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  • 1.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, SE-461 81, Sweden.
    Hanning, Fabian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dixit, Nikhil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Moverare, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Microstructure modelling of laser metal powder directed energy deposition of alloy 7182019In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 25, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-component and multi-phase-field modelling approach, combined with transformation kinetics modelling, was used to model microstructure evolution during laser metal powder directed energy deposition of Alloy 718 and subsequent heat treatments. Experimental temperature measurements were utilised to predict microstructural evolution during successive addition of layers. Segregation of alloying elements as well as formation of Laves and δ phase was specifically modelled. The predicted elemental concentrations were then used in transformation kinetics to estimate changes in Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) and Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagrams for Alloy 718. Modelling results showed good agreement with experimentally observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the approach can be a valuable tool, both for improving process understanding and for process development including subsequent heat treatment.

  • 2.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Additive Manufacturing using Alloy 718 Powder: Influence of Laser Metal Deposition Process Parameters on Microstructural Characteristics2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a general name used for production methodswhich have the capabilities of producing components directly from 3D computeraided design (CAD) data by adding material layer-by-layer until a final component is achieved. Included here are powder bed technologies, laminated object manufacturing and deposition technologies. The latter technology is used in this study.Laser metal deposition using powder as an additive (LMD-p) is an AM processwhich uses a multi-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine or robot toguide the laser beam and powder nozzle over the deposition surface. Thecomponent is built by depositing adjacent beads layer by layer until thecomponent is completed. LMD-p has lately gained attention as a manufacturing method which can add features to semi-finished components or as a repair method. LMD-p introduce a low heat input compared to arc welding methods and is therefore well suited in applications where a low heat input is of an essence. For instance, in repair of sensitive parts where too much heating compromises the integrity of the part.The main part of this study has been focused on correlating the main processparameters to effects found in the material which in this project is the superalloy Alloy 718. It has been found that the most influential process parameters are the laser power, scanning speed, powder feeding rate and powder standoff distance and that these parameters has a significant effect on the dimensionalcharacteristics of the material such as height and width of a single deposit as wellas the straightness of the top surface and the penetration depth.To further understand the effects found in the material, temperaturemeasurements has been conducted using a temperature measurement methoddeveloped and evaluated in this project. This method utilizes a thin stainless steel sheet to shield the thermocouple from the laser light. This has proved to reduce the influence of the emitted laser light on the thermocouples.

  • 3.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Laser Metal Deposition using Alloy 718 Powder: Influence of Process Parameters on Material Characteristics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a general name used for manufacturing methods which have the capabilities of producing components directly from 3D computeraided design (CAD) data by adding material layer-by-layer until a final componentis achieved. Included here are powder bed technologies, laminated object manufacturing and deposition technologies. The latter technology is used in this study. Laser Metal Powder Deposition (LMPD) is an AM method which builds components by fusing metallic powder together with a metallic substrate, using a laser as energy source. The powder is supplied to the melt-pool, which is created by the laser, through a powder nozzle which can be lateral or coaxial. Both the powder nozzle and laser are mounted on a guiding system, normally a computer numerical control (CNC) machine or a robot. LMPD has lately gained attentionas a manufacturing method which can add features to semi-finished components or as a repair method. LMPD introduce a low heat input compared to conventional arc welding methods and is therefore well suited in, for instance, repair of sensitive parts where too much heating compromises the integrity of the part. The main part of this study has been focused on correlating the main process parameters to effects found in the material which in this project is the superalloy Alloy 718. It has been found that the most influential process parameters are the laser power, scanning speed, powder feeding rate and powder standoff distance.These process parameters have a significant effect on the temperature history ofthe material which, among others, affects the grain structure, phase transformation, and cracking susceptibility of the material. To further understand the effects found in the material, temperature measurements has been conducted using a temperature measurement method developed and evaluated in this project. This method utilizes a thin stainless steel sheet to shield the thermocouple from the laser light. This has proved to reduce the influence of the laser energy absorbed by the thermocouples.

  • 4.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Weld head motion control of girth and tubular joint welding simulations in LS-DYNA2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for performing a thermo-mechanical staggered coupled heat source analysis of a welding simulation is implemented into LS-DYNA. In this report, three methods for initiating the heat source’s mechanical motion during girth and tubular joint welding are developed and evaluated. The first method is a reformulation of the equations used at Det Norske Veritas, the second is an incorporation of the equations into excel and the third is a standalone third party software. The most efficient of the developed methods turned out to be the software which creates k-files which are implemented into the main k-file using LS-PrePost. All methods have been visually and numerically evaluated using Excel, LS-DYNA and LS-PrePost.

  • 5.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Economical Viability of Laser Metal Deposition2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports on large economic savings using Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been found in literature when exploiting the positive capabilities of AM. This paper evaluates the economic potential of, the AM method, laser metal deposition (LMD) in production of add-on features compared to conventional manufacturing methods. This is done by theoretical case studies, which explore factors critical to the cost of manufacturing a jet engine flange. LMD has the potential to be an economical viable alternative to conventional manufacturing methods when the manufactured component has a high buy-to-fly ratio, the component is small and complex, if the operator time can be kept to a minimum, and/or when the design freedom of LMD can be capitalized into lighter and more efficient components.

  • 6.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Evaluation of a temperature measurement method developed for laser metal deposition2017In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring temperatures in the material during laser metal deposition (LMD) has an inherent challenge caused by the laser. When thermocouples are radiated by the high intensity laser light overheating occurs which causes the thermocouple to fail. Another identified difficulty is that when the laser passes a thermocouple, emitted light heats the thermocouple to a higher temperature than the material actually experience. In order to cope with these challenges, a method of measuring temperatures during LMD of materials using protective sheets has been developed and evaluated as presented in this paper. The method has substantially decreased the risk of destroying the thermocouple wires during laser deposition. Measurements using 10 mm2 and 100 mm2 protective sheets have been compared. These measurements show small variations in the cooling time (∼0.1 s from 850°C to 500°C) between the small and large protective sheets which indicate a negligible effect on the temperature measurement. © 2016 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 7.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Evaluation of the effect of process parameters on microstructural characteristics in laser metal deposition of Alloy 7182015In: Journal of optics and laser technologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Influence of Heat Input on Grain Structure in Thin-Wall Deposits using Laser Metal Powder Deposition2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. -7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing method which is used to deposit material directly onto a metal surface layer upon layer until a final component is achieved. The material used in this study is the nickel iron based superalloy Alloy 718. There is a strong thermal gradient associated with this method which generally produces columnar grains growing in the build-up direction. The preferred solidification orientation of the FCC matrix is in the (001) direction which makes it possible to build directionally solidified structures with epitaxial grains growing through the layers. In this study LMD with powder as additive has been used to build thin walled samples, multiple layers high. The main objectives of this research are to assess the influence of the heat input on the grain structure in LMD builds and evaluate how the morphology and texture of the grains are affected by the changes in process parameters. Two different parameter sets are compared where a high and a low heat input have been used. The two samples with different heat inputs have been evaluated using a scanning electron microscope coupled to an electron back scatter diffraction detector in order to obtain quantitative grains size measurements as well as crystallographic information. It was shown that the grain structure was considerably affected by the heat input where the high heat input produced a strong texture with columnar grains growing in the build-up direction. With a low heat input the grains became finer and, although elongated, the grains became more equiaxed.

  • 9.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Investigation of laser metal deposited Alloy 718 onto an EN 1.4401 stainless steel substrate2017In: Optics and Laser Technology, ISSN 0030-3992, E-ISSN 1879-2545, Vol. 97, no Supplement C, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how process parameters affect the deposition of Alloy 718 onto an EN 1.4401 stainless steel substrate in terms of secondary phase formation, dilution and hardness. A columnar solidification structure with elongated grains growing in the direction normal to the substrate was observed for all parameters. In the interdendritic regions, phases with a high content of Niobium were identified. Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy measurements revealed these phases to most likely be Laves phase and Nb-carbides. Temperature measurements indicated no significant aging in the deposits. Considerable enrichment of iron was found in the initially deposited layers due to dilution from the substrate. The increased content of iron seemed to aid in forming constituents rich in niobium which, in turn, influenced the hardness. The highest mean hardness was noted in the sample with the lowest area fraction of Nb-rich constituents.

  • 10.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Review of Laser Deposited Superalloys Using Powder as an Additive2014In: 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Ott, E., Banik, A., Andersson, J., Dempster, I., Gabb, T., Groh, J., Heck, K., Helmink, R., Liu, X. & Wusatowska-Sarnek, A, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 393-408Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, Olanrewaju
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering,Winnipeg, R3T 5V6, Canada.
    Effect of Process Parameters on the Crack Formation in Laser Metal Powder Deposition of Alloy 7182018In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 49A, no 10, p. 5042-5050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracking in Alloy 718 using laser metal powder deposition has been evaluated in this study. It is found that the material is susceptible to cracking when the laser power is high, the scanning speed is high and the powder feeding rate is low. Almost all the cracks are located close to the center of the deposited wall and propagates in the normal direction to the substrate. Evidence of liquation are found at the cracked surfaces and since all cracks reside in regions which are reheated several times, the cracks are determined to mostlikely be heat affected zone liquation cracks. The influence of respective process parameter was evaluated using a design of experiment approach. It is shown that, when the powder feeding rate is incorporated as avariable, the heat input is not a suitable indicator for the hot cracking susceptibility in laser metal powder deposition of Alloy 718. A combinatory model using the power ratio together with the heat input is therefore proposed.

  • 12.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, Olanrewaju
    University of Manitoba,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, R3T 5V6, Canada.
    Microstructural Characterization of Laser Metal Powder Deposited Alloy 7182018In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 142, p. 550-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microstructural study of Laser Metal Powder Deposition (LMPD) of Alloy 718, using a low (40 J/mm) and high (100 J/mm) heat inputs (HIs) was performed. The microstructure was characterized in as-deposited condition as well as after a standard heat-treatment, using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Laves, MC-carbides, γ' and γ'' are observed in the interdendritic areas of both conditions. However, the dendritic core only consists of γ-matrix. The high HI condition shows a slightly larger Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing (PDAS) as compared to the low HI condition. Additionally, the particle size of the Nb-rich constituents in the interdendriticregions (Laves-phase and Niobium carbide) are larger in the high HI sample. After heat-treatment, the Laves phase dissolves and is replaced by δ-phase in the interdendritic regions, while γ', γ'' and MC-carbideremain in the interdendritic regions. However, the γ'' precipitates seems to be less developed in the dendritic core as compared to the interdendritic regions, especially in the high HI sample. This can be attributed to a heterogeneous distribution of Nb in the microstructure, with a lower Nb content in the dendritic core as compared to close to the interdendritic regions.

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