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  • 1.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Assessment in Swedish preschool2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool teachers observe children’s behaviors and assess their abilities in relation to explicit or implicit expectations and norms daily. In Sweden as in the OECD generally, the pressure to assess children’s development has increased immensely over the last decade, even in the preschool.

    This ethnographic study investigates assessment as a part of the daily routine of Swedish preschools. The setting is two preschools: a multi-ethnic preschool in a disadvantaged area, and a preschool that teaches children with predominately Swedish middle class background. The study includes data from participatory observations, recorded conversations and interviews with teachers as well as written documentation about the children.

    Using Giddens’ constructs of structuration, rules and resources, I found that preschool teachers (re)structured the institutional practice in everyday activities. In everyday practice they used available resources in order to comply with the curriculum, within the institutional frames of rules. Recently imposed assessments were assimilated to the ordinary routines of the preschool.

    Furthermore, new demands of documenting the development and learning of individual children contradict an earlier statutes that preschool children should not be subjected to assessments. To resolve this conflict, teachers adopt modes of writing and talking about the children, which seemingly focus on the performance of the preschool, but construct the children “between the lines”. The stories of individual children are thus hidden in stories about the institution. This can be understood as soft governance (Foucault) or symbolic violence (Bourdieu).

    Finally, the socializing messages were different in the two preschools: adaptation to given linguistic and social norms predominated at the culturally diverse preschool; whereas creativity and pliability towards children’s wishes prevailed at the culturally homogenous preschool. This suggests that assessment practices both indicate and reinforce different institutional habitus in different preschools which may be seen as a threat to the role of education in promoting equity.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Det motsägelsefulla bedömningsuppdraget.: En etnografisk studie om bedömning i förskolekontext2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the assessment practices and discourses in Swedish preschool in times of changing principles for state control and steering. These practices and discourses are analyzed in relation to theories about state control, and about cultural and social reproduction in education. The study was conducted with an ethnographic approach in two preschools located in areas that differ in terms of socio-economic status and ethnic diversity. The results show that pre-school teachers express ambivalence towards assessment as an aspect of their work. An increased focus on children's learning and on mastery of specific assessment formats and discourses are on the one hand constructed as signs of being professional – and thus function to increase their professional status. On the other hand, by their association with school, the same features seem to conflict with the values and discourses that constitute preschool teachers' professional identity. In their talk about assessments, the preschool teachers tend to focus on how assessments should be expressed (form) rather than what they are targeting (content). Furthermore, the assessments tend to concern social and behavioral aspects rather than the children's learning. As much as promoting institutional development and children's learning, the assessment practice can thus be seen as a sort of assessment game. Finally, the results suggest that the norms and focus of assessments to some extent both indicate and reinforce the institutional culture of different preschools, thereby exposing children to different socializing messages. This is problematized in regard to the role of education to promote justice and equality.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lundström, Marita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hansen Orwehag, Monica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Unika individer och kollektivt samspel2018In: Samhälle, genus och pedagogik: utbildningsvetenskapligaperspektiv : vänbok till Inga Wernersson / [ed] Kerstin von Brömssen, Signild Risenfors & Lena Sjöberg, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 141-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel diskuterar vi kunskaper och kunskapande i förhållande till individ och grupp. Vilka föreskrifter finns i styrdokumenten? Vi dröjer oss också kvar vid hur läraren, i sin undervisning, kan främja elevernas kunskapande? Hur möter läraren de enskilda eleverna och hur kan läraren utnyttja gruppdynamiken? Och, inte minst viktigt, hur kan läraren skapa trygga grupper där varje elev får lära och utvecklas harmoniskt och där ingen blir utanför och tappar landfästet? Slutligen knyter vi ihop detta genom att belysa undervisningen i lärarutbildningen – hur kan studenterna hitta sina segelleder och ankarplatser i fritidshemmet, skolan och förskolan?

  • 4.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Strategiskt och operativt arbete med validering av reell kompetens: Ett följeforskningsprojekt vid Högskolan Väst2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a description, among other possible descriptions, of the work done on accreditation and recognition of qualifications at University West. The project was carried out during the autumn and spring terms of 2016 and 2017 respectively. The work on which this report is based was in the form of an on-going evaluation. This study, in turn, was carried out as the result of a government mandate issued by the Swedish Council for Higher Education. It aimed to improve the way work relating to the assessment of practical expertise is done at institutions of higher learning. The aim of the study was formulated as a description that offered an interpretation of the strategic and operational work on accreditation and recognition of qualifications carried out at University West. Two theoretical frames of reference – discourse analysis and chain of command theory – were used to interpret the empirical evidence that was collected. This was done by participating in workshops that were run during the spring of 2017, analysing information that was available via www.hv.se and www.hv.se/en the analysis of notes taken during meetings, and an interview with a focus group. The results show how UW worked with the issue at the strategic and operational levels. The report underscores the possibilities and limitations of the current webpage, which appears to be both time-consuming and opaque. This is worrisome in today's world where more and more people seek information via the Web. Similarly, it is made clear that a limited amount of information reaches all university employees and what the consequences of this lack of transparency can be. Moreover, the results show that work on validation is done in different ways and is not shared with other departments of the university. The report closes with a discussion of the results from three perspectives: that of the individual, of the group, and of the organisation. The possibilities and limitations for working with accreditation and recognition of qualifications are problematized.

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