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  • 1.
    Högström, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Fadaei, Amirhosein
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Rahimi, Amin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Li, Peigang
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Igestrand, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Andersson, Joel
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Scotti, Americo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Proposal and Assessment of a Multiple Cycle-Continuous Cooling Transformation (MC-CCT) Diagram for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Thin Walls2023Ingår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikel-id 1533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of base metals are common in welding. They can be built using physical or numerical simulations, each with advantages and limitations. However, those are not usual for weld metal, considering its variable composition due to the dilution of the weld into the base metal. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a distinctive casein which the interest in materials comparable with weld composition raises attention to estimating their mechanical properties. Notwithstanding, this concept is still not used in WAAM. Therefore, the aim of this work was to address a methodology to raise MC-CCT (Multiple Cycle ContinuousCooling Transformation) diagrams for WAAM by combining physical and numerical simulations. A high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) feedstock (a combination of a wire and a shielding gas) was used as a case study. To keep CCT as representative as possible, the typical multiple thermal cycles for additive manufacturing thin walls were determined and replicated in physical simulations (Gleeble dilatometry). The start and end transformations were determined by the differential linear variation approach for each thermal cycle. Microstructure analyses and hardness were used to characterise the product after the multiple cycles. The same CCT diagram was raised by a commercial numerical simulation package to determine the shape of the transformation curves. A range of austenitic grain sizes was scanned for the curve position matching the experimental results. Combining the experimental data and numerically simulated curves made estimating the final CCT diagram possible.

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  • 2.
    Li, Peigang
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Cold lap formation in Gas Metal Arc Welding of steel: An experimental study of micro-lack of fusion defects2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold laps are defined as micro-lack of fusion defects at the weld toe more or less parallel to the surface of the parent plate. These defects are known to negatively influence the fatigue properties of weldments. Previous studies suggest that cold lap formation can not be avoided completely in Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). Therefore, a better understanding of formation mechanisms is imperative to be able to minimize the number and size of these defects. The main objective of this work has been to provide a more comprehensive understanding of cold laps, including categorising, characterisation and defining the most significant factors for formation. GMAW was used to produce welds that were investigated by metallographic methods using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. A novel classification of cold laps was introduced and three types of cold laps were identified: spatter cold laps, overlap cold laps and spatter-overlap cold laps. It was shown that cold laps are partially or fully filled by oxides. The most common oxides are manganese silicon oxides which were concluded to be formed primarily by oxidation of droplets. The presence of oxides was found to significantly increase the tendency to form spatter cold laps as well as overlap cold laps. Particularly for overlap cold laps, it was found that the depth (in transverse direction of weld) is reduced when welding in a non-oxidising environment. Welding on blasted surfaces increased the cold lap formation by entrapment of gas. The droplet and base metal temperatures were also found to be significant factors in cold lap formation. For overlap cold laps the occurrence frequency decreased with increased preheating temperature of the base metal. Mechanisms of overflowing resulting in overlap cold laps were discussed based on an extensive literature review. Several phenomena are believed to contribute to overflow including Rayleigh instability, the balance of forces, transfer of lateral momentum by droplets and an outward Marangoni fluid flow of the weld pool.

    The present studies suggest that cold lap formation can be suppressed by ensuring that the welding process (arc) is as stable as possible and by welding on a preheated work piece in a non-oxidising environment.

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  • 3.
    Li, Peigang
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Experimental study on cold lap formation in tandem gas metal arc welding2011Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Al-Hallis, Yazan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Al-Chafey, Rani
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Influence of Processes and Process Variables for WAAM: Geometry of Deposited Bead2024Ingår i: Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024) / [ed] Joel Andersson, Shrikant Joshi, Lennart Malmsköld, Fabian Hanning, IOS Press , 2024, s. 90-100Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is developing rapidly in recent years due to its advantages, such as higher productivity, lower cost, acceptable quality, and the availability of advanced welding processes. Cold Metal Transfer (CMT), as the most well-known Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process, is widely used in WAAM. The uniqueness of CMT lies in minimizing the heat input of the process. However, there is a drawback to the lower heat input, impacting the quality of the geometry of the welding bead, sharp transitions at the weld toe, inclusions, etc., particularly for higher alloyed steel, e.g., tool steel. In this study, two processes were employed: CMT and Pulse Multi Control (PMC). Two types of shielding gases were used, namely 2% CO2 + 98% Ar and 20% CO2 + 80% Ar.

    Two levels of wire feed speed were selected: high and low levels. A full-fraction factorial experimental matrix was created, and bead-on-plate samples were produced with different GMAW processes, i.e., CMT and PMC. The geometry of the bead-on-plate, including penetration, bead width and height, and toe angle, was evaluated and analyzed. A correlation between the process factors (shielding gas, type of process, and wire feed speed) and the geometry of the bead was analyzed and determined. A protocol is proposed based on the study results for the selection of WAAM processes. 

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  • 5.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    ESAB AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Högström, Mats
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Scotti, Americo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    A contribution to the study of negative polarity in GMA welding2018Ingår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 95, nr 5-8, s. 2543-2553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    GMAW using the electrode with negative polarity (DCEN) has been frequently suggested as a potential means of increasing production capacity. The objective of this work was to further study the performance of negative polarity in GMAW of carbon steels. In this project phase, bead-on-plate welds were carried out in flat position to assess the effect of different potential shielding gas compositions on bead geometry, finishing and spattering. The characteristics were compared with DCEP at the same current, but depositing the same volume of material per unit of length (more industrial related comparison). The arc length was kept the same by adjusting voltage to reach shortest arcs, yet with suitable non short-circuiting metal transfer mode. An approach to measure bead convexity was also proposed and assessed. The results showed that DCEN is feasible as a means of increasing GMAW production capacity. However, to become DCEN applicable with GMAW, the results suggest an Ar based blend with around 6.5 % of O2 is the most appropriate shielding gas, as much as that there is a demand for a standard electronic controlled power source able to work in constant current mode. 

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  • 6.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Factors influencing fusion of spatter to the base metal during tandem GMAW2012Ingår i: Proceedings of The 5th International Swedish Production Symposium: 6th-8th of November 2012 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Mats Björkman, Linköping, Sweden, 2012, s. 233-239Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tandem gas metal arc welding (tandem GMAW) is, as a high productivity welding method of manufacturing process, utilized broadly in modern Swedish industry. Spatter is more or less an inevitable flaw in GMAW, especially for the high efficiency processes. Recently, spatter was found as a potential source of cold laps, which negatively influences fatigue life. The main objectives of this paper are to investigate the spatter/base metal interface and identify the primary factors for formation of cold laps.

    Tandem GMAW was performed in a sealed chamber filled with either pure argon or pure dioxide. Cross sections of spatter and base metal were prepared and evaluated by Light optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with an attached Energy Dispersive Spectroscope (EDS).

    Mn-Si oxides were found to enhance the lack of fusion occurrence in the spatter/base metal. The oxide of Mn and Si mostly came from oxidation of the droplets in the welding process. Spatter diameter and spatter distance was evaluated with respect to lack of fusion in spatter/base metal interface for welds using pure Ar shielding gas. From this it was concluded that temperature is another important factor for lack of fusion formation in the spatter/base metal interface.

  • 7.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Factors influencing fusion on spatter to the base metal during tandem GMAW weldingIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik.
    Influence of oxides on cold lap formation in tandem GMAW2012Ingår i: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 643-648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between the formation of cold laps and the presence of Mn‐Si oxides was studied. The underlying purpose is to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cold lap formation and to avoid it. Tandem gas metal arc welding (GMAW) was used to produce welded specimens in two different shielding gases (pure Ar and pure CO2) with base metal S355 MC (EN-10149-2) and wire G3Si1 (EN ISO 14341-A). Cross-sections of welds in the cold lap location were evaluated by light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the Mn‐Si oxides significantly enhanced cold laps formation, especially the overlap type cold lap formation. The Mn‐Si oxides originated from oxidation of the droplets. These oxides transfers to the surface of the weld pool at the weld toe, where they contributed to the formation of the cold laps.

  • 9.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön produktionsteknik(PTW). Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Influence of preheating temperature on cold lap formation in tandem GMAW2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A cold lap is defined as a type of micro-lack of fusion in ISO standard (ISO 6520-1:2007) and have been found to influence fatigue properties of welds significantly. In the present study, the main purpose was to investigate the influence of preheating temperature on cold lap formation in tandem GMAW, both with respect to dimensions and occurrence probabilities.

    Three different preheating temperatures were applied and cross-sections of welds were evaluated by light optical microscopy. The results showed that the cold lap occurrence frequency is a function of base metal temperature. However, the base metal temperature does not have a significant influence on cold lap depth.

  • 10.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Study on temperature influence on lack of fusion formation in spatter/base metal interface2014Ingår i: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 875 - 877, s. 1421-1428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of modern welded structures with longer life-time and/or higher load-carrying ability, fatigue properties are becoming more and more important. A lot of researches have been done to investigate which factors can elongate the fatigue life of weldments. Cold lap defects, were found to be important initiation sites of the fatigue failure in 1990s. In the ISO standard, cold lap is referred to as a type of micro-lack of fusion. Previous study found that most of the cold laps in GMAW process are formed in spatters. In this paper the interface of spatter/base metal was cut, polished and investigated by conventional metallographic methods. The aim is to reveal the influence of temperature on cold lap formation. In the experiments, different pre-heating temperatures of the parent plate were used in tandem GMAW. Results showed linear empirical relationship between the temperature of the parent plate and the amount of lack of fusion in the spatter/base metal interface.

  • 11.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Cold laps - micro-lack of fusion defects in steel arc welds: a reviewManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön produktionsteknik(PTW). Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Nylén, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Klement, Uta
    Department of Materials and manufacture, Chalmers University.
    Characterization of cold lap defects in tandem arc MAG welding2012Ingår i: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 56, nr 9/10, s. 20-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to classify and characterize the small lack of fusion defects, called cold lap, located at the weld toe. Since the defects are very small (0.01–1.5 mm) and difficult to detect by NDT methods, a better understanding of the formation mechanism is required to be able to avoid their formation. The investigation consisted of two parts. Firstly, a study was made on the type and frequency of cold laps. Three types were identified, namely “spatter cold lap”, and “overlap cold lap” and “spatter-overlap cold lap”. No relation between type or frequency of cold laps and the welding parameters could be established. Secondly, the interface between spatter and the base material was investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, to better understand the cold lap formation mechanism. Manganese-silicate particles were found in the interface located in such a way that they may assist cold lap formation.

  • 13.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för maskinteknik.
    Nylén, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Materials and Manufacturing Technology.
    Characterization of cold lap defects in tandem arc MAG welding2013Ingår i: Rivista Italiana della Saldatura, ISSN 0035-6794, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 761-769Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to classify and characterize the small lack of fusion defects, called cold lap, located at the weld toe. Since the defects are very small (0.01-1.5 mm) and difficult to detect by NDT methods, a better understanding of the formation mechanism is required to be able to avoid their formation. The investigation consisted of two parts. Firstly, a study was made on the type and frequency of cold laps. Three types were identified, namely "spatter cold lap", and "overlap cold lap" and "spatter-overlap cold lap". No relation between type or frequency of cold laps and the welding parameters could be established. Secondly, the interface between spatter and the base material was investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, to better understand the cold lap formation mechanism. Manganese-silicate particles were found in the interface located in such a way that they may assist cold lap formation.

  • 14.
    Sjölie, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Mortensen, Zakarias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Larsson, Clara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Raza, Tahira
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Li, Peigang
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för svetsteknologi (SV).
    Integration of Research on Immersive Learning Environments and Education in Welding2024Ingår i: Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024) / [ed] Joel Andersson, Shrikant Joshi, Lennart Malmsköld, Fabian Hanning, IOS Press, 2024, Vol. 52, s. 660-671Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of virtual reality (VR) laboratories into welding education presents an array of potential advantages. It can be used at campus or in distance, and it offers an alternative when access to traditional laboratories is challenging. The economic benefits, including savings on material preparation and energy costs, along with the environmental, health and safety advantages of mitigating exposure to welding fumes, arc radiation, and electrical hazards, add further value and contribute to sustainability in welding education. The work presented here is an example of the integration of education in the areas of welding and informatics and research on immersive learning. A multidisciplinary team worked on the development of an immersive learning environment, including virtual laboratory areas for welding processes as well as for microstructural inspection of welds.

    During the project, this learning environment, and the contained virtual laboratories, have been implemented by the researchers with the support from IT students, and tested, and improved with the feedback provided by students in welding technology, materials science, and manufacturing courses. Overall, more than twenty students from Informatics have been involved throughout the project, resulting in five bachelor theses, three master theses, three course projects in Immersive computing, and two course projects focusing on web development. The involvement of IT students has not only supported the development of the virtual learning environment, but it has also created new avenues for future research and developments in immersive computing.

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