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  • 1.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    Siemens Energy, Finspång (SWE).
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. FEV Sverige AB, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Thuvander, Matttias
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Deirmina, Faraz
    Siemens Energy, Finspång (SWE).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Energy, Finspång (SWE).
    Harlin, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Sandvik Additive Manufacturing, Sandviken (SWE).
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography characterization of laser powder bed fusion precipitation strengthening nickel-based superalloy2023In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 171, article id 103472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to supplement scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizationof a precipitation strengthening nickel-based superalloy, Alloy 247LC, processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). It was observed that the material in the as-built condition had a relatively high strength. Using both SEMand APT, it was concluded that the high strength was not attributed to the typical precipitation strengtheningeffect of γ’. In the absence of γ’ it could be reasonably inferred that the numerous black dots observed in thecells/grains with SEM were dislocations and as such should be contributing significantly to the strengthening.Thus, the current investigation demonstrated that relatively high strengthening can be attained in L-PBF even inthe absence of precipitated γ’. Even though γ’ was not precipitated, the APT analysis displayed a nanometer scalepartitioning of Cr that could be contributing to the strengthening. After heat-treatment, γ’ was precipitated and itdemonstrated the expected high strengthening behavior. Al, Ta and Ti partitioned to γ’. The strong partitioningof Ta in γ’ is indicative that the element, together with Al and Ti, was contributing to the strain-age crackingoccurring during heat-treatment. Cr, Mo and Co partitioned to the matrix γ phase. Hf, Ta, Ti and W were found inthe carbides corroborating previous reports that they are MC. 

  • 2.
    Balachandramurthi, Arun Ramanathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Jaladurgam, Nitesj Raj
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Hansson, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Trollhättan, SE-461 38, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, SE 581 83, Sweden.
    Gårdstam, Johannes
    Qunitus Technologies AB, Västerås, SE-721 66, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    On the microstructure of laser beam powder bed fusion alloy 718 and its influence on the low cycle fatigue behaviour2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 22, article id 5198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing of Alloy 718 has become a popular subject of research in recent years. Understanding the process-microstructure-property relationship of additively manufactured Alloy 718 is crucial for maturing the technology to manufacture critical components. Fatigue behaviour is a key mechanical property that is required in applications such as gas turbines. Therefore, in the present work, low cycle fatigue behaviour of Alloy 718 manufactured by laser beam powder bed fusion process has been investigated. The material was tested in as-built condition as well as after two different thermal post-treatments. Three orientations with respect to the building direction were tested to evaluate the anisotropy. Testing was performed at room temperature under controlled amplitudes of strain. It was found that defects, inclusions, strengthening precipitates, and Young’s modulus influence the fatigue behaviour under strain-controlled conditions. The strengthening precipitates affected the deformation mechanism as well as the cycle-dependent hardening/softening behaviour. The defects and the inclusions had a detrimental effect on fatigue life. The presence of Laves phase in LB-PBF Alloy 718 did not have a detrimental effect on fatigue life. Young’s modulus was anisotropic and it contributed to the anisotropy in strain-life relationship. Pseudo-elastic stress vs. fatigue life approach could be used to handle the modulus-induced anisotropy in the strain-life relationship. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 3.
    Cederberg, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Physical simulation of additively manufactured super duplex stainless steels: microstructure and properties2020In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 34, article id 101269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of high performance super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) during additive manufacturing (AM) has been investigated using a novel arc heat treatment technique. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc pulses were applied on a disc shaped sample mounted on a water-cooled chamber to physically simulate AM thermal cycles. SDSS base metal and a duplicated additively manufactured structure (DAMS) were used as initial microstructures. Samples were melted one, five, or 15 times by arc heat treatment. Samples were also produced with a controlled slope down of the current to create slower cooling compared to pulsing. Microstructure characterization and modelling were performed to study the evolution of microstructure and properties with successive AM cycles. Microstructural changes were dependent on the number of reheating cycles, cooling rate, and peak temperature. In particular, the DAMS austenite morphology and fraction changed after reheating to peak temperatures above 700 °C. Nitrides and sigma were observed in the high and low temperature heat affected zones, respectively. Sensitization to corrosion was more pronounced in reheated DAMS than in the base metal. Hardness was increased more by multiple remelting/reheating than by slow cooling. It was found that AM thermal cycles significantly affect SDSS properties especially for an initial microstructure similar to that produced by AM. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

  • 4.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylen, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Thermal Conductivity in Suspension Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Modeling and Experiments2017In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) can generate microstructures with higher porosity and pores in the size range from submicron to nanometer. ASPS thermal barrier coatings (TBC) have already shown a great potential to produce low thermal conductivity coatings for gas turbine applications. It is important to understand the fundamental relationships between microstructural defects in ASPS coatings such as crystallite boundaries, porosity etc. and thermal conductivity. Object-oriented finite element (OOF) analysis has been shown as an effective tool for evaluating thermal conductivity of conventional TBCs as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent microstructure in the model. The objective of this work was to analyze the thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs using experimental techniques and also to evaluate a procedure where OOF can be used to predict and analyze the thermal conductivity for these coatings. Verification of the model was done by comparing modeling results with the experimental thermal conductivity. The results showed that the varied scaled porosity has a significant influence on the thermal conductivity. Smaller crystallites and higher overall porosity content resulted in lower thermal conductivity. It was shown that OOF could be a powerful tool to predict and rank thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs.

  • 5.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Thermal conductivity in suspension sprayed thermal barrier coatings: Modelling and experiments2016In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, ASM International, 2016, Vol. 1, p. 368-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Axial Suspension Plasma spraying (ASPS) can generate microstructures with higher porosity and pores in the size range from submicron to nanometre. ASPS Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) have already shown a great potential to produce low thermal conductivity coatings for gas turbine applications. It is important to understand the fundamental relationship between microstructural defects in the coating such as grain boundaries, porosity etc. and thermal conductivity. Object Oriented Finite element analysis (OOF) has been shown to be an effective tool for evaluating thermal conductivity for conventional TBCs as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent microstructure as an input to the model. The objective of this work was to analyse the thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs using experimental techniques and also to evaluate a procedure where OOF can be used to predict and analyse the thermal conductivity for these coatings. Verification of the model was done using experimental thermal conductivity. Results showed that the varied scaled porosity has a significant influence on the thermal conductivity. Smaller grains, higher overall porosity content and lower columnar density resulted in lower thermal conductivity. It was shown that OOF could be a powerful tool to predict and rank thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs.

  • 6.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling2017In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1038-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the topcoat-bondcoat interface where high stresses are generated due to thermal cycling. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the topcoat-bondcoat interface could be beneficial to enhance thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs. In this work, a bilayer coating system consisting of first a dense layer near the topcoat-bondcoat interface followed by a porous columnar layer was fabricated by SPS using Yttria-stabilised zirconia suspension. The objective of this work was to investigate if the bilayer topcoat architecture could enhance the thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs through experiments and to understand the effect of the column gaps/vertical cracks and the dense layer on the generated stresses in the TBC during thermal cyclic loading through finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the bilayer TBC had significantly higher lifetime than the single-layer TBC. The modeling results show that the dense layer and vertical cracks are beneficial as they reduce the thermally induced stresses which thus increase the lifetime.

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  • 7.
    Hosseini, Vahid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Engelberg, Dirk
    The University of Manchester, School of Materials, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    Roy, Matthew J.
    The University of Manchester, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    A novel arc heat treatment technique for producing graded microstructures through controlled temperature gradients2017In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 121, no May, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel arc heat treatment technique to produce samples with graded microstructures through the application of controlled temperature gradients. Steady state temperature distributions within the sample can be achieved and maintained, for times ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The technique reduces the number of samples needed to characterize the response of a material to thermal treatments, and can consequently be used as a physical simulator for materials processing. The technique is suitable for conventional heat treatment analogues, welding simulations, multi-step heat treatments, and heat treatments with controlled heating and cooling rates. To demonstrate this technique, a super duplex stainless steel was treated with a stationary TIG arc, to confirm the relationship between generated steady-state temperature fields, microstructure development, hardness, and sensitization to corrosion. Metallographic imaging and hardness mapping provided information about graded microstructures, confirming the formation of secondary phases and microstructure sensitization in the temperature range 850–950 °C. Modelling of temperature distributions and thermodynamic calculations of phase stabilities were used to simulate microstructure development and associated welding cycles.

  • 8.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Microstructure Modelling of Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 7182018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) of Alloy 718 has received increasing interest in the field of manufacturing engineering owing to its attractive features compared to those of conventional manufacturing methods. The ability to produce complicated geometries, low cost of retooling, and control of the microstructure are some of the advantages of the AM process over traditional manufacturing methods. Nevertheless, during the building process, the build material undergoes complex thermal conditions owing to the inherent nature of the process. This results in phase transformation from liquid to solid and solid state. Thus, it creates microstructural gradients in the built objects, and as a result,heterogeneous material properties. The manufacturing process, including the following heat treatment that is used to minimise the heterogeneity, will cause the additively manufactured material to behave differently when compared to components produced by conventional manufacturing methods. Therefore, understanding the microstructure formation during the building and subsequent post-heat treatment is important, which is the objective of this work. Alloy 718 is a nickel-iron based super alloy that is widely used in the aerospace industry and in the gas turbine power plants for making components subjected tohigh temperatures. Good weldability, good mechanical properties at high temperatures, and high corrosion resistance make this alloy particularly suitablefor these applications. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of Alloy 718 components through traditional manufacturing methods is time-consuming and expensive. For example, machining of Alloy 718 to obtain the desired shape is difficult and resource-consuming, owing to significant material waste. Therefore, the application of novel non-conventional processing methods, such as AM, seems to be a promising technique for manufacturing near-net-shape complex components.In this work, microstructure modelling was carried out by using multiphase-field modelling to model the microstructure evolution in electron beam melting (EBM) and laser metal powder directed energy deposition (LMPDED) of Alloy 718 and x subsequent heat treatments. The thermal conditions that are generated during the building process were used as input to the models to predict the as-built microstructure. This as-built microstructure was then used as an input for the heat treatment simulations to predict the microstructural evolution during heat treatments. The results showed smaller dendrite arm spacing (one order of magnitude smaller than the casting material) in these additive manufactured microstructures, which creates a shorter diffusion length for the elements compared to the cast material. In EBM Alloy 718, this caused the material to have a faster homogenisation during in-situ heat treatment that resulting from the elevated powder bed temperature (> 1000 °C). In addition, the compositional segregation that occurs during solidification was shown to alter the local thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the alloy. This was observed in the predicted TTT and CCT diagrams using the JMat Pro software based on the predicted local segregated compositions from the multiphase-field models. In the LMPDED Alloy 718 samples, this resulted in the formation of δ phase in the interdendritic region during the solution heat treatment. Moreover, this resulted in different-size precipitation of γ'/γ'' in the inter-dendritic region and in the dendrite core. Themicro structure modelling predictions agreed well with the experimental observations. The proposed methodology used in this thesis work can be an appropriate tool to understand how the thermal conditions in AM affect themicro structure formation during the building process and how these as-built microstructures behave under different heat treatments.

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  • 9.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Microstructure Modelling of Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 7182020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) of Alloy 718 has received increasing interest in the field of manufacturing engineering because of its attractive features compared with those of conventional manufacturing methods. Nevertheless, owing to the inherent nature of the process, the build material is exposed to complex thermal conditions that affect the microstructure. In addition, the post heattreatments applied to the built component further cause microstructural changes. Thus, obtaining the desired microstructure that gives the desired properties is still a challenging task. Therefore, understanding the microstructure formation during the build and subsequent post-heat treatment is important and is the objective of this thesis work.

    To this end, a computational modelling approach was used that combines multiphase-field modelling with transformation kinetics modelling. Two different AM processes, laser metal powder directed energy deposition (LM-PDED) and electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF), were considered in this study.Based on the modelling work, it was observed that solidification conditions (thermal gradients and cooling rates) that occur during the AM process have an impact on the as-solidified microstructure in Alloy 718 and the resultant Laves phase formation. With an increase in cooling rate, the Laves phase volume fraction becomes lower and the morphology tends to become discrete particles,which is important for resisting the formation of liquation cracks in Alloy 718. It was also found that the precipitates formed during the solidification process did not undergo any significant change during subsequent thermal cycles associated with the deposition of subsequent layers, given that the deposition of the subsequent layer does not increase the global temperature of the build to> 600 °C. If the global temperature increases above 600 °C, then phase changes are expected, depending on the temperature value. In the case of the EB-PBF process, the high build temperature maintained in the build chamber resulted in an ‘‘in situ’’ heat treatment, which had a homogenisation effect on the as-solidified microstructure because of the smaller dendrite spacing and relatively low Lavesphase size. In the case of the LM-PDED, the microsegregation of composition observed in the as-built microstructure was shown to change the equilibrium conditions and precipitation kinetics of Alloy 718. As a result, excess precipitationof γ'/γ″ and δ was observed in the interdendritic region compared with the dendrite core, depending on the type of heat treatment used.

    In addition, modelling was performed to evaluate the elastic properties of EB-PBF Alloy 718. To this end, crystallographic orientation data gathered from EBSD data and single-crystal elastic constants were used. The prediction showed good agreement with published literature data. The hatch (bulk) region of the EB-PBF samples showed significant anisotropic elastic properties because of the strong crystallographic texture observed in the microstructure. The lowest Young’s modulus was observed along the build direction. Normal to the build direction, the elastic properties were shown to be isotropic. Overall, the elastic behaviour of the hatch region was similar to that of a transversely isotropic case

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  • 10.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. FEV Sverige AB, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Modeling and simulation of microstructures in metal additive manufacturing2023In: Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance metallic Materials / [ed] Pederson, Robert, Andersson, Joel & Joshi, Shrikant V., Elsevier, 2023, 1., p. 459-571Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, metal additive manufacturing (AM) has receivedincreasing interest in the field of manufacturing engineeringbecause of its attractive features compared with those ofconventional manufacturing methods. Due to the inherentnature of this process, complex thermal conditions drive phasetransformation from liquid to solid as well as phasetransformation in the solid state. A deeper and betterunderstanding of the relationships between the complex thermalconditions and the microstructure formation is vital for fullyutilizing the full potential of the AM processes. Achieving thisgoal with only an experimental approach is costly, timeconsuming, and in some cases, impractical. Consequently,computational modeling and simulation techniques areimportant complementary methods that help to achieve thisgoal. Different models are used to model different aspects of themicrostructure. The primary intention of this chapter is to givethe reader an overarching view (including a basic understanding of the formulation, limitations, applications, and challenges) ofcommonly used microstructure modeling and simulationtechniques in the context of the metal powder AM process.

  • 11.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Balachandramurthi, Arun Ramanathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Goel, Sneha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Hanning, Fabian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Linköping University, Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, SE-58183, Sweden.
    Toward a better understanding of phase transformations in additive manufacturing of Alloy 7182020In: Materialia, E-ISSN 2589-1529, Vol. 13, article id 100862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a discussion on the phase-transformation aspects of additively manufactured Alloy 718 during the additive manufacturing (AM) process and subsequent commonly used post-heat treatments. To this end, fundamental theoretical principles, thermodynamic and kinetics modeling, and existing literature data are employed. Two different AM processes, namely, laser-directed energy deposition and electron-beam powder-bed fusion are considered. The general aspects of phase formation during solidification and solid state in Alloy 718 are first examined, followed by a detailed discussion on phase transformations during the two processes and subsequent standard post heat-treatments. The effect of cooling rates, thermal gradients, and thermal cycling on the phase transformation in Alloy 718 during the AM processes are considered. Special attention is given to illustrate how the segregated composition during the solidification could affect the phase transformations in the Alloy 718. The information provided in this study will contribute to a better understanding of the overall process–structure–property relationship in the AM of Alloy 718 718. © 2020

  • 12.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Deng, Dunyong
    Linköping University, Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, 58183, Sweden.
    Hanning, Fabian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Göteborg, 412 96, Sweden.
    Raanes, Morten
    NTNU, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IMA, Alfred Getz vei 2, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Linköping University, Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, 58183, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Predicting the Microstructural Evolution of Electron Beam Melting of Alloy 718 with Phase-Field Modeling2019In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50A, no 5, p. 2527-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder bed additive manufacturing process where a powder material is melted selectively in a layer-by-layer approach using an electron beam. EBM has some unique features during the manufacture of components with high-performance superalloys that are commonly used in gas turbines such as Alloy 718. EBM has a high deposition rate due to its high beam energy and speed, comparatively low residual stresses, and limited problems with oxidation. However, due to the layer-by-layer melting approach and high powder bed temperature, the as-built EBM Alloy 718 exhibits a microstructural gradient starting from the top of the sample. In this study, we conducted modeling to obtain a deeper understanding of microstructural development during EBM and the homogenization that occurs during manufacturing with Alloy 718. A multicomponent phase-field modeling approach was combined with transformation kinetic modeling to predict the microstructural gradient and the results were compared with experimental observations. In particular, we investigated the segregation of elements during solidification and the subsequent "in situ" homogenization heat treatment at the elevated powder bed temperature. The predicted elemental composition was then used for thermodynamic modeling to predict the changes in the continuous cooling transformation and time-temperature transformation diagrams for Alloy 718, which helped to explain the observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the proposed approach can be employed as a valuable tool for understanding processes and for process development, including post-heat treatments. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 13.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Deng, Dunyong
    Linköping University, Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Modelling of anisotropic elastic properties in alloy 718 built by electron beam melting2018In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 529-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the inherent nature of the process, typically material produced via electron beam melting (EBM) has a columnar microstructure. As a result of that, the material will have anisotropic mechanical properties. In this work, anisotropic elastic properties of EBM built Alloy 718 samples at room temperature were investigated by using experiments and modelling work. Electron backscatter diffraction data from the sample microstructure was used to predict the Young’s modulus. The results showed that the model developed in the finite element software OOF2 was able to capture the anisotropy in the Young’s modulus. The samples showed transversely isotropic elastic properties having lowest Young’s modulus along build direction. In addition to that, complete transversely isotropic stiffness tensor of the sample was also calculated. © 2018 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 14.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Effect of columnar cracks and dense layer in suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings on the coating stresses under thermal shock loadings: A modelling approach2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coating applications in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the top coat-bond coat interface, where high stresses are generated due to thermal shock conditions that occur during engine operation. These stresses directly influence the coating lifetime. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the top coat-bond coat interface could thus be beneficial to withstand the stresses. In this work, a bilayer coating system was fabricated by SPS using yttria stabilised zirconia. The bilayer coating consisted of a dense topcoat layer near the top coat-bond coat interface which could provide the necessary toughness followed by a porous columnar structured layer which contains columnar cracks which could provide the necessary strain tolerance. The objective of this work is to study the effect of the columnar/vertical crack features on the generated stresses in the thermal barrier coating during thermal cyclic loading. A finite element modelling approach has been used for this purpose. The results show that the bilayer coating structure reduces the thermally induced stresses and could thus increase the lifetime.

  • 15.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, SE-461 81, Sweden.
    Hanning, Fabian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dixit, Nikhil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Microstructure modelling of laser metal powder directed energy deposition of alloy 7182019In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 25, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-component and multi-phase-field modelling approach, combined with transformation kinetics modelling, was used to model microstructure evolution during laser metal powder directed energy deposition of Alloy 718 and subsequent heat treatments. Experimental temperature measurements were utilised to predict microstructural evolution during successive addition of layers. Segregation of alloying elements as well as formation of Laves and δ phase was specifically modelled. The predicted elemental concentrations were then used in transformation kinetics to estimate changes in Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) and Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagrams for Alloy 718. Modelling results showed good agreement with experimentally observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the approach can be a valuable tool, both for improving process understanding and for process development including subsequent heat treatment.

  • 16.
    Zaikovska, Liene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Ekh, Magnus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Virtual Testing of Synthetic Polycrystal Microstructures Predicting Elastic Properties of Additive Manufactured Alloy 7182023In: Proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering (MCM'23): August 06-08, 2023. Brunel University, London, United Kingdom / [ed] Huihe Qiu, Marcello Iasiello,Yuwen Zhang, INTERNATIONAL ASET INC , 2023, article id ICMIE 147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is gaining significant attention in manufacturing engineering owing to its advantages compared to traditional manufacturing methods. Microstructures that result from the AM process often lead to anisotropic mechanical properties of produced components. In this study the Ni-based Alloy 718 is analysed. It has been shown that the microstructure of this polycrystalline material can be tailored to obtain different grain morphology distributions and crystallographic textures. In this paper, the reproduction of three typical microstructures, equiaxed, columnar and combined (equiaxed and columnar), are investigated to determine their elastic anisotropic properties. Virtual testing is applied on synthetic representative volume elements (RVE) for the equiaxed and columnar grain structures, and representative area element (RAE) for the combined structure. The crystal elasticity finite element method (CEFEM) is utilized to predict macroscopic elastic properties. This method allows the implementation of grain crystallographic orientations as input texture and the generation of homogenized elastic stiffness matrix predicting the directional engineering stresses of polycrystal microstructures. The comparison of the simulation results for the three microstructures studied demonstrates significant property variation. Also, the comparison of the different number of grains and various interface area cases of the combined structure shows diversity in the results presented in this study. 

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