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  • 1.
    Barimani, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Division of Reproductive Health, Karolinska Institutet, Re tsius väg 13 A, SE:17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rosander, M.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berlin, A,
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Childbirth and parenting preparation in antenatal classes2018In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 57, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: to describe topics (1) presented by midwives' during antenatal classes and the amount of time spent on these topics and (2) raised and discussed by first-time parents and the amount of time spent on these topics. Design: qualitative; data were gathered using video or tape recordings and analysed using a three-pronged content analysis approach, i.e., conventional, summative, and directed analyses. Setting and participants: 3 antenatal courses in 2 antenatal units in a large Swedish city; 3 midwives; and 34 course participants. Findings: class content focused on childbirth preparation (67% of the entire antenatal course) and on parenting preparation (33%). Childbirth preparation facilitated parents' understanding of the childbirth process, birthing milieu, the partner's role, what could go wrong during delivery, and pain relief advantages and disadvantages. Parenting preparation enabled parents to (i) plan for those first moments with the newborn; (ii) care for/physically handle the infant; (iii) manage breastfeeding; (iv) manage the period at home immediately after childbirth; and (v) maintain their relationship. During the classes, parents expressed concerns about what could happened to newborns. Parents' questions to midwives and discussion topics among parents were evenly distributed between childbirth preparation (52%) and parenting preparation (48%). Key conclusions: childbirth preparation and pain relief consumed 67% of course time. Parents particularly reflected on child issues, relationship, sex, and anxiety. Female and male participants actively listened to the midwives, appeared receptive to complex issues, and needed more time to ask questions. Parents appreciated the classes yet needed to more information for managing various post-childbirth situations. Implications for practice: while midwifery services vary among hospitals, regions, and countries, midwives might equalise content focus, offer classes in the second trimester, provide more time for parents to talk to each other, allow time in the course plan for parents to bring up new topics, and investigate: (i) ways in which antenatal course development and planning can improve; (ii) measures for evaluating courses; (iii) facilitator training; and (iv) parent satisfaction surveys.

  • 2.
    Barimani, Mia
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wikström, Anna
    Karolinska institutet.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköpings organisation.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska institutet.
    Facilitating and inhibiting factors in transition to parenthood: ways in which health professionals can support parents2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 31, p. 537-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The transition to parenthood is an overwhelming life event. From a theoretical perspective, tran- sition to parenthood is a developmental transition that contains certain phases and patterns.

    Aim: This study aim was twofold (i) discover, describe and comprehend transitional conditions that parents per- ceive as facilitating and inhibiting during transition to parenthood and to (ii) use that knowledge to develop recommendations for professional interventions that sup- port and facilitate transition to parenthood.

    Design: Meleis transition theory framed the study’s deduc- tive qualitative approach – from planning to analysis. Methods: In a secondary analysis, data were analysed (as per Meleis transition theory) from two studies that implemented interviews with 60 parents in Sweden between 2013 and 2014. Interview questions dealt with parents’ experiences of the transition to parenthood – in relation to experiences with parent-education groups, professional support and continuity after childbirth. Ethical issues: A university research ethics board has approved the research.

    Results: These factors facilitated transition to parenthood: perceiving parenthood as a normal part of life; enjoying the child’s growth; being prepared and having knowledge; experiencing social support; receiving professional support, receiving information about resources within the health care; participating in well-functioning parent-education groups; and hearing professionals comment on gender dif- ferences as being complementary. These factors inhibited transition to parenthood: having unrealistic expectations; feeling stress and loss of control; experiencing breastfeed- ing demands and lack of sleep; facing a judgmental attitude about breastfeeding; being unprepared for reality; lacking information about reality; lacking professional support and information; lacking healthcare resources; participating in parent-education groups that did not function optimally; and hearing professionals accentuate gender differences in a problematic way.

    Conclusion: Transition theory is appropriate for helping professionals understand and identify practices that might support parents during transition to parenthood. The study led to certain recommendations that are important for professionals to consider. 

  • 3.
    Berlin, Anita
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rosander, Michael
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Barimani, Mia
    Department of Women and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Walk the talk: Leader behavior in parental education groups2018In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expectant and new parents are offered parental education groups as a way to support their transition to parenthood. Group leadership in these groups has been found to be challenging. Using a qualitative and summative design, the aim of the present study was to investigate how health professionals describe their role in parental education groups compared to their actual behavior. Thirteen health professional leaders in antenatal and child health services were interviewed. These descriptions were compared with the leaders' actual behavior in video and audio-recordings of 16 different group sessions. The results revealed that regardless of how the leaders described their role, they acted as experts and left little time to parents for discussions and active participation. In particular, leaders who described themselves as discussion leaders did not "walk the talk"; that is, they did not do what they said they do when leading groups. That could be explained by lack of professional awareness, group leadership, and pedagogical skills. In order to provide high-quality parental support, leaders need training in group leadership and pedagogy combined with supervision and support on a regular basis.

  • 4.
    Boo, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Linköpings universitet.
    Att anpassa undervisning: till individ och grupp i klassrummet2017Book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Chiriac, Eva Hammar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Teacher´s Talk about Group Work Assessment before and after Participation in An Intervention2019In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 95471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that teachers use an indistinct vocabulary, employ few concepts, and expose an embryonic professional language when talking about group work assessment, thus indicating a lack of a professional language. Building on Granström´s three different modes of language use everyday, pseudo-meta- and meta-language, the purpose of this article was to examine the teachers use of languages when talking about group work assessment. Specifically, if and how teachers use of modes of languages are influenced by them partaking in 1) a study about assessment in group work and 2) in an intervention in form of a short educational session. Data were gathered from interviews with eight teachers working in years five and eight in five Swedish compulsory schools and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results revealed that all of the teachers use Granstöms mode of languages to a varying degree when talking about assessment in cooperative situations. A core finding was that intervention in the form of a short education influenced the teachers way of talking in a positive way. By participating in the intervention, the teachers developed and expanded their mode of language, thereby promoting the use of a common professional language about group work assessment.

  • 6.
    Forsell, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Group Work Assessment: Assessing Social Skills at Group Level2019In: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work assessment is often described by teachers as complex and challenging, with individual assessment and fair assessment emerging as dilemmas. The aim of this literature review is to explore and systematize research about group work assessment in educational settings. This is an integrated research area consisting of research combining group work and classroom assessment. A database search was conducted, inspired by the guidelines of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The analysis and categorization evolved into a typology consisting of five themes: (a) purpose of group work assessment, (b) what is assessed in group work, (c) methods for group work assessment, (d) effects and consequences of group work assessment, and (e) quality in group work assessment. The findings reveal that research in the field of group work assessment notably focuses on social skills and group processes. Peer assessment plays a prominent role and teachers as assessors are surprising absences in the reviewed research.

  • 7.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Föräldrastöd i grupp inom primärvården för blivande och nyblivna föräldrar2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns Föräldrastöd i grupp för blivande och nyblivna föräldrar i primärvårdens regi som leds av barnmorskor och BVC-sköterskor. Nationella målen med föräldragrupperna är att stödja föräldraskapet, öka kunskap om barns utveckling och ge föräldrar möjlighet till sociala nätverk med andra föräldrar med barn i samma ålder. Ungefär 70 % av alla blivande och nyblivna föräldrar deltar, flertalet är kvinnor.

    I ett mångårigt tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt med forskare inom pedagogik, psykologi och vårdvetenskap har forskning bedrivits som fokuserar ledarskap, pedagogik och gruppdynamik i föräldragrupperna. Vidare studeras om en intervention i form av bl. a. en utbildningsinsats kan stärka sjuksköterskor som gruppledare och hur de kan skapa en stödjande inlärningsmiljö i föräldragrupper. I presentationen kommer några resultat från projektet att presenteras.

  • 8.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping,Sweden.
    Barimani, Mia
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Stockholm, Swede.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping,Sweden.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Parents' reasons for not attending parental education groups in antenatal and child health care: A qualitative study2019In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, no 17-18, p. 3330-3338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To explore expectant and new parents' reasons not to partici ‐pate in parental education (PE) groups in antenatal care or child health care.

    Background: In Sweden, expectant and new parents are offered PE groups in antena‐tal care and in child health care. Although many parents feel unprepared for parent ‐hood, an urgent task is to attract parents to attend the PE groups.

    Design: A total of 915 parents with children aged 0 to 21 months answered a web questionnaire with open questions about (a) reasons not to participate; (b) anything that could change their mind; and (c) parenting support instead of PE groups. This was analysed using content analysis. The study follows the SRQR guidelines.

    Results: Parents expressed private reasons for not attending PE groups. Some par ‐ents also asked for more heterogeneity regarding content and methods, as well as accommodation of parents' different interests. Other parents asked for like‐minded individuals who were in similar situation to themselves. Lack of information or invita ‐tions from antenatal care or child health care, or that PE groups were unavailable, were additional reasons for not participating in groups.

    Conclusions: Reasons for not attending PE groups were multifaceted from personal,self‐interested and norm‐critical reasons, to that the groups were not available or that the parents were not aware of their existence.

    Relevance to clinical practice: Parents of today are a diverse group with different in ‐terests and needs. Nevertheless, all parents need to feel included in a way that makes participation in PE groups relevant for them. Thus, it is important for leaders to be aware of structures and norms, and to be able to create a group climate and a peda ‐gogy of acceptance where group members value each other's differences. However,to attract parents to participate in PE groups, it is necessary for clinical practice to work on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • 9.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköpings universitet.
    Kooperativt lärande som interaktiv pedagogisk metod vid arbete i grupp2018In: VILÄR abstraktbok, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 8-9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kooperativt lärande är en interaktiv pedagogisk metod i grupp där samarbete medtydlig struktur och gemensamt mål är grundläggande förutsättningar för lärandet. Följande centrala element behöver skapas i gruppen för att stödja lärprocesserna;gruppmedlemmarna (1) är ömsesidigt beroende av varandra, (2) stödjer varandra,(3) tar individuellt ansvar och (4) utvecklar sociala kompetens i samarbetet. Dessutom behövs en fortlöpande diskussion i gruppen om det gemensamma arbetet (Johnson & Johnson, 2013). Kooperativt lärande har sitt ursprung i USA men används i utbildningssammanhang runt om i världen. Metoden är användbar i olika lärandesammanhang, från skola och högre utbildning till arbetslivet. Det finns liknande interaktiva pedagogiska metoder varav några exempel är ”collaborative learning”, ”peer-learning” och ”problem-based learning”. Det som framförallt skiljer kooperativt lärande från övriga är tydligt definierade samarbetsmönster som kallas strukturer.

    Syftet med presentationen är att visa hur kommunikationen påverkar samarbetet igrupper som arbetar med kooperativt lärande som pedagogisk metod. Analys av inspelade videofilmer från arbete i grupp utgör empiriskt material. Den här studien har studerat kommunikation som en viktig del av kooperativt lärande. Resultatet visar att läraren i sin kommunikation till gruppen både stödjer och hindrar gruppens samarbete. När läraren ställer elaborerande frågor till gruppen eller ”passar tillbaka” till gruppen att själva fundera vidare ger det gruppen större möjligheter till att ta ansvar över arbetet och diskutionerna. Genom att direkt besvara gruppens frågor, eller omedelbart bekräfta rätt eller fel, motverkar läraren gruppens möjlighet att utveckla samarbetet. På liknande sätt kan kommunikationen bland gruppmedlemmarna både stödja och hindra gruppens samarbete. I studien vänder gruppmedlemmarna oftare till läraren med frågor i stället för att diskutera i gruppen.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien att om kooperativt lärande ska utvecklas behöver framförallt lärare men också gruppmedlemmar vara medvetna om vikten av att decentrala elementen i den pedagogiska metoden blir stöd för kommunikation och samarbete i gruppen.

  • 10.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Student collaboration in group work: Inclusion as active participation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work is an educational mode that promotes both learning and socialization among students, and students’ engagement and participation in the group work has proven to be important. Empirical research conducted on the implementation of inclusive and collaborative processes in group work is sparse. Based on social psychological perspective we will in this study focus on inclusive and collaborative processes when students are working in small groups.

     

    The aim of the study was to investigate and describe students’ inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supports or impedes these transactions.

     

    Social Interdependence Theory (Johnson & Johnson, 2002), one of the dominant influences on Cooperative learning, was utilized as the theoretical perspective overarching the study. Data were obtained through observations made from video-recording 500 minutes of group work undertaken in one Year 5 classroom at a municipal school in Sweden and were analysed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2006). Part of Black-Hawkins (2010, 2013) framework of participation was used to define inclusion and for the analysis of inclusive and collaborative processes.

     

    The results suggest that students’ active participation in the analytical discussions around the group task and discussions around group work structures, together with the teacher’s more defined feedback and avoidance of the traditional authoritative role are examples on prerequisites for group work to be enacted in an inclusive and collaborative manner. These prerequisites give the students opportunities to be accountable both for the individual and the group’s collective work. 

  • 11.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Student Collaboration in Group Work: Inclusion as Participation2018In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346X, Vol. 65, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work is an educational mode that promotes learning and socialisation among students. In this study, we focused on the inclusive processes when students work in small groups. The aim was to investigate and describe students’ inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supported or impeded these transactions. Social Interdependence Theory was utilised as the theoretical perspective overarching the study. The observational data employed were collected by video-recording group work. A part of Black-Hawkins framework of participation was used to define inclusion and for the analysis of inclusive and collaborative processes. The results suggest that students’ active participation in the discussions around the group work structures and analytical discussions, together with the teacher’s more defined feedback and avoidance of the traditional authoritative role, are examples of prerequisites for group work to be enacted in an inclusive manner.

  • 12.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings universitet.
    To make the unknown know: Assessment in group work among students2017In: Journal of Education Research, ISSN 1935-052X, Vol. 10, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When group work is used as pedagogical practice in compulsory schools, teachers are expected to assess each student’s individual knowledge even if learning has been gained in interaction with other students. This can be particularly challenge for teachers, i.e., the dilemma of reconciling the demands for individual assessment while fulfilling the demand to teach cooperation abilities through group work. Earlier studies concerning group work as classroom activity (Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2010, 2011; Hammar Chiriac & Forslund Frykedal, 2011) reveal that assessment is a highly relevant but challenging factor when organising group work in educational settings. To our knowledge, assessment in group work is a rather neglected research area with very little attention being paid to research about this phenomenon. Previous research therefore provides little theoretical knowledge or useful tools to assist teachers in resolving these apparently conflicting demands. The main focus in this chapter is to present and elucidate our current knowledge about assessment in group work. Some of the aspects considered and problematized in this chapter are:

     

    • Purpose of the assessment;
    • What is assessed;
    • How the assessment is carried out;
    • Which level is in focus – individual level, group level or both;
    • How the feedback is implemented; and
    • Who is assessing – teacher, students or both.

     

    Furthermore, an empirically grounded model with the purpose of clarifying different aspects of group assessment will be presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded with some pedagogical implications being suggested.

     

  • 13.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Barimani, Mia
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Leaders' limitations and approaches to creating conditions for interaction and communication in parental groups: A qualitative study2018In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand parental group (PG) leaders' experiences of creating conditions for interaction and communication. The data consisted of 10 interviews with 14 leaders. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the leaders' ambition was to create a parent-centred learning environment by establishing conditions for interaction and communication between the parents in the PGs. However, the leaders' experience was that their professional competencies were insufficient and that they lacked pedagogical tools to create constructive group discussions. Nevertheless, they found other ways to facilitate interactive processes. Based on their experience in the PG, the leaders constructed informal socio-emotional roles for themselves (e.g. caring role and personal role) and let their more formal task roles (e.g. professional role, group leader and consulting role) recede into the background, so as to remove the imbalance of power between the leaders and the parents. They believed this would make the parents feel more confident and make it easier for them to start communicating and interacting. This personal approach places them in a vulnerable position in the PG, in which it is easy for them to feel offended by parents' criticism, questioning or silence.

  • 14.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning Linköping University.
    Rosander, Michael
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning Linköping University.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning Linköping University.
    An Educational Intervention to Increase Efficacy and Interdependence in Group Work2019In: Education Quarterly Reviews, E-ISSN 2621-5799, p. 435-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether an intervention, in the form of short educational sessions, influenced pupils' experiences of group work or cooperative learning (CL). The hypothesis tested was that an intervention for teachers and pupils would lead to pupils' increased (a) collective efficacy, (b) self-efficacy and, (c) positive interdependence, as well as (d) less negative interdependence. The participants were pupils from years 5 and 8 in three compulsory schools in Sweden, working in 22 groups divided into one intervention group and one control group (11 work groups in each condition). Data were collected through a questionnaire before and after participation in the study and analysed using a repeated measure ANOVA and 2×2 ANOVA. The results showed an increased collective efficacy, self-efficacy and positive interdependence and a reduction of negative interdependence. The conclusion is that the intervention provided for teachers and pupils did have an effect, thus promoting successful working as a group.

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