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  • 1.
    Aydin, Gökçe
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Valiente Bermejo, Maria Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Şelte, Aydın
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors (SWE).
    Oikonomou, Christos
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors (SWE).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Influence of laser metal deposition process parameters on a precipitation hardening stainless steel2023In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 1067-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels (MPHSS) makes them well suited for demanding applications in aerospace, high-pressure gas bottles, or in injection molding of corrosive plastics. Directed energy deposition methods and specifically the laser metal deposition process with powder as feedstock (LMDp) have the potential to be applied in the production of such components. It is well-known that the geometrical features of the deposited beads such as aspect ratio and dilution are crucial for process efficiency and deposition quality. Therefore, this work aims at understanding the influence of the process parameters and the resulting microstructure of a MPHSS modified PH 13-8Mo alloy when using LMDp. Design of experiment (DoE) was used to plan and analyze the influence and interaction of the different LMDp process variables in the geometry of the deposits. It was found that height, width, and depth were statistically significantly influenced by speed, while height was also considerably influenced by the powder feeding rate. In terms of laser power, it was the most significant factor for the width and the depth, but it did not significantly affect the height of the beads. The results showed that the as-deposited microstructure of the modified PH 13-8Mo under the LMDp conditions investigated in this work consists of a martensitic matrix with some amount of primary δ ferrite. The presence of a low amount of retained austenite and aluminum-enriched inclusions was confirmed. This work enhances the fundamental process and material understanding of LMDp of the modified PH 13-8Mo alloy as a first stage in the fabrication of additively manufactured components.

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    Tidskriftens fulltext
  • 2.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Alfa Laval Tumba AB, Tumba (SWE).
    Harati, Ebrahim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. ITW Welding AB,Partille (SWE).
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Wire laser metal deposition additive manufacturing of duplex stainless steel components -Development of a systematic methodology2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 23, article id 7170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic four-stage methodology was developed and applied to the Laser Metal Deposition with Wire (LMDw) of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) cylinder > 20 kg. In the four stages, single-bead passes, a single-bead wall, a block, and finally a cylinder were produced. This stepwise approach allowed the development of LMDw process parameters and control systems while the volume of deposited material and the geometrical complexity of components increased. The as-deposited microstructure was inhomogeneous and repetitive, consisting of highly ferritic regions with nitrides and regions with high fractions of austenite. However, there were no cracks or lack of fusion defects; there were only some small pores, and strength and toughness were comparable to those of the corresponding steel grade. A heat treatment for 1 h at 1100 degrees (C) was performed to homogenize the microstructure, remove nitrides, and balance the ferrite and austenite fractions compensating for nitrogen loss occurring during LMDw. The heat treatment increased toughness and ductility and decreased strength, but these still matched steel properties. It was concluded that implementing a systematic methodology with a stepwise increase in the deposited volume and geometrical complexity is a cost-effective way of developing additive manufacturing procedures for the production of significantly sized metallic components.

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    Materials
  • 3.
    Baghdadchi, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Alfa Laval Tumba AB, Tumba (SWE).
    Harati, Ebrahim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. ITW Welding AB, Partille (SWE).
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Wire laser metal deposition of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel: as-deposited and heat-treated microstructure and mechanical properties2022In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 57, no 21, p. 9556-9575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) blocks with dimensions of 150 × 70x30 mm3 were fabricated by Laser Metal Deposition with Wire (LMDw). Implementation of a programmable logic control system and the hot-wire technology provided a stable and consistent process producing high-quality and virtually defect-free deposits. Microstructure and mechanical properties were studied for as-deposited (AD) material and when heat-treated (HT) for 1 h at 1100 °C. The AD microstructure was inhomogeneous with highly ferritic areas with nitrides and austenitic regions with fine secondary austenite occurring in a periodic manner. Heat treatment produced a homogenized microstructure, free from nitrides and fine secondary austenite, with balanced ferrite and austenite fractions. Although some nitrogen was lost during LMDw, heat treatment or reheating by subsequent passes in AD allowed the formation of about 50% austenite. Mechanical properties fulfilled common requirements on strength and toughness in both as-deposited and heat-treated conditions achieving the highest strength in AD condition and best toughness and ductility in HT condition. Epitaxial ferrite growth, giving elongated grains along the build direction, resulted in somewhat higher toughness in both AD and HT conditions when cracks propagated perpendicular to the build direction. It was concluded that high-quality components can be produced by LMDw and that deposits can be used in either AD or HT conditions. The findings of this research provide valuable input for the fabrication of high-performance DSS AM components

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    fulltext
  • 4.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Stridh, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Wire-arc additive manufacturing of a duplex stainless steel: thermal cycle analysis and microstructure characterization2019In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 975-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of microstructures with thermal cycles was studied for wire-arc additive manufacturing of duplex stainless steel blocks. To produce samples, arc energy of 0.5kJ/mm and interlayer temperature of 150 degrees C were used as low heat input-low interlayer temperature (LHLT) and arc energy of 0.8kJ/mm and interlayer temperature of 250 degrees C as high heat input-high interlayer temperature (HHHT). Thermal cycles were recorded with different thermocouples attached to the substrate as well as the built layers. The microstructure was analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that a similar geometry was produced with 14 layers4 beads in each layerfor LHLT and 15 layers3 beads in each layerfor HHHT. Although the number of reheating cycles was higher for LHLT, each layer was reheated for a shorter time at temperatures above 600 degrees C, compared with HHHT. A higher austenite fraction (+8%) was achieved for as-deposited LHLT beads, which experienced faster cooling between 1200 and 800 degrees C. The austenite fraction of the bulk of additively manufactured samples, reheated several times, was quite similar for LHLT and HHHT samples. A higher fraction of secondary phases was found in the HHHT sample due to longer reheating at a high temperature. In conclusion, an acceptable austenite fraction with a low fraction of secondary phases was obtained in the bulk of wire-arc additively manufactured duplex stainless steel samples (35-60%), where higher austenite fractions formed with a larger number of reheating cycles as well as longer reheating at high peak temperatures (800-1200 degrees C).

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Högström, Mats
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Fadaei, Amirhosein
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rahimi, Amin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Li, Peigang
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Igestrand, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Proposal and Assessment of a Multiple Cycle-Continuous Cooling Transformation (MC-CCT) Diagram for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Thin Walls2023In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 1533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of base metals are common in welding. They can be built using physical or numerical simulations, each with advantages and limitations. However, those are not usual for weld metal, considering its variable composition due to the dilution of the weld into the base metal. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a distinctive casein which the interest in materials comparable with weld composition raises attention to estimating their mechanical properties. Notwithstanding, this concept is still not used in WAAM. Therefore, the aim of this work was to address a methodology to raise MC-CCT (Multiple Cycle ContinuousCooling Transformation) diagrams for WAAM by combining physical and numerical simulations. A high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) feedstock (a combination of a wire and a shielding gas) was used as a case study. To keep CCT as representative as possible, the typical multiple thermal cycles for additive manufacturing thin walls were determined and replicated in physical simulations (Gleeble dilatometry). The start and end transformations were determined by the differential linear variation approach for each thermal cycle. Microstructure analyses and hardness were used to characterise the product after the multiple cycles. The same CCT diagram was raised by a commercial numerical simulation package to determine the shape of the transformation curves. A range of austenitic grain sizes was scanned for the curve position matching the experimental results. Combining the experimental data and numerically simulated curves made estimating the final CCT diagram possible.

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    fulltext
  • 6.
    Li, Peigang
    et al.
    ESAB AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Högström, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    A contribution to the study of negative polarity in GMA welding2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 95, no 5-8, p. 2543-2553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GMAW using the electrode with negative polarity (DCEN) has been frequently suggested as a potential means of increasing production capacity. The objective of this work was to further study the performance of negative polarity in GMAW of carbon steels. In this project phase, bead-on-plate welds were carried out in flat position to assess the effect of different potential shielding gas compositions on bead geometry, finishing and spattering. The characteristics were compared with DCEP at the same current, but depositing the same volume of material per unit of length (more industrial related comparison). The arc length was kept the same by adjusting voltage to reach shortest arcs, yet with suitable non short-circuiting metal transfer mode. An approach to measure bead convexity was also proposed and assessed. The results showed that DCEN is feasible as a means of increasing GMAW production capacity. However, to become DCEN applicable with GMAW, the results suggest an Ar based blend with around 6.5 % of O2 is the most appropriate shielding gas, as much as that there is a demand for a standard electronic controlled power source able to work in constant current mode. 

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    fulltext
1 - 6 of 6
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  • ieee
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