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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Briefing: Calling for a norm-critical perspective of digitalisation2021In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304, Vol. 175, no 3, p. 100-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A question that becomes important as the level of digitalisation increases in society and businesses is accounting for how one interprets digitalisation. There are positive examples of digitalisation in relation to gender, age and physical ability and how digital technologies can positively enhance a workplace, although the norm-critical perspective is seldom represented. A more dynamic perspective such as the norm-critical is needed to depict potential limiting structures or assumptions interpreted by digitalisation. This briefing paper takes on an interpretative approach using the Swedish manufacturing industry as a case to illustrate the perspectives related to gender, age and physical ability relative to digitalisation. The norm-critical perspective has formed the narrative and viewpoints presented in this paper. The aim is to highlight the norm-critical perspective as a potential analytical lens among researchers and industry professionals alike to understand how digitalisation is negotiated and given value and how digitalisation is manifested and interpreted to that given value. 

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Content analysis on management discourse in digitalization: A work in progress discussion paper2020In: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2020, p. 22-23Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion-based semi-structured literature review aim to map content analysis in digitalization for exploring the industrial management discourse. The complex puzzle we refer to as organizations and the question of technology as an inherited part in contemporary manufacturing companies are posed bringing challenges and changes for management in manufacturing companies. This paper reviews Digitalization, IT, The Digital, Smart Industry, I4.0, and Maturity as approaches to qualitative content analysis, elaborating on the level of abstraction and degree of interpretation used constructing categories and themes of meaning in the management discourse. Qualitative content analysis is an autonomous method and can be used at varying levels of abstraction and interpretation. Previous research has treated the phenomena of digitalization as something that needs an answer, others have turned to focus on the context of implications. Either way, digitalization has remained a conundrum relative the industrial management discourse. A key issue isto show the logic in how digitalization is depicted and connected to a management discourse to further understand the phenomena. Illuminating such connections is framed as part of the I-WIL research community’s learning, further presented as knowledge gaps probing future research. Drawing on Johansson et al.’s (2017) paper addressing knowledge gaps concerning work and organization, this discussion-based paper aims to address the broad phenomenon of digitalization through a management discourse; Reviewing state-of-the-art literature and presenting viewpoints of the aspects of digitalization showing knowledge gaps for future research using content analysis.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Social Aspects of Strategizing Industrial Digitalization2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to understanding how contemporary Swedish manufacturing organizations can strategize industrial digitalization with an emerging focus on social aspects. It complements earlier research by highlighting Swedish manufacturing organizations as they stand at the intersection of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0.

    The thesis is a longitudinal case study of interviews and focus groups between early 2019 and spring 2023. The case study follows an explorative approach to give texture to industrial digitalization and to understand the social aspects of strategizing industrial digitalization. It is limited to the Swedish context and the characteristics of original equipment manufacturers.

    The thesis contributes by texturizing industrial digitalization through three social aspects, which are argued to be a way for manufacturing organizations to give shape to industrial digitalization. The social aspects elaborated on and presented in this thesis are: to look beyond digital technologies, to formalize a shared understanding, and to transcend organizational structures. These social aspects are thematic but also interlinked. Together, these social aspects bring insights into how managers can guide the organizational capabilities to ensure synergy between an organization’s actions and objectives when strategizing industrial digitalization. Strategizing industrial digitalization should, therefore, be texturized by each organization to define and redefine its organizational capabilities. This means each organization's social aspects are unique, making the manufacturing organizations' capabilities unique.

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    Avhandlingen
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    Spikbladet
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Strategizing organizational capabilities for industrial digitalization: exploring managers’ technological frames2023In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 20-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study draws on technological frames to provide an understanding of organizational processes of strategizing by exploring how strategizing organizational capabilities for industrial digitalization could be understood through managers’ perceptions of digital technology applications. This study complements earlier research focused on industry outcomes by addressing technological frames to understand how strategizing organizational capabilities within industrial digitalization may provide insight into socio-cognitive aspects which may affect technology-induced organizational change.

    Design/methodology/approach – The single case study uses 14 in-depth interviews collected over two years (October 2020 to February 2022). The study follows an interpretative research design exploring managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalization through a digitalization project.

    Findings – The case study contributes to research by emphasizing socio-cognitive aspects through technological frames exploring how and why managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalization affect strategizing organizational capabilities. The study contributes to practice by bringing attention to the disparate views of industrial digitalization. By illustrating how socio-cognitive aspects shape organizational capabilities, this study offers managers valuable insight into the relationship between an organization’s capabilities, the individual and the shared structures affecting a digitalization project.

    Research limitations/implications – The case study is limited to Swedish manufacturing industries and is not aiming to be transferred or generalized to other industrial contexts or countries.

    Originality/value – This study recognizes that strategizing organizational capabilities depends on managers’ ability to illuminate the socio-cognitive aspects. Hence, the study contributes to practice by bringing attention to the disparate views among managers on the enhancement efforts made using digital technologies.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    VILÄR: 9-10 of December 20212021Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    VILÄR
  • 6.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gjellebæk, Camilla
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Østfold University College, Faculty of Health, Welfare and Organisation, Halden (NOR).
    Café seminar: Stimulating Work-Integrated Learning in Research Education2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 19-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many enrolled doctoral students experience a lack of community and uncertainty due to temporary and unpredictable positions. For example, doctoral students in Sweden report feeling lonely and lacking a sense of togetherness regarding their doctoral research program and research community (Akademiet for yngre forskere, 2021; Fackförbundet ST and Sveriges Förenade Studentkårer, 2021). A recent report states that only 15 percent of doctoral students in Norway complete their education by the end of the original contract period (Fodstad-Larsen, 2022), and they are described to battle various psychosocial challenges related to their work, work environment, and work-life. 

    The understanding of research community is, however, by no means a straightforward issue. How research communities develop is unclear, and the role and engagement of doctoral students within the community is equally challenging. Opportunities for social contact, academic discussions with fellow students, integra tion into the departmental community, and the possibility for doctoral students to become involved in the broader research culture are pointed out as triggers for a sense of togetherness (Brew et al., 2017). Nevertheless, these items reflect only a limited notion of a research community. For the triggers to contribute to a sense of togetherness and to a research community where the doctoral students experience learning as an integral part of the research education, it requires an operationalization of the triggers into tools and strategies.Finding tools for building a community and sense of togetherness may be a way to hinder the sense of distress among doctoral students. Furthermore, finding structures to create long-lasting communities may benefit continuous networking among doctoral students contributing to lifelong learning. In this paper, we will explore how "world-café" seminars can be used as a tool and stimulation for community building in research education.

    The case setting was one seminar session within a series of cross-border doctoral seminars designed to strengthen research collaboration between the participating higher education institutions and promote the exchange of experience and skills between doctoral students and research environments. The seminar series hosted 22 doctoral students from Norway and Sweden, and the participants had different academic backgrounds, belong to different research educations at different academic institutions, and are at different places in the process of the ir research education. The initiators of the seminars were the chairs of the doctoral forums at two academic institutions, one in Sweden and one in Norway. The chairs were also the ones guiding the participants through the café seminar process.

    A world café is a seminar form which essence is an intervention for organizational change and development or community building amongst individuals, e.g., doctoral students. Its defining characteristic is how communication is based on conversations structured as dialogue. Here, the dialogue is proposed to create a meaning flow between participants, resulting in shared meaning and opportunities for life-long learning as well as learning as an integral part of work or education. Prewitt (2011) describes the caf e's unique contribution as the interventional form; of structured conversation in short cycles, which deliberately mixes participants between cycles to maximize knowledge exchange.

    To initiate the café seminar, the essence of world café was introduced by the two chairs. The cafés were hosted by the same chairs, in the role as so-called café facilitators guiding the participants throughout the four cycles, each round lasting 20-30 minutes. In the first three cycles, one participant volunteered to be the tab le host with the position to anchor that table's conversation throughout multiple changes of visitors and potential changes of table hosts. The table host was responsible for holding the collective and evolving the topic at this table, and the other participants carried their collective and evolving stories with them. This café had four tables and three topics: i) Knowledge and Life-Long Learning ii) Transformation and Sustainable Development, iii) Social Sustainability. The "transformation and sustainable development" were discussed at two tables and the others at one each. In the first cycle, participants brainstormed in four smaller groups around the three topics the café facilitators presented. The second cycle started when a new composition of doctoral students gathered at each of the four café tablets.

    The table host presented a summary from the previous discussion before a new brainstorming and discussion started. In the third cycle, participants changed tables again. This time they were encouraged to formalize and concretize the brainstorming notes into a structure containing the research topic, motivation, research question, context, theory and methodology, and contribution. In the fourth and final cycle, the doctoral students formed self -selected writing groups around the three overall topics. At this stage, the café seminar had been going on for 2,5 hours, and the participants were no longer bound to stay in the venue to finish. Hence, the seminar ended with the forming of writing groups. All the writing groups were encouraged to work further with the aim of designing a common abstract. Eight doctoral students chose to continue with the topic of knowledge and life -long learning, four with the topic of transformation and sustainable development, and five chose the topic of social sustainability.Our findings, based on participatory observation, oral feedback from the participants, and evaluation filled in after the seminars, show that a dialogical seminar is well suited for deriving cross-disciplinary research experiences amongst doctoral students. Sharing and exchanging experiences promote work-integrated learning in a research community initiated and led by fellow doctoral students. In the feedback the participants in the café seminar reported a sense of togetherness by being included in a safe community with fellow colleagues. The formal structure of the café seminar provided mutual ground and formalized dialogues amongst doctoral students who would otherwise not meet, and this provided a tool to formulate initiatives for long-lasting communities across disciplines and higher institutions.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Desperately seeking industrial digital strategy: a dynamic capability approach2021In: International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management, ISSN 1479-3121, E-ISSN 1479-313X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 345-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on managers’ perceptions of organisational capabilities for strategy formulation related to industrial digitalisation. A qualitative case study based on ten interviews in two manufacturing companies explores managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalisation. A dynamic capability framework, consisting of the organisational capabilities sensing, seizing, and transforming opportunities, is applied to recognise and analyse nuances in managers’ interpretation of prevailing organisational capabilities. Findings reveal that the studied companies have a limited maturity concerning knowledge, skills, and resources for industrial digitalisation which is needed in order to formulate a digital strategy. An additional core capability was discerned, i.e., ’seeking’. Seeking includes actions for articulating, appropriating, and involving in the very early phases of understanding and formulating a digital strategy. This article contributes to the existing dynamic capability framework by adding the core capability seeking illustrated in an elaborated and holistic ’dynamic capability loop’. The loop frames industrial digitalisation as a continuous process closely integrated with strategy formulation.  

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, UlrikaUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    WIL'22 7-9 December 2022, International Conference on Work Integrated Learning, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden: Abstract Book2022Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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    Abstract Book
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Taking Responsibility for Industrial Digitalization: Navigating Organizational Challenges2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 866-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an employee perspective has been applied in aiming to explore how organizations face challenges and take responsibility for industrial digitalization, thus extending the research on the human-centric perspective in relation to Industry 4.0 technologies. To give emphasis to the human-centric perspective, the co-workership wheel was applied to identify and analyze data. The findings of an explorative longitudinal qualitative case study consisting of 35 in-depth interviews with informants from a manufacturing company were used. Additional data collection consisted of documents and project meetings. By applying a human-centric perspective, llessons learned from this case study show that taking responsibility for industrial digitalization is challenging and the importance of an adaptive organizational culture and a focus on learning and competence are crucial. We argue that the findings give useful implications for manufacturing organizations navigating the challenges of industrial digitalization to sense and seize the benefits of Industry 4.0 technologies.

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Taking care of Digital initiatives: Managers approaching industrial digitalization2021In: Proceedings of the International Association for Computer Information Systems: Europe June 24 - 25 2021 - Virtual Conference, 2021, p. 22-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Managers’ Perceptions of Industrial Digitalization in the Early Phases of a Pandemic: A Qualitative Study2022In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 8th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in Information Systems Development, STPIS 2022 Reykjavik 19 August 2022 through 20 August 2022 / [ed] Bednar P., Bednar P., Islind A.S., Hult H.V., Hult H.V., Nolte A., Nolte A., Rajanen M., Zaghloul F., Ravarini A., Braccini A.M., CEUR-WS , 2022, Vol. 3239, p. 99-110, article id 183336Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how managers in the manufacturing industry simultaneously accommodated industrial digitalization and the impact of COVID-19. Managers’ views and understanding of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic are narrated through the circumstances that came to their proxy during the spring of 2020. The study result is based on qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with eight small- and medium-sized manufacturing managers. This study contributes by giving empirically informed implications on manufacturing managers’ perception of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings show that industrial digitalization due to the COVID-19 pandemic is viewed differently from previous digitalization processes, causing new ways for managers to perceive how and why digital technologies may be implemented. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

  • 12.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Belenki, Stanislav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Artificial and human aspects of Industry 4.0: an industrial work-integrated-learning research agenda2021In: VILÄR: 9-10 of December, 2021, University West, Trollhättan, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is currently under extreme pressure to transform their organizations and competencies to reap the benefits of industry 4.0. The main driver for industry 4.0 is digitalization with disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, internet of things, digital platforms, etc. Industrial applications and research studies have shown promising results, but they rarely involve a human-centric perspective. Given this, we argue there is a lack of knowledge on how disruptive technologies take part in human decision-making and learning practices, and to what extent disruptive technologies may support both employees and organizations to “learn”. In recent research the importance and need of including a human-centric perspective in industry 4.0 is raised including a human learning and decision-making approach. Hence, disruptive technologies, by themselves, no longer consider to solve the actual problems.

    Considering the richness of this topic, we propose an industrial work-integrated-learning research agenda to illuminate a human-centric perspective in Industry 4.0. This work-in-progress literature review aims to provide a research agenda on what and how application areas are covered in earlier research. Furthermore, the review identifies obstacles and opportunities that may affect manufacturing to reap the benefits of Industry 4.0. As part of the research, several inter-disciplinary areas are identified, in which industrial work-integrated-learning should be considered to enhance the design, implementation, and use of Industry 4.0 technologies. In conclusion, this study proposes a research agenda aimed at furthering research on how industrial digitalization can approach human and artificial intelligence through industrial work-integrated-learning for a future digitalized manufacturing.

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    VILÄR 2021
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Exploring Socially Sustainable, Smart Manufacturing: Building Bridges Over Troubled Waters2024In: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364, p. 833-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary manufacturing organizations formulate strategies towards smart manufacturing. However, strategies often merely regard technological improvements of working processes and activities and pay limited attention to human-centric perspectives. This study addresses the complex phenomenon of reaching socially sustainable smart manufacturing by exploring the human-centric perspectives in the eras of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0. Data were collected through an explorative qualitative case study with focus groups applying the history wall approach to document informants’ choices of activities that impact digitalization. To investigate informants’ interpretations and experiences of digital initiatives and prospects, the history wall approach was coupled with the analytical lens of the co-workership wheel, with its four conceptual pairs: trust and openness, community spirit and cooperation, engagement and meaningfulness, responsibility, and initiative. A total of 17 informants from different organizational levels at a case company participated. Activities, impacting digitalization, brought forward were grouped into technology, organization, and external impact. Results showed that human-centric and intangible perspectives surfaced as prerequisites when navigating industrial digitalization. Further, digital initiatives and prospects risk drowning in re-occurring organizational changes making successful implementation difficult. Thus, organizations cannot rely solely on technology, but must consider activities related to organizational aspects and impacts from the external environment, when introducing digital initiatives. Intrinsically, recognition of the co-workership concept, emphasizing human-centricity, can support the foundation necessary for bridging the gap towards socially sustainable smart manufacturing and strengthening the emerging I5.0 research.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    To digitalize or not? Navigating and merging human: and technology perspectives in production planning and control2022In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary manufacturing companies are navigating industrial digitalization anticipating increased production efciency and competitiveness in a volatile environment. This study focuses on the implementation processes of digital tools for production planning and control (PPC), i.e., advanced planning and scheduling (APS) software, in relation to the application of analog planning with physical fow boards. Digital tools can support understanding the consequences of production changes and variations, hence facilitating adaptable and resilient manufacturing. However, technological changes can be daunting, and efective implementations require dynamic capabilities to remain competitive in elusive environments. The aim is to study the implementation processes of an APS software to understand the requirements of fruitfully moving from analog planning to next-generation digital tools for decision support in PPC. The paper presents an explorative case study, at a manufacturing company within the energy sector. The interview study took place over 9 months during 2020–2021, investigating current and retrospective aspects of the case across 2019–2021. The case study comprises 17 in-depth interviews with a range of company employees, e.g., logistics managers and functions responsible for digitalization development. The results highlight the challenges of implementing and especially trusting digital tools for PPC. To realize the value of digital tools for PPC, it is argued that it is imperative to simultaneously apply a human-centric perspective in decision making to ensure trustworthy, sustainable, and resilient human-data-technology nexus implementations towards smart manufacturing

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Beyond lean production practices and Industry 4.0 technologies toward the human-centric Industry 5.02024In: Technological Sustainability, ISSN 2754-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Both technological and human-centric perspectives need to be acknowledged when combining lean production practices and Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies. This study aims to explore and explain how lean production practices and I4.0 technologies may coexist to enhance the human-centric perspective of manufacturing operations in the era of Industry 5.0 (I5.0).

    Design/methodology/approach

    The research approach is an explorative and longitudinal case study. The qualitative data collection encompasses respondents from different job functions and organizational levels to cover the entire organization. In total, 18 interviews with 19 interviewees and five focus groups with a total of 25 participants are included.

    Findings

    Identified challenges bring forth that manufacturing organizations must have the ability to see beyond lean production philosophy and I4.0 to meet the demand for a human-centric perspective in socially sustainable manufacturing in the era of Industry 5.0.

    Practical implications

    The study suggests that while lean production practices and I4.0 practices may be considered separately, they need to be integrated as complementary approaches. This underscores the complexity of managing simultaneous organizational changes and new digital initiatives.

    Social implications

    The research presented illuminates the elusive phenomena comprising the combined aspects of a human-centric perspective, specifically bringing forth implications for the co-existence of lean production practices and I4.0 technologies, in the transformation towards I5.0.

    Originality/value

    The study contributes to new avenues of research within the field of socially sustainable manufacturing. The study provides an in-depth analysis of the human-centric perspective when transforming organizations towards Industry 5.0.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Gjellebæk, Camilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Cross-border doctoral seminar2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hattinger, Monika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Belenki, Stanislav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Reviewing human-centric themes in intelligent manufacturing research2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 125-127Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of Industry 4.0, emergent digital technologies generate profound transformations in the industry toward developing intelligent manufacturing. The technologies included in Industry 4.0 are expected to bring new perspectives to the industry on how manufacturing can integrate new solutions to get maximum output with minimum resource utilization (Kamble et al., 2018). Industry 4.0 technologies create a great impact on production systems and processes, however, affect organizational structures and working life conditions by disrupting employees’ everyday practices and knowledge, in which competence and learning, human interaction, and organizational structures are key. Hence, new digital solutions need to be integrated with work and learning to generate more holistic and sustainable businesses (Carlsson et al., 2021).

    The core Industry 4.0 technologies are built on cyber-physical systems (CPS), cloud computing, and the Internet of things (IoT) (Kagermann et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2018). In recent years, an array of additional technologies has been developed further, such as artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), cyber security, robotics, and automation. Industry 4.0 aims to create a potential for faster delivery times, more efficient and automated processes, higher quality, and customized products (Zheng et al., 2021). Hence, the ongoing transformation through the technological shift of production in combination with market demands pushes the industry and its production process.

    Recent research has substantially contributed to an increased understanding of the technological aspects of Industry 4.0. However, the utilization of technologies is only a part of the complex puzzle making up Industry 4.0 (Kagermann et al., 2013; Zheng et al., 2021). The impact Industry 4.0 technologies and application s have on the industrial context also changes and disrupts existing and traditional work practices (Taylor et al., 2020), management and leadership (Saucedo-Martínez et al., 2018), learning and skills (Tvenge & Martinsen, 2018), and education (Das et al., 2020). This research has shown a growing interest in human-centric aspects of Industry 4.0 (Nahavandi, 2019), i.e., the transformative effects Industry 4.0 has on humans, workplace design, organizational routines, skills, learning, etc. However, these aspects are scarcely considered in-depth. Given this, and from a holistic point of view, there is a need to understand intelligent manufacturing practice from a human-centric perspective, where issues of work practices and learning are integrated, herein refe rred to as industrial work-integrated learning. I-WIL is a research area that particularly pays attention to knowledge production and learning capabilities related to use and development when technology and humans co -exist in industrial work settings (Shahlaei & Lundh Snis, 2022). Even if Industry 4.0 still is relevant for continuous development, a complementary Industry 5.0 has arisen to provide efficiency and productivity as the sole goals to reinforce a sustainable, human-centric, and resilient manufacturing industry (Breque et al., 2021; Nahavandi, 2019).

    Given this situation, the research question addressed here is: How does state-of-the-art research of Industry 4.0 technologies and applications consider human-centric aspects? A systematic literature review was conducted aiming to identify a future research agenda that emphasizes human-centric aspects of intelligent manufacturing, that will contribute to the field of manufacturing research and practices. This question was based on very few systematic literature reviews, considering Industry 4.0 research incorporating human -centric aspects for developing intelligent manufacturing (Kamble et al., 2018; Zheng et al., 2021). The literature review study was structured by the design of Xiao and Watson’s (2019) methodology consisting of the steps 1) Initial corpus creation, 2) Finalizing corpus, and 3) Analyzing corpus, and we also used a bibliometric approach throughout the search process (Glänzel & Schoepflin, 1999). The keyword selection was categorized into three groups of search terms, “industry 4.0”, “manufacturing”, and “artificial intelligence”, see figure 1. (Not included here)

    Articles were collected from the meta -databases EBSCOhost, Scopus, Eric, and the database AIS, to quantify the presence of human-centric or human-involved AI approaches in recent manufacturing research. A total of 999 scientific articles were collected and clustered based on a list of application areas to investigate if there is a difference between various areas in which artificial intelligence is used. The application areas are decision -making, digital twin, flexible automation, platformization, predictive maintenance, predictive quality, process optimization, production planning, and quality assessment.Throughout the review process, only articles that included both AI and human -centric aspects were screened and categorized. The final corpus included 386 articles of which only 93 articles were identified as human -centric. These articles were categorized into three themes: 1) organizational change, 2) competence and learning, and 3) human-automation interaction. Theme 1 articles related mostly to the application areas of flexible automation (11), production planning (9), and predictive maintenance (5). Theme 2 concerned the application areas of production planning and quality assessment (7), and process optimization (7).

    Finally, theme 3 mainly focused on flexible automation (10), digital twin (3), and platformization (3). The rest of the corpus only consisted of one or two articles in related application areas. To conclude, only a few articles were found that reinforce human -centric themes for Industry 4.0 implementations. The literature review identified obstacles and opportu nities that affect manufacturing organizations to reap the benefits of Industry 4.0. Hence, I-WIL is proposed as a research area to inform a new research agenda that captures human and technological integration of Industry 4.0 and to further illuminate human-centric aspects and themes for future sustainable intelligent manufacturing. 

  • 18.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Carlsson, LinneaUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.Assmo, PerUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.Jacobs, HenryCentral University of Technology, Section for WIL & Industry Liaison, Division of Teaching and Learning (ZAF).
    Abstract Book: WIL Conferens 2024 : 2nd International Concference on Work-Integrated Learning2024Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 19.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Belenki, Stanislav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Artificial and Human Intelligence through Learning: How Industry Applications Need Human-in-the-loop2020In: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2020, p. 24-26Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses work-integrated learning from a workplace learning perspective.Two companies within the manufacturing industry (turbo machinery and aerospace) together with a multi-disciplinary research group explore the opportunities and challenges related to applications of artificial intelligence and human intelligence and how such applications can integrate and support learning at the workplace.The manufacturing industry is currently under extreme pressure to transform their organizations and competencies to reap the benefits of industry 4.0. The main driverf or industry 4.0 is digitalization with disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, internet of things, machine learning, cyber-physical systems, digital platforms, etc. Many significant studies have highlighted the importance of human competence and learning in connection to industry 4.0 in general and disruptive technologies and its transformative consequences in particular. What impact have such technologies on employees and their workplace?

    There is a lack of knowledge on how artificial intelligent systems actually take part in practices of human decision making and learning and to what extent disruptive technology may support both employees and organizations to “learn”. The design  and use of three real-world cases of artificial intelligence applications (as instances of industry 4.0 initiatives) will form the basis of how to support human decision making and scale up for strategic action and learning. Following a work-integratedapproach the overall research question has been formulated together with the two industry partners: How can artificial and human intelligence and learning, interact tobring manufacturing companies into Industry 4.0? An action-oriented research approach with in-depth qualitative and quantitative methods will be used in order to make sense and learn about new applications and data set related to a digitalized production.The contribution of this study will be three lessons learned along with a generic model for learning and organizing in the context of industry 4.0 initiatives. Tentative findings concern how artificial and human intelligence can be smartly integrated into the human work organization, i.e. the workplace. Many iterations of integrating the two intelligences are required. We will discuss a preliminary process-model called “Super8”, in which AI systems must allow for providing feedback on progress as well as being able to incorporate high-level human input in the learning process. The   practical implication of the study will be industrialized in the collaborating 

  • 20.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A co-workership approach on digital transformation: Towards smart manufacturing2022In: Proceedings of the International Association for Computer Information Systems - Europe June 23, 2022: Virtual Conference, International Association for Computer Information Systems, 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital transformation refers to the process of organizational change, evolving over time for value creation and appropriation aiding for smart manufacturing (Skog, 2019). Regarding the role of organizational means, there is an embedded dynamic generator of challenges, opportunities, and resources that affect the digital transformation at various organizational levels related to social factors such as values, culture, and trust (Ibid). Earlier studies of the Swedish manufacturing industry imply that as the number of digital technologies increase within organizations, while striving towards becoming a smart factory, cooperation and social factors become more imperative (Björkdahl, 2020). By following this reasoning, understanding organizational prerequisites that facilitate the human-centric perspective in relation to digital transformation is crucial when approaching smart manufacturing by moving from Industry 4.0 (I4.0) towards Industry 5.0 (I5.0) (Navarandi, 2019). It is argued that a prerequisite for digital transformation is the employees’ ability to cross organizational boundaries both horizontally and vertically (Carlsson et al., 2022) challenging management. The aim of this study is to explore organizational prerequisites for co-workership in digital transformation towards smart manufacturing. The concept of the co-workership wheel reflects the employee as an autonomous actor within the organization. As such, co-workership is vital for managing organizational change, e.g., digital transformation, capturing employees’ initiatives and prospects (Andersson, et al. 2021). As illustrated in Figure 1 the co-workership wheel consists of four conceptual pairs: Trust and Openness; Community Spirit and Cooperation; Engagement and Meaningfulness; Responsibility and Initiative. Together these four pairs describe the foundation for co-workership within the organization, feedbacking a development process towards smart manufacturing.

    Inspired by the application of the co-workership wheel in the health care sector (ibid), this study builds on previous work by Carlsson et al. (2022) to further contribute to the exploration of co-workership in the manufacturing sector strengthening the I5.0 emerging research. By applying a qualitative case-study, organizational prerequisites for co-workership in digital transformation are explored (Yin, 2018). The term co-worker is herein applied in a general sense to explore employees’ experiences covering both managerial levels and service functions. The case company is a large manufacturing organization in the Swedish energy sector. In-depth interviews (n=29) were conducted over nine months (Oct. 20 – Jun. 21), exploring co-workers' current and retrospective experiences of the early phases of digital transformation. Referral sampling was applied for selecting informants from functions such as design, quality, production, logistics, digitalization development leaders, and corporate service functions including HR, IT, and financial controllers. Access was granted to six internal documents guiding all employees covering the organization’s strategic work with industrial digitalization, vision, and core values: responsibility, excellence, and innovation. Several rounds of data analysis followed, identifying organizational prerequisites related to each of the four conceptual pairs (Andersson et al., 2020) through a coding scheme based on the co-workership wheel, Findings show that employees interpreted digital transformation as difficult to navigate due to limited communication and cooperation across the organization. Furthermore, the need for trust in digital technologies and employee engagement for transformation are emphasized by informants. Thus, it is argued that an adaptive organizational culture and a focus on learning and competence are necessary organizational prerequisites for translating the means of digital transformation. Managers in the manufacturing sector hence need awareness and understanding of when and how to apply co-workership for transformational change. Manufacturing cultures need to absorb a more human-centric perspective when navigating I4.0, moving in incremental steps encompassing the whole organization, rather than treating digital transformation as scattered and disruptive activities. We argue that the findings give useful implications for manufacturing organizations navigating the challenges of digital transformation to reach the benefits of smart manufacturing. As digital transformation cuts across organizational structures and working processes, there is a need to highlight a human-centric perspective on smart manufacturing by applying the conceptual pairs of the co-workership wheel. Lessons learned show that by applying a co-workership approach with its aspects of trust and openness, community spirit and cooperation, engagement and meaningfulness, responsibility and initiatives, management needs to encourage organizational prerequisites such as an adaptive culture and learning and competence for reaching and sustaining a human-centric perspective on digital transformation.

  • 21.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Management toward Industry 5.0: a co-workership approach on digital transformation for future innovative manufacturing2024In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose –

    The purpose is to apply the co-workership approach to contribute guidelines for manufacturing managers to exploit the potential of digital technologies through a human-centric perspective.

    Design/methodology/approach –

    A longitudinal single case study within manufacturing including a mix of qualitative methods with 18 in-depth interviews and focus groups with 25 participants covering all organizational levels and functions.

    Findings –

    Findings demonstrate that to re-interpret manufacturing management through the lens of Industry 5.0 (I5.0), managers need to respond to the call for a more human-centric perspective by focusing on organizational prerequisites, such as holistic understanding, inclusive organizational change, leadership practices, learning and innovation processes.

    Research limitations/implications –

    Limitations due to a single case study are compensated with rich data collected over time with the strengths of mixed methods through in-depth interviews and focus groups with participants reflecting and developing ideas jointly.

    Practical implications –

    Managers’ awareness of organizational prerequisites to promote human perspectives in all functions and at all levels in digital transformation is pivotal. Thus, proposed organizational prerequisites are presented as managers’ guidelines for future innovative manufacturing.

    Social implications –

    Findings emphasize the need for digital transformation managers to apply a human-centric perspective acknowledging how organizational changes affect the inclusion of employees, and thus challenge culture, structure, communication and trust toward I5.0.

    Originality/value –

    The study contributes to the emerging field of I5.0 by applying an interdisciplinary approach to understand the elusive phenomena of enfolding technology and humans.

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  • 22.
    Spante, Maria
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Varga, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Triggering sustainable professional agency: using change laboratory to tackle unequal access to educational success collectively2021In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This study aims to depict how a change laboratory (CL) promotes sustainable professional practice at the workplace to tackle unequal access to educational success.

    Design/methodology/approach The empirical findings are from a CL focusing on school professionals’ agency and a follow-up study one year after the CL.

    Findings The study shows how the staff gained insight that professional agency is a collective and relational practice. Furthermore, the staff explored how to make a difference with viable means to create new workplace models for students’ success despite experiencing a conundrum.

    Research limitations/implications This study examined participants’ perspectives in workplace change and provided support for further research examining how professionally and collectively designed models gain sustainability in schools.

    Practical implications This study provides empirical data of how professional agency for change driven by collective visions can be accelerated with the interventionist method CL among school professionals.

    Social implications This study emphasizes the value of professional collective learning at the workplace, driven by several professional groups in school, and the need to follow up to detect sustainable change.

    Originality/value This study emphasizes the value of professional collective learning at the workplace, driven by several professional groups in school, and the need to follow up to detect sustainable change.

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