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  • 1.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden..
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Correction to: Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 96-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2 part labels, the label "d" was incorrectly labelled as "c" and the subsequent labels should be corrected as d, e, and f. The corrected Fig. 2 is given below.

  • 2.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 83-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children's physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enuresis, encopresis) in a nationwide population of 9- and 12-year-old twins subdivided into those with and without indications of NDDs. Parents of 28,058 twins participated in a well-validated telephone interview regarding their children's mental health and answered questions about their physical problems. The results indicate a high rate of physical problems in children with NDDs, particularly in those with indications of the presence of combinations of several NDDs.

  • 3.
    Andrén, Ulla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Kinnander, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Utveckling av ett nytt yrke inom socialpsykiatrisk vård2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The program in Social Psychiatric Care is a three-year program at the university level leading to a vocational qualification in social psychiatric care and a bachelor's degree in the field of Health Sciences. Until the spring of 2018, six litters have graduated. Students in the social psychiatric care program often have personal interest, previous professional experience from the business areas or inspiration from related friends working in the field of activity. Personal experiences of problems in the fields of activity are also prominent among the students. Students believe that personal experience, willingness and ability is important in order to work within the profession. Characteristics of the students are also an interest and a clear empathetic willingness to work with people and they consider that the profession primarily requires characteristics such as altruism, empathy, social skills and deeper knowledge and understanding in the field. Upon completion of education, students want a career role where they can help other people, feel motivated, or they aim for specific positions or areas of activity. Both managers and alumni from the Social Psychiatric Care program value the broad professional competence that the program leads to. Psychiatric competence is emphasized as particularly valuable by both alumni and managers. This competence means that they also complement the other professions in the activities. Students consider themselves possessed a professional identity that involves introducing psychiatric and custody skills to organizations that previously lacked these perspectives. Something that also brings new approaches to patients, users and clients. Being able to use knowledge from several disciplines are considered to be a strength and competence that are well-needed in environments where people with mental ill health are cared for. The alumni perceive their knowledge as both interdisciplinary and interprofessional.

  • 4.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Bador, Nima
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Partnership Interacts with the Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Positive Affect2016In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 768-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being is a central concept of positive psychology, and is directly coupled with a high level of positive affect and a low level of negative affect. Positive affect is associated with enthusiasm, activity, hope and inspiration, while negative affect is associated with emotions such as anger, contempt, guilt, shame, fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Physical activityis crucial for both physical and mental health and is positively associated with well-being. Gender and social factors (e.g., parenthood or partnership) have complex relations with well-being and affect. In the present study we aimed to 1) examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and affect and 2) investigate whether or not social factors interact with this association. Method: The study included information from 155 Swedish university students: 64 men (mean age 23 years) and 91 women (mean age 27 years). Students were asked to estimate their usual engagement in physical activity during their leisure-time by responding to the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. They also reported the level of positive and negative emotions experienced during past weeks by completing the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule instrument. Results: In the Swedish student population leisure-time physical activity correlated only with positive and not with negative affect. Students' gender, age or whether or not they had children did not influence this association. However, this correlation differed significantly between those who lived with a partner and those who were single. Conclusion: Leisure-time physical activityis positively correlated with an overall subjective well-being, and this correlation is modifiedby the social factor of partnership

  • 5.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    AGERA KBT AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Evaluation of an Integrated Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment Within Addiction Care2019In: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, ISSN 1094-3412, E-ISSN 1556-3308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to evaluate an integrated intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment for people with substance-related syndrome in outpatient care and to identify eventual gender differences. The study population consisted of 35 outpatients (18 male, 17 female) at a clinic in Western Sweden. The patients completed a four-month period of intensive group therapy and participated in the data collection at admission and discharge. The data were collected using the following inventories: Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale,Hopelessness Scale, and Trait Hope Scale. Results showed decreases in anxiety, depression and experience of hopelessness, and increases in self-esteem and hope. In females, the most dramatic improvement was measured for the anxiety and depression attributes, while in males the strongest effect was measured for hope and self-esteem. This study provides clinical evidence of the positive effects of integrated intensive CBT in outpatient care of people with substance-related syndrome.

  • 6.
    Bouchatta, Otmane
    et al.
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences, Marrakesh, Morocco. 2 Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France. 3 Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Manouze, Houria
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences,Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Bouali-Benazzouz, Rabia
    Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Ba-M'hamed, Saadia
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Fossat, Pascal
    Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Landry, Marc
    Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS UMR 5297, Centre Paul Broca-Nouvelle Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France.
    Bennis, Mohamed
    Cadi Ayyad University, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Neonatal 6-OHDA lesion model in mouse induces Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like behaviour2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 15349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The "neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine" (6-OHDA) lesion is a commonly used model of ADHD in rat. However, a comprehensive assessment of ADHD-like symptoms is still missing, and data in mouse remain largely unavailable. Our aim was to analyse symptoms of ADHD in the mouse neonatal 6-OHDA model. 6-OHDA mice exhibited the major ADHD-like symptoms, i.e. hyperactivity (open field), attention deficit and impulsivity (five-choice serial reaction time task). Further, the model revealed discrete co-existing symptoms, i.e. anxiety-like (elevated plus maze test) and antisocial (social interaction) behaviours and decreased cognitive functioning (novel object recognition). The efficacy of methylphenidate, a classical psychostimulant used in the treatment of ADHD, was also evaluated. A histological analysis further supports the model validity by indicating dopamine depletion, changes in cortical thickness and abnormalities in anterior cingulate cortex neurons. A principal component analysis of the behaviour profile confirms that the 6-OHDA mouse model displayed good face and predictive validity. We conclude that neonatal dopamine depletion results in behavioural and morphological changes similar to those seen in patients and therefore could be used as a model for studying ADHD pathophysiological mechanisms and identifying therapeutic targets.

  • 7.
    Bouchatta, Otmane
    et al.
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Ouhaz, Zakaria
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Ba-Mhamed, Saadia
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bennis, Mohamed
    Cadi Ayyad University, Lab of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Behavior (URAC-37), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Acute and chronic glue sniffing effects and consequences of withdrawal on aggressive behavior2016In: Life Sciences, ISSN 0024-3205, E-ISSN 1879-0631, Vol. 152, p. 14-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug abuse act on brain mechanisms that cause a high-risk individual to engage in aggressive and violent behavior. While a drug-violence relationship exists, the nature of this relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. Glue sniffing is often a springboard to the abuse of more addictive drugs. Despite its high prevalence and serious consequences, we know relatively little about the aggressive behavioral effects of volatile inhalants abuse, especially glue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the duration of glue exposure, a common substance abuse problem in Morocco, and the level of aggressive behavior during withdrawal. For this we used the isolation-induced aggression model "residents" in three groups of mice. The first group served as control resident animals (n=10, without exposure); the second group as experimental resident mice (n=10) tested before and after acute (first day) and chronic exposure to the glue, and at 1 and 2weeks of withdrawal; and the third group of 10 intruder animals. The results showed that the number of attacks decreased (halved) and the latency of the first attack increased (doubled) following acute glue sniffing. However, the effects of chronic exposure and of 1week of withdrawal led to an increase in the intensity of agonistic encounters. After 2weeks of withdrawal, the intensity of aggressive behavior decreased again. These results indicated that chronic glue exposure and the first week of withdrawal are associated with increased aggression in mice.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Brink, Peter
    NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    The level of sense of coherence among Swedish nursing staff2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore the level of sense of coherence among Swedish nursing staff.

    Design: An explorative quantitative study design was adopted using a short form for measuring sense of coherence.

    Methods Data were collected in January 2018 from nurses working in full‐time positions at two hospitals in Western Sweden. A total of 93 nurses completed the 13 item questionnaire measuring sense of coherence. Descriptive statistics were applied to obtain means and standard deviations. Spearman's rank correlation was used to describe strength of association between sense of coherence and socio‐demographic categories. Between‐group differences were defined using the nonparametric tests of Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal‐Wallis test.

    Results The internal consistency of the SOC‐13 was low. An inter‐item‐correlation test indicated that two items decreased the internal consistency of the scale. The level of the three dimensions of sense of coherence varied; manageability was weakest and decreased the total sense of coherence. The meaningfulness dimension was as strongest.

    Conclusion On a national level, nurses reported weaker SOC than the general population, but stronger in an international comparison of nurses. They found their work difficult to manage, but meaningful.

    Impact On a national level, the nurses report weaker SOC than the general population, but stronger in an international comparison of nurses. Findings from this study will have an impact on how nurses can manage work related stress in terms of sense of coherence. There will also be an impact on nurses' well‐being, which in a long run benefits patients.

  • 9.
    Falk, Örjan
    et al.
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Brändström, Sven
    Center for Well-being Washington University, School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality and trait aggression profiles of male and female prison inmates2017In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 250, p. 302-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population. The majority of offenders scored distinctively high on trait aggression. There were moderate to strong associations between the personality dimensions and each of the subscales of LHA (Aggression, Self-directed Aggression and Antisocial behavior). These associations were stronger in the female offender sample. Trait aggression could be best explained by a model, which included male gender, younger age, high novelty seeking temperament and low character maturity. Our results suggest that therapies aiming at strengthening self-governance and increasing cooperativeness (focusing on character maturity) may alleviate aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders.

  • 10. Hovey, D.
    et al.
    Lindstedt, M.
    Zettergren, A.
    Jonsson, L.
    Johansson, A.
    Melke, J.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Lichtenstein, P.
    Lundström, S.
    Westberg, L.
    Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples2016In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 21, no July, p. 983-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires—Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)—designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10−7 in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10−5. Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one potential target in the treatment of aggressive antisocial behavior.

  • 11.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Apelqvist, Susanne
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Fielding, Cecilia
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA): Psychometric Characteristics of a New Tool Measuring Change in Aggressive Behaviors in Correctional Settings2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 263, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for instruments that can be used in correctional settings to measure changes in aggressive behaviors over a limited time period. This study aimed to validate an instrument (the Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression, PAMA) that assesses specifically the past month’s aggressive behaviors and is adapted for use in correctional facilities. The psychometric properties of the self-rated and interview versions of the PAMA were explored and compared to those of two well-established measures of aggression: The Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS); and the self-rate Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV). The study group comprised 93 male and 59 female inmates, who were followed for two months. During the study, the prevalence of aggressive acts was observed and reported by SOAS. On two occasions, at monthly intervals, subjects reported their own aggressive behaviors using AQ-RSV and the self-report version of the PAMA; also, a psychologist conducted interviews according to PAMA. This study’s main finding was that the self-rated version of PAMA is a valid measure of different types and dimensions of aggression (physical and verbal aggression, hostility) and has acceptable psychometric properties. Therefore, PAMA could potentially be of value for use in correctional services evaluating aggression managing treatment interventions.

  • 12.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Falk, Örjan
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Sweden.
    Brändström, Sven
    Washington University, Center for Well-being School of Medicine in St. Louis, USA.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Sweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sweden.
    Hofvander, Björn
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Sweden.
    The protective effect of character maturity in child aggressive antisocial behavior2017In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 76, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD.

    METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Their parents rated them according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory following a telephone interview during which information about the children's development and mental health was assessed with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory.

    RESULT: Scores on the CD module significantly and positively correlated with scores on the Novelty Seeking temperament dimension and negatively with scores on character maturity (Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness). In the group of children with either neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems, the prevalence of low or very low character maturity was 50%, while when these two problems coexisted the prevalence of low or very low character maturity increased to 70%. Neurodevelopmental problems (such as: oppositional defiant disorder, symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder) and low scores on character maturity emerged as independently significant predictors of CD; in a multivariable model, only oppositional defiant symptoms and impulsivity significantly increased the risk for coexisting CD while a mature self-agency in a child (Self-Directedness) remained a significant protective factor.

    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that children's willpower, the capacity to achieve personally chosen goals may be an important protective factor - even in the presence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems - against progressing into persistent negative outcomes, such as aggressive antisocial behaviors.

  • 13.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Fielding, Cecilia
    R&E, Swedish Prison and Probation Services, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Apelqvist, Susanne
    R&E, Swedish Prison and Probation Services, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Yoga in Correctional Settings: A Randomized Controlled Study2017In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 8, article id 204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of yoga in the reduction of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, anger as well as in the increased ability of behavioral control has been shown. These effects of yoga are highly relevant for prison inmates who often have poor mental health and low impulse control. While it has been shown that yoga and mediation can be effective in improving subjective well-being, mental health, and executive functioning within prison populations, only a limited number of studies have proved this, using randomized controlled settings. Methods: A total of 152 participants from nine Swedish correctional facilities were randomly assigned to a 10-week yoga group (one class a week; N=77) or a control group (N=75). Before and after the intervention period, participants answered questionnaires measuring stress, aggression, affective states, sleep-quality and psychological well-being, and completed a computerized test measuring attention and impulsivity. Results: After the intervention period, significant improvements were found on 13 of the 16 variables within the yoga group. (e.g., less perceived stress, better sleep quality, an increased psychological and emotional well-being, less aggressive and antisocial behavior) and on two within the control group. Compared to the control group, yoga class participants reported significantly improved emotional well-being and less antisocial behavior after ten weeks of yoga. They also showed improved performance on the computerized test that measures attention and impulse control. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on inmates’ well-being and on considerable risk factors associated with recidivism, such as impulsivity and antisocial behavior. Accordingly, the results show that yoga practice can play an important part in the rehabilitation of prison inmates.

  • 14.
    Landry, M.
    et al.
    University of Bordeaux, IINS, CNRS UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.
    Bouchatta, O.
    Cadi Ayyad University, LPNB URAC 37, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    M’Hamed, S. B.
    Cadi Ayyad University, LPNB URAC 37, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Bouali-Benazzouz, R.
    University of Bordeaux, IINS, CNRS UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Fossat, P.
    University of Bordeaux, IINS, CNRS UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.
    Bennis, M.
    Cadi Ayyad University, LPNB URAC 37, Marrakesh, Morocco.
    Mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity in a pharmacological mouse model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2017In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 142, no 1, SI, article id WTH13-07Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Lester, Nigel
    et al.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Ctr Well Being, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Garcia, Danilo
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Center for Well-Being, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brändström, Sven
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, C Robert
    Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St Louis, USA.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Eth Law & Mental Hlth CELAM, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence.2016In: Annals of General Psychiatry, ISSN 1744-859X, E-ISSN 1744-859X, Vol. 15, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence.

    METHODS: The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    RESULTS: The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12).

    CONCLUSION: The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, University of Gothenburg.
    Falk, Örjan
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, University of Gothenburg.
    Billstedt, Eva
    Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Wallinius, Märta
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Research and Development Unit, Regional Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hofvander, Björn
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University.
    Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors Are Related to Character Maturity in Young Swedish Violent Offenders Independent of ADHD2016In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 7, no NOV, p. 1-12, article id 185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Swedish males (N =  270, aged 18–25) sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their in carceration. Data on character maturity, as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory, were available for n = 148 subjects and were used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorders (SUD), aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits. Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less AABs and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed: (i) a later age at on set of criminality, (ii) a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, (iii) lower prevalence of ADHD, CD, and SUD, (iv) less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and (v) less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount of sexual offenders. Conclusion: Higher character maturity appeared to be a protective factor among young male violent offenders, associated with less AABs, suggesting that character maturity isa promising target for treatment interventions for this group of individuals.

  • 17.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Lemrani, Dina
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Risk and protective factors for drug dependence in two Moroccan high-risk male populations2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e5930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Substance use is linked to biological, environmental, and social factors. This study provides insights on protective and risk factors for drug dependence in two Moroccan, high-risk, male samples.

    Methods

    Data from the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders" (MeSHe) survey were utilized in the present study. The MeSHe survey assesses somatic and mental health parameters by self-report from prison inmates (n = 177) and outpatients from an addiction institution (n = 54). The "Drug dependence" and the "No drug dependence" groups were identified based on the Arabic version of the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test's (DUDIT) validated cutoff for identifying individuals with drug dependence, specifically in Morocco.

    Results

    The majority of participants who had at least high school competence (67.6%), were living in a partnership (53.7%), were a parent (43.1%), and/or had a job (86.8%) belonged to the "No drug dependence" group, while the presence of mental health problems was typical among the "Drug dependence" group (47.4%). A multivariable regression model (χ2 (df = 5, N = 156) = 63.90, p < 0.001) revealed that the presence of depression diagnosis remains a significant risk factor, while a higher level of education, having a child, and being employed are protective factors from drug dependence.

    Discussion

    Findings support the importance of increasing academic competence and treating depression as prevention from the persistence of drug addiction in male high-risk populations.

  • 18.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Malmström, Petter
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    Torstensson, Sara
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Yoga Practice Reduces the Psychological Distress Levels of Prison Inmates2018In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychiatric ill-health is prevalent among prison inmates and often hampers their rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is crucial for reducing recidivistic offending. A few studies have presented evidence of the positive effect of yoga on the well-being of prison inmates. The conclusion of those previous studies that yoga is an effective method in the rehabilitation process of inmates, and deserves and requires further attention.Aims: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of 10 weeks of yoga practice on the mental health profile, operationalized in the form of psychological distress, of inmates. Methods: 152 volunteer participants (133 men; 19 women) were randomly placed in either of two groups: to participate in weekly 90-minute yoga class (yoga group) or a weekly 90-minute free-choice physical exercise (control group). The study period lasted for 10 weeks. Prior to and at the end of the study period the participants completed a battery of self-reported inventories, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results: Physical activity (including yoga) significantly reduced the inmates’ levels of psychological distress. Yoga practice improved all primary symptom dimensions and its positive effect on the obsessive-compulsive, paranoid ideation, and somatization symptom dimensions of the BSI stayed significant even when comparing with the control group. Conclusions: Yoga as a form of physical activity is effective for reducing psychological distress levels in prison inmates, with specific effect on symptoms such as suspicious and fearful thoughts about losing autonomy, memory problems, difficulty in making decisions, trouble concentrating, obsessive thought and perception of bodily dysfunction.

  • 19.
    Sfendla, Anis
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Zouini, Btissame
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Lemrani, Dina
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in Clinical, Prison Inmate, and Student Samples2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) by (1) assessing its factor structure, (2) determining structural validity,(3) evaluating item-total and inter-item correlation, and (4) assessing its predictive validity.

    Method 

    The study population included 169 prison inmates, 51 patients with clinical diagnosis of substance used disorder, and 53 students (N = 273). All participants completed the selfreport version of the Arabic DUDIT. After exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency of the Arabic DUDIT was determined and external validation was performed.

    Results

    Principal factor analysis showed that Arabic DUDIT exhibited only one factor, which explained 66.9% of the variance. Reliability based on Cronbach's alpha was .95. When compared to the DSM-IV substance use disorder diagnosis in a clinical sample, DUDIT had an area under the curve (AUC)of .98, with a sensitivity of .98 and a specificity of .90.

    Conclusion

    The Arabic version of DUDIT is a valid and reliable tool for screening for drug use in Arabic-speaking countries.

  • 20.
    Ståhlberg, Ola
    et al.
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg, Sweden, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boman, Sofia
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Christina
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stenungsund/Tjorn, Kungalvs Hospital, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Forensic psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Ragarden, House 1, SU – East Hospital, SE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse2017In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 50, p. 52-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N = 100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n = 25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n = 30), and those without SUD (n = 45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54–.84, p = .02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.

  • 21.
    Svensson, Olof
    et al.
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sörman, Karolina
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations Between Conduct Disorder, Neurodevelopmental Problems and Psychopathic Personality Traits in a Swedish Twin Youth Population2018In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 586-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found a complex relationship between psychopathic traits, neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs), and conduct disorder (CD) in children. This study explores associations between psychopathic traits, assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory—Short Version (CPTI-SV), and CD in children with and without coexisting NDPs (i.e., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD]) in a community-based sample of Swedish twins (n = 8762). Findings indicate weak to moderately strong correlations between psychopathic traits and CD, ADHD, and ASD, respectively. Furthermore, in univariable analyses, both psychopathic traits and NDPs displayed significant positive associations with being screened positive for CD, though only the grandiose-deceitful dimension of CPTI-SV and the ADHD domain concentration and attention deficits remained significantly associated with CD in a multivariable regression model. The results are relevant to screening and assessment in child and youth psychiatry, as a grandiose and deceitful interpersonal style may also be a valid sign of children at risk of developing CD.

  • 22.
    Täljemark, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University, Medical Faculty, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLundSweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Medical Faculty, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLundSweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology University of Gothenburg Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    The coexistence of psychiatric and gastrointestinal problems in children with restrictive eating in a nationwide Swedish twin study2017In: Journal of Eating Disorders, E-ISSN 2050-2974, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Restrictive eating problems are rare in children but overrepresented in those with neurodevelopmental problems. Comorbidities decrease wellbeing in affected individuals but research in the area is relatively scarce. This study describes phenotypes, regarding psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidities, in children with restrictive eating problems.

    Methods

    A parental telephone interview was conducted in 9- or 12-year old twins (n = 19,130) in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Cases of restrictive eating problems and comorbid problems were established using the Autism, Tics-AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory, parental reports of comorbidity as well as data from a national patient register. In restrictive eating problem cases, presence of psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidity was mapped individually in probands and their co-twin. Two-tailed Mann–Whitney U tests were used to test differences in the mean number of coexisting disorders between boys and girls. Odds ratios were used to compare prevalence figures between individuals with or without restrictive eating problems, and Fisher exact test was used to establish significance.

    Results

    Prevalence of restrictive eating problems was 0.6% (concordant in 15% monozygotic and 3% of dizygotic twins). The presence of restrictive eating problems drastically increased odds of all psychiatric problems, especially autism spectrum disorder in both sexes (odds ratio = 11.9 in boys, odds ratio = 10.1 in girls), obsessive-compulsive disorder in boys (odds ratio = 11.6) and oppositional defiant disorder in girls (odds ratio = 9.22). Comorbid gastrointestinal problems, such as lactose intolerance (odds ratio = 4.43) and constipation (odds ratio = 2.91), were the most frequent in girls. Boy co-twins to a proband with restrictive eating problems generally had more psychiatric problems than girl co-twins and more girl co-twins had neither somatic nor any psychiatric problems at all.

    Conclusions

    In children with restrictive eating problems odds of all coexisting psychiatric problems and gastrointestinal problems are significantly increased. The study shows the importance of considering comorbidities in clinical assessment of children with restrictive eating problems.

  • 23.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Self-reported aggressive and antisocial behaviors in Moroccan high school students*2019In: Psihologija, ISSN 1451-9283, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to map the level and distribution of aggressive and antisocial behaviors in a sample of Moroccan high school students and to define the level of these behaviors in adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experienced abuse. In total, 375 high school students completed the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders (MeSHe)" survey that includes the Life History of Aggression scale. Male students had significantly higher scores for aggression and antisocial behaviors than female. The students who reported experience of abuse or parental alcohol use problems scored significantly higher for aggression, self-directed aggression, and antisocial behaviors compared to students not reporting these negative psychosocial factors. Previously shown gender-specific patterns in aggressive and antisocial behaviors, but not in self-harm behaviors were confirmed in these Moroccan high school students. Reported experience of abuse and/or parental alcohol use problems were associated with increased frequency of aggressive and antisocial behaviors.

  • 24.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences,Lund, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Somatic health and its association with negative psychosocial factors in a sample of Moroccan adolescents2019In: SAGE Open Medicine, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 7, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a distinct developmental phase characterized by multiple physical and psychological changes andby an increased vulnerability to somatic and mental health problems. These risk and vulnerability factors are part of a complexbiopsychosocial matrix, encompassing multiple factors, such as inherited biological determinants and psychological, societal,and cultural influences, which affect an adolescent's overall wellbeing. In Morocco, similar to other developing countries,adolescents (young people aged from 15 to 19years) constitute a substantial proportion of the population (almost 9%).However, studies about adolescents' health in developing countries are scarce. In this study, we describe adolescents' somatichealth in a sample of high school students from the city of Tetouan, Morocco, and investigate how negative psychosocialfactors, such as parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of abuse, may influence them.Methods: The study sample included 655 adolescents (315 boys and 340 girls, M=16.64years, range=15–18years) fromconviniently selected classes of four high schools in the city of Tetouan in Morocco. The students responded to a survey thatassessed the prevalence of somatic complaints/disorders. They also indicated whether they had ever experienced physicaland/or psychological abuse and whether they had parents with alcohol use problems.Results: More than half of the adolescents suffered from headaches and one-third had substantial problems with diarrhea orconstipation. Both problems were more common in female students. The third most frequent somatic problem, affecting onein four in both genders, was allergy. Almost one-third of Moroccan adolescents (significantly more boys than girls; p=0.004)reported no somatic complaints. In adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experience of physicaland/or psychological abuse, the prevalence of several somatic complaints (epilepsy, migraine, headache, diarrhea/constipation,gluten intolerance, allergy, and skin or thyroid disease) increased highly significantly compared to the adolescents whoreported no such psychosocial environmental factors.Conclusion: The results suggest that only 3 in 10 urban-living Moroccan adolescents are free of somatic complaints, whilethe majority suffer from some somatic problems, most often headaches and diarrhea/constipation. The association of certainnegative psychosocial factors with adolescents' somatic health suggests the need of a holistic approach to the treatment of affectedadolescents.

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