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  • 1.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy and Cost Estimation of a Feature-based Machining Operation on HRSA2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 61, no Supplement C, p. 511-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forward-looking manufacturing companies aim for sustainable production with low environmental footprint. This is true also for aerospace engine-makers, although their environmental impact mostly occurs during the use-phase of their products. Materials, such as Nickel alloys, are used for special applications where other materials will not withstand tough working conditions in terms of pressure and temperature. Heat Resistant Super Alloys are, however, considered difficult to machine and cutting tools will wear off rapidly. In this paper, a simple way to estimate the energy required, the cost and environmental footprint to produce a work piece using standard engineering software is presented. The results show that for a hypothetical 3 tonne work piece, Inconel 718 will be considerably cheaper and require less water but will require more energy, and has considerably larger CO2 footprint than Waspaloy.

  • 2.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Flygmotorvagen 1, Trollhattan, 46138, Sweden.
    Lu, Tao
    University of Kentucky, Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing (ISM), Lexington, KY 40506, United States.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Jawahir, I. S.
    University of Kentucky, Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing (ISM), Lexington, KY 40506, United States.
    Process sustainability evaluation for manufacturing of a component with the 6R application2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 33, p. 546-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability in manufacturing can be evaluated at product, process and system levels. The 6R methodology for sustainability enhancement in manufacturing processes includes: reduced use of materials, energy, water and other resources; reusing of products/components; recovery and recycling of materials/components; remanufacturing of products; and redesigning of products to utilize recovered materials/resources. Although manufacturing processes can be evaluated by their productivity, quality and cost, process sustainability assessment makes it a complete evaluation. This paper presents a 6R-based evaluation method for sustainable manufacturing in terms of specific metrics within six major metrics clusters: environmental impact, energy consumption, waste management, cost, resource utilization and society/personnel health/operational safety. Manufacturing processes such as casting, welding, turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc., can be evaluated using this methodology. A case study for machining processes is presented as an example based on the proposed metrics. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 3.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Sustainability of metal powder additive manufacturing2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 33, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing, has attracted attention and raised expectations regarding future production and repair of parts, for example, in the aerospace industry. Various techniques have been utilized to deposit metal alloys for components. It has been suggested that this may offer great benefits in terms of sustainability, in particular, new opportunities for lightweighting. There are, however, outstanding questions about sustainability benefits outside of the use phase. In this paper, the material and manufacturing life-cycle stages were investigated for details produced using INCONEL 718. Energy measurements from an ARCAM A2X Electron Beam Melting system are presented and compared to the embodied energy and indirect CO2-emissions of the feedstock as well as to traditional subtractive manufacturing. It is found that both the metal powder production and the additive manufacturing process itself contribute considerably to total energy use and emissions. Ashby’s 5-step method for assessment of sustainable development is used to briefly discuss economic and social implications of additive manufacturing. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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