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  • 1.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Be fearless : Positive affect as a mediator between venturesomeness and self-efficacy in future entrepreneurs and managers: Être intrépide : affect positif agissant comme médiateur entre l’audace et la connaissance de ses propres capacités chez les futurs entrepreneurs et managers2018In: Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée / European Review of Applied Psychology, ISSN 1162-9088, Vol. 68, no 4-5, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and objectives. – Self-efficacy, personality and different affect states in entrepreneurs and managers are important factors for effectiveness and well-being. The aim of the study was to examine in young adults during entrepreneurship-related education, the relationships between venturesomeness and self-efficacy, and the mediating effects of positive affect and positive emotions (joviality, self-assurance, attentiveness) on these relationships.

    Method. – One hundred and fifty-three participants (mean age 22 years) completed questionnaires that assessed venturesomeness, general self-efficacy, positive affect (measured as a state), and positive emotions. Bootstrapping analyses with simple and multiple mediators were conducted, controlled for gender, to estimate the indirect effects of positive affect and positive emotions on venturesomeness and general self-efficacy.

    Results. – Venturesomeness was significantly correlated with self-efficacy. Positive affect (model 1), joviality and self-assurance, but not attentiveness (model 2), were complete mediators in the relationship between venturesomeness and self-efficacy.

    Conclusion. – The present study provides new evidence that heightened venturesomeness is related to higher levels of positive affect, self-assurance and joviality. Venturesomeness, therefore, may strengthen self-efficacy in young people during entrepreneurship-related education, and positive emotions may lead to an aware use of resources, including self-efficacy. These results may stimulate young people to be braveand to try new experiences.

  • 2.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Academy, Szczytno, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Burnout among a group of policemen: the role of fatigue and emotions in the work context2012In: Book of Proceedings: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology Conference / [ed] Jain, Aditya, Hollis, David, Andreou, Nicholas, Wehrle, Flavia, Nottingham: I-WHO, International House, Jubilee Campus , 2012, p. 125-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Policework is a profession with a high risk of operational and organizational stress at work. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of job-related affectivity and fatigue on burnout; specifically we aimed to study the relation between acute fatigue and burnout and the indirect role of emotion during work.

    We adopted the concept of burnout with two components: exhaustion and disengagement (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). In this concept, exhaustion is related to the energetic aspect, and disengagement is connected to the motivational aspect. We hypothesized that acute fatigue is a precursor to burnout. According to Van Katwyk et al. (2000), psychological well-being is synonymous with work-related affectivity, and emotions are classified into four categories: high and low-arousal of pleasant emotions and high and low-arousal of unpleasant emotions. According to the theory of stress by Selye (1978), eustress and distress are assumed to be a high arousal of emotion.

    Methods: Acute fatigue was measured by the index in accordance with the Japan Society for Occupational Health. In order to investigate exhaustion and disengagement the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was used (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). Job-related affective well-being was used to assess emotions within the work context (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). Hierarchical regressions analyses were performed.

    Group: 187 policemen (28 women) filled in the questionnaires. Half of them worked in the prevention department and one-third were on duty in the criminal division. Their average work experience was 14.7 years (range 5 - 28).

    Results: Fatigue had a direct impact on exhaustion and disengagement. This first effect was 3 times stronger than the second. In the next step the emotions were entered into these separate models. We observed that a low arousal of unpleasant emotions had an indirect relation with fatigue and exhaustion. Additionally, a high arousal of positive and negative emotions (eustress and distress) mediated between fatigue and disengagement. These effects of partial mediation were large (f2 = .34 and f2 = .32 respectively).

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that a high arousal of emotions can lead to a deterioration of motivation of work, but a low arousal of negative emotions reduce energetic ability to work among policemen.

     

     

  • 3.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Academy in Szczytno, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Fatigue, vigor and dedication: the role of job-related emotions2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow? / [ed] Hertel, Guido & Holling, Heinz, 2013, p. 11-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine the role of job-related positive and negative emotions between acute fatigue at work and engagement. We tested two components of engagement: vigor (energetic aspect) and dedication (motivational aspect). We hypothesized that negative emotions mediate in energy depletion process and positive emotions mediate in broadening of energetic and motivational resources.

    Design/Methodology. Fatigue was measured by an index in accordance with the Japan Society for Occupational Health. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale – short version (UWES) was used to evaluate vigor and dedication (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006). Job-related affective well-being (JAWS) was used to assess positive and negative emotions (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). The study group consisted of 174 police officers (the average tenure of 10 years, range 1–23).

    Results. Baron and Kenny approach and the Sobel test supported our hypotheses. Fatigue was more negative related to vigor than dedication. We observed that positive and negative emotions fully mediated between fatigue and vigor (large effect size f2 = .36). Additionally, positive emotions fully mediated between fatigue and dedication (medium effect size f2 = .16). We confirmed these results by the Sobel test.

    Limitations. The correlational design was applied.

    Research/Practical Implications. Our results indicate that in police officers positive emotions may lead to broadening of energetic and motivational resources.

  • 4.
    Basinska, Beata Aleksandra
    et al.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Econ & Management, Gdansk.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Acad Szczytno, Dept Adm, SzczytnoPoland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Fatigue and burnout in police officers: the mediating role of emotions2014In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, E-ISSN 1758-695X, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 665-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The policing profession is associated with psychosocial hazard. Fatigue and burnout often affect police officers, and may impair the functioning of the organization and public safety. The relationship between fatigue and burnout may be modified by job-related emotions. While negative emotions have been extensively studied, the role of positive emotions at work is relatively less known. Additionally, there is insufficient knowledge about the role of the intensity of emotions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of job-related emotions in the relationship between fatigue and burnout in police officers.

    Design/methodology/approach – In all, 169 police officers (26 women) completed a test battery that assessed acute fatigue, burnout (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory: exhaustion and disengagement), and emotions (Job-related Affective Well-being Scale).

    Findings – Acute fatigue was associated more strongly with exhaustion than with disengagement. Low-arousal negative emotions partially mediated the relationship between fatigue and exhaustion. High-arousal positive and negative emotions were partial mediators between fatigue and disengagement experienced by police officers.

    Research limitations/implications – The results show that high-arousal emotions were associated with changes in work motivation, while low-arousal negative emotions reduced energetic ability to work.

    Originality/value – This paper enhances understanding of burnout among police officers and the mediating role of emotions. The patterns of the relationships between fatigue, burnout and emotions are discussed in the context of the conservation of resources theory and the tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

  • 5. Basinska, Beata
    et al.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Pozytywny afekt a relacja między śmiałością, impulsywnością i własną skutecznością [Positive affectivity and the relationship between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and self-efficacy]2012In: Zdrowie w cyklu zycia czlowieka [Health across the life span] / [ed] Oginska-Bulik, Nina & Miniszewska, Joanna, Lodz: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Lodzkiego, 2012, 1., p. 109-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent research has demonstrated a relationship between personality, affectivity and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of basic and general positive affectivity on personality traits (venturesomeness and impulsiveness) and self-efficacy. Methods: The correlational design was used. 175 students filled in the Impulsiveness – Venturesomeness - Empathy Inventory (Eysenck et al., 1985), PANAS (Watson, Clark, 1994 - basic and general positive affectivity) and General Self-Efficacy (GESE by Schwarzer et al., 2008). Findings: Impulsiveness did not matter to the strength of self-efficacy, and was independent of positive affectivity. The results obtained indicated a significant mediating effect of basic positive affectivity, self-assurance and joviality, on the link between venturesomeness and general self-efficacy, and a direct impact of general positive affectivity on self-efficacy.

  • 6.
    de Colli, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Samtidig kriterierelaterad validitet hos ett nytt svenskt arbetspsykologisk test mot arbetsprestation inom polisen2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka validiteten hos ett nytt svenskt arbetslivspsykologiskt personlighetstest, Understanding Personal Potential (UPP) (Sjöberg, 2008).

    Teoretiskt ramverk. Ett vanligt problem inom den tillämpade psykologin är att utifrån det begränsade stickprovets korrelation, uppskatta hur stor den korrelationen hade varit i populationen. Begränsning i spridning (”range restriction”) uppstår när stickprovet inte är perfekt representativt för den populationen som avses att generalisera till.

    Summering av resultaten. Som externa kriterier användes i studie 1 (N = 100) polisens lönekriterier och i studie 2 (N = 46) ett objektivt kriterium i form av antal förhör för utredare.  Resultaten indikerar att vissa variabler i UPP-testet har en rimlig samtidig validitet mot de externa kriterierna. Emotionell stabilitet uppvisar god validitet mot kriterierna i enlighet med tidigare forskning. Noggrannhet uppvisar negativa samband med två av kriterierna, vilket inte bekräftar tidigare forskning. Flera av UPP-testets specifika variabler uppvisar lika god validitet eller bättre jämfört med de generella variablerna enligt FFM.  Studiens resultat ger stöd framförallt för en modell bestående av personlighetsvariablerna emotionell stabilitet, samarbetsvilja, positiv grundattityd, perfektionism, arbetsvilja och balans.

    Slutsatser. UPP-testets sammanslagna variabler jagstyrka, stresskänslighet och chefspotential utgjorde starka prediktorer för kriterierna som mäter arbetsprestation.

    Praktiska och teoretiska implikationer. Personlighet spelar en betydande roll för prestation i arbetslivet. Att välja rätt personal till en organisation är en fundamental nödvändighet för att organisationen ska fungera väl. Studien bidrar till psykometrisk teori då det ansågs vara nödvändigt att korrigera resultaten för spridningsbegränsningar, vilket förespråkas av klassiska teoretiker såsom Gulliksen och Magnusson. 

  • 7.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lindgren, May
    Lund University.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of dyslexia and AD/HD in a sample of forensic psychiatric rapists2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 371-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (DSM-IV) is markedly increased among those who are sentenced for criminal offences. The aim of the study was to identify developmental disabilities, dyslexia and AD/HD among severely disturbed men in forensic psychiatric care, and to study the co-occurrence of such disabilities, with the objective to discuss the importance of the diagnoses in forensic psychiatry. The participants were 10 males who had committed rape on adult women, and included two murder-rapists, one of which had murdered more than one victim (i.e. a serial murderer). All had been assigned to special long term forensic psychiatric care, based predominantly on a psychodynamic ground. In order to be identified as having dyslexia, a participant’s performance on at least three out of four tests of academic skills had to be markedly below the expected level (more than two stanine steps), given the participant’s non-verbal intellectual capacity and considering the length of his education. AD/HD was investigated by studying the participants’ forensic psychiatric files and by a clinical interview. Seven of the 10 participants met the DSM-IV criteria for dyslexia, and six of them met the DSM-IV criteria for AD/HD. Four participants had AD/HD and dyslexia, three had AD/HD but no dyslexia, and two had dyslexia but no AD/HD. Only one participant had neither dyslexia nor AD/HD. The participants with dyslexia performed well in tests assessing non-verbal reasoning, visuo-spatial capacity and visual memory. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, the results indicate the importance of assessing dyslexia as well as AD/HD in people who are admitted for forensic psychiatric assessment. The lack of correct diagnoses may negatively influence the choice of appropriate forensic psychiatric care. Early assessment of those disorders might have a positive influence on the psychological development and socialization process in people with dyslexia and/or AD/HD.

  • 8.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Faculty of Management and Economics Gdansk University of Technology.
    The work-family interface: Job demands, work engagement and turnover intentions of Polish nurses2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conflict between one's professional life and one's family life may lead to lower well-being both at work and home. Most nurses are women who have traditionally reconciled their professional life with family life. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC),the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised Polish registered nurses. The following instruments were used:Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales (Netemeyer, Boles, &McMurrian, 1996), the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index (Spector & Jex, 1998), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006), and measures of turnover intentions (intention to leave the present workplace and intention to leave the nursing profession). The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of theintention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory.

  • 9.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Colli, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The significance of the sense of coherence for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers in on-the-beat service2014In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, E-ISSN 1896-494X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPolice officers meet many stressors as part of their occupation. The psychological resource "sense of coherence" (SOC) protects against ill-health, but its impact on coping resources for stress situations has not been studied in the population of police officers. Different approaches to investigate the significance of SOC for different outcomes have been identified in literature, leading to some difficulties in the interpretation and generalization of results. The aim was therefore to explore SOC and the coping resources, and to examine the significance of SOC for various coping resources for stress using different models in a sample of Swedish police officers providing on-the-beat service.

    Materials and MethodsOne hundred and one police officers (age: mean = 33 years, SD = 8; 29 females) were included, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29) and the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) were used. The dependent variable in each regression analysis was one of the coping resources: cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical, physical, and a global resource. Global SOC-29 and/or its components (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were investigated as independent variables.

    ResultsAll CRI and SOC-29 scores except for that of spiritual/philosophical resources were higher than those of reference groups. Manageability was the most important component of SOC for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers.

    ConclusionA deeper study of manageability will give useful information, because this component of SOC is particularly significant in the variation in resources used by police officers to cope with stress. Salutogenesis, the origin of well-being, should be more in focus of future research on workplaces with a high level of occupational stress.

  • 10.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Alcoholism, violence, and CSF HVA (multiple letters)2003In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 77-78Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Att utveckla lärandemodeller genom sociala experiment (arbetsintegrerade moment) för studenter som rekryteras genom breddad rekrytering2014In: GRASP 2014 - Oberoende i flocken? Inkludering och exkludering som sociala processer, Linköpings universitet, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Universitetslärare behöver goda förebilder på effektiva undervisningsmetoder. Studenter som rekryteras genom den breddade rekryteringen, dvs. personer med föräldrar som inte har akademisk bakgrund och personer som vill komplettera tidigare utbildningar, inte utesluts från akademisk framgång. Högskolan Väst toppar landets högskolor i andelen studenter med föräldrar som inte har akademisk utbildning. Under de senaste åren drabbades regionen allra hårdast vad gäller ökningen av antalet arbetslösa under finanskrisen. Sedan 2008 har 18 större nedläggningar och konkurser i Fyrbodal inträffat, och Trollhättans arbetsmarknadsområde fick en 75% ökning av arbetslösheten. Högskolan Väst har samtidigt upplevt ett högt söktryckt. De studenter som rekryteras förväntas klara av sin universitetsutbildning utan stöd hemifrån, med ett gott resultat för att upprätthålla hög genomströmning. Dessa snabba förändringar har ställt oss lärare som undervisar i metod och statistik inför frågan hur vi ska undervisa så att en hög genomströmning kan behållas med ett dessutom ständigt minskade antal undervisningstimmar. Breddad rekrytering och hög genomströmning; hur ska dessa förenas? Denna studie är ett exempel på implementering av sociala experiment som pedagogisk metod i undervisning genom visualisering av tänkbara arbetslivsmetoder (psykologiska test vid bedömning och rekrytering). Studenterna skulle kunna integrera sina arbetslivskunskaper i ett nytt lärande av experimentella metoder och statistiska analyser. Deltagarna var studenter från Personalvetarprogrammet och Human Factors-programmet. Tre grupper formades i ett experiment avseende manipulering av graden av empati. Insamlade data användes i en gemensam datafil i statistikundervisning. Andelen av betygen väl godkänd och godkänd var hög. Kursvärderingen speglade en hög grad av studenternas tillfredsställelse. Därför rekommenderas användning av sociala experiment i undervisning av ämnen som normalt anses vara svåra att förstå och tillämpa i syfte att inte utesluta studenter med föräldrar som inte har akademisk bakgrund. I ett demokratiskt samhälle ska alla studenter inkluderas, och det ska inte förekomma uteslutning av personer som antas genom den breddade rekryteringen.

  • 12.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Det har blivit populärt att vara psykiskt sjuk i Kalifornien: konsekvenser av den nya lagen Three-strikes and you're out law2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 51-52, p. 6038-6039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the new Three-strikes and you're out law, the law which first came into effect on 1994, was to protect innocent members of the community. A person convicted of his or her third conviction after two prior serious convictions under Three-strikes will typically receive a sentence of no less than 25 years to life in state prison. This law is well-known in California among criminals, especially repeat offenders and many of them left the state. The rate of homicides in the state has decreased by 50%. Many repeat offenders remained in California and continued to commit new crimes. Before Three-strikes was enacted, it was very uncommon for forensic psychiatrists to see criminals malingering symptoms of mental illness in any but the most serious of cases of murder or rape. Since the implementation of the new law, it has been found malingering to be much more common. Hundreds of patients at state mental hospitals fake insanity to avoid prison, costing taxpayers far more than the cost of incarceration in a prison. The most common types of malingers are discussed.

  • 13.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Developing courses in quantitative methods for undergraduate psychology students: teaching facilitated by experimental exercises with work-related elements2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers need to develop and implement effective teaching methods when educating students who come to the university through “broadened recruitment”, that is, students with parents without higher education, and also older students who want to supplement their previous university education. These groups have, at least theoretically, more practical experiences and possible poorer study outcomes.

     

    University West tops the list of Swedish universities in the percentage of students with parents without higher education. In addition, during recent years, unemployment in the region around University West increased (by about 75%). This fact leads to a higher percentage of older students with work-related experience. These rapid changes have put us who teach methods and statistics before the question of how to teach more effectively, so that a high “throughput” can be maintained in combination with a constantly decreasing number of teaching hours. Broadening participation and high throughput: how can we make it happen?

     

    This study was an attempt to implement “learning by doing”, an activity-based teaching method where theory, practice, reflection and action are combined. In their learning of experimental methods and statistics, students at University West were expected to integrate their past and present working skills in an experiment that simulated two work-related situations (applying for employment as a manager, and applying for leave of absence from prison). In a three-group experiment, an attempt was made to manipulate the applicant’s degree of empathy, which was then measured with the IRI scale. Collected data were used in statistics education, and results were discussed with students. In subsequent knowledge tests, the proportion of the grade “fail” was low. Course evaluations reflected a high degree of student satisfaction.

     

    Therefore, the use of “learning by doing” in the teaching of statistics, which is normally considered to be difficult to understand and apply, is recommended in order to increase motivation to learn statistics.

  • 14.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits1999In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 827-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits among a group of 47 severely conduct-disordered (C-D) juvenile males from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offences were studied. The Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I), including an impulsivity scale from the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy (IVE) inventory, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS) form V, were administered to the C-D juveniles. The scores from the KSP for this group were compared to scores from a presentative group of 82 normal juvenile male subjects from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the KSP scales and scales from the EPQ-I, and between the SSS and scales from the EPQ-I and KSP inventories. The C-D juveniles displayed notably higher scores than the mean normal scores on psychopathy-related personality scales. The present results are consistent with earlier findings concerning personality dimensions in adult criminal psychopaths: high scores on impulsivity and sensation seeking, and low scores on conformity reflected in low socialization and high psychoticism.

  • 15. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    “Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde?”: Abuse of potent benzodiazepines, exemplified by flunitrazepam, in mentally disordered male offenders2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flunitrazepam (FZ) is an example of a sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine whose pharmacokinetic properties include a rapid onset of action and an intermediate duration of action. It has a high affinity to central benzodiazepine receptors and affects them profoundly. These properties, and its profile of activity, increase the probability of abuse by those who have access to it. Known side effects of FZ are abuse and amnesia. FZ is widely abused and it has become a drug of choice among opioid abusers, as a club drug, and as a classic “date-rape” drug. FZ is often involved in fatal intoxication. It is therefore expected that FZ abuse is common in serious offenders. I have studied the reasons for FZ abuse and mapped the prevalence of the abuse, with the objective of studying the personalities and the background factors of the abusers, and of drawing some conclusions about assessment procedures of FZ abuse and the position of FZ in society.

    The participants in the studies summarised here were fifty-six juvenile delinquents from Swedish youth correctional institutions, aged 14-20 years, and sixty non-psychotic male offenders referred for a forensic psychiatric evaluation (FPE), aged 16-35 years. The participants answered questions regarding their abuse, and this enabled us to understand why they abused just FZ (and not another substance). The participants also completed a number of self-reported inventories, which enabled us to obtain measures of personality traits. They were also rated for psychopathy. Five forensic psychiatric cases of FZ abusers were studied in more detail. Furthermore, the forensic psychiatric participants’ psychiatric diagnoses, and both groups’ crime-related measures, were obtained from their files.

    About 40% of the juvenile delinquents and 30% of the offenders referred for a forensic psychiatric evaluation abused FZ. The main reason for the FZ abuse was to change a perception of reality and to obtain an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, a feeling that everything was possible. Both samples of offenders differed from the normal population in many personality traits, suggesting that the participants possessed a high level of vulnerability for developing mental disorders, but only a few differences in personality traits were found between FZ abusers and non-FZ abusers. The juvenile delinquent FZ abusers had higher scores than non-FZ abusers in the verbal aggression and sensation-seeking boredom susceptibility scales. In the juvenile sample, FZ abuse was associated with the abuse of amphetamines and/or cocaine, cannabis, and opiates, and with childhood psychological/psychiatrical contact, with living in a metropolitan housing area, and with recidivism into crimes leading to care in a juvenile correctional institution. In this sample, FZ abuse was also associated with weapons offences and narcotics-related crimes. In the forensic psychiatric sample, FZ abuse was significantly associated with previous admission to an FPE, and convictions for robbery, for weapons-related offences, for narcotics-related offences and for theft. The results show that FZ is more common in offenders who score high on Facet 4 (Antisocial) in the Hare psychopathy model, and that FZ abuse has high correlation with Item 20 (Criminal versatility). All of the FZ abusers reported side effects from FZ that resulted in the brutality of their violent acts and anterograde amnesia. FZ abusers, when intoxicated with FZ, had a reduced capacity for both empathy and anticipatory anxiety, in contrast to their “daily” behaviour and “ordinary” (i.e., without the influence of the FZ) personality characteristics. They were not characterised by classic characteristics of psychopathy, such as lack of empathy. This may indicate that FZ induces psychopathic-like state-dependant (FZ intoxication) traits, and temporary dissociate states (“Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”?).

    In conclusion, FZ abuse is common in the population of young offenders with mental disorders, and FZ is often used for nonmedical purposes. The practical implications of these conclusions are that clinicians and those who develop or manage therapeutic programs should be aware of FZ abuse when choosing the most effective treatment for male offenders. General practitioners who prescribe potent sedative compounds should be aware of their possible adverse effects. The availability of FZ should be limited further, because FZ is frequently abused in vulnerable male offenders, and because FZ has serious adverse mental health-related effects and is related to robbery and weapons‑related crimes.

  • 16.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Fallet Thomas Quick: ”Bortträngda” minnen och hans diagnoser2016In: Diagnoser / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse , 2016, 1. ed., p. 55-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Finns det ett samband mellan impulsivitet och psykopati hos kriminella män?2011In: Tema: AUTISMSPEKTRUMSTÖRNINGAR, ADHD, GENETIK, ÖVRIGT / [ed] Mussie Mshgina, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personer med psykopati beskrivs ofta som känslokalla, utan empati OCH impulsiva. MEN de kan ägna mycket energi åt att manipulera andra för att uppnå sina mål, oavsett om han eller hon är kriminell person eller ”succéfull” ledare. Detaljerade planer står i kontrast till impulsivitet. Impulsivitet kännetecknas av handlingar utan föregående planering. Viss andel av kriminellt belastade psykopater har en relativt ”normal” personlighetsprofil – liknande ”succéfull psykopat”. Poythress och Hall (2011) föreslagit revidering av det teoretiska antagandet att psykopater är impulsiva. Snowden och Gray (2011) fann inga signifikanta samband mellan PCL-R total och självskattad impulsivitet. Positiva samband fanns mellan PCL-R Facett 3 (Livsstil), 4 (Antisocial) och impulsivitet.

    Hypoteser: (1) Högre impulsivitet förväntas inte ha signifikanta samband med högre poäng i psykopati PCL-R total; (2) Högre impulsivitet förväntas ha samband med högre poäng i psykopati Facett 3 och 4.

    Metod: Studien omfattar en grupp rättspsykiatriskt undersökta män (N = 60) som rekryterats på frivillig basis vid Avdelningen för Rättspsykiatri i Stockholm (Huddinge enheten). För att mäta psykopati användes Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R). Att mäta ADHD användes ett instrument som är avsett till retrospektiva skattningar av ADHD med hjälp av journaldata. Impulsivitet mättes med hjälp av etablerade impulsivitetsskalor.

    Resultat: Det fanns inga signifikanta samband mellan PCL-R total och impulsivitet. Det fanns inte heller några signifikanta samband mellan Facett 3 resp. Facett 4 och impulsivitet. Signifikant samband fanns mellan PCL-R Facett 4 och ADHD total (r = .29, p = .023) respektive ADHD ouppmärksamhet (r = .32, p = .013).

    Fortsatt forskning: Kan ADHD vara moderator genom att ha en interaktionseffekt med impulsivitet?

  • 18.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Hur kan ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL) synliggöras inom ämnet psykologi?2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna presentation är att tydliggöra hur vi inom ämnet psykologi synliggör AIL, genom att beskriva resultaten från genomförda studier inom ett samverkansprojekt med aktörer från arbetslivet och akademin. Resultat från detta projekt ledde till ett nyligen avslutat verifieringsprojekt, finansierat av Innovations Kontor Väst, Chalmers. Båda projekten kommer att presenteras. Exempel ges på hur dessa psykologiska forskningsprojekt kunnat bidra till implementeringen av AIL i psykologiundervisning.

    Syfte med projektet ”Studier om en ny svensk ledarskapsmodell som bygger på teorin om ledarintelligens” var att utveckla en praktiskt tillämpbar ledarskapsmodell som bygger på Ronthys teori (2006, 2013) om ledarskapets intelligens. Detta gjordes genom att validera teorin bland chefer och ledare i ett samarbete mellan forskare inom akademin och externa aktörer (organisationer och företag). Teorin är sprungen ur Ronthys erfarenheter av att undervisa och att handleda omkring 4 000 chefer i utvecklingssamtal.

    Ett flertal examensarbeten har skrivits inom projektet, och några har resulterat i konferenspresentationer och i vetenskapliga publikationer. Genom sitt deltagande i projektet får våra studenter kontakter med ansvariga i kommuner, företag och organisationer, och ökar därigenom sina möjligheter att bli anställda. De får även bättre förståelse av arbetslivets villkor och kan på ett djupare sätt diskutera sina resultat, och får därmed bättre studieresultat. Genom examensarbeten bedrivs en reflexionsdrivande undervisning, där studenter lär sig vad det kan innebära att vara chef eller ledare i ett arbetsliv som är i förändring. Allt detta kräver eftertanke: ”Vem är jag?”, ”Vad vill jag jobba med?”. Studenterna får även en närmare relation till yrken och verksamheter utanför akademin, samt utvecklar sin yrkeskompetens genom att reflektera kring användningen av testmetodik.

    Slutsatsen är att AIL kan synliggöras i såväl psykologisk forskning som undervisning på samma sätt som AIL synliggörs i andra ämnen, exempelvis pedagogik eller informatik.

  • 19.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Is flunitrazepam abuse in young male forensic psychiatric patients related to personality traits?Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young male forensic psychiatric patients have been studied and the prevalence of acute and chronic flunitrazepam (FZ) abuse with the objective of relating the abuse to personality traits was mapped. Sixty male non-psychotic forensic psychiatric patients were interviewed about their FZ abuse. In order to obtain measures on their personality traits the subjects completed a number of self-report inventories. Moreover, the subject’s psychiatric diagnoses and sentences were obtained by studying their files. These patients differed from subjects from a normal population in many personality traits, suggesting psychiatric/psychological vulnerability. Thirty per cent of the subjects were acute FZ abusers. The frequency of previous admission to a forensic psychiatric assessment, actual sentences of robbery, weapons offenses, narcotic-related offenses, and other crimes (such as theft) among the FZ abusers deviated significantly from criminal non-FZ abusers. No differences in personality traits were, however, found between the groups. The FZ abusers were classified into three groups, two of them based on the stated reasons for the abuse (“Fear reducers” and “Anxiety reducers”), and one containing abusers who had suddenly decided to stop the abuse (“Warning takers”). The mean T score on the Karolinska Scales of Personality socialization scale was significantly higher (p < .05) for Fear reducers than it was for Anxiety reducers. Legal decisions leading to the immediate withdrawal of the drug from the market are needed. Patients with anxiety- and sleep disorders can be treated with other drugs or with behavioural treatment programmes.

  • 20. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract

     

    State-administered correctional institutions in Sweden take care of approximately 600 juvenile delinquents every year. The treatment for these institutionalized young people is based mainly on environmental programs and milieu therapy.

    Fifty-six conduct-disordered juvenile delinquents (mean age 17 years) from four institutions were studied with respect to their personality traits, and the prevalence of psychopathy (measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised, PCL-R). One objective was to study the reliability and validity of commonly used personality inventories. In particular, the validity of psychopathy-related personality traits, included in Schalling’s psychopathy model (1978), was examined by studying the relationships between personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R), the occurrence of previous treatment occasions, and relapse into crime. Four groups, the delinquent participants, a group of high sensation-seekers (air force pilot recruits), normal male adolescent participants, and another group of normal young males, completed a number of personality inventories, which enabled us to obtain measures of personality traits. The personality inventories used were the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales. In addition, the delinquent participants were rated on psychopathy according to the modified version of the PCL-R, designed to be used with young people (Fort, Hart, & Hare, 1990). Both variable-oriented (factor analysis, MANOVA) and person-oriented statistical methods (cluster analysis) were applied.

    As expected, most personality traits in the delinquent participants deviated from published norms and from our control groups. The delinquent participants showed a high level of pathology or vulnerability for developing mental disorders (such as substance abuse). About 60% of the delinquent participants had scores above 30 on the PCL-R, and were thus classified as psychopaths according to the manual. Further, 73% had scores between 27 and 40, indicating a high level of psychopathy. Delinquent participants showed a different pattern of sensation-seeking behavior than air force pilot recruits and normal adolescent participants, and differed also in other personality traits. They had a low level of socialization, indicating a lack of ability to take the role of the generalized other, and a tendency to impulsiveness, somatic anxiety and extraversion-sociability. The construct validity (convergent and divergent) of the KSP scales was found to be adequate. Some of the personality traits in delinquent participants, however, showed a different correlation pattern than that found in noncriminal people. Some of the basic scales from the KSP had high reliability, but many were not reliable when used on delinquent participants. Four factors were extracted using the maximum likelihood method. No significant correlations were found between the personality scale scores and the PCL-R scores. Finally, cluster analysis of the reliable and valid psychopathy-related personality scales from the KSP (Impulsiveness, Monotony avoidance, Socialization, Verbal aggression, and Somatic anxiety) identified seven different clusters of delinquent participants.

    The uncertain validity of some personality traits (e.g., psychoticism or detachment), the poor reliability of many of the KSP scales (e.g., Guilt, Suspicion, and Inhibition of aggression) when used on this population, together with some minor limitations of the studies (e.g., sample size) are discussed.

    In conclusion, the high prevalence of psychopathy in the present sample of male delinquent participants may have important clinical treatment implications, particularly since some researchers have suggested that milieu therapy increases relapse rates into crime in adult psychopaths. Hopefully, appropriate assessment of personality traits and psychopathy (in addition to obvious routine assessments of mental disorders, such as substance abuse or disabilities such as dyslexia), supervision, and the implementation of effective correctional programs, may prevent young people with deviant personalities from aggravating their deviant style of living.

     

    Key words: Personality traits, psychopathy (PCL-R), juvenile delinquents, reliability, validity, assessment.

  • 21.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland; Faculty of Psychology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  • 22.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland; Faculty of Psychology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2018In: Psychosocial job dimensions and distress/well-being: issues and challenges in occupational health psychology / [ed] Renato Pisanti, James Campbell Quick, Montgomery Anthony, Frontiers Media S.A., 2018, 1, p. 91-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims:

    This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method:

    This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results:

    WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion:

    The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  • 23.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Performance profiles (”happy performer”, ”enjoys life”, ”forced performer” or ”goes without”) in two cultures2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    •Aim. The aim was to validate four empirically derived, and in research suggested “performance” profiles, and to discuss the results from these profiles in two culturally different populations in light of the psychometric qualities of the used instruments.

    •Theoretical framework and background. According to Johnson and Forsman (1995), a combination of low and high values ​​of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem (SE) scales may result in, what is by the scale constructors’ called performance profiles. Studies show that people with these profiles are different in, among others, Type A behavior, fear of failure, performance requirements, neuroticism and extraversion. These characteristics have been identified to be important for the working life, and, thus, the profiles are worth to be studied in depth.

    •Summary of the results. Validation of the performance profiles was made in 120 participants, educated in Sweden (almost all were born in Sweden) ranging in age from 21 to 54 years, by studying the relationships between a score from a self-assessment question "I am like this when I perform" (Dåderman, in preparation), and the results indicated a good concurrent validity for the profiles. Comparative study among 84 students from the University West in Sweden and 176 students from Gdansk University of Technology in Poland (Dåderman & Basinska, in preparation) showed that the distribution of the profiles was the same across categories indicated by non-significant values of the Mann Whitney U test.

    •Practical and theoretical implications. In our multicultural society, where in some sectors a large percentage of people not born in the country of question  work, it might be interesting to study performance profiles, provided that the SE scales are reliable and valid across different populations. Generalizations of results of this kind must be, however, very cautiously made.

  • 24.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
    Work-family interference: Occupational demands, work engagement and turnover intentions in nurses2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to manage incompatible professional and non-professional demands has attracted attention from both scholars and practitioners in recent decades. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC), the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised 98 nurses (mean age 41, SD = 6 years). The following instruments were used: Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of turnover intentions. The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The FWC was positively related to absorption. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of the intention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. Health organizations should develop guidance and counselling to promote good and efficient work with decent working conditions and a happy family life for nurses.

  • 25.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata Aleksandra
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Exploring the factor structure and the validityof the abbreviated Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales2013In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 242-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original longer versions (Forsman & Johnson, 1996) and abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales have been used in clinical and non-clinical settings, but little is known about the factor structure and the validity of these scales in their abbreviated forms. The original longer versions of the scales comprise several dimensions, but both abbreviated versions of the scales have been interpreted as if they were 1D. The abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales have been translated into Polish from Swedish and administered to 175 students (103 female; mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 3.3 years) studying management at the Gdansk University of Technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure and the validity of the abbreviated versions of the scales. We were also interested in the differences between women and men. Exploratory factor analyses identified one dimension of the Basic Self-Esteem Scale, compatible with Rosenberg’s et al. (1995) and Rogers’ (1951) concepts. We identified two components (High Ambition and Others’ Appraisal) of the Earning Self-Esteem Scale, similar to the original longer version. Convergent and discriminant validity proved to be theoretically solid. The abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales are appended. Further research on these scales involving other groups is needed, as is further development of these self-esteem scales for adults. Evidence of the derived factors’ internal consistency and of the convergent and discriminant validity suggests that the factor structure and the reliability of the abbreviated versions of psychological tools need to be investigated.

  • 26.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata Aleksandra
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Reply to Maarit Johnson’s Letter to the Editor2014In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 2p. 233-235Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    De Colli, Daniel
    Polismyndigheten i Västmanland.
    Forskning hand i hand med praktiken: Betydelsen av känslan av sammanhang för olika copingresurser i stressituationer hos poliser i yttre tjänst2012In: SALUS 2012 Den goda arbetsplatsen - hållbart arbetsliv, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbete och dess villkor är för det mesta betydelsefullt. Den goda arbetsplatsen strävar efter att medarbetare utvecklar copingresurser som kan användas i stressituationer. Samtliga poliser som arbetar i yttre tjänst som har ordningsverksamhet som uppgift måste ha en utbildning i bastaktik där det bl. a ingår stresshantering och ett kommunikativt förhållningssätt. Polisyrket karakteriseras av en hög grad av psykosocial stress. I studien deltog 101 poliser (29 kvinnor) i yttre tjänst som har ordningsverksamhet som uppgift. Svensk version (Ekecrantz & Norman, 1991) av Coping Resourse Inventory (Marting & Hammer, 1988, 2004) användes för att mäta copingresurser och svensk version av Sense of Coherence Scale, SOC (Antonovsky, 1993) användes för att mäta känslan av sammanhang. Resultaten visade bl a att SOC total och begriplighet predicerade variationen i kognitiva resurser; SOC total predicerade variationen i emotionella resurser; hanterbarhet predicerade variationen i sociala, andligt/filosofiska, fysiska och totala resurser till att klara stress. Svenska poliser i yttre tjänst som har ordningsverksamhet i sin tjänst har hög känsla av sammanhang. De har relativt höga totala resurser till att klara stress.

  • 28.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Department of Psychiatry, Research and Development, Danderyd’s Hospital, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Flunitrazepam abuse and personality characteristics inmale forensic psychiatric patients2001In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty male non-psychotic forensic psychiatric patients, aged 16-35 years, were studied after they completed their ordinary forensic psychiatric assessment (FPA). The prevalence of flunitrazepam (FZ) abuse was investigated by using both structured and in-depth interviews with the objective of studying the relationship between the abuse and personality traits. The patient’s characteristics, DSM-IV disorders, and actual sentences were obtained by studying their files. In order to obtain measures on their personality traits, self-report inventories were administered to the patients. Eighteen out of 60 patients were FZ abusers, but only 4 of them received a diagnosis related to the FZ abuse during the ordinary FPA. In almost all cases, however, indications of the FZ abuse were found in the files. No differences in personality traits were found between the groups. The frequency of previous admissions to an FPA and actual sentences of robbery, weapons offenses, narcotic-related offenses, and other crimes, such as theft, among the FZ abusers deviated significantly from forensic non-FZ abusers. Therefore, the FZ abuse per se might be more responsible for their tendency to commit crimes characterized by danger and thrill-seeking, such as robbery, weapons offences, and theft, than personality. The most important conclusion is that assessment of FZ abuse is needed in forensic psychiatry.

  • 29.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet,Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Wirsén Meurling, Ann
    Lund University, Department of Psychology, .
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö University, Department of Health & Society.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Social and Forensic Psychiatry.
    Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders2012In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is world-wide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence and criminal life-style of FZ users. Criminals take FZ or some other benzodiazepines to “calm down” before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. We have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopaty. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% C.I. 1.86 - 9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, “Criminal versatility”, was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy.

    A short description of the clinical implications of the article: We have used the new 2-factor and 4-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects, is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than four-fold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment.

  • 30. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Department of Psychiatry, Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    Wirsén Meurling, Ann
    Levander, Sten
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet.
    Psychopathic traits and lifestyle in flunitrazepam abusers2005Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is world-wide. We have examined whether any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial) (Hare, 2003) is related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ abuse. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Abuse of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% C.I. 1.86 - 9.94). Using all 20 PCL‑R items as individual predictors of being an FZ abuser, only one of the items, Item 20) (Criminal versatility) was significantly associated with FZ abuse (odds ratio = 3.72, 95% C.I. 1.85 - 7.50). We suggest that abuse of FZ is more common in offenders who score high in Facet 4, and that FZ abuse is significantly associated with Item 20. Our results show that clinicians and those who develop or manage therapeutic programs should be aware of FZ abuse when choosing the most effective treatment for young mentally disordered severe offenders.

  • 31.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Psykologi.
    Icke-intagna i fängelse är idag mindre målmedvetna (conscientiousness) och mindre vänliga (agreeableness) änintagna på svenska kriminalvårdsanstalter med säkerhetsklass I2014In: GRASP 2014 - Oberoende i flocken? Inkludering och exkludering som sociala processer., Linköping, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktuella studier visar att i det alltmer individualistiska samhället kultiveras mindre trevliga egenskaper som kan leda till uteslutning av andra. Exempelvis, graden av empati, har under de senaste decennierna minskat. Tidigare forskning visat att intagna i fängelse hade lägre grad av målmedvetenhet (eller samvetsgrannhet, eng. conscientiousness) och vänlighet (eng. agreeableness), än icke-intagna. En person med låg grad av målmedvetenhet är opålitlig, lat, vårdslös och försumlig. En person med låg grad av vänlighet är cynisk, oartig, misstänksam, konfliktbenägen och självisk. Det finns inga aktuella studier som har undersökt personlighetsegenskaperna enligt s.k. BigFive bland intagna i fängelse i en svensk kontext. Syfte var därför att undersöka om intagna på kriminalvårdsanstalt i Sverige (säkerhetsklass I) skiljer sig från icke-intagna i målmedvetenhet och vänlighet. BigFive mättes med hjälp av Goldbergs (1999) IPIP. Studie 1 visade att intagna (n = 46) hade högre grad av målmedvetenhet än studenter (n = 32) och lika hög grad av målmedvetenhet som vaktpersonal (n = 45). Studie 2 visade att intagna (44 kvinnor och 81 män) hade högre grad av målmedvetenhet än icke-intagna; specifikt hade intagna högre grad av dess två facetter ordningsamhet och självdisciplin än icke-intagna (78 kvinnor och 54 män). IPIP visade på goda psykometriska egenskaper och resultaten kontrollerades för graden av skönmålning. Betydelsen av resultaten kan diskuteras kring antagandet att varje person anpassar sina personlighetsdrag utifrån den sociokulturella kontext han eller hon lever i, även om dessa personlighetsdrag antas uteslutande ha sitt ursprung i en biologisk bas. Intagnas personlighet kunde ha påverkats till det positiva av olika program inom kriminalvården, medan icke-intagnas personlighet kunde ha påverkats till det negativa av det digitala samhället i en snabb förändring, där individen sätter sina egna behov framför andras, kanske genom att vara mer opålitlig och uteslutande.

  • 32.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Björn
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Håkan
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Violent behavior, impulsive decision-making, and anterograde amnesia while intoxicated with Flunitrazepam and alcohol or other drugs: A case study in forensic psychiatric patients2002In: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, ISSN 1093-6793, E-ISSN 1943-3662, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 238-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that many male juvenile delinquents commit violent crimes while intoxicated with flunitrazepam (FZ), often in combination with alcohol or other drugs. We have also noted the combined abuse of FZ with, for example, alcohol in male forensic psychiatric patients. Our objective was to study violent behavior, impulsive decision making, and amnesia in male forensic psychiatric patients who were intoxicated predominantly with FZ, to increase knowledge of the abuse of FZ in vulnerable subjects. We studied five forensic psychiatric patients, all of whom were assessed in 1998. All of the subjects reported earlier reactions to FZ, including hostility and anterograde amnesia. At the time of their crimes they were all intoxicated with FZ, often in combination with alcohol or other drugs, such as amphetamine or cannabis. In contrast to their behavior based on their ordinary psychological characteristics, their crimes were extremely violent, and the subjects lacked both the ability to think clearly and to have empathy with their victims. Our observations support the view that FZ abuse can lead to serious violent behavior in subjects characterized by vulnerable personality traits, and that this effect is confounded by the concurrent use of alcohol or other drugs. It is evident that FZ causes anterograde amnesia. Previous research and the results presented herein allow us to draw the following conclusion: on the basis of the neuropsychopharmacologic properties of FZ, legal decisions, such as declaring FZ an illegal drug, are needed in countries where it is now legal.

  • 33.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Fredriksson, Björn
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Håkan
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    The National Board of Forensic Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The abuse of a sleeping pill that contains the active substance flunitrazepam (FZ)--for example, Rohypnol--and the effects of FZ intoxication, such as enhanced violence and disturbed memory2004In: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, ISSN 1093-6793, E-ISSN 1943-3662, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 467-468Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interrater Reliability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Results on Multiple Analysis Levels for a Sample of Patients Undergoing Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation2018In: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 234-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. In our study, performed in an applied forensic psychiatric setting, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for absolute agreement, single rater (ICCA1) were .89 for the total score, .82 for Factor 1, .88 for Factor 2, and .78 to .86 for the four facets. These results stand in contrast to lower reliabilities found in a majority of field studies. Disagreement among raters made a low contribution (0%-5%) to variability of scores on the total score, factor, and facet level. For individual items, ICCA1 varied from .38 to .94, with >.80 for seven of the 20 items. Items 17 (“Many short-term marital relationships”) and 19 (“Revocation of conditional release”) showed very low reliabilities (.38 and .43, respectively). The importance of knowledge about factors that can affect scoring of forensic instruments (e.g., education, training, experience, motivation, raters’ personality, and quality of file data) is emphasized.

  • 35.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Psychopathy Assessment with PCL-R has High Interrater Reliability if Conducted Without Bias2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. There is increasing concern about its interrater reliability in applied contexts, where low reliabilites have been obtained. We report a study in which 12 forensic psychiatric staff raters assessed 43 male offenders for psychopathy using the PCL-R. These ratings were compared with those obtained at a second occasion from separate interviews utilizing similar file data by an independent researcher, experienced as an expert for the defense. Intraclass correlation coefficients were high; .89 for the PCL-R total scale, .82 for Factor 1, and .38 – .94 for individual items. These results stand in contrast to the considerably lower reliabilities found in recent field studies, mainly conducted within adversary judicial systems. In such contexts, ratings may be biased. Interrater reliability of PCL-R is likely be increased if raters utilize similar data. 

  • 36.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish National Police Academy.
    Jonson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lack of psychopathic character (Rorschach) in forensic psychiatric rapists2008In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research using Rorschach is sparse in rapists. The aim of this study of 10 violent male forensic psychiatric rapists was to describe them on a set of Rorschach variables, which are assumed to reflect psychopathic character, in order to increase our understanding of rapists. The participants were involved in a long-term psychodynamic sexual offender treatment program. They were previously assessed on dyslexia and ADHD, and the results showed an overrepresentation of these disorders in this sample. Compared with normative samples, the participants scored significantly lower on three of the Rorschach variables; Lambda, WSum6 and Afr. The participants did not meet criteria for psychopathic character. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, our results suggest helplessness in managing emotionally laden situations and hint at the problems experienced by this sample of forensic psychiatric rapists. Clinicians should be aware of the lack of psychopathic character in some rapists and that effective treatment programs should focus on training this type of rapists to be able to react appropriately to emotional stimuli.

  • 37.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    NEUROTEC, Karolinska Institutet.
    Degree of psychopathy and patterns of personality traits: implications for treatment in male juvenile delinquentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have assessed psychopathy in male juvenile delinquents, and examined the relationships between patterns of psychopathy-related personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R). Our results are complemented by data regarding previous treatment occasions and reoffending, with the aim of discussing treatment strategies.

    We studied 56 male juvenile delinquents whose ages ranged from 14 to 20 years, with a mean of 17 years (SD = 1.2) from four youth correctional institutions in Sweden. All of the young people had shown early onset of conduct disorder. The modified version of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R), designed to be used with young people (Forth, Hart, & Hare, 1990), was used to assess psychopathy. Personality traits were measured along five dimensions: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, socialization, verbal aggression, and somatic anxiety; scales were taken from the Karolinska Scales of Personality.

    The mean PCL-R score was 29.3 in this sample (SD = 7.8), and 73% had scores between 27 and 40, indicating high degree of psychopathy; 59% of the participants had scores above 30, and, according to the manual, were classified as psychopaths. No significant correlations were found between the personality scale scores and the PCL-R scores. We discovered seven clusters; three of these were multi-psychopathological clusters (the members of these clusters had all traits deviant from what is normal), three of these consisted of participants for who the majority of traits were deviant (only one or two traits were within the normal range), and one of these consisted of participants for who all traits were within the normal range. We suggest that the classification will be helpful in managing therapeutic efforts.

    The results indicate that psychopathy is common in male juvenile delinquents, and that personality profile may have implications for early intervention strategies in male adolescents with conduct disorder.

  • 38. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    The National Board of Forensic Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Degree of psychopathy: implications for treatment in male juvenile delinquents2003In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 301-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that psychopathy in adulthood has its roots in childhood. The psychopathy concept described by Cleckley (1976) involves interpersonal, affective, and behavioral aspects. Moreover, children who show low levels of anxiety respond more poorly to treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess psychopathy in 56 male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder, treated in youth correctional institutions for severe offenders. We used a modified Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) that has been used for young people (Forth et al., 1990). Each participant received PCL-R assessments from one rater, based on the file information and an extensive interview. Twenty-eight participants (50%) were rated by the second rater. Both the ICC and Cohens’s kappa revealed that the PCL-R ratings were reliable: the ICC(2,1) of the PCL-R total scores was 0.90, F(27, 28) = 11.70, P < .0001; Cohen’s kappa = 0.64, P < .001. The final scores on the PCL-R showed that the base rate for psychopathy (defined as a score of 30 or more) in the sample was 59% (33 of 56 juvenile delinquents). The mean PCL-R total score for all 56 participants was 29.3 (S.D. = 7.8), and ranged between 12 and 40. The high rates of psychopathy found in juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder should alert clinicians to the necessity of psychopathy scoring, and shows that high-quality treatment programs are needed. Psychopathy is not currently considered when assessing and treating young people in state-administered observational and correctional institutions for juvenile delinquents in Sweden.

  • 39.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    The National Board of Forensic Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Psychopathy-related personality traits in male juvenile delinquents: an application of a person-oriented approach2004In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 45-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some personality characteristics, such as impulsiveness, thrill seeking, and the need for change, are clearly relevant when studying psychopathy. Psychopaths are certainly avid sensation seekers. The primary aim of the present study was to identify common patterns with respect to psychopathy-related personality traits in a sample of 56 juveniles from four Swedish national correctional institutions for juvenile delinquents. Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Impulsiveness scale from the Impulsiveness–Venturesomeness–Empathy (IVE) inventory and the Total Sensation-Seeking scale from the SSS-V were used to determine personality traits. Cluster analysis was performed with SLEIPNER. Ward’s hierarchical minimum variance clustering method was used. We discovered seven clusters of participants. The mean T scores of the profiles of personality traits in the clusters (the cluster centroids) have been used to describe the clusters. Three multideviant clusters emerged, into which 31 (63%) of the classified participants could be placed. To describe the clusters, the prevalence of participants with a high degree of psychopathy (cutoff PCL-R score 27or above) was computed for each cluster and was complemented with data on previous treatment occasions and reoffending. The results indicated that psychopaths may develop different personality pattern; each cluster contained participants with high values of the PCL-R. Deviant personality is not currently considered when assessing and treating people in state administered observational and correctional institutions for juvenile delinquents in Sweden. The present results suggest that young people with psychopathy are not a homogenous group but may develop various personality traits. This should have implications for risk assessment and treatment.

  • 40. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) abuse in combination with alcohol causes premeditated, grievous violence in male juvenile offenders1999In: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, ISSN 1093-6793, E-ISSN 1943-3662, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 83-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on 19 juvenile offenders who were frequently intoxicated by flunitrazepam (FZ), almost exclusively under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names for Rohypnol tablets are Rophies, Ropies, Roofies, Ropes, Roches, Rochas, Rochas Dos, Rophs, Ropers, Ribs, R-25, Roach-2s, Trip and Fall, Remember All, Mind Erasers, Forget Pills, and the Date Rape Drug. An overdose of FZ gives an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, reduces fear and insecurity, and provides the belief that everything is possible. FZ is also associated with loss of episodic memory and with impulsive violence, particularly when combined with alcohol. The subjects were taken from a subpopulation of 47 male juvenile offenders from Swedish national correctional institutions. Background information for subjects was obtained by in-depth interviewing and personality inventories including the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. Data concerning previous criminal offenses was obtained from the Swedish National Police Board. Almost all of the FZ abusers had been previously sentenced for serious violent offenses. Our data suggest that FZ abused by psychiatrically vulnerable subjects (i.e., with high scores on boredom susceptibility and verbal aggression) poses a serious hazard both to the abusers as well as the community. Our results support the finding that FZ should be classified as a Schedule I drug (i.e., a drug similar to heavy narcotics).

  • 41.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Relapse in violent crime in relation to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA and HMPG) in male forensic psychiatric patients convicted of murder: a 16-year follow-up2002In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 412, no 106, p. 71-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate if low levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)monoamine metabolites of 5-HIAA, HVA and HMPG predict relapse in violent crimes. METHOD: Relapse in crime and level of CSF monoamine metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA and HMPG) was studied in a group of 29 murderers. The follow-up was 16 years. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 29 murderers were convicted of crime; nine of them committed violent crimes; one was convicted of a new murder. The differences in mean CSF monoamine metabolites were lower in subjects who relapsed into any type of crime, but only the difference in mean CSF HVA was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The risk to commit new murder is very small in males who earlier have been convicted of murder. Low levels of CSF HVA is associated with an increased risk for relapse in any type of crime.

  • 42.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholms universitet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rohypnol bör klassas som narkotika [Flunitrazepam should be classified as a controlled substance in Sweden]1999In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 1005-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flunitrazepam, widely known by its trade names (e.g. Rohypnol®), may cause severe violence, especially in combination with alcohol. Flunitrazepam abusers become coldblooded, ruthless and violent, and do not remember their violence. Reputedly it is supplied to professional hit-men and enforcers by their bosses to promote ruthless efficacy. One case report describes how a young man, intoxicated with flunitrazepam and involved in causing serious knife and gunshot wounds and taking hostages, felt so invincible that he openly challenged the police, threatening them with an assault rifle, but was himself shot. Flunitrazepam may exert pharmacological effects on GABA-ergic systems, thus lowering serotonin levels. The impulsive execution of violent crimes and suicid attempts in which a violent method (hanging, shooting, selfstabbing) has been used are associated with the presence of low serotonin levels. It is therefore recommended that flunitrazepam should be classified as a controlled substance in Sweden as it is elsewhere.

  • 43.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Självbedömningsskalor avslöjar psykopati [Self-rating scales reveal psychopathy]1998In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is regarded as a dimensional concept - i.e., a person can be more or less psyhopathic. This approach enables psychopathy to be measured with reliable, validated personality scales, and to be related to impairment of serontonergic function in the brain. Several personality inventories are described in the article, especially the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales, form V, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, including an impulsiveness scale from the IVE (Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy) inventory, and the old dimensional scale, the Marke-Nyman Personality Temperament scale based on the personality theory of Henrik Sjöbring. In this way both old and new, and both Swedish and foreign personality concepts are linked together. Personality scales are easy to use and enable better stability and validity of results to be attained.

  • 44.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Meurling, Ann Wirsen
    Lund University, Department of Psychology.
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö University, Department of Criminology.
    'Speedy action over goal orientation': Cognitive impulsivity in male forensic patients with dyslexia2012In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous neuropsychiatric studies suggest a relationship between reading disability and cognitive impulsivity. This relationship is not entirely explained by the high comorbidity between reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as children with a co-occurrence of these disorders tend to be more impulsive than those with ADHD only. Other research has demonstrated that poor verbal skill (irrespective of the presence of dyslexia) deficits in executive functions and impulsivity are important risk factors for criminal behaviour. The present study bridges these two research traditions by examining whether patients undergoing forensic psychiatric investigation who also have dyslexia, have a cognitive style characterized by impulsivity. Male forensic patients (mean age 27 years, range 16-35) with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) dyslexia were evaluated on the computerized EuroCog test battery. The findings suggest that patients with dyslexia tend to use a cognitive impulsive style and suggest a more direct link between dyslexia and cognitive impulsivity that is not mediated by the presence of ADHD. In order to identify treatment needs and tailor treatment accordingly, forensic patients should be assessed with respect to poor verbal skill, dyslexia and impulsivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 45.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Nilvang, Karolina
    Levander, Sten
    "I dislike my body, I am unhappy, but my parents are not disappointed in me": self-esteem in young women with dyslexia2014In: Applied Psychological Research Journal, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Strong self-esteem is related to good psychological health. Dyslexia has a negative effect on self-esteem, but this effect depends on support levels at home and/or school. Women with dyslexia are an under investigated group, and it has been suggested that female dyslexics should be given special attention from teachers with a view to improving their self-esteem. This paper set out to compare levels of self-esteem in women with dyslexia and normative women, and to investigate relationships between dyslexic problems and self-esteem.

    Method: It was hypothesized that women with dyslexia would have a weaker self-esteem. We have assessed dyslexia, using a Swedish battery of standardised pedagogical, IQ, and neuropsychological tests, and the self-esteem of twelve young women (mean age 19 years; range 16-30), using a Swedish questionnaire that distinguishes between different dimensions of self-esteem (physical characteristics, talents and gifts, psychological health, relationships with parents and family, and relationships with others). Comparative (t-tests) and correlational (Pearson’s correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses) statistical methods were performed.

    Results: The study subjects had a weaker self-esteem than that of a normative sample of females (N = 313) in all dimensions, except for the dimension of relationships with parents and family. Spelling ability was related to "Physical characteristics" (negative) and to "Relations with parents and family" (positive). Moreover, speed of reading was related to "Psychological health" (positive).

    Conclusions: The use of questionnaires that distinguish between different dimensions of self-esteem and a larger sample is recommended in future studies.

  • 46.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ohlsson, Ann-Catrin
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    Två av tio exkluderas ur sociala processer genom mobbning på såväl mansdominerade som kvinnodominerade svenska arbetsplatser2014In: GRASP 2014 - Oberoende i flocken? Inkludering och exkludering som sociala processer, Linköpings universitet, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utesluta en eller fler arbetskamrater från sociala- och arbetsprocesser genom upprepade negativa handlingar såsom utfrysning, kränkande blickar, ryktesspridning och tilltalande vid öknamn, är mobbning. Arbetsplatsmobbning förekommer främst i organisationer med hög arbetsbelastning och stress, och med ogynnsamt arbetsklimat. Mellan 8% och 25% av arbetstagare upplever sig mobbade, vilket har stora konsekvenser för såväl organisationer, i form av hög arbetsfrånvaro och personalomsättning, som för dem som är mobbade, i form av låg arbetstillfredsställelse och engagemang, hög stress, depression, självmordstankar och hjärtinfarkt. Trots den höga förekomsten av arbetsplatsmobbing och dess allvarliga konsekvenser finns det relativt få svenska studier som undersöker förekomsten av mobbning, och i synnerhet, utifrån könsperspektiv. Tidigare studier i Sverige fokuserar huvudsakligen på konsekvenser av mobbning, och inte på upplevelsen av arbetsklimatet. Därför var syfte med denna studie att undersöka (1) skillnader i upplevd närvaro av vuxenmobbning på mansdominerade respektive kvinnodominerade arbetsplatser i en svensk kontext; och (2) samband mellan mobbning och upplevelsen av arbetsklimatet, utifrån delaktighet/medbestämmande och negativ kommunikation. Deltagarna var från två mansdominerade arbetsplatser (ungdomsvården) och från två kvinnodominerade arbetsplatser (äldrevården); 21% respektive 18% av dem har blivit utsatta på sin nuvarande arbetsplats för mobbning av sina medarbetare. Det fanns inga statistiskt signifikanta könsskillnader. De som mobbades utsatte även andra för mobbning. De som orättvist behandlat någon annan hade högre poäng i mobbningsskala, upplevde mer negativ kommunikation och mindre delaktighet/medbestämmande. De använda självskattningsformulären hade goda psykometriska egenskaper. Hög validitet påvisades genom statistiskt signifikanta medelstarka samband mellan variablerna delaktighet/medbestämmande, negativ kommunikation och mobbning. Därför rekommenderar vi användning av samma instrument i fortsatta studier avseende arbetsplatsmobbning. Vi konstaterar att det förekommer mobbning på svenska arbetsplatser med hög arbetsbelastning och stress. I ett demokratiskt samhälle ska det inte förekomma uteslutning av andra ur det sociala gruppsammahanhanget genom arbetsplatsmobbning som leder till allvarlig ohälsa. Arbetsklimatet måste gynna inneslutning av samtliga arbetstagare.

  • 47.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ohlsson, Ann-Catrin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Student at Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Student at Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Two in ten feel excluded from social work-related processes by workplace bullying2016In: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping, 2016, p. 17-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (1) the prevalence of workplace bullying experienced by men and women in Swedish workplaces with a high level of stress dominated by one sex, (2) the prevalence of unjust treatment in these workplaces, (3) the relationship between workplace bullying and organizational climate, (4) the variability in bullying in these workplaces, and (5) the variability in organizational climate. These issues were examined using a self-assessment questionnaire in two types of workplace in Sweden: one male-dominated (juvenile detention care) and the other female-dominated (elderly care). About 20% of the participants experienced workplace bullying. There was a positive correlation between bullying and negative communication (strong effect size). There were no differences regarding the type of workplace. The internal consistency of the instrument was high, and we recommend its use in studies of workplace bullying

  • 48.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ragnestål Impola, Carina
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Some Bright And Dark Sides Of Personality May Be Adaptive For Well-Being In Face Of Workplace Bullying2017In: Enabling Change Through Work and Organizational Psychology : Opportunities and Challenges for Research and Practice, Dublin, Irland, 2017, article id Th-OR-S36-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Targets of workplace bullying tend to have poor health, and we set out to determine whether personality may predict their health quality. 

    Design/Methodology We collected data from 172 people (98 women); social workers, engineers and restaurant employees. To measure health, we used parts of EQ-5D (usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression), and EQ VAS, a visual analogue scale. Bright (Big-Six) and dark (Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and narcissism) personality traits were measured by MiniIPIP6 and Short-D3. NAQ-R was used to determine who feel bullied. The relationships of the traits and bullying with health (outcome) were analyzed using 3-step hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, age and social desirability.

    Results In face of workplace bullying low extraversion, humility-sincerity and low narcissism significantly predicted poor health related to both discomfort and usual activities. Separate regression models regarding both bright and dark sides of personality predicting depression/anxiety became non-significant when NAQ-R was entered.

    Limitations Cross-sectional design and Swedish population.

    Research/Practical Implications These results imply that high extraversion and narcissism may protect aspects of health important for working life in face of workplace bullying, while low levels of these traits make a target’s health more sensitive. 

    Originality/Value The study is the first to analyze different dimensions of health quality with predictors of both bright and dark personality in face of workplace bullying, discussing the results in the light of Hobfoll’s COR theory and evolution theory. 

  • 49.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ragnestål-Impola,, Carina
    Student MSc at Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Bully-typifying personality traits (the Dark Triad) of workplace bullies are not shared by their victims2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying in workplaces creates great suffering for the victims and causes major consequences for the workplace atmosphere and the organization. Personality in bullies and their victims is an under-investigated issue, and some researchers have suggested that not only those who bully, but also those feeling bullied may be likely to act aggressively by sharing several bully-typifying personality traits. This investigation set out to compare levels of dark personality traits (“Dark Triad”: Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and subclinical narcissism) in workplace bullies and their victims. This study comprised 172 employed people (99 women): social workers, engineers, restaurant employees, and security personnel. The study used two questionnaires, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Perpetrators (NAQ-P) to measure who feel bullied and who can be classified as bullies. Dark Triad personality traits were measured using the Short Dark Triad (SD3) self-report measure. Bivariate correlational analyses determined that the NAQ-R was positively associated with the NAQ-P (.27). Participants who reported being the target of workplace bullying were no more likely to act aggressively themselves. The NAQ-P was positively associated with Machiavellianism (.60), subclinical psychopathy (.58) and subclinical narcissism (.54). Negligible associations (.00, .01, -.14) were found between the NAQ-R and these traits. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that Machiavellianism and subclinical psychopathy, but not subclinical narcissism, related significantly to the NAQ-P. Machiavellianism alone accounted for 36% of the variance in bullying behaviour.

  • 50.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    Msc, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Workplace Bullies, Not Their Victims, Score High in Dark Triad, but Both Tend Toward Introvert Neuroticism2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation set out to compare levels of the Dark Triad traits and the Big-Six personality factors in workplace bullies and their victims in 171 people (98 women); social workers, engineers and restaurant employees in Sweden. Two questionnaires, NAQ-R and NAQ-P, were used to determine who feel bullied and who are bullies. The Dark Triad traits were measured using the Short-D3, while the Big-Six were measured by the MiniIPIP6. The relationships of the traits with bullying were analyzed using 2-step hierarchical linear regression. The first step included the Dark Triad––Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and narcissism. The model explained about half of the variation in bullying. In the next step, the Big-Six factors–honesty-humility, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness–as well as social desirability were entered. This added 9% in explained variance. Machiavellianism and psychopathy were significant positive predictors of bullying in both steps. In step 2, narcissism, neuroticism and honesty-humility were significant positive predictors, while extraversion was a significantly negative predictor. Regression models with the same predictors, but with victimization as the dependent variable, explained only 4% of the variation in step 1, narcissism being the only significant (negative) predictor. In step 2, including the Big-Six factors in the model explained an extra 14%. Significant predictors of victimization were high neuroticism and low extraversion. These were the only traits shared by bullies and bullied. Personality traits may give an indication of who in an organization is most likely to become a target of bullying, as well as who is most likely to bully others.

     

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