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  • 1.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Nilsen, Morgan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Svenman, Edvard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Evaluation of non-contact methods for joint tracking in a laser beam welding application2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Symposium , 2016, p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of automated laser welding is a key enabler for resource efficient manufacturing in several industrial sectors. One disadvantage with laser welding is the narrow tolerance requirements in the joint fit-up. This is the main reason for the importance of joint tracking systems. This paper describes anevaluation of four non-contact measurement methods to measure the position, gap width and misalignment between superalloy plates. The evaluation was carried out for increased knowledge about the possibilities and limitations with the different methods. The methods are vision-, laser-line-,thermography- and inductive probe systems which are compared in an experimental setup representing a relevant industrial application. Vision is based on a CMOS camera, where the image information is used directly for the measurements. Laser-line is based on triangulation between a camera and a projected laserline. Thermography detects the heat increase in the gap width due to external heat excitation. Inductive probe uses two eddy current coils, and by a complex response method possibilities to narrow gap measurement is achieved. The results, evaluated by comparing the data from the different systems, clearly highlights possibilities and limitations with respective method and serves as a guide in the development of laser beam welding.

  • 2.
    Svenman, Edvard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    An inductive gap measurement method for square butt joints2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent method in aero engine production is to fabricate components from smaller pieces, rather than machining them from large castings. This has made laser beam welding popular, offering high precision with low heat input and distortion, but also high productivity. At the same time, the demand for automation of production has increased, to ensure high quality and consistent results. In turn, the need for sensors to monitor and control the laser welding process is increasing. In laser beam welding without filler material, the gap between the parts to be joined must be narrow. Optical sensors are often used to measure the gap, but with precise machining, it may become so narrow that it is difficult to detect, with the risk of welding in the wrong position. This thesis proposes the use of an inductive sensor with coils on either side of the gap. Inducing currents into the metal, such a sensor can detect even gaps that are not visible. The new feature of the proposal is based on using the complex response of each coil separately to measure the distance and height on both sides of the gap, rather than an imbalance from the absolute voltage of each coil related to gap position. This extra information allows measurement of gap width and alignment as well as position in a working range of about 1 mm around the gap, and decreases the influence from variation in gap alignment to the position measurement. The sensor needs to be calibrated with a certain gap width and height alignment. In real use, these will vary, causing the sensor to be less accurate. Using initial estimates of the gap parameters from the basic sensor, a model ofthe response can be used to estimate the measurement error of each coil, whichin turn can be used for compensation to improve the measurement of the gap properties. The properties of the new method have been examined experimentally, using aprecise traverse mechanism to record single coil responses in a working range around a variable dimension gap, and then using these responses to simulate atwo coil probe. In most cases errors in the measurement of weld gap position and dimensions are within 0.1 mm. Different coil orientations were studied using numerical simulation, and validated in experiments using a two coil probe. The influence of scratches, chamfers and variation in plate thickness was investigated at different frequencies.

  • 3.
    Svenman, Edvard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Inductive measurement of narrow gaps for high precision welding of square butt joints2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent method in aero engine production is to fabricate components from smaller pieces, rather than machining them from large castings. This has made laser beam welding popular, offering high precision with low heat input and distortion, but also high productivity. At the same time, the demand for automation of production has increased, to ensure high quality and consistent results. In turn, the need for sensors to monitor and control the laser welding process is increasing. In laser beam welding without filler material, the gap between the parts to be joined must be narrow. Optical sensors are often used to measure the gap, but with precise machining, it may become so narrow that it is difficult to detect, with the risk of welding in the wrong position. This kind of problems can cause severe welding defects, where the parts are only partially joined without any visible indication. This thesis proposes the use of an inductive sensor with coils on either side of the gap. Inducing currents into the metal, such a sensor can detect even gaps that are not visible. The new feature of the proposal is based on using the complex response of each coil separately to measure the distance and height on both sides of the gap, rather than an imbalance from the absolute voltage of each coil related to gap position. This extra information allows measurement of gap width and misalignment as well as position, and decreases the influence from gap misalignment to the position measurement. The sensor needs to be calibrated with a certain gap width and height alignment. In real use,these will vary, causing the sensor to be less accurate. Using initial estimates ofthe gap parameters from the basic sensor, a model of the response can be used to estimate the measurement error of each coil, which in turn can be used for compensation to improve the measurement of the gap properties.The properties of the new method have been examined experimentally, using a precise traverse mechanism to record single coil responses in a working range around a variable dimension gap, and then using these responses to simulate a two coil probe. In most cases errors in the measurement of weld gap position and dimensions are within 0.1 mm.The probe is designed to be mounted close to the parts to be welded, and will work in a range of about 1 mm to each side and height above the plates. This is an improvement over previous inductive sensors, that needed to be guided to the mid of the gap by a servo mechanism.

  • 4.
    Svenman, Edvard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Modeling of inductive coil geometry for gap position measurement2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 103-110Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element modelling of high frequency inductive coils and metal plates was used to investigate the impedance response to a narrow gap between the plates. The model was used to predict distance sensitivity for both coil-to-gap and coil-to-plate. Different coil axis orientations, along and across the gap and normal to the plate, were modeled, as well as different coil lengths. The model can be used to predict the working range and select orientation and geometry of inductive seam tracking probes with zero gap capability for precision laser beam welding. Different materials, thicknesses and frequencies can be used.

  • 5.
    Svenman, Edvard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Investigation of effects from realistic influences on inductive gap measurement2019In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 143, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of deviations from ideal square butt joint conditions is investigated for an improved inductive gap measurement method. Varying plate thickness, chamfers, and scratches are tested on Alloy 718 at different frequencies in a working range around the gap. Results for different plate thickness show that measurements of position and gap width are affected at all frequencies tested. For a chamfered plate, position measurement is affected for all frequencies, while gap width measurement is less affected at higher frequencies. For both a narrow and a wide scratch, the position measurement at the highest frequency is affected for all scratch locations, while for gap width measurement, only the wide scratch is affecting for all locations. Errors in measurement of probe height and plate alignment are smaller than 0.04 and 0.05 mm for all situations. The results will support in selecting coil frequency and predict results in non-ideal conditions. © 2019

  • 6.
    Svenman, Edvard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, SE-461 81, Sweden.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University of Skövde, Engineering Science, Skövde, SE-541 28, Sweden.
    Experimental validation of an inductive probe for narrow gap measurement based on numerical modelling2019In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 146, p. 396-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental validation of numeric results for an inductive probe shows that narrow gaps between two plates can be measured with accuracy suitable for laser beam welding. A two-coil inductive probe for measurement of the gap was built based on finite element modelling results. The individual coils were calibrated using a complex response method, and results from the physical coils closely match the numerical results regarding distance to gap and lift-off above the plate. The measurement of a realistic gap shows results that can be used in industrial applications for position, plate height and height alignment. © 2019

  • 7.
    Svenman, Edvard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. GKN Aerospace Sweden AB.
    Rosell, Anders
    GKN Aerospace, Sweden; Chalmers University of technology, Sweden.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Henrikson, Per
    GKN Aerospace, Sweden.
    Weld gap position detection based on eddy current methods with mismatch compensation2015In: Proceedings of JOM 18 International conference on joining materials, Helsingör, Danmark, april 26-29, 2015, JOM-institute , 2015, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a method for finding the accurate position of narrow gaps, intended for seam tracking applications. Laser beam welding of butt joints, with narrow gap and weld width, demand very accurate positioning to avoid serious and difficult to detect lack of fusion defects. Existing optical and mechanical gap trackers have problems with narrow gaps and surface finish. Eddy current probes can detect narrow gaps, but the accuracy is affected by mismatch in height above the surface on either side of the gap. In this paper a non-contact eddy-current method, suitable for robotic seam tracking, is proposed. The method is based on the resistive and inductive response of two absolute eddy current coils on either side of the gap to calculate a position compensated for height variations. Additionally, the method may be used to estimate the values of height and gap width, which is useful for weld parameter optimization. To investigate the response to variations in height, the method is tested on non-magnetic metals by scanning one commercially available eddy current probe across an adjustable gap and calculating the expected response for a two-probe configuration. Results for gap position are promising, while mismatch and gap width results need further investigation.

  • 8.
    Svenman, Edvard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    A complex response inductive method for improved gap measurement in laser welding2017In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 88, no 1-4, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser welding needs precise measurement of weldgap position to avoid weld defects. Most often, optical measurement methods are used, but well-aligned narrow gaps canbe difficult to detect. An improved inductive method capable of detecting zero gaps in square butt joints is proposed. The new method uses two eddy current coils, one on each side of the gap, and measures the complex response of the individual coils, i.e. both the inductive and resistive response. By combining the coil responses, both the position and the geometry of the weld gap can be estimated. The method was experimentally investigated by traversing a single coil over an adjustable gap between two plates and combining the measured coil responses into a simulated two-coil probe. The gap was adjusted in both misalignment and gap width up to 0.4 mm. Comparing the results to known settings and positions shows that gap position is measured to within 0.1 mm, if the probe is within a working area of 1 mm from the gap in both position and height. Results from the new method were compared to simulations, from the same experimental data, of a previously reported method where the coils were electrically combined by wiring them together. The previous method can give accurate results but has a much smaller working area and depends on servo actuation to position the probe above the gap. The improved method gives better tolerance to varying misalignment and gap width, which is an advantage over previous inductive methods.

  • 9.
    Svenman, Edvard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Model based compensation of systematic errors in an inductive gap measurement method2017In: Measurement : Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, ISSN 0263-2241, Vol. 105, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an improvement to a recently presented inductive gap measurement method, using a model to reduce systematic errors. Gap measurement is important in laser keyhole welding, where the laser beam and the resulting weld seam are very narrow, requiring high precision in alignment and gap preparation. The previously reported method for gap measurement uses one inductive coil on each side of the gap, each measuring distance to the gap and lift off above a plate, to estimate the position, width and alignment of the gap in a square butt joint. The method can detect zero width gap and shows position error less than 0.1 mm, but gap width and alignment measurement suffer from systematic errors. The improvement is based on a model that is designed to describe these systematic errors as functions of the gap dimensions. The model relies on observations of experimental data, and is calibrated to a small set of measurements. Using the model with the initial estimate of the gap dimensions to compensate the coil measurements, an improved estimate of the gap dimensions can be calculated. The errors in the compensated results are within 0.1 mm except for gap width, which still suffers from the effect of combined gap width and misalignment.

1 - 9 of 9
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