and avoid collisions. The novel element is the non-linear programming optimisation model that directly co-adjusts the multi-robot coordination during the trajectory optimisation, which allows optimising these as one problem. The methodology is demonstrated for productivity/smoothness optimisation, and for energy efficiency optimisation. An experimental validation is done for a real-world case study that considers the multi-robot material handling system of a multi-stage tandem press line. The results show that the productivity optimisation with the methodology is competitive compared to previous research and that substantial improvements can be achieved, e.g. up to 50% smoother trajectories and 14% reduction in energy consumption for the same productivity. This paper addresses the current lack of systematic methodologies for generating optimal coordinated trajectories for cyclic multi-robot systems to improve the productivity, smoothness, and energy efficiency.

  • 5.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithm Applied to Press Line Optimisation2014In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation / [ed] F. Frank Chen, Lancaster, PA, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc. , 2014, p. 909-916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based optimisation often considers computationally expensive problems. Successfully optimising such large scale and complex problems within a practical time frame is a challenging task. Optimisation techniques to fulfil this need to be developed. A technique to address this involves decomposing the considered problem into smaller subproblems. These subproblems are then optimised separately. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for simulation-based optimisation is proposed. The proposed algorithm extends the cooperative coevolutionary algorithm, which optimises subproblems separately. To optimise the subproblems, the proposed algorithm enables using a deterministic algorithm, next to stochastic genetic algorithms, getting the flexibility of using either type. It also includes a constructive heuristic that creates good initial feasible solutions to reduce the number of fitness calculations. The extension enables solving complex, computationally expensive problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm has been applied on automated sheet metal press lines from the automotive industry. This is a highly complex optimisation problem due to its non-linearity and high dimensionality. The optimisation problem is to find control parameters that maximises the line’s production rate. These control parameters determine velocities, time constants, and cam values for critical interactions between components. A simulation model is used for the fitness calculation during the optimisation. The results show that the proposed algorithm manages to solve the press line optimisation problem efficiently. This is a step forward in press line optimisation since this is to the authors’ knowledge the first time a press line has been optimised efficiently in this way.

  • 6.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Constructive cooperative coevolution for large-scale global optimisation2017In: Journal of Heuristics, ISSN 1381-1231, E-ISSN 1572-9397, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 449-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary ( C3C3 ) algorithm, applied to continuous large-scale global optimisation problems. The novelty of C3C3 is that it utilises a multi-start architecture and incorporates the Cooperative Coevolutionary algorithm. The considered optimisation problem is decomposed into subproblems. An embedded optimisation algorithm optimises the subproblems separately while exchanging information to co-adapt the solutions for the subproblems. Further, C3C3 includes a novel constructive heuristic that generates different feasible solutions for the entire problem and thereby expedites the search. In this work, two different versions of C3C3 are evaluated on high-dimensional benchmark problems, including the CEC'2013 test suite for large-scale global optimisation. C3C3 is compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms, which shows that C3C3 is among the most competitive algorithms. C3C3 outperforms the other algorithms for most partially separable functions and overlapping functions. This shows that C3C3 is an effective algorithm for large-scale global optimisation. This paper demonstrates the enhanced performance by using constructive heuristics for generating initial feasible solutions for Cooperative Coevolutionary algorithms in a multi-start framework.

  • 7.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Department of Signals and systems, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Improved Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Differential Evolution for Large-Scale Optimisation2016In: Computational Intelligence, 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on, IEEE, 2016, p. 1703-1710, article id 7376815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is widely used for real-world global optimisation problems in many different domains. To improve DE's performance on large-scale optimisation problems, it has been combined with the Cooperative Coevolution (CCDE) algorithm. CCDE adopts a divide-and-conquer strategy to optimise smaller subcomponents separately instead of tackling the large-scale problem at once. DE then evolves a separate subpopulation for each subcomponent but there is cooperation between the subpopulations to co-adapt the individuals of the subpopulations with each other. The Constructive Cooperative Coevolution (C3DE) algorithm, previously proposed by the authors, is an extended version of CCDE that has a better performance on large-scale problems, interestingly also on non-separable problems. This paper proposes a new version, called the Improved Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Differential Evolution (C3iDE), which removes several limitations with the previous version. A novel element of C3iDE is the advanced initialisation of the subpopulations. C3iDE initially optimises the subpopulations in a partially co-adaptive fashion. During the initial optimisation of a subpopulation, only a subset of the other subcomponents is considered for the co-adaptation. This subset increases stepwise until all subcomponents are considered. The experimental evaluation of C3iDE on 36 high-dimensional benchmark functions (up to 1000 dimensions) shows an improved solution quality on large-scale global optimisation problems compared to CCDE and DE. The greediness of the co-adaptation with C3iDE is also investigated in this paper.

  • 8.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Multi-objective constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimization of robotic press-line tending2017In: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 1685-1703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates multi-objective optimization of the robot trajectories and position-based operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems, such as press lines, to improve the production rate and obtaining smooth motions to avoid excessive wear of the robots’ components. Different functions for handling the multiple objectives are evaluated on realworld press lines, including both scalarizing single-objective functions and Pareto-based multi-objective functions. Additionally, the Multi-Objective Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary (moC3) algorithm is proposed, for Pareto-based optimization, which uses a novel constructive initialization of the subpopulations in a co-adaptive fashion. It was found that Paretobased optimization performs better than the scalarizing single-objective functions. Furthermore, moC3 gives substantially better results compared to manual online tuning, as currently used in the industry. Optimizing robot trajectories and operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems using the proposed method with moC3 significantly improves productivity and reduces maintenance. This article hereby addresses the lack of systematic methods for effectively improving the productivity of press lines.

  • 9.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Chalmers.
    Optimised Control of Sheet Metal Press Lines2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the control parameters for sheet metal press lines is a large scale and complex optimisation problem. These control parameters determine velocities, time constants, and cam values of critical interactions between the equipment. The complexity of this problem is due to the nonlinearities and high dimensionality. Classical optimisation techniques often underperform in solving this kind of problems within a practical timeframe. Therefore, specialised techniques need to be developed for these problems. An existing approach is simulation-based optimisation, which is to use a simulation model to evaluate the trial solutions during the optimisation. In this paper, an efficient simulation-based optimisation algorithm for large scale and complex problems is proposed. The proposed algorithm extends the cooperative coevolutionary algorithm, which optimises subproblems separately. Hence, the optimisation problem must be decomposed into subproblems that can be evaluated separately. To optimise the subproblems, the proposed algorithm allows using embedded deterministic algorithms, next to stochastic genetic algorithms, getting the flexibility of using either type. It also includes a constructive heuristic that creates good initial feasible solutions to expedite the optimisation. The extension enables solving complex, computationally expensive problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm has been applied on an automated sheet metal press line from the automotive industry. The objective is to find control parameters that maximise the line’s production rate. The results show that the proposed algorithm manages to find optimal control parameters efficiently within the practical timeframe. This is a step forward in press line optimisation since to the authors’ knowledge this is the first time a press line has been optimised efficiently in this way.

  • 10.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Simulation-based Time and Jerk Optimisation for Robotic Press Tending2015In: Modellling and Simulation: The European simulation and modelling conference 2015, ESM 2015, Ostende: ESM , 2015, p. 377-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased production rate and robot motion smoothness in a sheet metal press line are essential. Smooth robot motions avoid unplanned production interruptions and excessive wear of the robots. Reaching high production rate and smooth motions requires tuning of the tending press robot control to minimise the cycle time and jerk. Doing this for a press line with multiple robots is a complex large-scale problem. To model such problems for the optimisation process, computer simulations become almost essential. This work presents simulation-based optimisation of the time and jerk of robotic press tending operations and investigates the importance of including the robot motion’s smoothness. An optimiser works in concert with a simulation model of a sheet metal press line and its parametrised control system. The effect of including jerk minimisation in the objective function is tested on a real-world problem concerning a sheetmetal press line. The results illustrate the importance of including jerk-minimisation as an objective in the optimisation.Furthermore, the performance of this approach is compared with manual tuning by experienced operators. The results show that the proposed simulation-based optimisation approach outperforms manual tuning.

  • 11.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Heralic, Almir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System. Chalmers.
    Resistance based iterative learning control of additive manufacturing with wire2015In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 31, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents successful feed forward control of additive manufacturing of fully dense metallic components. The study is a refinement of former control solutions of the process, providing more robust and industrially acceptable measurement techniques. The system uses a solid state laser that melts metal wire, which in turn is deposited and solidified to build the desired solid feature on a substrate. The process is inherently subjected to disturbances that might hinder consecutive layers to be deposited appropriately. The control action is a modified wire feed rate depending on the surface of the deposited former layer, in this case measured as a resistance. The resistance of the wire stick-out and the weld pool has shown to give an accurate measure of the process stability, and a solution is proposed on how to measure it. By controlling the wire feed rate based on the resistance measure, the next layer surface can be made more even. A second order iterative learning control algorithm is used for determining the wire feed rate, and the solution is implemented and validated in an industrial setting for building a single bead wall in titanium alloy. A comparison is made between a controlled and an uncontrolled situation when a relevant disturbance is introduced throughout all layers. The controller proves to successfully mitigate these disturbances and maintain stable deposition while the uncontrolled deposition fails.

  • 12.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers.
    Control Design for Automation of Robotized Laser Metal-Wire Deposition2008In: Proceedings of the 17th IFAC World Congress, International Federation of Automatic Control , 2008, p. 14785-14791Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a novel approach towards automation of robotized laser metal-wire deposition (RLMwD) is described. The RLMwD technique is being developed at University West in cooperation with Swedish industry for solid freeform fabrication of fully dense metal structures. The process utilizes robotized fibre laser welding and metal wire filler material, together with a layered manufacturing method, to create metal structures directly from a CAD drawing. The RLMwD process can also be used for repair or modification of existing components. This paper faces the challenge of designing a control system for maintaining stable process variables, such as a constant layer height and a stable component temperature, during the entire manufacturing process. Several problems are identified and discussed in the paper, e.g. the difficulty of obtaining the bead height in the weld pool environment. The case study is a repair application for stamping tools, where worn out trim edges are to be repaired. Issues regarding the control design, system identification, and the practical implementation of this application are discussed.

  • 13.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Automation of Robotized Laser Metal-Wire Deposition2007In: Proceedings of the ninth IASTED International Conference on Control and Applications: Montreal, Canada, ACTA Press , 2007, p. ID 658-075-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Freeform Fabrication using Laser Metal-wire Deposition2007In: Proceedings from the 1st Swedish Production Symposium: 28-30 August, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2007, p. session 1.2-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Dep of signal and systems, Chalmers.
    Automation of laser metal deposition for the manufacture of fully dense structures2011In: 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS11: 3-4 May, Lund, Sverige / [ed] Jan-Eric Ståhl, Swedish Productio Academy , 2011, p. 219-227Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Sekvensa AB.
    Wigstrom, Oskar
    Chalmers.
    Riazi, Sarmad
    Chalmers.
    Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Systems for the Tweeting Factory2016In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a predicate transition model for discrete-event systems is generalized to include continuous dynamics, and the result is a modular hybrid predicate transition model. Based on this model, a hybrid Petri net including explicit differential equations and shared variables is also proposed. It is then shown how this hybrid Petri net model can be optimized based on a simple and robust nonlinear programming formulation. The procedure only assumes that desired sampled paths for a number of interacting moving devices are given, while originally equidistant time instances are adjusted to minimize a given criterion. This optimization of hybrid systems is also applied to a real robot station with interacting devices, which results in about 30% reduction in energy consumption. Moreover, a flexible online and event-based information architecture called the Tweeting Factory is proposed. Simple messages (tweets) from all kinds of equipment are combined into high-level knowledge, and it is demonstrated how this information architecture can be used to support optimization of robot stations.

  • 17.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Sampled-data Hcontrol applied to the choice of controller order and sampling rate2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    A faster collision detection method applied on a sheet metal press line2011In: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taiwan, 26-29 June 2011, 2011, p. 833-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical collision detection is a time and resource consuming simulation task. In order to decrease time and resources, a general method has been developed. The method is useful in simulation cases where 3D CAD data is part of an iterative method, e.g. optimization. The method is based on a transformation of a general 3D problem to a 2D problem, eliminating the need of 3D CAD models. Press Line simulations during the last decade have been accepted as a quality improvement method. Today simulations of automated press lines are done for internal collision checks in dies and external collision checks against dies and material handling equipment. If these collisions are not detected in simulations, they result in delays, in introduction of a new product in the line, so called line tryout or later on when the line is ramped up to decided rate. The results of these collisions are used for pre-die design, design of grippers, maintenance and production planning. In this paper a new method, based on 2D simplifications, is developed and tested successfully in a virtual model of a press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing. Die Uppers 2 917 708 triangles and Die Lowers 602 686 triangles where reduced to 58 and 90 points. The result of the method shows substantial reduction of geometry data and a considerable improvement in collision detection evaluation time over general 3D algorithms in the tested case.

  • 19.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning performed in stamping2012In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 17th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012), Polen: IEEE, 2012, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to  perform efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning in stamping, three fields are investigated namely: simulation building time, collision detection time and optimization time. Hence, reducing time is the main theme of this paper. To reduce simulation building time and optimization time, an efficient stamping simulation model is built and tested. Collision detection time is examined by a relative motion method based on 3D to 2D geometrical collision detection. The presented results mean that simulation and virtual commissioning can be performed at least ten times faster compared to standard approaches.

  • 20.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering. Volvo Cars IT.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Toward efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning in stamping2012In: p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ryberg, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Eriksson, Kenneth
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mathematics and Sciences.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A new Camera Model and Algorithms for higher Accuracy and better Convergence in Vision-based Pose Calculations2006In: Mechatronics and Automation, Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on, 2006, p. 194-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents novel strategies for better calibration and pose calculations of a system for determining the pose, i.e. position and orientation, of a camera. The system in question has a camera aimed to be placed on the hand of an industrial robot for welding, but is useful for any application with a need for measuring position and/or orientation. To calculate the pose of the camera circular reference points that can be recognized in the images are distributed in the working area. From their 2D image coordinates the 6D pose of the camera can be calculated. First the system is calibrated, i.e. the positions of the reference points and the camera parameters are determined. This is done by first taking images of the reference points from different locations, and then do a "total calibration" procedure to calculate the unknown parameters. For a specific system, called PosEye, it was concluded that the accuracy needs to be improved for welding applications. Also a method for making the calculations converge more easily, was needed. To meet these demands a new camera model is proposed, and three preprocessing calculation steps are presented. The new camera model increases accuracy by considering more distortion effects. The preprocessing steps give better initial values for more robust convergence of the algorithms and increased accuracy

  • 22.
    Ryberg, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Eriksson, Kenneth
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Camera Modelling and Calibration - with Applications2008In: Computer Vision / [ed] Zhihui, X., Vienna: I-Tech Education and Publishing , 2008, p. 303-332Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ryberg, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Analysis and evaluation of a general camera model2011In: Computer Vision and Image Understanding, ISSN 1077-3142, E-ISSN 1090-235X, Vol. 115, no 11, p. 1503-1515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile General Camera Model, GCM, has been developed, and is described in detail. The model is general in the sense that it can capture both fisheye and conventional as well as catadioptric cameras in a unified framework. The camera model includes efficient handling of non-central cameras as well as compensations for decentring distortion. A novel way of analysing radial distortion functions of camera models leads to a straightforward improvement of conventional models with respect to generality, accuracy and simplicity. Different camera models are experimentally compared for two cameras with conventional and fisheye lenses, and the results show that the overall performance is favourable for the GCM.

  • 24.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems,Gothenburgh, Sweden.
    Model based feedback control of gas tungsten arc welding: An experimental study2015In: Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 411-416Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obtain high structural integrity and joint performance in welding a transient heat conduction model has been utilized to design a model based feedback controller.Gas tungsten arc welding of work-pieces of austenitic steel have been simulated by the finite element method. The basis for controller design is a low order model obtained from parametric system identification. The identification has been performed both on the finite element simulation and on physical welding. The low order model responses show a good agreement with both the finite element simulation result and the physical process response. An experimental study has been performed to verify the approach. This study also explores what experiments are needed for a successful design. It is shown that model based control successfully mitigates perturbations that occur during welding.

  • 25.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Model order reduction methods applied to a welding model2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part I, journal of systems and control engineering, ISSN 0959-6518, E-ISSN 2041-3041, Vol. 226, no 7, p. 972-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A  finite element representation modelling transient heat conduction of gas tungsten arc welding of stainless steel is used to evaluate different methods for model order reduction. The focus is on establishing a linear low-order model of the dynamic  relation between the welding current and the temperature measured by a radiation pyrometer. The objective of this low-order model is to design a model-based feedback controller and to investigate the consequences of applying feedback control of the process. Three different approaches for model reduction have been evaluated, namely the Krylov subspace method for moment    matching, balanced truncation and parametric system identification. The study provides a knowledge base for the selection of model order reduction methods when dealing with large-scale systems like finite element models of transient heat conduction, and it recommends parametric system identification. It renders sufficient approximations for controller design, no linearization of the finite element model is required, and there is no limit on degrees of freedom of the finite element model.

  • 26.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Modeling and simulation aspects of feedback control in gas tungsten arc welding: An experimental study2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Modelling and Simulation for Feedback Control of Welding2007In: Proceeding (567) Modelling and Simulation (MS 2007): Montreal, CanadaMay 30 - June 1, 2007, ACTA Press , 2007, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Role of fixture forces on distortion in gas tungsten arc welding: An experimental and modelling approach2011In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 225, no 1, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation and experiments show that the fixture clamping force has a significant influence on the structural integrity of a welded workpiece. This understanding is of great importance for the manufacture of aerospace components with tight tolerances in the specifications. The focus in the present study is on the temperature history during welding and residual deformation; its main contribution is a demonstrator designed for evaluation of the influence of fixture clamping forces and validation of the simulation results. The demonstrator concerns a simplified situation considering gas tungsten arc welding of a nickel-based metal plate fixed by a specially designed fixture, where one side of the plate was clamped with different levels of force. The temperature history was measured during the weld sequence and deformation measurements were performed after cooling and release of the workpiece from the fixture. The results from simulation and experimentation showed good agreement. The proposed strategy is industrially competitive and has shown that the looser the fixture clamps, the smaller the residual deformation. Furthermore, the study provides a knowledge base for selection of active fixture concepts in that the fixture clamping force can be determined in advance and possibly also be subject to force control.

  • 29.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Simulation for Design of Automated Welding2007In: EUROCON, 2007. The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool": Warsaw, Poland, 2007, IEEE Explore , 2007, p. 2263-2270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a promising approach where simulations were used in the design of real-time control for automated welding. A finite element method has been used for thermal modelling of gas tungsten arc welding on a simplified test object. Measurement data for model calibration and validation was acquired through thermal imaging during weld experiments on test objects of the alloy Fe-316. An optimisation scheme for inverse modelling was employed in the calibration of the distributed weld process model. Frequency weighted model reduction and parametric system identification were applied and evaluated to get a low order model of the single-input single-output dynamics between a simulated weld heat source (actuator) and a sensor. This low order model was then successfully used for controller design where the control signal was weld current and the measured output was a moving spot temperature. Finally, the closed-loop performance was evaluated by simulation of the weld process model showing improved temperature stability relative to open loop.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    A Virtual Real-Time Model for Control Software Development: applied on a Sheet-Metal Press Line2005In: Industrial Simulation Conference 2005 / [ed] Jörg Kruger, Alexei Lisounkin, Gerhard Schreck, 2005, p. 119-123Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    An efficient algorithm for press line optimisation2013In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 1627-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated manufacturing processes such as automotive tandem press lines include time dependent complex control functions. All motions and critical interactions between moving parts must be synchronised to avoid collisions and reach high production rate. It is even for a skilled operator hard to optimise these processes on-line. Therefore, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation including real industrial control systems and its control code establish an essential tool for optimisation. Additionally, an efficient optimisation algorithm is required to reach a useful simulation-based optimisation method. This paper proposes a new optimisation algorithm starting with the Lipschitzian algorithm DIRECT as global search and then switches over to the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm for local convergence. During the switch over, the new algorithm determines all local candidates of the set of points evaluated by DIRECT and starts multiple Nelder-Mead local searches in each of these. An optimisation study for an automotive press line shows that the proposed algorithm combines the benefits of the Lipschitzian and the simplex algorithms in an efficient way. The importance of multiple local searches from all local candidates found is also shown in the study. Based on the same number of function evaluations, it is also shown that this algorithm reaches improved press line performances compared to the stochastic differential evolution algorithm.

  • 32.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Off-Line Optimisation of Complex Automated Production Lines: Applied on a Sheet-Metal Press Line2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, IEEE , 2007, p. 82-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a successful off-line

    optimisation case study of a sheet-metal press line for the

    automotive industry. The proposed off-line optimisation

    method results not only in increased production rate but also in

    obtaining smoother material handling motions. The off-line

    optimisation method contains two parts. The first part is a

    parameter study, combining factorial design with production

    line simulation including emulated control systems and

    resulting in a simplified performance model based on multiple

    linear regression. The second part is an optimisation on the

    simplified performance model using the Nelder Mead simplex

    method aiming at production optimisation. Due to the

    complexity in a modern production line, it is not possible to

    create a useful model representation of the entire control

    system code/function. Therefore, the proposed optimisation

    method is based on using production line simulation including

    emulated control systems with the real IEC 61131-3 control

    code. Our approach in this work is a parameter variation

    strategy for optimisation, i.e. adjusting the control system

    parameters in the same way as the line operators do, and not

    changing any control strategy.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Simulation based optimization of a sheet-metal press line2009In: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, ETFA 2009, 2009, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An off-line optimization of a sheet-metal press line is performed with improved production performances, both in terms of increased production rate and smoother robot motions. Smooth motions prevent the sheet-metal to slide out of position or even fall out, thereby causing lengthy down times. The simulation based method use a process optimizer connected to a time synchronized virtual manufacturing model including real industrial control systems, e.g. PLC. The key benefit herein is that all tuned control system parameters can be directly downloaded to the real press line without any post-processing or transformations. The challenge to find suitable optimization algorithms for a press line that handle highly nonlinear, discontinuous functions; considerable number of parameters; and long evaluation times is reached.

  • 34.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Time-synchronised hardware-in-the-loop simulation - Applied to sheet-metal press optimisation2012In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 792-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an off-line process parameter tuning method, focussing on complex control functions for automated manufacturing systems. The proposed method is based on a combination of simulation-based optimisation and time-synchronised hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Real indus- trial control systems, e.g., PLCs, are included in the simulation, executing the unchanged control code from the manufacturing plant. This approach allows all plant control functions to be included, even time-critical feedback loops and vendor secret blocks such as motion control. Consequently, the method suggested manages the problems identified in previously presented simulation-based approaches. Furthermore, a case study of an automotive sheet-metal press line has been performed to verify the proposed method, with successful results.

1 - 34 of 34
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