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  • 1.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing and Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel using Laser Beam2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs), with a ferritic-austenitic microstructure, are used in a wide range of applications thanks to their high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. However, efficient and successful production and joining of DSS require precise control of processes and an in-depth understanding of the relations between composition, processing thermal cycles, resulting microstructures and properties. In this study welding and direct energy deposition of DSS using a laser beam, resulting weld and component microstructures, and properties are explored.

    In the first part a lean FDX 27 DSS, showing the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect, was autogenously laser welded and laser reheated using pure argon or pure nitrogen as shielding gas. The weld metal austenite fraction was 22% for argon-shielding and 39% for nitrogen-shielding in the as-welded conditions. Less nitrides were found with nitrogen-shielding compared to argon-shielding. Laser reheating did not significantly affect nitride content or austenite fraction for argon-shielding. However, laser reheating of the nitrogen shielded weld removed nitrides and increased the austenite fraction to 57% illustrating the effectiveness of this approach.

    Phase fraction analysis is important for DSS since the balance between ferrite and austenite affects the properties. For TRIP steels the risk of austenite-to-martensite transformation during sample preparation also has to be considered. Ferrite, austenite and martensite were identified and quantified using light optical microscopy (LOM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. It was found that mechanical polishing produced up to 26% strain-induced martensite, while no martensite was observed after electrolytic polishing.

    In the second part a systematic four-stage methodology was applied to develop procedures for additive manufacturing of standard 22% Cr DSS components employing direct energy deposition using a laser beam and wire feedstock (DED-LB/w) combined with the hot wire technology. In the four stages, single-bead passes, a single-bead wall, a block, and finally a cylinder with an inner diameter of 160 mm, thickness of 30 mm, and height of 140 mm were produced. Implementing this methodology with a stepwise increase in the deposited volume and geometrical complexity can successfully be used when developing additive manufacturing procedures for significantly sized metallic components. The as-deposited microstructure was inhomogeneous and repetitive including highly ferritic regions with nitrides and regions with high fractions of austenite. Heat treatment for 1 hour at 1100°C homogenized the microstructure, dissolved the nitrides, and almost balanced the ferrite and austenite phase fractions. Strength, ductility, and toughness were at a high level for the cylinder, comparable to those of wrought type 2205 steel, both as-deposited and after heat treatment. The pitting corrosion resistance revealed that microstructural differences, including ferrite-to-austenite ratio, alloying element distribution in ferrite and austenite , and the presence of nitrides, affected the corrosion resistance of DED-LB/w DSS. It was also shown that alongside the decomposition of ferrite into Fe-rich (α) and Cr-rich (αʹ) phases, clustering of Ni, Mn, and Si atoms are contributing to the 475°C -embrittlement of DSS manufactured by DED-LB/w.

    This study has illustrated that a laser beam can successfully be used as heat source in processing of DSS both for welding and additive manufacturing. However, challenges like nitrogen loss, low austenite fractions and nitride formation have to be handled by precise process control and/or heat treatment.

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  • 2.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Laser Welding and Additive Manufacturing of Duplex Stainless Steels: Properties and Microstructure Characterization2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), with a ferritic-austenitic microstructure, are used ina wide range of applications thanks to their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties. However, efficient and successful production and joining of DSS require precise control of processes and an in-depth understanding o frelations between composition, processing thermal cycles, resulting microstructures and properties. In this study laser welding, laser reheating, and laser additive manufacturing using Laser Metal Deposition with Wire (LMDw) ofDSS and resulting weld and component microstructures and properties are explored.

    In the first part a lean FDX 27 duplex stainless steel, showing the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) effect, was autogenously laser welded and laser reheated using pure argon or pure nitrogen as shielding gas. The weld metal austenite fraction was 22% for argon-shielding and 39% for nitrogen-shielding in as-welded conditions. Less nitrides were found with nitrogen-shielding compared to argonshielding. Laser reheating did not significantly affect nitride content or austenite fraction for argon-shielding. However, laser reheating of the nitrogen shieldedweld removed nitrides and increased the austenite fraction to 57% illustrating the effectiveness of this approach.

    Phase fraction analysis is important for DSS since the balance between ferrite and austenite affects properties. For TRIP steels the possibility of austenite tomartensite transformation during sample preparation also has to be considered. Phases in the laser welded and reheated FDX 27 DSS were identified and quantified using light optical microscopy (LOM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. An optimized Beraha color etching procedure was developed for identification of martensite by LOM. A novel step-by-step EBSD methodology was also introduced, which successfully identified and quantified martensite as well as ferrite and austenite. It was found that mechanical polishing produced up to 26% strain-induced martensite, while no martensite was observed after electrolytic polishing.In the second part a systematic four-stage methodology was applied to develop procedures for additive manufacturing of standard 22% Cr duplex stainless steel components using LMDw combined with the hot wire technology. In the four stages, single-bead passes, a single-bead wall, a block, and finally a cylinder with an inner diameter of 160 mm, thickness of 30 mm, and height of 140 mm were produced. The as-deposited microstructure was inhomogeneous and repetitive including highly ferritic regions with nitrides and regions with high fractions ofaustenite. Heat treatment for 1 hour at 1100 ̊C homogenized the microstructure, removed nitrides, and produced an austenite fraction of about 50%. Strength, ductility, and toughness were at a high level for the cylinder, comparable to those of wrought type 2205 steel, both as-deposited and after heat treatment. The highest strength was achieved for the as-deposited condition with a yield strength of 765 MPa and a tensile strength of 865 MPa, while the highest elongation of 35% was found after heat treatment. Epitaxial growth of ferrite during solidification, giving elongated grains along the build direction, resulted in anisotropy of toughness properties. The highest impact toughness energies were measured for specimens with the notch perpendicular to the build direction after heat treatment with close to 300 J at -10oC. It was concluded that implementing a systematic methodology with a stepwise increase in the deposited volume and geometrical complexity can successfully be used when developing additive manufacturing procedures for significantly sized metallic components.

    This study has illustrated that a laser beam can successfully be used as heat source in processing of duplex stainless steel both for welding and additive manufacturing. However, challenges like nitrogen loss, low austenite fractions and nitride formation have to be handled by precise process control and/or heat treatment.

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  • 3.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Cary, Claire
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus (USA).
    Sridhar, Narasi
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus (USA).
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Fink, Carolin
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus (USA).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Corrosion resistance and microstructure analysis of additively manufactured 22% chromium duplex stainless steel by laser metal deposition with wire2023In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 26, p. 6741-6756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructure characteristics and pitting corrosion of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) manufactured by laser metal deposition with wire (LMDw) were studied. The layer-by-layer LMDw process resulted in a mixed microstructure of predominantly ferrite with 2% austenite and chromium-rich nitrides, and reheated regions with ~33% austenite. The high cooling rate of LMDw restricted the distribution of Cr, Mo, and Ni, in ferrite and austenite, while N diffuses from ferrite to austenite. Subsequent heat treatment at 1100 C for 1 h resulted in homogenized microstructure, dissolution of nitrides, and balanced ferrite/austenite ratio. It also led to the redistribution of Cr and Mo to ferrite, and Ni and N to austenite. At room temperature, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 1.0 M NaCl solution showed no significant differences in corrosion resistance between the as-deposited and heat-treated samples, despite the differences in terms of ferrite to austenite ratio and elemental distribution. Critical pitting temperature (CPT) was the lowest (60 C) for the predominantly ferritic microstructure with finely dispersed chromium-rich nitrides; while reheated area with ~33% austenite in as-deposited condition achieved higher critical temperature comparable to what was obtained after heat treatment (73 and 68 C, respectively). At temperatures above the CPT, selective dissolution of the ferrite after deposition was observed due to depletion of N, while after heat treatment, austenite preferentially dissolved due to Cr and Mo concentrating in ferrite. In summary, results demonstrate how microstructural differences in terms of ferrite-to-austenite ratio, distribution of corrosion-resistant elements, and presence of nitrides affect corrosion resistance of LMDw DSS.

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  • 4.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Promoting austenite formation in laser welding of duplex stainless steel-impact of shielding gas and laser reheating2021In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 65, p. 499-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avoiding low austenite fractions and nitride formation are major challenges in laser welding of duplex stainless steels (DSS). The present research aims at investigating efficient means of promoting austenite formation during autogenous laser welding of DSS without sacrificing productivity. In this study, effects of shielding gas and laser reheating were investigated in welding of 1.5-mm-thick FDX 27 (UNS S82031) DSS. Four conditions were investigated: Ar-shielded welding, N2-shielded welding, Ar-shielded welding followed by Ar-shielded laser reheating, and N2-shielded welding followed by N2-shielded laser reheating. Optical microscopy, thermodynamic calculations, and Gleeble heat treatment were performed to study the evolution of microstructure and chemical composition. The austenite fraction was 22% for Ar-shielded and 39% for N2-shielded as-welded conditions. Interestingly, laser reheating did not significantly affect the austenite fraction for Ar shielding, while the austenite fraction increased to 57% for N2-shielding. The amount of nitrides was lower in N2-shielded samples compared to in Ar-shielded samples. The same trends were also observed in the heat-affected zone. The nitrogen content of weld metals, evaluated from calculated equilibrium phase diagrams and austenite fractions after Gleeble equilibrating heat treatments at 1100 °C, was 0.16% for N2-shielded and 0.11% for Ar-shielded welds, confirming the importance of nitrogen for promoting the austenite formation during welding and especially reheating. Finally, it is recommended that combining welding with pure nitrogen as shielding gas and a laser reheating pass can significantly improve austenite formation and reduce nitride formation in DSS laser welds. © 2020, The Author(s).

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  • 5.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Identification and quantification of martensite in ferritic-austenitic stainless steels and welds2021In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 15, p. 3610-3621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at the phase identification and quantification in transformation induced plasticity duplex stainless steel (TDSS) base and weld metal containing ferrite, austenite, and martensite. Light optical microscopy (LOM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were employed to analyze phases. Samples were either mechanically or electrolytically polished to study the effect of the preparation technique. Mechanical polishing produced up to 26% strain-induced martensite. Electrolytic polishing with 150 g citric acid, 300 g distilled water, 600 mL H3PO4, and 450 mL H2SO4 resulted in martensite free surfaces, providing high-quality samples for EBSD analysis. Martensite identification was challenging both with LOM, due to the similar etching response of ferrite and martensite, and with EBSD, due to the similar lattice structures of ferrite and martensite. An optimized Beraha color etching procedure was developed that etched martensite distinctively. A novel step-by-step EBSD methodology was also introduced considering grain size and orientation, which successfully identified and quantified martensite as well as ferrite and austenite in the studied TDSS. Although here applied to a TDSS, the presented EBSD methodology is general and can, in combination with knowledge of the metallurgy of the specific material and with suitable adaption, be applied to a multitude of multiphase materials. It is also general in the sense that it can be used for base material and weld metals as well as additive manufactured materials.

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    JMR&T
  • 6.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Alfa Laval Tumba AB, Tumba (SWE).
    Harati, Ebrahim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. ITW Welding AB,Partille (SWE).
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Wire laser metal deposition additive manufacturing of duplex stainless steel components -Development of a systematic methodology2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 23, article id 7170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic four-stage methodology was developed and applied to the Laser Metal Deposition with Wire (LMDw) of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) cylinder > 20 kg. In the four stages, single-bead passes, a single-bead wall, a block, and finally a cylinder were produced. This stepwise approach allowed the development of LMDw process parameters and control systems while the volume of deposited material and the geometrical complexity of components increased. The as-deposited microstructure was inhomogeneous and repetitive, consisting of highly ferritic regions with nitrides and regions with high fractions of austenite. However, there were no cracks or lack of fusion defects; there were only some small pores, and strength and toughness were comparable to those of the corresponding steel grade. A heat treatment for 1 h at 1100 degrees (C) was performed to homogenize the microstructure, remove nitrides, and balance the ferrite and austenite fractions compensating for nitrogen loss occurring during LMDw. The heat treatment increased toughness and ductility and decreased strength, but these still matched steel properties. It was concluded that implementing a systematic methodology with a stepwise increase in the deposited volume and geometrical complexity is a cost-effective way of developing additive manufacturing procedures for the production of significantly sized metallic components.

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    Materials
  • 7.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Alfa Laval Tumba AB, Tumba (SWE).
    Harati, Ebrahim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. ITW Welding AB, Partille (SWE).
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Wire laser metal deposition of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel: as-deposited and heat-treated microstructure and mechanical properties2022In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 57, no 21, p. 9556-9575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) blocks with dimensions of 150 × 70x30 mm3 were fabricated by Laser Metal Deposition with Wire (LMDw). Implementation of a programmable logic control system and the hot-wire technology provided a stable and consistent process producing high-quality and virtually defect-free deposits. Microstructure and mechanical properties were studied for as-deposited (AD) material and when heat-treated (HT) for 1 h at 1100 °C. The AD microstructure was inhomogeneous with highly ferritic areas with nitrides and austenitic regions with fine secondary austenite occurring in a periodic manner. Heat treatment produced a homogenized microstructure, free from nitrides and fine secondary austenite, with balanced ferrite and austenite fractions. Although some nitrogen was lost during LMDw, heat treatment or reheating by subsequent passes in AD allowed the formation of about 50% austenite. Mechanical properties fulfilled common requirements on strength and toughness in both as-deposited and heat-treated conditions achieving the highest strength in AD condition and best toughness and ductility in HT condition. Epitaxial ferrite growth, giving elongated grains along the build direction, resulted in somewhat higher toughness in both AD and HT conditions when cracks propagated perpendicular to the build direction. It was concluded that high-quality components can be produced by LMDw and that deposits can be used in either AD or HT conditions. The findings of this research provide valuable input for the fabrication of high-performance DSS AM components

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  • 8.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Movahedi, Mojtaba
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (IRN).
    Consumable pin-friction stir spot welding of Al-Mg-Si alloy via pre-created hole and refilling: Microstructure evolution, defects, and shear/tensile failure load2023In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part C, journal of mechanical engineering science, ISSN 0954-4062, E-ISSN 2041-2983, Vol. 237, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since Al-Mg-Si alloys are widely used in the transportation industry, it is important to produce a sound and robust weld between the sheets of these alloys. The focus of this work is on the tensile-shear and cross-tension strengths of the consumable pin-friction stir spot welds (CP-FSSWs) without an exit-hole between the Al-6061 aluminum sheets. Before welding, a hole was created at the joint region in the base sheets and then, it was filled using a rotating consumable pin. The tensile-shear, cross-tension, and microhardness tests were employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the spot welds. The results showed that the pre-created hole was entirely filled during the welding process. While a complete bond was formed between the consumable pin and the lateral surface of the hole, there were three distinct regions at the interface of the pin and the bottom of the hole: complete bond, kissing bond, and defects. Enhancement of the tool rotational speed decreased the area of the complete bond in the weld compared to the other regions. A linear relationship existed between the bonding area and weld failure load in the cross-tension test. The proposed relationship approved the impact of the swirly region at the interface of the base sheets on the weld strength. While in the cross-tension test, the weld failure load decreased from ∼2800 to ∼1950 N, it improved from ∼10,500 to ∼12,000 N in the tensile-shear test with enhancement of the tool rotational speed from 700 to 2000 rpm. The hardness measurements demonstrated that there was no common heat affected zone softening after CP-FSSW.  

  • 9.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Patel, Vivek
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Li, Wenya
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072, Shaanxi (CHN).
    Yang, Xiawei
    State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072, Shaanxi (CHN).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ductilization and grain refinement of AA7075-T651 alloy via stationary shoulder friction stir processing2023In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 27, p. 5360-5367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy subjected to stationary shoulder friction stir processing (SSFSP). SSFSP samples were produced at three different rotational speeds in a range of 600–1000 rpm. The results reveal that SSFSP leads to a uniform grain refinement within the Stir Zone (SZ), reducing the grain size to approximately 2–3 μm from the initial 15 μm in the base material (BM) irrespective of the probe rotational speeds. After SSFSP, the elongation increased by over 50 % at the cost of 10 % reduction in the ultimate tensile strength for all samples. It was worth to note that variations in tool rotational speed exhibited minimal influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties, offering wide range of probe rotational speeds. This could be attributed to the use of non-rotating shoulder with prob dominated microstructure in the SZ. Fractographic analysis confirmed the ductile nature of fractures, revealing development of fine dimples due to grain refinement. This work underscores the effectiveness of SSFSP in achieving significant grain refinement followed by drastic increase in ductility, which offers valuable insights for using stationary shoulder at wider range of rotational speed.

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  • 10.
    Jadidi, Aydin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Azhiri, R. B.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson (USA).
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Salmanibideskan, A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (IRN).
    Lap joining of aluminum 5052 to copper by optimum friction stir spot welding process2022In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, lap joints of dissimilar 5052 aluminum alloy and pure copper were fabricated by friction stir spot welding process. The work was aimed to find simultaneous effect of parameters such as tool rotary speed (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) and dwell time (5, 10, and 15 s) on lap shear force (LSF), hardness, and microstructure evolution. Also, statistical models of the quality characteristics were developed to understand which parameter has dominant effect on quality characteristics. Research findings showed that to obtain sound joints with high lap shear strength, tool rotary speed of 1500 rpm and dwell time of 15 s should be selected. It provides sufficient heat input for mechanical interlocking and prevents the formation of coarse and thick intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the stir zone. On the other hand, to achieve maximum hardness, 2000 rpm tool rotary speed should be chosen to provide enough heat for formation of intermetallic compound and 10Â s dwell time should be used to prevent enough time for microstructure refining. Moreover, from the statistical analyses, it was found that dwell time and tool speed are the significant factors for lap shear strength and hardness, respectively. In order to attain simultaneous maximum strength and hardness, tool speed of 1630 rpm and dwell time of 14 s should be used. In such condition, lap shear strength of 1980 N and hardness of 78 V are achieved with desirability of 86%. 

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    Springer
  • 11.
    Patel, Vivek
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Wouters, Hendrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    De Backer, Jeroen
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Friction & Forge Processes, TWI, Cambridge (GBR).
    Igestrand, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Azimi, Saeed
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Robotic friction stir welding in lightweight battery assembly of extrusion-cast aluminium alloys2023In: Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, ISSN 2666-3309, Vol. 8, article id 100156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on developing lightweight assembly of two different aluminium alloys extruded and high pressure die cast (HPDC) for battery frame assembly in BEV. The goal is to produce defect-free welds in lap configuration with smooth surface finish. Stationary shoulder friction stir welding (SSFSW) was employed with welding speeds of 3–15 mm/s. EBSD analysis revealed two groups of grains in the stir zone (SZ) due to dynamic recrystallization. Moreover, the grain size of the SZ significantly decreased compared to both alloys. The cast alloy contains large iron particles, and that were broken by the rotating probe, and the stirred material consisted of fine dispersed precipitates. Tensile-shear test found the fracture location at the hook area near to cast, and a model representing fracture behavior is also discussed. With increasing welding speed from 3 to 5 mm/s, the tensile strength found ∼95 and ∼100 MPa, respectively without any significance difference in the fracture behavior and location. Overall, this study provides valuable insights such as materials mixing, grain refinement, and joint strength in dissimilar joining using SSFSW. The findings could be useful in developing optimized welding parameters and improving the overall quality and productivity of the SSFSW process for battery pack assembly in BEV.

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