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  • 1.
    Arveklev Höglund, Susanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Relations and interrelations between Sense of Coherence, socioeconomic status and health behaviour: A systematic review2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives

    Previous research shows that the stronger the sense of coherence (SOC) the healthier behaviour. A strong SOC seems to be related to lower consumption of drugs and smoking, more frequent physical exercises and healthier food choices. Further it is established by previous research that there is a difference in health behaviour between socioeconomic groups. Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) smoke to greater extent, have more sedentary lifestyle and make unhealthier food choices than individual with higher SES. The evidence regarding the interactive relations of SOC and SES to health behaviour or the potential mediating role of SOC in the relationship between SES and health behaviour is more unclear. In order to explore this, there is a need of systematic reviews of the evidence concerning SOC and health behaviour and interactions with SES.

    Thus, the objective of this study is to explore and synthesize empirical findings on the relationship between SOC and health behaviour among adults. Further the aim is to explore to what extent interactions with SES is considered in the studies of SOC and health behaviour.

     Methods

    The study is descriptive and analytical with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research focusing on the relationship between sense of coherence and health behaviour among adults and interrelations with socioeconomic status. The review covers scientific publications as well as doctoral theses published 2008–2018. The review is systematic in the sense that all the included papers will be critically examined and analyzed according to (1) the study objective, (2) the study designs and methods for analysis and, (3) the applicability and practical use of the results.

     Results

    Expected outcomes of this study will be established state of the art regarding the relationship between sense of coherence and health behavior and interrelations with socioeconomic status. Further the results will identify knowledge gaps important to address in future research.

    Discussion

    The potential contribution of the synthesized knowledge to achieve a sustainable and equal development of health will be discussed as well as to what extent health inequalities can be explained or understood by SOC.

     

     

     

  • 2.
    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level. University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Social Medicine.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Social Work.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Social Medicine.
    Petzold, Max
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Centre for applied biostatistics, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Povlsen, Lene
    University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, Denmark .
    Associations between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children's mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children's mental health in relation to parents' time pressure are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries as well as potential disparities between boys and girls in different age groups.

    METHODS: 4592 children, aged 4-16 from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, were included. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure children's mental health and associations to parents' time pressure were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Among children of parents experiencing time pressure, 18.6% had mental health problems compared to 10.1% among children of parents experiencing time pressure not or sometimes. The odds of mental health problems were higher among both boys (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.32-2.46) and girls (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.42-2.66) if their parents experienced time pressure when adjusted for financial stress. The highest prevalence of mental health problems in the case of parental time pressure was found among girls 13-16 years old (23.6%) and the lowest prevalence was found among boys 13-16 years old (10.7%).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study an association between parents' subjective time pressure and increased mental health problems among children was found. Given that time pressure is a growing feature of modern societies, the results might contribute to an explanation as to mental health problems are common among children in the Nordic countries in spite of otherwise favourable conditions. Additional research on the linkage between parents' experienced time pressure and children's and adolescents' mental health problems is needed to confirm the novel findings of this study.

  • 3.
    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level. University West, NU-akademin Väst. University of Gothenburg, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Povlsen, Lene
    University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Petzold, Max
    University of Gothenburg, Health Metrics at Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Relative deprivation in the Nordic countries-child mental health problems in relation to parental financial stress2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 277-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:  The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental health between the Nordic countries as well as age and gender differences.  METHODS:  The study sample consisted of 6330 children aged 4-16 years old included in the 2011 version of the Nordic Study of Children's Health, Wellbeing and Quality of life. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems.  RESULTS:  In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial stress was significantly lower among the Icelandic children (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.15-2.24) than among the others: Denmark OR 3.07 (95% CI 2.15-4.39), Finland OR 2.28 (95% CI 1.60-3.25), Norway OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.86-4.12), Sweden OR 3.31(95% CI 2.26-4.86). No significant age or gender differences in the ORs were observed.  CONCLUSIONS:  Besides socioeconomic situation, relative deprivation should be considered an important determinant of child mental health.

  • 4.
    Povlsen, Lene
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Denmark.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Fosse, Elisabeth
    Bergen University, Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, Norway.
    Karlsson, Lena Eklund
    University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Denmark.
    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Economic poverty among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 20_suppl, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to identify applied definitions and measurements of economic poverty and to explore the proportionsand characteristics of children and adolescents living in economic poverty in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway andSweden during the last decade and to compare various statistics between the Nordic countries. Methods: Official data fromcentral national authorities on statistics, national reports and European Union Statistics of income and living conditionsdata were collected and analysed during 2015–2016. Results: The proportion of Nordic children living in economic povertyin 2014 ranged from 9.4% in Norway to 18.5% in Sweden. Compared with the European Union average, from 2004 to 2014Nordic families with dependent children experienced fewer difficulties in making their money last, even though Icelandicfamilies reported considerable difficulties. The characteristics of children living in economic poverty proved to be similar inthe five countries and were related to their parents' level of education and employment, single-parent households and – inDenmark, Norway and Sweden – to immigrant background. In Finland, poverty among children was linked in particular tolow income in employed households. Conclusions: This study showed that economic poverty among Nordic familieswith dependent children has increased during the latest decade, but it also showed that poverty rates are notnecessarily connected to families' ability to make their money last. Therefore additional studies are neededto explore existing policies and political commitments in the Nordic countries to compensate families withdependent children living in poverty.

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