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  • 1.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden..
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Correction to: Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 96-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2 part labels, the label "d" was incorrectly labelled as "c" and the subsequent labels should be corrected as d, e, and f. The corrected Fig. 2 is given below.

  • 2.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 83-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children's physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enuresis, encopresis) in a nationwide population of 9- and 12-year-old twins subdivided into those with and without indications of NDDs. Parents of 28,058 twins participated in a well-validated telephone interview regarding their children's mental health and answered questions about their physical problems. The results indicate a high rate of physical problems in children with NDDs, particularly in those with indications of the presence of combinations of several NDDs.

  • 3.
    Andrén, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avdelningen för psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Kinnander, Monica
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - avancerad nivå.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - grundnivå.
    Utveckling av ett nytt yrke inom socialpsykiatrisk vård2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Programmet i Socialpsykiatrisk vård är ett treårigt program på högskolenivå som leder till en yrkesexamen inom socialpsykiatrisk vård och en kandidatexamen i huvudområdet Vårdvetenskap. Fram till våren 2018 har sex kullar tagit sin examen. Studenter i programmet för Socialpsykiatrisk vård har ofta ett personligt intresse, tidigare yrkeserfarenhet från verksamhetsområdena eller inspiration från närstående/vänner som arbetar inom verksamhetsområdet. Även personliga erfarenheter av problem inom verksamhetsområdena är framträdande bland studenterna. Studenterna anser att den personliga erfarenheten, viljan och förmågan är viktigt för att kunna verka inom yrket. Utmärkande egenskaper hos studenterna är också ett specifikt intresse och en tydlig empatisk vilja av att arbeta med människor och de anser att yrket framförallt kräver egenskaper som altruism, empati, social kompetens samt en fördjupad kunskap och förståelse inom området. Efter avslutad utbildning önskar studenterna få möjligt till en yrkesroll där de kan hjälpa andra människor, eller så har de sikte på en specifik befattning eller ett speciellt verksamhetsområde. Såväl chefer som alumner från programmet Socialpsykiatrisk vård värdesätter den breda yrkeskompetens som programmet leder till. Den psykiatriska kompetensen betonas som särskilt värdefull av både alumner och chefer. Denna kompetens innebär att de också utgör ett komplement till övriga professioner inom verksamheterna. Studenterna anser sig ha erövrat en professionell identitet som handlar om att föra in psykiatriska och vårdande kunskaper till organisationer som tidigare saknat dessa perspektiv. Något som också medför nya förhållningssätt till patienter, brukare och klienter. Att kunna använda kunskap från flera discipliner anses som en styrka och en kompetens som är välbehövd i miljöer där personer med psykisk ohälsa vårdas. Alumnerna uppfattar sin kunskap som både tvärdisciplinär och interprofessionell.

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  • 4.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Bador, Nima
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Partnership Interacts with the Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Positive Affect2016Ingår i: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 768-775Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being is a central concept of positive psychology, and is directly coupled with a high level of positive affect and a low level of negative affect. Positive affect is associated with enthusiasm, activity, hope and inspiration, while negative affect is associated with emotions such as anger, contempt, guilt, shame, fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Physical activityis crucial for both physical and mental health and is positively associated with well-being. Gender and social factors (e.g., parenthood or partnership) have complex relations with well-being and affect. In the present study we aimed to 1) examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and affect and 2) investigate whether or not social factors interact with this association. Method: The study included information from 155 Swedish university students: 64 men (mean age 23 years) and 91 women (mean age 27 years). Students were asked to estimate their usual engagement in physical activity during their leisure-time by responding to the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. They also reported the level of positive and negative emotions experienced during past weeks by completing the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule instrument. Results: In the Swedish student population leisure-time physical activity correlated only with positive and not with negative affect. Students' gender, age or whether or not they had children did not influence this association. However, this correlation differed significantly between those who lived with a partner and those who were single. Conclusion: Leisure-time physical activityis positively correlated with an overall subjective well-being, and this correlation is modifiedby the social factor of partnership

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  • 5.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    AGERA KBT AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Evaluation of an Integrated Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment Within Addiction Care2020Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, ISSN 1094-3412, E-ISSN 1556-3308, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 102-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to evaluate an integrated intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment for people with substance-related syndrome in outpatient care and to identify eventual gender differences. The study population consisted of 35 outpatients (18 male, 17 female) at a clinic in Western Sweden. The patients completed a four-month period of intensive group therapy and participated in the data collection at admission and discharge. The data were collected using the following inventories: Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale,Hopelessness Scale, and Trait Hope Scale. Results showed decreases in anxiety, depression and experience of hopelessness, and increases in self-esteem and hope. In females, the most dramatic improvement was measured for the anxiety and depression attributes, while in males the strongest effect was measured for hope and self-esteem. This study provides clinical evidence of the positive effects of integrated intensive CBT in outpatient care of people with substance-related syndrome.

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  • 6.
    Ben Ayad, Hatim
    et al.
    UAE/U24FS, FS, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Sfendla, Anis
    UAE/U24FS, FS, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR); High Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques, Fez, (MAR).
    Najdi, Adil
    Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tangier (MAR).
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    UAE/U24FS, FS, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR).
    Psychometric Properties of Update Arabic Version of the Trait Hope Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale2024Ingår i: Indonesian Psychological Research, ISSN 2655-9013, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hope and self-esteem are crucial components of positive psychology, and there is a lack of tools to assess these concepts in Morocco. Therefore, this study aims to provide the necessary instruments for evaluating hope and self-esteem among Moroccan college students. A total of 1150 college students (444 males, 703 females) completed an updated Arabic version of the Trait Hope Scale (THS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The data underwent factorial and reliability analyses, with test-retest reliability assessed using responses from 26 students. Both the THS and RSES revealed a two-factor solution, and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) demonstrated measurement invariance with respect to gender. Furthermore, the results indicated good and acceptable internal consistency (α = .85 for THS and α = .70 for RSES) and acceptable temporal stability (r = .72 for THS and r = .76 for RSES). In conclusion, the updated Arabic versions of the THS and RSES exhibited strong psychometric properties and stability. They have been established as valid and reliable tools for assessing hope and self-esteem among Moroccan college students.

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  • 7.
    Bouchatta, Otmane
    et al.
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences, Marrakesh, Morocco. 2 Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France. 3 Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Manouze, Houria
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences,Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Bouali-Benazzouz, Rabia
    Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Ba-M'hamed, Saadia
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Fossat, Pascal
    Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Landry, Marc
    Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Bennis, Mohamed
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Neonatal 6-OHDA lesion model in mouse induces Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like behaviour2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 15349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The "neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine" (6-OHDA) lesion is a commonly used model of ADHD in rat. However, a comprehensive assessment of ADHD-like symptoms is still missing, and data in mouse remain largely unavailable. Our aim was to analyse symptoms of ADHD in the mouse neonatal 6-OHDA model. 6-OHDA mice exhibited the major ADHD-like symptoms, i.e. hyperactivity (open field), attention deficit and impulsivity (five-choice serial reaction time task). Further, the model revealed discrete co-existing symptoms, i.e. anxiety-like (elevated plus maze test) and antisocial (social interaction) behaviours and decreased cognitive functioning (novel object recognition). The efficacy of methylphenidate, a classical psychostimulant used in the treatment of ADHD, was also evaluated. A histological analysis further supports the model validity by indicating dopamine depletion, changes in cortical thickness and abnormalities in anterior cingulate cortex neurons. A principal component analysis of the behaviour profile confirms that the 6-OHDA mouse model displayed good face and predictive validity. We conclude that neonatal dopamine depletion results in behavioural and morphological changes similar to those seen in patients and therefore could be used as a model for studying ADHD pathophysiological mechanisms and identifying therapeutic targets.

  • 8.
    Bouchatta, Otmane
    et al.
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Ouhaz, Zakaria
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Ba-Mhamed, Saadia
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap. University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bennis, Mohamed
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Acute and chronic glue sniffing effects and consequences of withdrawal on aggressive behavior2016Ingår i: Life Sciences, ISSN 0024-3205, E-ISSN 1879-0631, Vol. 152, s. 14-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug abuse act on brain mechanisms that cause a high-risk individual to engage in aggressive and violent behavior. While a drug-violence relationship exists, the nature of this relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. Glue sniffing is often a springboard to the abuse of more addictive drugs. Despite its high prevalence and serious consequences, we know relatively little about the aggressive behavioral effects of volatile inhalants abuse, especially glue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the duration of glue exposure, a common substance abuse problem in Morocco, and the level of aggressive behavior during withdrawal. For this we used the isolation-induced aggression model "residents" in three groups of mice. The first group served as control resident animals (n=10, without exposure); the second group as experimental resident mice (n=10) tested before and after acute (first day) and chronic exposure to the glue, and at 1 and 2weeks of withdrawal; and the third group of 10 intruder animals. The results showed that the number of attacks decreased (halved) and the latency of the first attack increased (doubled) following acute glue sniffing. However, the effects of chronic exposure and of 1week of withdrawal led to an increase in the intensity of agonistic encounters. After 2weeks of withdrawal, the intensity of aggressive behavior decreased again. These results indicated that chronic glue exposure and the first week of withdrawal are associated with increased aggression in mice.

  • 9.
    El Mzadi, Abdennour
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tétouan, Morocco.
    Zouini, Btissame
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tétouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tétouan, Morocco.
    Mental Health Profiles in a Sample of Moroccan High School Students: Comparison Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, s. 1-13, artikel-id 752539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundGiven the biological and psychological changes that occur during adolescence, adolescents’ experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic measures could significantly threaten their mental health and cause long-term consequences.

    AimThis study aims to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on the psychological distress of Moroccan adolescents and identify the risk and protective factors that could influence their mental health.

    MethodsThe participants in this study were Moroccan high school students who were recruited at two different times—before the COVID-19 pandemic (350 students, mean age: 16.55 years; 53.71% female) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (457 students, mean age: 16.84; 64.1% female). Students responded to the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity questionary, and reported information about their psychosocial environment, gender, and age. The scores on the Brief Symptom Inventory dimensions from the pre-pandemic period and during 2020 were compared. A comparison between the scores of the two genders of the 2020 sample was also carried out. In addition, binary regression analysis was performed to predict the associations between gender, frequency of physical activity, the presence of the number of negative psychosocial factors, and those dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory that significantly changed between the samples.

    ResultsFemale students reported higher psychological distress than male students in both data collection periods. During the COVID-19 pandemic, students scored significantly (p < 0.001) higher in depression and paranoid ideation, and they scored significantly (p = 0.01) lower in hostility and anxiety compared with the pre-pandemic period. Female gender and the experience of physical or psychological abuse significantly increased the risk of reporting higher scores in depression and paranoid ideation symptoms during 2020. Moderate and frequent physical activities were significantly and negatively associated with depression (p = 0.003 and p=0.004; respectively).ConclusionsThis study confirms the stressful impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Moroccan high school students, who reported more symptoms of depression and paranoid ideation compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. Female students reported higher psychological distress than male students did. The experience of physical /psychological abuse during the pandemic worsened mental health, while moderate/frequent physical activity improved it.

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  • 10.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Johannesson, Elias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avdelningen för psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Emilsson, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - avancerad nivå. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avdelningen för psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi. Region Västra Götaland, Intensive Care Unit, NU Hospital Group, SE-46173 Trollhättan (SWE).
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - grundnivå.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Development and Psychometric Test of the Salutogenic Survey on Sustainable Working Life for Nurses: Identifying Resistance Resources against Stress2024Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive research shows nurses’ work environment to be particularly stressful. This study develops, explores, and psychometrically tests a new profession-specific questionnaire identifying generalised and specific resistance resources, that make it possible to measure resources to manage work-related stress. An exploratory study design was employed. The questionnaire development was inspired by the MEASURE approach and the salutogenic theory of health. Building on the results from a literature review of nursing research and salutogenesis, supplemented by twelve interviews with hospital nurses, an item pool was generated. The first version was pilot-tested in a group of nurses who were studying to become specialist nurses. The second version of the questionnaire was psychometrically tested on a sample of registered nurses in close patient care (n = 475), analysed using confirmatory factor analysis to test seven predefined domains of the questionnaire. The analysis revealed a first order seven-domain model of 21 items: job satisfaction, professional role, work motivation, commitment, belonging in the workplace, factors and conditions for remaining in the profession, and workload. The structure of the questionnaire indicates its usefulness in clinical practice for measuring resistance resources.

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  • 11.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Brink, Peter
    NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - grundnivå.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - grundnivå.
    The level of sense of coherence among Swedish nursing staff2019Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 75, nr 11, s. 2766-2772Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore the level of sense of coherence among Swedish nursing staff.

    Design: An explorative quantitative study design was adopted using a short form for measuring sense of coherence.

    Methods Data were collected in January 2018 from nurses working in full‐time positions at two hospitals in Western Sweden. A total of 93 nurses completed the 13 item questionnaire measuring sense of coherence. Descriptive statistics were applied to obtain means and standard deviations. Spearman's rank correlation was used to describe strength of association between sense of coherence and socio‐demographic categories. Between‐group differences were defined using the nonparametric tests of Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal‐Wallis test.

    Results The internal consistency of the SOC‐13 was low. An inter‐item‐correlation test indicated that two items decreased the internal consistency of the scale. The level of the three dimensions of sense of coherence varied; manageability was weakest and decreased the total sense of coherence. The meaningfulness dimension was as strongest.

    Conclusion On a national level, nurses reported weaker SOC than the general population, but stronger in an international comparison of nurses. They found their work difficult to manage, but meaningful.

    Impact On a national level, the nurses report weaker SOC than the general population, but stronger in an international comparison of nurses. Findings from this study will have an impact on how nurses can manage work related stress in terms of sense of coherence. There will also be an impact on nurses' well‐being, which in a long run benefits patients.

  • 12.
    Falk, Örjan
    et al.
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Brändström, Sven
    Center for Well-being Washington University, School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap. Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality and trait aggression profiles of male and female prison inmates2017Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 250, s. 302-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population. The majority of offenders scored distinctively high on trait aggression. There were moderate to strong associations between the personality dimensions and each of the subscales of LHA (Aggression, Self-directed Aggression and Antisocial behavior). These associations were stronger in the female offender sample. Trait aggression could be best explained by a model, which included male gender, younger age, high novelty seeking temperament and low character maturity. Our results suggest that therapies aiming at strengthening self-governance and increasing cooperativeness (focusing on character maturity) may alleviate aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders.

  • 13. Hovey, D.
    et al.
    Lindstedt, M.
    Zettergren, A.
    Jonsson, L.
    Johansson, A.
    Melke, J.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Lichtenstein, P.
    Lundström, S.
    Westberg, L.
    Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples2016Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 21, nr July, s. 983-988Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires—Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)—designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10−7 in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10−5. Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one potential target in the treatment of aggressive antisocial behavior.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Catrin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Kullgren, Carina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Bador, Kourosh
    Agera KBT AB, Gothenburg; Center for Holistic Psychiatry Research (CHoPy), Mölndal (SWE).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Gender non-binary adolescents' somatic and mental health throughout 2020.2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, artikel-id 993568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Non-binary gender adolescents are particularly vulnerable and more likely to be exposed to several socio-psychological difficulties and disorders. It is vital to discover and act on the vulnerabilities they encounter. The present study aims to describe the somatic and mental health, affect state, frequency of risk behaviors, victimization and negative psychosocial factors, as well as the personality profiles of non-binary adolescents. In this study the concept of gender non-binary is used and captured respondents who selected "neither of these" as their gender from the possible options (female/male/neither of these).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected between September 2020 and February 2021 in Sweden, Morocco, Serbia, Vietnam, and the United States. The cross-sectional, retrospective study utilized the electronic version of the Mental and Somatic Health without borders (MeSHe) survey. From the over 5,000 responses of 15-19-year-old adolescents, 58 respondents identified as being non-binary, and built our study population. Their data was analyzed with descriptive statistic methods.

    RESULTS: Close to a fourth of adolescents identifying as non-binary reported the existence of at least one somatic disease. The most prevalent somatic disease was allergies. Almost one-third had suffered from pain either often or all the time in the past 12 months. The highest levels of perceived psychological distress were measured using obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. The average level of alcohol and drug use during the past 12 months was low. About 40% of non-binary adolescents reported having experienced physical abuse, and half of them experienced psychological abuse at some point in their lives. Seventeen percent reported living with adults with alcohol-use problems. Non-binary adolescents' personalities were found to be dominated by high scores in Openness, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness.

    CONCLUSION: This study presents a detailed biopsychosocial picture of a multinational sample of non-binary adolescents. Our study suggests that awareness and support are required from all fields of society, including family, school, healthcare, and educational institutions, for cis-normative culture to progress toward a greater understanding of and respect for gender diversity.

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  • 15.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA)2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 16.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Yoga as Complementary Care for Young People Placed in Juvenile Institutions: A Study Plan2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, s. 1-11, artikel-id 575147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have established yoga practice as a mainstream complementary clinical tool within correctional environments. It is shown that regular yoga practice is coupled with improved impulse control, sustained attention, attenuated antisocial and self-harm behaviors, reduced stress, and psychological distress. No academic research until now has provided evidence of mental health benefits of yoga for institutionalized young people. In Sweden, each year more than thousand adolescents receive compulsory care at juvenile institutions run by the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care. These young people are characterized by substance abuse, aggressive and antisocial behaviors, high frequency of self-harm, and the experience of abuse. Most of them manifest attention problems, depression, anxiety, and impulsivity. They have a dramatically increased risk for recidivistic criminal behavior, continuous medical, and social care and untimely death. The present study plan aims at evaluating, with previously validated psychological measures, in a quasi-experimental design, the effects of yoga practice for institutionalized adolescents. Adolescents’ experiences of participating in yoga practice will also be assessed by semi-structured individual interviews. Ethical approval was given by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority. It is hypothesized that yoga practice (in combination with the standard treatment within institutional care) will reduce institutionalized adolescents’ aggression, antisocial behavior, anxiety, depression, and negative affect, and increase their cognitive flexibility (in the form of increased impulse control).

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  • 17.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Apelqvist, Susanne
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Fielding, Cecilia
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA): Psychometric Characteristics of a New Tool Measuring Change in Aggressive Behaviors in Correctional Settings2018Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 263, s. 130-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for instruments that can be used in correctional settings to measure changes in aggressive behaviors over a limited time period. This study aimed to validate an instrument (the Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression, PAMA) that assesses specifically the past month’s aggressive behaviors and is adapted for use in correctional facilities. The psychometric properties of the self-rated and interview versions of the PAMA were explored and compared to those of two well-established measures of aggression: The Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS); and the self-rate Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV). The study group comprised 93 male and 59 female inmates, who were followed for two months. During the study, the prevalence of aggressive acts was observed and reported by SOAS. On two occasions, at monthly intervals, subjects reported their own aggressive behaviors using AQ-RSV and the self-report version of the PAMA; also, a psychologist conducted interviews according to PAMA. This study’s main finding was that the self-rated version of PAMA is a valid measure of different types and dimensions of aggression (physical and verbal aggression, hostility) and has acceptable psychometric properties. Therefore, PAMA could potentially be of value for use in correctional services evaluating aggression managing treatment interventions.

  • 18.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Bador, Kourosh
    AGERA KBT AB,Gothenburg (SWE).
    Sfendla, Anis
    High Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques, Errachidia ( MAR); Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR); Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Moulay Ismail University, Errachidia (MAR) .
    Belaatar, Mohjat
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan(MAR).
    El Mzadi, Abdennour
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR).
    Jovic, Vladimir
    Department of Psychiatry, Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth,Belgrade (SRB).
    Damjanovic, Rade
    Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Education in Sombor, University of Novi Sad, Sombor (SRB).
    Erlandsson, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Nguyen, Hang Thi Minh
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities,Hanoi (VNM).
    Nguyen, Nguyet Thi Anh
    Department of Social Work with Children and Family, Faculty of Social Work, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi (VNM).
    Ulberg, Scott E.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (USA).
    Kuch-Cecconi, Rachael H.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (USA).
    Meszaros, Zsuzsa Szombathyne
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (USA).
    Stevanovic, Dejan
    Department of Psychiatry, Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth, Belgrade (SRB).
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR).
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Zouini, Btissame
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR).
    Changes in Adolescents’ Psychosocial Functioning and Well-Being as a Consequence of Long-Term COVID-19 Restrictions2021Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 16, artikel-id 8755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work studied self-reports from adolescents on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed their behaviors, relationships, mood, and victimization. Data collection was conducted between September 2020 and February 2021 in five countries (Sweden, the USA, Serbia, Morocco, and Vietnam). In total, 5114 high school students (aged 15 to 19 years, 61.8% females) responded to our electronic survey. A substantial proportion of students reported decreased time being outside (41.7%), meeting friends in real life (59.4%), and school performance (30.7%), while reporting increased time to do things they did not have time for before (49.3%) and using social media to stay connected (44.9%). One third of the adolescents increased exercise and felt that they have more control over their life. Only a small proportion of adolescents reported substance use, norm-breaking behaviors, or victimization. The overall COVID-19 impact on adolescent life was gender-specific: we found a stronger negative impact on female students. The results indicated that the majority of adolescents could adapt to the dramatic changes in their environment. However, healthcare institutions, municipalities, schools, and social services could benefit from the findings of this study in their work to meet the needs of those young people who signaled worsened psychosocial functioning, increased stress, and victimization.

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    MDPI
  • 19.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Brändström, Sven
    Washington University School of Medicine, Clinical Associate of the Center for Well-Being, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Imprisoning Yoga: Yoga Practice May Increase the Character Maturity of Male Prison Inmates.2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 10, artikel-id 406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A specific personality profile, characterized by low character maturity (low scores on the self-directedness and cooperativeness character dimensions) and high scores on the novelty seeking temperament dimension of the temperament and character inventory (TCI), has been associated with aggressive antisocial behavior in male prison inmates. It has also been shown that yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on the inmates' well-being and on risk factors associated with criminal recidivism (e.g., antisocial behavior). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the positive effect of yoga practice on inmates' behaviors could be extended to include eventual changes in their personality profile. Methods: Male prison inmates (N = 111) in Sweden participated in a randomized controlled 10-week long yoga intervention trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either a yoga group (one class a week; n = 57) or a control group (free of choice weekly physical activity; n = 54). All the inmates completed the TCI questionnaire before and after the intervention period as part of an assessment battery. Results: After the 10-week-long intervention period male inmates scored significantly lower on the novelty seeking and the harm avoidance and significantly higher on the self-directedness dimensions of the TCI. There was a significant medium strong interaction effect between time and group belonging for the self-directedness dimension of character favoring the yoga group. Conclusion: A 10-week-long yoga practice intervention among male inmates in Swedish correctional facilities increased the inmates' character maturity, improving such abilities as their capability to take responsibility, feel more purposeful, and being more self-acceptant-features that previously were found to be associated with decreased aggressive antisocial behavior.

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  • 20.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Ekström-Bergström, AnetteHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - avancerad nivå.
    Complementary Care to Promote Mental Health2023Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
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    Ebook
  • 21.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Falk, Örjan
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Sweden.
    Brändström, Sven
    Washington University, Center for Well-being School of Medicine in St. Louis, USA.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Sweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sweden.
    Hofvander, Björn
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Sweden.
    The protective effect of character maturity in child aggressive antisocial behavior2017Ingår i: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 76, s. 129-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD.

    METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Their parents rated them according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory following a telephone interview during which information about the children's development and mental health was assessed with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory.

    RESULT: Scores on the CD module significantly and positively correlated with scores on the Novelty Seeking temperament dimension and negatively with scores on character maturity (Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness). In the group of children with either neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems, the prevalence of low or very low character maturity was 50%, while when these two problems coexisted the prevalence of low or very low character maturity increased to 70%. Neurodevelopmental problems (such as: oppositional defiant disorder, symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder) and low scores on character maturity emerged as independently significant predictors of CD; in a multivariable model, only oppositional defiant symptoms and impulsivity significantly increased the risk for coexisting CD while a mature self-agency in a child (Self-Directedness) remained a significant protective factor.

    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that children's willpower, the capacity to achieve personally chosen goals may be an important protective factor - even in the presence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems - against progressing into persistent negative outcomes, such as aggressive antisocial behaviors.

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  • 22.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Fielding, Cecilia
    R&E, Swedish Prison and Probation Services, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Apelqvist, Susanne
    R&E, Swedish Prison and Probation Services, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Yoga in Correctional Settings: A Randomized Controlled Study2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 8, artikel-id 204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of yoga in the reduction of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, anger as well as in the increased ability of behavioral control has been shown. These effects of yoga are highly relevant for prison inmates who often have poor mental health and low impulse control. While it has been shown that yoga and mediation can be effective in improving subjective well-being, mental health, and executive functioning within prison populations, only a limited number of studies have proved this, using randomized controlled settings. Methods: A total of 152 participants from nine Swedish correctional facilities were randomly assigned to a 10-week yoga group (one class a week; N=77) or a control group (N=75). Before and after the intervention period, participants answered questionnaires measuring stress, aggression, affective states, sleep-quality and psychological well-being, and completed a computerized test measuring attention and impulsivity. Results: After the intervention period, significant improvements were found on 13 of the 16 variables within the yoga group. (e.g., less perceived stress, better sleep quality, an increased psychological and emotional well-being, less aggressive and antisocial behavior) and on two within the control group. Compared to the control group, yoga class participants reported significantly improved emotional well-being and less antisocial behavior after ten weeks of yoga. They also showed improved performance on the computerized test that measures attention and impulse control. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on inmates’ well-being and on considerable risk factors associated with recidivism, such as impulsivity and antisocial behavior. Accordingly, the results show that yoga practice can play an important part in the rehabilitation of prison inmates.

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  • 23.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Lundqvist, Sara
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Schubert Hjalmarsson, Elke
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Department of Physiotherapy, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Torinsson Naluai, Åsa
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Kantzer, Anne-Katrin
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Knez, Rajna
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde (SWE).
    The associations between ADHD, pain, inflammation, and quality of life in children and adolescents-a clinical study protocol.2022Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 9, artikel-id e0273653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New research shows that the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increased in children and adolescents as well as in adults with chronic pain, compared to those without chronic pain. Children and adolescents with ADHD also have an increased incidence of various physical conditions associated with pain, and they more frequently suffer from inflammatory diseases. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD can often suffer from pain conditions. These epidemiological and clinical observations form the scientific basis of our study, which aims to map the relationships between ADHD, altered pain experiences/central sensitization, and inflammation in children and adolescents. We will investigate the presence of central sensitization in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ADHD and compare it with those who have not been diagnosed with ADHD. Participants (and their biological parents) will complete surveys about their somatic health, pain experience, and quality of life. Biological samples (saliva and stool) will be collected, aiming to utilize proteome and metabolome data to discover disease mechanisms and to predict, prevent and treat them. The results from our investigation should enable an expanded understanding of the pathophysiology behind both ADHD and pain/central sensitization. Presently, there are no established protocols for addressing psychiatric symptoms when examining patients with pain conditions in a somatic care setting, nor is there any knowledge of offering patients with ADHD or other neurodevelopmental disorders adapted treatments for pain conditions. Our results, therefore, can contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for pathological pain conditions in children and adolescents with ADHD. They may also increase awareness about and provide opportunities for the treatment of attention and impulse control problems in children and adolescents with pain syndromes.

  • 24.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Sanchéz-Pérez, Ana Maria
    Neurobiotechnology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), University Jaume I, Castellon (ESP).
    Landry, Marc
    University of Bordeaux, CNRS, Institute for Neurodegenrative Diseases, IMN, UMR 5293, Bordeaux, (FRA).
    Neuroinflammation as a possible link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain2021Ingår i: Medical Hypotheses, ISSN 0306-9877, E-ISSN 1532-2777, Vol. 157, artikel-id 110717Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pathological pain are two complex syndromes of multifactorial origin. Despite their prevalence and broad impacts, these conditions are seldom recognized and managed simultaneously. The co-existence of neuropsychiatric conditions (such as ADHD) and altered pain perception and chronic pain has been noted in children, and the comorbidity of ADHD and chronic pain is well documented in adults. Pathophysiological studies have suggested dysfunction of the dopaminergic system as a common neurochemical basis for comorbid ADHD and pain. Considerable evidence supports the role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of both. We suggest that central neuroinflammation underlies altered pain perception and pain sensitization in persons with ADHD. Based on our hypothesis, targeting neuroinflammation may serve as a potential new therapeutic intervention to treat ADHD and comorbid pain in children and adolescents and a preventive strategy for the development of chronic pain in adults with ADHD.

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  • 25.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Zouini, Btissame
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco (MAR).
    Karlsson, Emma
    Department of Surgery, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Emma
    Addiction Center, Saint Görans Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Conduct disorder and somatic health in children: a nationwide genetically sensitive study2020Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 20, s. 1-14, artikel-id 595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Conduct disorder (CD), a serious behavioral and emotional disorder in childhood and adolescence, characterized by disruptive behavior and breaking societal rules. Studies have explored the overlap of CD with neurodevelopmental problems (NDP). The somatic health of children with NDP has been investigated; however, the prevalence of these problems in children with CD has not been sufficiently studied. Holistic assessment of children with CD is required for establishing effective treatment strategies.

    Aims:

    (1) Define the prevalence of selected neurological problems (migraine and epilepsy) and gastrointestinal problems (celiac disease, lactose intolerance, diarrhea, and constipation) in a population of twins aged 9 or 12;

    (2) Compare the prevalence of somatic problems in three subpopulations: (a) children without CD or NDP, (b) children with CD, and (c) children with both CD and NDP;

    (3) Select twin pairs where at least one child screened positive for CD but not NDP (proband) and map both children’s neurological and gastrointestinal problems.

    Method

    Telephone interviews with parents of 20,302 twins in a cross-sectional, nationwide, ongoing study. According to their scores on the Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and Comorbidities inventory, screen-positive children were selected and divided into two groups: (1) children with CD Only, (2) children with CD and at least one NDP.

    Results

    Children with CD had an increased prevalence of each neurological and gastrointestinal problem (except celiac disease), and the prevalence of somatic problems was further increased among children with comorbid CD and NDP. The presence of CD (without NDP) increased the odds of constipation for girls and the odds of epilepsy for boys. Girls with CD generally had more coexisting gastrointestinal problems than boys with CD. Female co-twins of probands with CD were strongly affected by gastrointestinal problems. Concordance analyses suggested genetic background factors in neurological and gastrointestinal problems, but no common etiology with CD could be concluded.

    Conclusion

    Co-occurring NDP could explain most of the increased prevalence of somatic problems in CD. Our results raise a new perspective on CD in children and adolescents; their CD seems to be linked to a number of other health problems, ranging from neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders to somatic complaints.

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  • 26.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Zouini, Btissame
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University of Tetouan (MAR).
    Tingberg, Sofia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avdelningen för psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi.
    Psychological Distress, Somatic Complaints, and Their Relation to Negative Psychosocial Factors in a Sample of Swedish High School Students2021Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 9, s. 1-16, artikel-id 669958Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a period in life characterized by major neurobiological, physiological, and psychological changes. Those changes may give rise to worsened mental health and an increased prevalence of somatic complaints combined with a negative psychosocial environment. Rapid changes in society, which may also affect young people in several ways, call for a renewed screening of today's adolescents' mental and somatic well-being. Aim: The present study's primary aim was to measure the level of self-rated psychological distress and the prevalence of somatic complaints in a sample of Swedish high school students. As a secondary aim, it identifies gender-specific patterns and examines mental and somatic health in relation to negative psychosocial factors (such as parental alcohol use problems or the experience of physical or psychological abuse). Method: Two hundred and eighty-seven Swedish high school students completed a survey including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a questionnaire about the presence of defined somatic complaints. In order to examine the relationship between negative psychosocial factors and mental and somatic health, three groups were formed: those reporting (i) parental substance use problems, (ii) previous experience of abuse, (iii) none of these problems. Results: The majority of the Swedish high-school students (>80%) reported no or only a few problems with psychological distress and no or only one somatic complaint. Female students disclosed a significantly higher psychological distress level captured by each BSI domain. The number of somatic complaints was similarly distributed between the genders. The students rarely reported parental substance use problems, but almost 40% of the male and 50% of the female students indicated the experience of physical and/or psychological abuse. Such negative psychosocial circumstances were related to an increased level of anxiety in the male and an increased general level of psychological distress in female students. Conclusions: The study confirmed female students' higher psychological distress level. Gender differences in the type of somatic complaints, but not in the number were detected. The experience of physical and/or psychological abuse was found to significantly worsen psychological distress in students of both genders.

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  • 27.
    Landry, M.
    et al.
    University of Bordeaux, IINS, CNRS UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.
    Bouchatta, O.
    Cadi Ayyad University, LPNB URAC 37, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    M’Hamed, S. B.
    Cadi Ayyad University, LPNB URAC 37, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Bouali-Benazzouz, R.
    University of Bordeaux, IINS, CNRS UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Fossat, P.
    University of Bordeaux, IINS, CNRS UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.
    Bennis, M.
    Cadi Ayyad University, LPNB URAC 37, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity in a pharmacological mouse model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2017Ingår i: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 142, nr 1, SI, artikel-id WTH13-07Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Lester, Nigel
    et al.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Ctr Well Being, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Garcia, Danilo
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Center for Well-Being, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brändström, Sven
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap. University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, C Robert
    Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St Louis, USA.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence.2016Ingår i: Annals of General Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1744-859X, Vol. 15, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence.

    METHODS: The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    RESULTS: The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12).

    CONCLUSION: The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

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  • 29.
    Lundqvist, S.
    et al.
    Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg University, Box 430, 405 30 Gothenburg (SWE); Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 416 50 Gothenburg (SWE).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap. Centre for Holistic Psychiatry Research (CHoPy), 431 60 Molndal (SWE).
    The association between pain and psychiatric conditions in adolescents: The impact of gender and ADHD diagnosis2024Ingår i: European Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 38, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: The relationship between pain and psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents has been understudied. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gender on the association between pain and psychiatric diagnoses, as well as the specific relationship between pain and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescents from the general population. Additionally, the study explored whether pain frequency or intensity in individuals with ADHD was influenced by coexisting psychiatric disorders and ADHD medications. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1608 conveniently sampled Swedish upper secondary school students aged 15–19 years. Data were collected at the end of 2020 using the electronic "Mental and Somatic Health without borders" survey. Results: A significant positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between pain frequency, intensity, and the presence of any psychiatric diagnosis. Female adolescents reported more frequent and intensive pain in the groups with or without any psychiatric diagnosis and in those with ADHD, however the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis had a comparatively lesser impact on pain frequency in females when compared to males. In adolescents with ADHD, pain frequency, but not intensity, showed a significant further increase. Moreover, the presence of coexisting depression and/or anxiety further heightened the association between pain frequency and ADHD. Notably, common ADHD medications did not have a significant impact on pain experiences. Headache emerged as the most prevalent type of pain across all groups of adolescents. Back pain specifically appeared as the next most common type of pain among adolescents with ADHD. Conclusion: The findings suggest a positive association between pain and the presence of psychiatric diagnoses, including ADHD, in adolescents. Gender modified this association. Back pain arised specifically coupled to ADHD. Common ADHD medications did not show a significant impact on pain experiences in this study. These results highlight the importance of a holistic approach to child and adolescent care. © 2023 The Author(s)

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  • 30.
    Lundqvist, Sara
    et al.
    Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg (SWE) Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Knez, Rajna
    Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg (SWE); Department of Paediatrics, Skaraborg's Hospital, Skövde (SWE).
    Nagy, Karin
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Nasic, Salmir
    FoU Centrum, Skaraborgs Hospital, Skövde (SWE).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Kantzer, Anne-Katrin
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Prevalence of chronic pain in children and adolescents with psychiatric conditions.2023Ingår i: Paediatric & neonatal pain, E-ISSN 2637-3807, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 50-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of pain in children and adolescents with psychiatric conditions is rarely investigated. The aims of the current study were to (a) describe the prevalence of headaches and abdominal pain in children and adolescents with psychiatric conditions, (b) compare the prevalence of pain in children and adolescents with psychiatric conditions with that in the general population, and (c) investigate the associations between pain experience and different types of psychiatric diagnoses. Families with a child aged 6-15 years who had been referred to a child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) clinic completed the Chronic Pain in Psychiatric Conditions questionnaire. Information about the child/adolescent's psychiatric diagnosis(es) was extracted from the CAP clinic's medical records. The children and adolescents included in the study were divided into diagnostic groups and compared. Their data were also compared with data of control subjects collected during a previous study of the general population. Abdominal pain was more common among girls with a psychiatric diagnosis (85%) than in the matched control population (62%, p = 0.031). Children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental diagnoses had a higher prevalence of abdominal pain than children and adolescents with other psychiatric diagnoses. Pain conditions in children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis are common and must be addressed.

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  • 31.
    Meseguer-Beltrán, María
    et al.
    Insitute of Advanced Materials (INAM), University of Jaume I ; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Jaume I (ESP).
    Sánchez-Sarasúa, Sandra
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Jaume I (ESP).
    Landry, Marc
    Marc Landry, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (FRA).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Sánchez-Pérez, Ana
    Insitute of Advanced Materials (INAM), University of Jaume I, (ESP), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Jaume I (ESP).
    Targeting Neuroinflammation with Abscisic Acid Reduces Pain Sensitivity in Females and Hyperactivity in Males of an ADHD Mice Model2023Ingår i: Cells, E-ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 465-486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by dopaminergic dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that there is a link between dopaminergic deficit and neuroinflammation that underlies ADHD symptoms. We used a validated ADHD mice model involving perinatal 6-OHDA lesions. The animals received abscisic acid (ABA), an anti-inflammatory phytohormone, at a concentration of 20 mg/L (drinking water) for one month. We tested a battery of behavior tests, learning and memory, anxiety, social interactions, and pain thresholds in female and male mice (control and lesioned, with or without ABA treatment). Postmortem, we analyzed microglia morphology and Ape1 expression in specific brain areas related to the descending pain inhibitory pathway. In females, the dopaminergic deficit increased pain sensitivity but not hyperactivity. In contrast, males displayed hyperactivity but showed no increased pain sensitivity. In females, pain sensitivity was associated with inflammatory microglia and lower Ape1 levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior insula cortex (IC). In addition, ABA treatment alleviated pain sensitivity concomitant with reduced inflammation and normalized APE1. In males, ABA reduced hyperactivity but had no significant effect on inflammation in these areas. This is the first study proving a sex-dependent association between dopamine dysfunction and inflammation in specific brain areas, hence leading to different behavioral outcomes in a mouse model of ADHD. These findings provide new clues for potential treatments for ADHD.

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  • 32.
    Nguyen, Hang T. M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Psychology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities (VNM).
    Nguyen, Hoang V.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota (USA).
    Zouini, Btissame
    UAE/U24FS, FS, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan 90100, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    UAE/U24FS, FS, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University (MAR).
    Bador, Kourosh
    AGERA KBT, Gothenburg.
    Meszaros, Zsuzsa Szombathyne
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University ( USA).
    Stevanovic, Dejan
    Department of Psychiatry, Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth (SRB).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    The COVID-19 Pandemic and Adolescents’ Psychological Distress: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Study2022Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, nr 14, s. 8261-8261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has continued for more than two years, and the impact of this pandemic on mental health has become one of the most important research topics in psychiatry and psychology. The aim of the present study was to assess psychological distress in adolescents across five countries (Sweden, Morocco, Serbia, Vietnam, and the United States of America) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: Using nonparametric analyses we examined the impact of COVID-19 on distress, measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory, in a sample of 4670 adolescents.

    Results: Our results showed that the association between the COVID-19 impact and psychological distress in adolescents' lives was positive and moderate in Morocco and Serbia, positive and weak in Vietnam and the United States of America, and negative and weak in Sweden. We also found that female adolescents reported higher distress levels than male adolescents.

    Conclusions: COVID-19 impacted adolescents and their psychological distress differently depending on their residence.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, University of Gothenburg.
    Falk, Örjan
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, University of Gothenburg.
    Billstedt, Eva
    Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Wallinius, Märta
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Research and Development Unit, Regional Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hofvander, Björn
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University.
    Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors Are Related to Character Maturity in Young Swedish Violent Offenders Independent of ADHD2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 7, nr NOV, s. 1-12, artikel-id 185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Swedish males (N =  270, aged 18–25) sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their in carceration. Data on character maturity, as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory, were available for n = 148 subjects and were used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorders (SUD), aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits. Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less AABs and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed: (i) a later age at on set of criminality, (ii) a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, (iii) lower prevalence of ADHD, CD, and SUD, (iv) less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and (v) less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount of sexual offenders. Conclusion: Higher character maturity appeared to be a protective factor among young male violent offenders, associated with less AABs, suggesting that character maturity isa promising target for treatment interventions for this group of individuals.

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  • 34.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Higher Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques, Errachidia (MAR); Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University (MAR), Center for Holistic Psychiatry Research (CHoPy) (SWE).
    Bador, Kourosh
    Center for Holistic Psychiatry Research (CHoPy); AGERA KBT,Gothenburg (SWE).
    Paganelli, Michela
    Center for Holistic Psychiatry Research (CHoPy), Mölndal (SWE).
    Kerekes, Nóra
    Center for Holistic Psychiatry Research (CHoPy), Mölndal (SWE).
    Swedish High School Students’ Drug and Alcohol Use Habits throughout 20202022Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, nr 24, s. 16928-16928Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes gender-specific patterns in alcohol and drug use among Swedish high school students throughout 2020 and questions the current cutoffs for identifying addiction in this population. From September 2020 to February 2021, 1590 Swedish upper secondary high school students (mean age 17.15 years, age range 15–19 years, 39.6% male, and 60.4% female) completed the anonymous, electronic survey of the Mental and Somatic Health without borders study. The respondents reported their substance use habits during the previous 12 months using the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). They also answered questions about changes in their alcohol and illegal drug use habits after the COVID-19 outbreak. No gender differences were detected in the prevalence and degree of alcohol use. Compared to female adolescents, significantly more male adolescents used drugs (and to a significantly higher degree, although with a small effect size). Substance use problems peaked in females at age 17 and in males at age 18. The COVID-19 outbreak affected alcohol consumption and illegal drug use in male and female adolescents similarly. For both genders, of those who used illegal drugs, over 40% reported increased use after the outbreak. Our results reinforce previous suggestions of the narrowing of gender differences in Swedish adolescents’ risk behaviors and challenge the previously validated gender-specific cutoffs for the AUDIT and DUDIT. An improved understanding of the impacts of gender diversity and evolving gender roles and norms on behaviors and mental health is warranted.

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  • 35.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Lemrani, Dina
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Risk and protective factors for drug dependence in two Moroccan high-risk male populations2018Ingår i: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, artikel-id e5930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Substance use is linked to biological, environmental, and social factors. This study provides insights on protective and risk factors for drug dependence in two Moroccan, high-risk, male samples.

    Methods

    Data from the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders" (MeSHe) survey were utilized in the present study. The MeSHe survey assesses somatic and mental health parameters by self-report from prison inmates (n = 177) and outpatients from an addiction institution (n = 54). The "Drug dependence" and the "No drug dependence" groups were identified based on the Arabic version of the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test's (DUDIT) validated cutoff for identifying individuals with drug dependence, specifically in Morocco.

    Results

    The majority of participants who had at least high school competence (67.6%), were living in a partnership (53.7%), were a parent (43.1%), and/or had a job (86.8%) belonged to the "No drug dependence" group, while the presence of mental health problems was typical among the "Drug dependence" group (47.4%). A multivariable regression model (χ2 (df = 5, N = 156) = 63.90, p < 0.001) revealed that the presence of depression diagnosis remains a significant risk factor, while a higher level of education, having a child, and being employed are protective factors from drug dependence.

    Discussion

    Findings support the importance of increasing academic competence and treating depression as prevention from the persistence of drug addiction in male high-risk populations.

  • 36.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Malmström, Petter
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Torstensson, Sara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Yoga Practice Reduces the Psychological Distress Levels of Prison Inmates2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, artikel-id 407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychiatric ill-health is prevalent among prison inmates and often hampers their rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is crucial for reducing recidivistic offending. A few studies have presented evidence of the positive effect of yoga on the well-being of prison inmates. The conclusion of those previous studies that yoga is an effective method in the rehabilitation process of inmates, and deserves and requires further attention.Aims: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of 10 weeks of yoga practice on the mental health profile, operationalized in the form of psychological distress, of inmates. Methods: 152 volunteer participants (133 men; 19 women) were randomly placed in either of two groups: to participate in weekly 90-minute yoga class (yoga group) or a weekly 90-minute free-choice physical exercise (control group). The study period lasted for 10 weeks. Prior to and at the end of the study period the participants completed a battery of self-reported inventories, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results: Physical activity (including yoga) significantly reduced the inmates’ levels of psychological distress. Yoga practice improved all primary symptom dimensions and its positive effect on the obsessive-compulsive, paranoid ideation, and somatization symptom dimensions of the BSI stayed significant even when comparing with the control group. Conclusions: Yoga as a form of physical activity is effective for reducing psychological distress levels in prison inmates, with specific effect on symptoms such as suspicious and fearful thoughts about losing autonomy, memory problems, difficulty in making decisions, trouble concentrating, obsessive thought and perception of bodily dysfunction.

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  • 37.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Errachidia University, Errachidia; Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan; Moulay Ismail University, Errachidia (MAR).
    Martinsson, Björn
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Filipovic, Ylva
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan (MAR).
    Kerekes, Nóra
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Psychological distress in a sample of Moroccan prisoners with drug-dependence2022Ingår i: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, ISSN 0306-624X, E-ISSN 1552-6933, Vol. 66, nr 10-11, s. 1093-1108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research regarding mental illness and drug addiction among inmates in Morocco requires increased knowledge; previous literature reported that prisoners suffer from severe psychological distress. The present study aimed to provide information about Moroccan prisoners’ psychological distress and define the differences in psychological distress levels among inmates with and without drug-dependence. A sample of 177 male inmates completed a set of surveys, including the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The “Drug dependence” group scored significantly higher psychological distress levels in each of the BSI domains. The strongest differences were measured in the General Severity Index (GSI), hostility, and depression scales. Moroccan prison inmates have high psychological distress, and those with drug-dependence have even higher. There is a need of psychiatric assessment, selection, and care possibilities in prison inmate populations.

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  • 38.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Zouini, Btissame
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Lemrani, Dina
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in Clinical, Prison Inmate, and Student Samples2017Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 280-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) by (1) assessing its factor structure, (2) determining structural validity,(3) evaluating item-total and inter-item correlation, and (4) assessing its predictive validity.

    Method 

    The study population included 169 prison inmates, 51 patients with clinical diagnosis of substance used disorder, and 53 students (N = 273). All participants completed the selfreport version of the Arabic DUDIT. After exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency of the Arabic DUDIT was determined and external validation was performed.

    Results

    Principal factor analysis showed that Arabic DUDIT exhibited only one factor, which explained 66.9% of the variance. Reliability based on Cronbach's alpha was .95. When compared to the DSM-IV substance use disorder diagnosis in a clinical sample, DUDIT had an area under the curve (AUC)of .98, with a sensitivity of .98 and a specificity of .90.

    Conclusion

    The Arabic version of DUDIT is a valid and reliable tool for screening for drug use in Arabic-speaking countries.

  • 39.
    Stevanovic, Dejan
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth, Belgrade (SRB).
    Damjanovic, Rade
    Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Education in Sombor, University of Novi Sad, Sombor (SRB).
    Jovic, Vladimir
    Department of Psychiatry, Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth, Belgrade (SRB).
    Bador, Kourosh
    AGERA KBT AB, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Nguyen, Hang Thi Minh
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, VNU, Hanoi (VNM).
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Avenue de Sebta, Mhannech II, Tetouan (MAR).
    Kuch-Cecconi, Rachael H.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (USA).
    Meszaros, Zsuzsa Szombathyne
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (USA).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Measurement properties of the life history of aggression in adolescents: Data from Morocco, Serbia, Sweden, Vietnam, and the USA.2022Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 311, artikel-id 114504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life History of Aggression (LHA) is a frequently used scale for assessing trait aggression, but its psychometric properties have not been evaluated among adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LHA among high school students from Morocco, Serbia, Sweden, Vietnam, and the United States of America (USA). The total sample included 4867 adolescents, aged 15-19 years, from Morocco (n = 508), Serbia (n = 1067), Sweden (n = 1570), Vietnam (n = 1401), and the USA (n = 321). A two-factor, nine-item model containing an aggression factor (5 items) and a consequences/antisocial behavior factor (4 items) was created. The two-factor model had an acceptable-to-good model fit for the data for the total sample and all five countries, including gender. Cronbach's alpha (α) was satisfactory across countries. Still, the construct was noninvariant across countries and genders. The LHA with nine items in two subscales showed sound construct validity and internal consistency and can be used for group-level or within-group assessments of trait aggression in adolescents by either gender or country. However, it should not be used for cross-gender or cross-country comparisons due to a lack of measurement invariance.

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  • 40.
    Ståhlberg, Ola
    et al.
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg, Sweden, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boman, Sofia
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Christina
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stenungsund/Tjorn, Kungalvs Hospital, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse2017Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 50, s. 52-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N = 100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n = 25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n = 30), and those without SUD (n = 45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54–.84, p = .02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.

  • 41.
    Svensson, Olof
    et al.
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sörman, Karolina
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations Between Conduct Disorder, Neurodevelopmental Problems and Psychopathic Personality Traits in a Swedish Twin Youth Population2018Ingår i: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 586-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found a complex relationship between psychopathic traits, neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs), and conduct disorder (CD) in children. This study explores associations between psychopathic traits, assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory—Short Version (CPTI-SV), and CD in children with and without coexisting NDPs (i.e., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD]) in a community-based sample of Swedish twins (n = 8762). Findings indicate weak to moderately strong correlations between psychopathic traits and CD, ADHD, and ASD, respectively. Furthermore, in univariable analyses, both psychopathic traits and NDPs displayed significant positive associations with being screened positive for CD, though only the grandiose-deceitful dimension of CPTI-SV and the ADHD domain concentration and attention deficits remained significantly associated with CD in a multivariable regression model. The results are relevant to screening and assessment in child and youth psychiatry, as a grandiose and deceitful interpersonal style may also be a valid sign of children at risk of developing CD.

  • 42.
    Täljemark, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University, Medical Faculty, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLundSweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Medical Faculty, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLundSweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology University of Gothenburg Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    The coexistence of psychiatric and gastrointestinal problems in children with restrictive eating in a nationwide Swedish twin study2017Ingår i: Journal of Eating Disorders, E-ISSN 2050-2974, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikel-id 25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Restrictive eating problems are rare in children but overrepresented in those with neurodevelopmental problems. Comorbidities decrease wellbeing in affected individuals but research in the area is relatively scarce. This study describes phenotypes, regarding psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidities, in children with restrictive eating problems.

    Methods

    A parental telephone interview was conducted in 9- or 12-year old twins (n = 19,130) in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Cases of restrictive eating problems and comorbid problems were established using the Autism, Tics-AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory, parental reports of comorbidity as well as data from a national patient register. In restrictive eating problem cases, presence of psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidity was mapped individually in probands and their co-twin. Two-tailed Mann–Whitney U tests were used to test differences in the mean number of coexisting disorders between boys and girls. Odds ratios were used to compare prevalence figures between individuals with or without restrictive eating problems, and Fisher exact test was used to establish significance.

    Results

    Prevalence of restrictive eating problems was 0.6% (concordant in 15% monozygotic and 3% of dizygotic twins). The presence of restrictive eating problems drastically increased odds of all psychiatric problems, especially autism spectrum disorder in both sexes (odds ratio = 11.9 in boys, odds ratio = 10.1 in girls), obsessive-compulsive disorder in boys (odds ratio = 11.6) and oppositional defiant disorder in girls (odds ratio = 9.22). Comorbid gastrointestinal problems, such as lactose intolerance (odds ratio = 4.43) and constipation (odds ratio = 2.91), were the most frequent in girls. Boy co-twins to a proband with restrictive eating problems generally had more psychiatric problems than girl co-twins and more girl co-twins had neither somatic nor any psychiatric problems at all.

    Conclusions

    In children with restrictive eating problems odds of all coexisting psychiatric problems and gastrointestinal problems are significantly increased. The study shows the importance of considering comorbidities in clinical assessment of children with restrictive eating problems.

  • 43.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences,Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Self-reported aggressive and antisocial behaviors in Moroccan high school students2019Ingår i: Psihologija, ISSN 1451-9283, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 235-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to map the level and distribution of aggressive and antisocial behaviors in a sample of Moroccan high school students and to define the level of these behaviors in adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experienced abuse. In total, 375 high school students completed the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders (MeSHe)" survey that includes the Life History of Aggression scale. Male students had significantly higher scores for aggression and antisocial behaviors than female. The students who reported experience of abuse or parental alcohol use problems scored significantly higher for aggression, self-directed aggression, and antisocial behaviors compared to students not reporting these negative psychosocial factors. Previously shown gender-specific patterns in aggressive and antisocial behaviors, but not in self-harm behaviors were confirmed in these Moroccan high school students. Reported experience of abuse and/or parental alcohol use problems were associated with increased frequency of aggressive and antisocial behaviors.

  • 44.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Higher Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques, Errachidia, Morocco.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Mental health profile and its relation with parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of abuse in a sample of Moroccan high school students: An explorative study2019Ingår i: Annals of General Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1744-859X, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikel-id 27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on mental health are scarce from Arab countries, especially studies focusing on adolescents. In addition to the neurobiological and physiological changes that occur during adolescent development, psychological, societal and cultural influences have strong effects on adolescents’ behavior and on their somatic and mental health. The present study aimed (1) to describe the mental health profile, operationalized as psychological distress, of a sample of Moroccan adolescents, and (2) to investigate how specific psychosocial factors (parental alcohol use problems and the experience of physical and/or psychological abuse) may affect adolescents’ mental health. Methods: The sample included 375 adolescents from conveniently selected classes of four high schools in the city of Tetouan in Morocco. The participants responded to an anonymous survey containing, beside other inventories, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and identified those reporting parental alcohol use problems and/or the previous experience of abuse. The sample characteristics were defined using descriptive statistics. The effects of the defined psychosocial factors were identified using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the post hoc Fisher’s least significant difference test. Results: The most common problems found in high school students from an urban region of Morocco were memory problems, concentration difficulties, restlessness, fear, nervosity and feelings of inadequacy during interpersonal interactions. The female students reported significantly higher psychological distress levels when compared to the male students (p < 0.001). The adolescents reporting parental alcohol use problems and the experience of physical/psychological abuse showed significantly higher levels of psychological distress (p = 0.02), especially symptoms of somatization (p < 0.001), hostility (p = 0.005) and anxiety (p = 0.01), than those not reporting any of these psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The mental health profile of female adolescents from an urban area of Morocco is worse than that of their male fellow students. Adolescents reporting parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of physical/psychological abuse need synchronized support from social- A nd healthcare services. © 2019 The Author(s).

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  • 45.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences,Lund, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Somatic health and its association with negative psychosocial factors in a sample of Moroccan adolescents2019Ingår i: SAGE Open Medicine, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 7, artikel-id 2050312119852527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a distinct developmental phase characterized by multiple physical and psychological changes andby an increased vulnerability to somatic and mental health problems. These risk and vulnerability factors are part of a complexbiopsychosocial matrix, encompassing multiple factors, such as inherited biological determinants and psychological, societal,and cultural influences, which affect an adolescent's overall wellbeing. In Morocco, similar to other developing countries,adolescents (young people aged from 15 to 19years) constitute a substantial proportion of the population (almost 9%).However, studies about adolescents' health in developing countries are scarce. In this study, we describe adolescents' somatichealth in a sample of high school students from the city of Tetouan, Morocco, and investigate how negative psychosocialfactors, such as parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of abuse, may influence them.Methods: The study sample included 655 adolescents (315 boys and 340 girls, M=16.64years, range=15–18years) fromconviniently selected classes of four high schools in the city of Tetouan in Morocco. The students responded to a survey thatassessed the prevalence of somatic complaints/disorders. They also indicated whether they had ever experienced physicaland/or psychological abuse and whether they had parents with alcohol use problems.Results: More than half of the adolescents suffered from headaches and one-third had substantial problems with diarrhea orconstipation. Both problems were more common in female students. The third most frequent somatic problem, affecting onein four in both genders, was allergy. Almost one-third of Moroccan adolescents (significantly more boys than girls; p=0.004)reported no somatic complaints. In adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experience of physicaland/or psychological abuse, the prevalence of several somatic complaints (epilepsy, migraine, headache, diarrhea/constipation,gluten intolerance, allergy, and skin or thyroid disease) increased highly significantly compared to the adolescents whoreported no such psychosocial environmental factors.Conclusion: The results suggest that only 3 in 10 urban-living Moroccan adolescents are free of somatic complaints, whilethe majority suffer from some somatic problems, most often headaches and diarrhea/constipation. The association of certainnegative psychosocial factors with adolescents' somatic health suggests the need of a holistic approach to the treatment of affectedadolescents.

  • 46.
    Ćirović, N.
    et al.
    Faculty of Philosophy- University of Niš, Department of Psychology, Niš (SRB).
    Stevanovic, D.
    Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth- 11000 Belgrade (SRB); Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre,Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Nguyen, H.T.M.
    Faculty of Psychology- University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Psychology, Hanoi (VNM).
    Meszaros, Z.S.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (USA).
    Kerekes, Nora
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap. Centre for Holistic Psychiatry Research CHoPy, 431 60 Mölndal (SWE).
    Thought and mood/arousal disturbances as central broad dimensions in youth psychopathology: A network analysis2024Ingår i: Neuroscience Applied, ISSN 2772-4085, Vol. 3, nr Suppl 1, s. 103951-103951, artikel-id 103951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mounting evidence has implicated that the structure of psychopathology is better conceptualized as dimensional and not categorical as well as hierarchical [1-3]. A hierarchical structure includes a broad general dimension of psychopathology and more specific dimensions that capture distinct aspects of psychopathology [3]. Studies inquiring into the structure of psychopathology in youth are limited, but highly needed to provide the basis for aetiological research. A network paradigm could offer a novel way to study the structure of psychopathological dimensions revealing dynamics behind their interrelations.This study was based on the previous analysis that aimed to map various psychopathological symptoms and personality traits within the hierarchical structure based on the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) [2] in a multinational sample of 3923 community adolescents (34.7% males, aged 15 to 19 years) (https://osf.io/fujxa/).

    Twelve specific components were derived via sequential principal component analysis (PCA) and further analysed here: thought dysfunction, low mood, fearfulness, anxiety, physiological hyperarousal, attentional dysfunction, disruptive mood, antisocial behaviour, antagonistic behaviour, detachment, self-destructive behaviour, and substance use. These components were an input to a network analysis to study the grouping/node communities, interconnectedness, and centrality of them. The analyses include Exploratory Graph Analysis (EGA; model=glasso) for dimensionality/grouping analysis and network analysis (EBICglasso estimation performed on Spearman correlations) performed in EGAnet and bootnet packages in R. We used Strength and Expected Influence as centrality measures. Components are represented as nodes in the network.The EGA suggested four dimensions/node communities: the first consisting of substance use and antisocial behaviour, the second composed of self-destructive behaviour and disruptive mood, the third consisting of antagonism and detachment, and the fourth consisting of thought dysfunction, low mood, physiological arousal, anxiety, attentional dysfunction, and fearfulness.

    The network analysis revealed that thought dysfunction, physiological arousal, low mood, and disruptive mood were the most central nodes in the network suggesting their interconnectedness with all other nodes in the network.Our network analysis revealed that specific psychopathological subfactors in youth could be clustered into four broader separate dimensions. Specifically, thought and mood/arousal disturbances proved to be most interconnected with all other nodes/subfactors in the network suggesting that these subfactors could be central in youth psychopathology.

    This result reinforces earlier observations, indicating that thought dysfunction encompasses more than just disordered thought content and forms; it also represents a transdiagnostic phenomenon that spans various disorder dimensions [5]. Thought dysfunction is primarily associated with psychosis but it is also an indication of a broader inability to regulate thinking processes in general (i.e., dysfunctional processes) and extends to other cognitive-rational disturbances [1]. In addition, these findings also align with previous findings that negative affectivity (mostly related to individual differences in experiences of negative emotions), like low or disruptive mood and arousal difficulties highly likely underly general psychopathology [1].

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