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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Henric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    General Time Synchronisation Method for PLC Programs Aiming at Virtual Verification and Development2008In: 17th IFAC World: Congress Proceedings of the 17th World Congress. The International Federation of Automatic Control. Soel, July 6-11, 2008, p. 4440-4445Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest state-of-the-art Computer Aided Production Engineering (CAPE) simulation technology offers OPC integration for PLC verification. A critical drawback with this technology has been identified and described within this paper. A new time synchronisation method and a simulation architecture are therefore presented and proposed. The time synchronisation method together with the architecture can be used when verifying and developing real-time dependent control logic for industrial control system, e.g. PLC with CAPE tools. The method described in this paper is general and should work on any PLCs that are compatible with the IEC 61131-3 standard. A test case was also carried out, showing that by disregarding time synchronisation it is impossible to verify real-time dependent PLC functions together with CAPE tools in a reliable way. However, the test case also shows that by applying the proposed time synchronisation method together with the described simulation architecture a successful industrial verification method is achieved

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Reliable Virtual Commissioning2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual commissioning is a technique for programming, optimising and verifying industrial automated production, such as robot controllers and programmable logic controllers (PLC), off-line in a simulated environment. Compared with traditional robot off-line programming and simulation, the scope is wider and can include an entire production cell.

    Robot simulation is a well-established technique and widely used in industry today, much thanks to the RRS interface that enables simulated robot control systems to be integrated in the simulation software. A more general interface for industrial control system integration is OPC that has been an industrial de facto standard for connection between industrial control systems and regular PCs. State-of-the-art production simulation tools often include the possibility to connect an industrial control system via OPC. However, OPC suffers a major drawback when it comes to production simulation, there is no mechanism that synchronises the industrial control system with the simulation and this could lead to unreliable results from the simulation.

    Another obstacle for virtual commissioning is the amount of time that needs to be spent during the simulation model building phase, since virtual commissioning includes more signals. This does not only take more time, but it is also an error prone process that might lead to unreliable results.

    In this thesis problems related to the OPC interface and the modelling process are discussed, and suggestions how these issues can be solved are presented so reliable virtual commissioning can be achieved.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automated Generation of Discrete Event System Simulation Models for Flexible Automation2011In: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taichung, Taiwan, June 26-29 2011, 2011, p. 825-832Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible automation cells with rapid product changes are an important competitive advantage for industries today. These cells can increase a company’s productivity and thereby increase their profits. A flexible cell shall be able to handle different products with none or minimal changes to the cell itself. A powerful tool, which can be used to analyse and verify such cells, is discrete event system simulation. Problems such as potential bottlenecks, deadlocks, answers to "what-if" questions and the level of resource utilisation can be gathered. The drawback of discrete event system simulation is that the modelling task is both time consuming and difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, state-of-the-art discrete event system simulation tools that are used in the industry today are not suitable for flexible automation. If the production scenario is changed, e.g. introduction of a new product, the simulation and modelling has to be redone and this is both time consuming and tedious. In this paper a new approach will be presented that enables discrete event simulation models to be generated automatically. The models are generated from information retrieved from a PLM/PDM database system, which is shared among other engineering tools such as robot simulation, CAD and process planning. Hence, when the cell and the database are updated a new model can easily be generated. The database is also connected to the real cell so up-to-date data can be retrieved from the real cell. The model generator described in this paper was implemented and tested in a discrete event system simulation tool and showed promising results. With this approach it is possible to handle flexible automation cells more effectively in a process planning stage.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    A General Virtual Manufacturing Concept for Programming, Verification and Optimisation of Complex Control Functions2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2008: June 30th - July 2nd, 2008, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, Skövde, 2008, p. 668-675Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a general virtual manufacturing concept for industrial control systems. Our virtual manufacturing concept provides a distinct advantage; programming, verification and optimisation of complex real-time dependent control functions described by real control code, which can be directly transferred to the real manufacturing system. To achieve this distinct advantage, a time synchronised virtual manufacturing system is a necessity. The aim of this paper is thus to present and to describe in detail, our proposed virtual manufacturing concept. To the authors’ knowledge no such general virtual manufacturing concept, i.e. one that can correctly handle complex real-time dependent control functions, currently exists. To summarise previous work related to virtual manufacturing and industrial control systems, several critical issues have been identified. The virtual manufacturing concept proposed in this paper addresses these issues. To verify that our concept can manage these critical issues found and further is suitable in industrial applications a virtual manufacturing test case is also presented. The test case, that includes motion control (i.e. servo), complex control functions, real control systems etc., was carried out with success.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Methods for Reliable Simulation-Based PLC Code Verification2012In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, ISSN 1551-3203, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 267-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation based PLC code verification is a part of virtual commissioning, where the control code is verified against a virtual prototype of an application. With today’s general OPC interface it is easy to connect a PLC to a simulation tool for e.g. verification purposes. However, there are some problems with this approach that can lead to an unreliable verification result. In this paper, four major problems with the OPC interface are described, and two possible solutions to the problems are presented: a general IEC 61131-3 based software solution, and a new OPC standard solution

  • 6.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Off-line programming of robots for metal deposition2005In: Trends in welding research: Proceedings of the 7th international conference, May 16-20. Pine Mountain, Georgia, 2005, p. 629-634Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal Deposition (MD) is a rapid prototyping technique to build parts by depositing metal in a required fashion. When a complex-shaped part is to be built, a simulation tool is needed to define robot trajectories. Three different simulation-based methods for robot trajectory generation are introduced and compared in this study. The methods are; reversed milling, adapted rapid prototyping and application programming in a computer aided robotics software. All methods were shown capable of creating robot paths for complex shapes, with the CAR software approach being the most flexible. Using this method, the geometry to be built is automatically sliced into layers and a robot path is automatically generated. The method was tentatively evaluated and appears to provide a powerful technique in the design and optimisation of robot paths for MD. Experiments showed that it is possible to manufacture fully dense parts using an Nd-Yag laser.

     

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