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  • 1.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Fredén, Lars
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Hassler, Sven
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Gränshinder: en kvalitativ och kvantitativ studie av samverkandesjukvård2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project "Health care interaction" among different care providers was introduced as a trial activity in the municipalities of Strömstad and Tanum in the spring of 2010. The aim of health care interaction is to provide citizens health care adapted to their specific need within shortest possible time frame; Is emergency care not needed, the aim is to avoid that the care seeker ends up in an emergency room at the hospital. In this study experiences from health care interaction is described with quantitative as well as qualitative data. Empirical data is based on available medical statistics, focus group interviews with nurses with long experience from pre-hospital emergency care and home health care, questionnaires data gathered from other health professionals involved in the activity, individual interviews with nurses and physicians at call centers for medical information, primary health care centers, home health care, pre-hospital health care and elderly care. The analysis of the data reveal opportunities and expectations among the personnel as well as their willingness to develop and improve the health care. It's also evident that the general impression among health care personnel is that increased interaction among health care providers improves the quality of the health care given. Health care interaction also contributes to improved opportunities for person-centered care with an increased degree of continuity and participation for the patient. The study also reveals that collaboration between colleagues promotes development of individual and collective knowledge. Conclusions drawn from the study is that the documentation and information system used in health care interaction needs to strengthen the participation of the care seekers as well as to improve in accessibility for the personnel involved. In order for health care interaction to evolve and develop through close follow-up and evaluation, a more transparent and uniform system for documentation is recommended. It's also concluded from the study that the call center for medical information (1177) as one of the major actors in the health care interaction program has the best potential to instigate an expansion and development of the health care interaction among care providers.

  • 2.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Work-Integrated Learning: A Didactic Tool to Develop Praxis in Nurse Education2014In: Advances in Nursing Science, ISSN 0161-9268, E-ISSN 1550-5014, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Praxis is a concept that is both vague and overused in nursing science. Hence, a more stringent use of the concept praxis could help clarify the connections between theory and practice. The purpose of this theoretical article was to highlight the advantages of developing praxis in nursing education. By using praxis as a dialectic concept, nurse educators can make significant contributions to clinical practice by clarifying that theory and practice are perceived as 2 sides of same coin, leading to a move from "being in praxis" to "being of praxis," a way to develop the professionÊs autonomy. © 2014 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

  • 3.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Boman, Åse
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Health care systems in transition: Equality, access and health literacy in three Scandinavian welfare states.: “The Emperor’s new clothes”: discourse analysis on how the patient is constructed in the new Swedish Patient Act2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish welfare debate increasingly focuses on market liberal notions and its healthcare perspective aims for more patient-centered care. This article examines the new Swedish Patient Act describing and analyzing how the patient is constructed in government documents. This study takes a Foucauldian discourse analysis approach following Willig’s analysis guide. The act contains an entitlement discourse for patients and a requirement discourse for healthcare personnel. These two discourses are governed by a values-based healthcare discourse. Neo-liberal ideology, in the form of New Public Management discourse, focusing on the value of efficiency and competition, is given a hegemonic position as laws and regulations are used to strengthen it. The new Swedish Patient Act seems to further strengthen this development. The Act underlines the increased entitlement for patients, but it is not legally binding as it offers patients only indirect entitlement to influence and control their care. To safeguard the patient’s entitlement under the Patient Act, healthcare personnel should be made aware of the contents of the Act, so that they can contribute to the creation of systems and working methods that facilitate respect of the Act’s provisions in daily healthcare work.

  • 4.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Boman, Åse
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    "The Emperor's new clothes": discourse analysis on how the patient is constructed in the new Swedish Patient Act.2017In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 24, no 2, article id e12162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish welfare debate increasingly focuses on market liberal notions and its healthcare perspective aims for more patient-centered care. This article examines the new Swedish Patient Act describing and analyzing how the patient is constructed in government documents. This study takes a Foucauldian discourse analysis approach following Willig's analysis guide. The act contains an entitlement discourse for patients and a requirement discourse for healthcare personnel. These two discourses are governed by a values-based healthcare discourse. Neo-liberal ideology, in the form of New Public Management discourse, focusing on the value of efficiency and competition, is given a hegemonic position as laws and regulations are used to strengthen it. The new Swedish Patient Act seems to further strengthen this development. The Act underlines the increased entitlement for patients, but it is not legally binding as it offers patients only indirect entitlement to influence and control their care. To safeguard the patient's entitlement under the Patient Act, healthcare personnel should be made aware of the contents of the Act, so that they can contribute to the creation of systems and working methods that facilitate respect of the Act's provisions in daily healthcare work.

  • 5.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Skyvell-Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Prerequisites for person-centered care: As described by community care nurses2015In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 5-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of person-centered care within an integrated care chain.

    Method: The study included four data sets: Two focus group interviews with a total of 22 nurses; an open questionnaire answered by 17 nurses; and individual follow-up interviews with 4 volunteers from among the 17 nurses. In total, 39 informants were included in this study. Qualitative content analysis was carried out to identify the latent content of the focus group and interview data, and the manifest content of the questionnaire data.

    Results: The results showed that learning about, from and with each other were prerequisites for achieving person-centered care. The ability to provide person-centered care was influenced by factors that could be related to both the organization and to the individual nurse. Important factors were organizational transparency and structure, leadership and collaboration between healthcare centers, partnership, sole caregiver attitudes and skills.

    Conclusion: In order to develop person-centered care, it is crucial that an integrated care chain feature a joint documentation system; efficient use of the resources allocated to the needs of the various healthcare centers; and a change of focus from the professional to the person seeking care.

  • 6.
    Dahlqvist, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Stalefors, Josefin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Child health care nurses' strategies in meeting with parents who are hesitant to child vaccinations2014In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses in child health centres deal with parents who are hesitant to child vaccinations. Method: A study with a qualitative approach that was based on 12 semi-structured interviews. The informants were nurses working in child health centres in the Västra Götaland region. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The results identified six strategies for dealing with vaccine-hesitant parents: 1) using the family’s resources and knowledge to create a trusting relationship; 2) meetings with the same nurse; 3) open dialogue and active listening; 4) regular meetings between nurse and paediatrician; 5) nurse training on new vaccines and vaccination programme; and 6) nurse training on parents’ use of publicly available information. Conclusion: Nurses should get to know the vaccine-hesitant parents, by listening to them and understanding their point of view. Thereby, nurses establish a good relationship, inspire trust and actively involve the parents in the decision-making concerning the vaccination of their child. Nurses should not make vaccine-hesitant parents feel guilty about not wanting to vaccinate their child.

  • 7.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Pedagogical challenges in nurse education: a case study focusing on the completion rate in theoretical education at a Swedish University2014In: Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1877-6345, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 14 s.-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of this survey was to relate completion rate and results on national clinical final examinations to student’s admission background and examination results for nursing and medical courses.

    Methods: The research data were based on a quantitative case study, with 286 nursing students, using statistical analysis.

    Results: The programme's overall completion rate was 76%, i.e. almost one out of four students did not complete the programme. The higher students' upper secondary/high school grades, the fewer attempts they needed to pass the nursing and medical courses exams (p<0.001). The average examination attempts needed to pass courses in medical science was significantly greater than the number needed to pass courses in nursing science (p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis both upper secondary/high school grades and average examination attempts needed to pass were significant predictors for national clinical final examination score.

    Conclusion: In sum, upper secondary/high school grades and examination attempts needed, especially for courses in medical science, may be regarded as important indicators of achieved knowledge and skills which are tested in the national final examination.

  • 8.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Pedagogical challenges in nurse education: A Case Study Focusing on the Completion Rate in Theoretical Education at a Swedish University2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Bosse
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Praxis and Work Integrated Learning as Pedagogical Approach in Nursing Education2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The move from student to nurse has been described as difficult and tough for new nurses. New nurses' feeling of lacking competence can reduce the opportunity to develop professional competence.They also reported fears of being "exposed" as clinically incompetent, and failing to provide safe care.Entering the nursing profession requires a high degree of adaptation where graduates are shown what skills are needed.There is a qualitative difference between the professional competence conveyed during education and the competence demanded in working life.The aim of this paper is to discuss and propose hown urses ́praxis can be developed by means of Work Integrated Learning as a pedagogical approach.The study departs from a model which shows processes newly registered nurses must manage to achieve a sense of competence. These processes will behighlighted by discussing the model's processes related to praxis in the Aristotelian tradition, situated learning, social construction and WIL.One idea behind this paper is to,by using the concept of praxis, hold up the potential of WIL It is concluded that WIL may provide an analytical perspective using reflection where the student is given the opportunity to develop metacognitive skills to reflectt heir experiences in orde rto create understanding and manifest praxis by learning in and by clinical practice, the move from being a student to becoming a nurse. The intent of praxis and WIL is to integrate scientific knowledge with practical knowledge as a pedagogical approach that provide an analytical perspective where the student is given the opportunity to develop metacognitive skills and to test their experiences in order to create understanding and manifest their praxis by learning in and by clinical practice, the move from being a student to becoming a nurse.One way to do it is by using praxis as a component in WIL and to identify knowledge that is generated in practical knowledge, professional nursing activities and endeavors by nurses on the one hand and scientific knowledge that is generated in the academy on the other hand, in order to elaborate ways to mixt hem and create a certain kind of knowledge that is neither theoretical nor purely practical.The result of this study will be proposed as a complement to nursing program curriculum in clinical practice, to identify special challenges facing students when managing and developing their professional competence

  • 10.
    Johnsson, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Boman, Åse
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Voices used by nurses when communicating with patients and relatives in a department of medicine for older people: An ethnographic study2018In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, no 7-8, p. E1640-E1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To describe how nurses communicate with older patients and their relatives in a department of medicine for older people in western Sweden.

    BACKGROUND: Communication is an essential tool for nurses when working with older patients and their relatives but often patients and relatives experience shortcomings in the communication exchanges. They may not receive information or are not treated in a professional way. Good communication can facilitate the development of a positive meeting and improve the patient's health outcome.

    DESIGN: An ethnographic design informed by the sociocultural perspective was applied.

    METHOD: Forty participatory observations were conducted and analyzed during the period October 2015 to September 2016. The observations covered 135 hours of nurse-patient-relative interaction. Field notes were taken and 40 informal field conversations with nurses and 40 with patients and relatives were carried out. Semi-structured follow-up interviews were conducted with five nurses.

    RESULTS: In the result, it was found that nurses communicate with four different voices: a medical voice described as being incomplete, task-oriented and with a disease perspective; a nursing voice described as being confirmatory, process-oriented and with a holistic perspective; a pedagogical voice described as being contextualized, comprehension-oriented and with a learning perspective; and a power voice described as being distancing and excluding. The voices can be seen as context-dependent communication approaches. When nurses switch between the voices this indicates a shift in the orientation or situation.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate that if nurses successfully combine the voices, while limiting the use of the power voice, the communication exchanges can become a more positive experience for all parties involved and a good nurse-patient-relative communication exchange can be achieved.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Working for improved communication between nurses, patients and relatives is crucial for establishing a positive nurse-patient-relative relationship, which is a basis for improving patient care and healthcare outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Johnsson, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Boman, Åse
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    What are they talking about? Content of the communication exchanges between nurses, patients and relatives in a department of medicine for older people: An ethnographic study2018In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, no 7-8, p. E1651-E1659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the content of the communication exchanges between nurses, patients and their relatives in a department of medicine for older people in western Sweden.

    BACKGROUND: Information, messages and knowledge are constantly being communicated between nurses, older patients and relatives in the healthcare sector. The quality of communication between them has a major influence on patient outcomes. A prerequisite for good care to be given and received is that there is mutual understanding between the parties involved.

    DESIGN: An ethnographic study was informed by a sociocultural perspective.

    METHOD: Data were collected through 40 participatory observations of meetings between nurses and older patients and/or relatives which covered 135 hours of nurse-patient-relative interaction, field notes, 40 field conversations with 24 nurses and 40 field conversations with patients (n=40) and relatives (n=26). Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses. An ethnographic analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: The analysis identified three categories of content of the communication exchanges: medical content focusing on the patient's medical condition, personal content focusing on the patient's life story, and explanatory content focusing on the patient's health and nursing needs. The content is influenced by the situation and context.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nurses would benefit from more awareness and understanding of the importance of the communication content and of the value of asking the didactic questions (how, when, what and why) in order to improve the patients' and relatives' understanding of the information exchanges and to increase patient safety.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses can use the communication content to create conditions enabling them to obtain a holistic view of the patient's life history and to develop an appropriate person-centered care plan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Bosse
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Work Integrated Learning and Learning Integrated Work: An Approach to Unite Theory and Practice to Praxis2016In: Handbook of Research on Quality Assurance and Value Management in Higher Education / [ed] Nuninger, Walter & Châtelet, Jean-Marie, Hersey, PA: IGI Global , 2016, p. 139-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difference between the professional competence conveyed during education and the competence demanded in working life is substantial and needs to be taken seriously. In this chapter where the case is nursing education, Work Integrated Learning (WIL) and Learning Integrated Work (LIW), are suggested as pedagogical approaches in Higher Education aiming to integrate scientific knowledge and with practical knowledge, and to provide an analytical perspective where students have the opportunity to develop metacognitive skills and praxis by learning through experiences during internship. One way to achieve this in vocational education to learn from the knowledge and skills used when performing inpractice. By integrating scientific and practical vocational knowledge, one promotes professionalization that is exhibited as Learning Integrated Work (LIW), i.e. the capability to perform the expected tasks and learn at work by using a critical and development-oriented attitude in daily work and actively participate in renewals of work assignments.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Bosse
    et al.
    Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    From work integrated learning to learning integrated work: A pedagogical model to develop praxis in nursing education2014In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The move from student to nurse has been described as difficult for newly registered nurses. Newly registered nurses’ feelings of lacking competence can reduce the opportunity to develop professional competence. Entering the nursing profession requires a high degree of adaptation. The difference between the professional competence conveyed during education and the competence demanded in working life is substantial and needs to be taken seriously. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for developing professional competence. The theoretical discussion starts with a model showing processes newly registered nurses must manage to achieve a sense of competence. These processes are highlighted by discussing how they relate to praxis in the Aristotelian tradition, situated learning and Work Integrated Learning (WIL). Learning Integrated Work (LIW) is a pedagogical approach aiming to integrate scientific knowledge with practical knowledge, and to provide an analytical perspective where students have the opportunity to develop metacognitive skills and praxis  by learning in and by clinical practice experiences. One way to achieve this is to learn from the knowledge and skills used when performing practical work. The aims of WIL and LIW are to identify both practical knowledge generated by nurses in the course of their professional activities and theoretical knowledge generated in the academy, and to elaborate an understanding constituting the essence of both theoretical and practical knowledge. By integrating theoretical and practical vocational knowledge, one promotes professionalization, including the ability to perform the expected tasks and to have a critical and development-oriented attitude in daily work.

  • 14.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Portfoliometoden: Ett pedagogiskt verktyg för att integrera teori och praktik i sjuksköterskeprogrammet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Portfolio is a systematic, purposeful, consolidated and structured collection of study works that the teacher and students use to follow up the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes in some area. Work integrated learning (WIL) can be seen as a process and an educational strategy for an active exchange of knowledge, reflected action and lifelong learning. The purpose of this report is to describe and discuss portfolio as a pedagogical method and WIL as a pedagogical strategy in the clinical education in the nursing program at University West. One of the main ideas behind the WIL-portfolio method isthat students have the opportunity to take control of their learning and thereby become more active in the learning and better understand the generated learning. The WIL-portfolio can create opportunities for nursing students to develop professional skills, systematized by using the portfolio structure and content. WIL-portfolio methodical process consists of the six phases; prereflection, reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, self-evaluation, metareflection and knowledge-in-action. WIL-portfolio can serve as a basis for reflection and become a mirror image of learning, both in the present and in the future. The WIL-portfolio method can thus contribute to a deeper understanding of one's own knowledge of the process of lifelong learning.

  • 15.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Rudolfsson, Gudrun
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Alsén, Pia
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Patients' Variations of Reflection About and Understanding of Long-term Illness: Impact of Illness Perception on Trust in Oneself or Others2017In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 11, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients' understanding of their illness is of great importance for recovery. Lacking understanding of the illness is linked with the patients' level of reflection about and interest in understanding their illness. Objective: To describe patients’ variations of reflection about and understanding of their illness and how this understanding affects their trust in themselves or others. Method: The study is based on the “Illness perception” model. Latent content analysis was used for the data analysis. Individual, semi-structured, open-ended and face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients (n=11) suffering from a long-term illness diagnosed at least six months prior to the interview. Data collection took place in the three primary healthcare centres treating the participants. Results: The results show variations in the degree of reflection about illness. Patients search for deeper understanding of the illness for causal explanations, compare different perspectives for preventing complication of their illness, trust healthcare providers, and develop own strategies to manage life. Conclusion: Whereas some patients search for deeper understanding of their illness, other patients are less reflective and feel they can manage the illness without further understanding. Patients' understanding of their illness is related to their degree of trust in themselves or others. Patients whose illness poses an existential threat are more likely to reflect more about their illness and what treatment methods are available.

  • 16.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Rudolfsson, Gudrun
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Alsén, Pia
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Strategies for healthcare professionals to facilitate patient illness understanding.2017In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 26, no 23-24, p. 4696-4706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe how healthcare professionals facilitate patient illness understanding.

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals and patients differ in their illness understanding. If the information provided by healthcare professionals is not adapted to the patient's daily life it may be unusable for the patient. Previous research has found that healthcare professionals should individualise the information to enable the patient to apply the knowledge to the personal situation and to develop illness understanding. However, little is known of how healthcare professionals can facilitate patient illness understanding.

    METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study based on individual, semi-structured, open-ended and face-to-face interviews was conducted with healthcare professionals (n=11) concerning how they facilitate patients illness understanding. Three health centres were involved during the period of March to November 2014. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The result identified a continuous and collaborative process with three strategies used by healthcare professionals to facilitate the patient's illness understanding: 1) assess the patient's illness understanding, 2) interact with the patient to develop illness understanding, and 3) support the patient's personal development for illness understanding. The steps in the process depend on each other.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of our analysis indicate that healthcare professionals can use the continuous and collaborative process to enhance the patient's self-care ability and turn his or her knowledge into action for improving illness understanding.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The three continuous and collaborative process strategies involving pedagogical approaches can create conditions for healthcare professionals to obtain a holistic view of the patient's life and to be a key resource for person-centred care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    A trustful relationship-the importance for relatives to actively participate in the meeting with the physician2013In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 8, no 1, p. nr20608-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous research, no uniform picture emerged of the role of relatives in the meeting between an elderly patient and a physician. Knowledge about relatives' experiences of the meeting between an elderly patient and a physician will help healthcare practitioners better understand the role of relatives during the meeting and how practitioners can assist relatives in assuming their supporting role more efficiently. The purpose of this study is to explore experiences of relatives of meeting with the physician in a hospital setting when an elderly patient is discharged from hospital care to home care, in order to identify aspects that may facilitate relatives in taking up their role in a more efficient manner. This descriptive and exploratory study is based on 20 interviews with relatives. The result shows that the physician's communication style influences the meeting between the relative, the elderly patient, and the physician, and that this style is the result of power and interaction. A trustful relationship during the meeting between the relative and the physician can increase the relative's feeling of confidence with the healthcare organization and treatment of the elderly patient. The relative has an important supporting role in the care for the elderly family member, both in the hospital and the home setting. It is likely that the relative's value as a resource, for both the patient and the physician, increases as the relative experiences feelings of confidence in the meeting with the physician. It is therefore of value to increase our knowledge about the conditions and circumstances facilitating and/or hampering the meeting between the relative and the physician. The result stresses the importance of encouraging relatives to participate in the meeting. Physicians need more guidance and training in communication skills, respectful demeanor, and collaboration while meeting the relatives. © 2013 S. Pennbrant.

  • 18.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Determination of the Concepts "€œProfession"€ and "€œRole"€ in Relation to "Nurse Educator"2016In: Journal of Professional Nursing, ISSN 8755-7223, E-ISSN 1532-8481, Vol. 326, p. 430-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to clarify the meanings and dimensions of the concepts “profession” and “role.” The results from the concept determination were discussed in relation to the profession “nurse educator.” This study is based on Koort's semantic analysis methods, using select parts of Eriksson's approach for concept determination, using dictionaries published between the years 1948 and 2015. The findings underline the complexity of the professional role of nurse educators. The nurse educator profession is based on society's trust and requires integration of ability, attitudes, norms, reflection, and theoretical knowledge, along with individual, organizational, and social conditions. Nurse educators must achieve a sufficient degree of pedagogical competence, subject competence, social competence and organizational competence in order to develop their professional role. When nurse educators define their function, a professional role takes form.

  • 19.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Semi-Structured Interviews With a Sociocultural Perspective: The Meeting Between the Elderly Patien and the Physician in a Hospital Setting in Sweden2017In: SAGE Research Methods Cases, Sage Publications, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish healthcare, great emphasis is laid on the patient’s rights. Patients should receive information on their conditions and treatment options so that they can make informed choices and become involved. My study described elderly patients’ experience of meeting with the physician in a hospital setting specialized in geriatrics and medicine. To understand how the patient experienced the meeting, I used the following research questions: What is of importance for the experience of the meeting? How is the meeting experienced by the elderly patient? To explain the patients’ experiences of meeting with physicians, a sociocultural perspective was used. The main conclusion of the study is that physicians’ position of powe rmakes it difficult for elderly patients to participate in meetings. It would be helpful if physicians had a patient-centered attitude and translated medical terminology into everyday language.Physicians need to be aware of their body language and learn to acknowledge the patients’ questions and consider their medical conditions and personalities when building relations. The healthcare sector needs to become a learning organization in which physicians are trained to prevent misunderstandings when meeting elderly patients. Future research could focus on efforts to integrate geriatrics into the full curricula of medical schools. This case study provides an account of one practical aspect, namely, semi-structured interviews, with focus on some specific methodological problems that arose during the research.

  • 20.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Gustafsson Törn, Jeanette
    Kungälvs sjukhus.
    Munthe, Helena
    Kungälvs sjukhus.
    Information about sexual activity after hip replacement: A literature review2017In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual activity is an important aspect of quality of life and contributes to healing and recovery. Adequate information may minimize post-operative risks and improve wellbeing. The aim of this literature review was to identify and review articles regarding the information on sexual activity after hip replacement provided to or obtained by patients and partners prior to their hip replacement surgery. The literature search was performed in the following databases: CINAHL, PubMed/Medline, MEDLINE (via Ebscoost) and Scopus. The results underline the importance of providing hip replacement patients and partners with relevant information, to reduce their concerns and improve their satisfaction and quality of life. Such information could promote person-centered care for patient and partner, and increase long-term cost-effectiveness for the healthcare organization. Information to patients and partners on post-hip-replacement sexual limitations has not been closely studied. Further research is needed to help healthcare providers promote patients’ and partners’ sexual health and quality of life and improve wellbeing.

  • 21.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Hansen, Kristin
    NU Hospital Group, Västra Götaland Regional Council, Trollhätan, Sweden.
    District nurses meeting with and providing care to people with mental illness in health centers: An interview study2017In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 96-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Primary healthcare is facing increasing numbers of people with mental illness. Although district nurses are expected to promote health and prevent illness, most health centers in Western Sweden have no psychiatric nurses. The aim of this study was to explore how district nurses experience meeting with and providing care to patients with mental illness in health centers. Methods: Eight individual, semi-structured interviews with district nurses working in health centers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The district nurses felt that it is challenging to meet with patients with mental illness and that they need to learn to master such situations better. In particular, interaction challenge when assessing the patient’s mental care needs, the dialogue challenge when attempting to achieve the patient’s trust, and the competence challenge when trying to determine correct and safe care for the patient. Conclusions: District nurses would benefit from having specific guidelines on how to provide person-centered care to patients with mental illness. Such guidelines would help district nurses in their planning and facilitating meetings with patients with mental illness and in their efforts to find solutions adapted to the specific patient, thus increasing both the district nurses’ feelings of adequacy and the patient’s feelings of safety and trust.

  • 22.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    The work-integrated learning combined with the portfolio method: A pedagogical strategy and tool in nursing education for developing professional competence2017In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During nursing education students obtain knowledge and skills to develop their professional competence. Teachers may elect to provide pedagogical tools preparing students for current and future healthcare needs. The purpose of this theoretical article was to highlight Work-Integrated Learning combined with the Portfolio Method as a pedagogical strategy and tool for nursing students to develop professional competence for lifelong learning. This strategy contains six phases: pre-reflection, reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, self-evaluation, meta-reflection and knowledge-in-action, which can help nursing students, during their clinical education, develop deeper understanding of their future profession, while also providing a teaching planning tool.

  • 23.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Pilhammar Andersson, Ewa
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa.
    Elderly patients' experiences of meeting with the doctor: A sociocultural study in a hospital setting in Sweden2013In: Research on Aging, ISSN 0164-0275, E-ISSN 1552-7573, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 163-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has provided contradictory findings on how important it is for elderly patients to actively participate in the meeting with their doctors. Using descriptive and exploratory interview study with 20 elderly patients discharged from medicine and geriatric hospital care in Sweden, the authors describe how elderly patients experience their meetings with their doctor in the hospital setting. The results indicate that the meetings between elderly patients and doctors are influenced by the nature and shape of the conversation, which are influenced by power and interaction. A good relationship between an elderly patient and his or her doctor leads to reduced apprehension and increased faith in the health care system. This study was inspired by the sociocultural perspective and highlights the importance of the health care sector becoming a learning organization in which doctors are trained to prevent misunderstandings in their meetings with elderly patients.

  • 24.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Rudman, Ann
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska institutet.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Mastering the professional role as a new graduate2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional development is a process that starts in education and continues through working life. To be a new graduated registered nurse has been described as difficult and tough. The healthcare organization, patients and nurses would all benefit if the professional development was smooth and supportive. The aim was to develop a model describing newly graduated registered nurses professional development during the first years of healthcare practice. To develop a model a constant comparative analysis was performed. Data consisted of written answers to an open question concerning what newly graduates perceived of particular significance to facilitate the transition between education and professional life. In this study the core concept constructed from data was mastering the professional role and was seen as a result of an ongoing process regarding the individual's experiences as well as relations with the surrounding environments. The analysis shows that the professional developmental process involves three interrelated sub-processes; Evaluating and re-evaluating educational experience, developing professional self-efficacy and developing clinical competence. These sub-processes are all influenced by six factors, social values and norms, the healthcare organization, nurse-management, coworkers, patients/relatives and private life situation. These factors affect nurse' professional development directly, indirectly or as mediating influences and can lead to various possible orientations. The result underlines the importance of knowing of how to develop the personal professional role within in a working life context inorder to experience to mastering the professional role. In this process the new registered nurses need support from both their nursing school and employer. This model will be the subject of further measurement and testing

  • 25.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health Care Sciences.
    Rudman, Ann
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Mastering the professional role as a newly graduated registered nurse2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 739-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional development is a process starting during undergraduate education and continuing throughout working life. A new nurse's transition from school to work has been described as difficult. This study aims to develop a model describing the professional development of new nurses during their first years of work. To develop this model, constant comparative analyses were performed. The method was a qualitative study of survey data on 330 registered nurses. The results showed that mastering the professional role was the result of an ongoing process building on the nurse's experiences and interactions with the surrounding environment. The professional developmental process involves the following interrelated sub-processes: evaluating and re-evaluating educational experiences, developing professional self-efficacy and developing clinical competence. These sub-processes are influenced by the following factors: social values and norms, healthcare organization, management of new nurses, co-workers, patients and significant others and the nurse's own family and friends. These factors affect professional development directly, indirectly or as mediating influences and can lead to possible outcomes, as new nurses choose to remain in or leave the profession. The results underscore the importance of developing a professional nursing role within the new working context. To facilitate this professional development, new nurses need support from their nursing-school educators and their healthcare employers. The model described here will be the subject of further measurement and testing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 26.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Nursing and learning: healthcare pedagogics and work-integrated learning2018In: Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning, ISSN 2042-3896, E-ISSN 2042-390X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 179-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe work-integrated learning (WIL) related to healthcare pedagogics, and to describe the distinctive aspects of research on WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics. Design/methodology/approach The general purpose of this theoretical paper is to define and formulate a research agenda within WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics. Findings WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics is a multidisciplinary field of knowledge encompassing education, health sciences and social sciences, and focuses on research and knowledge-creation involving nursing schools in higher education, healthcare organizations and the surrounding community. Originality/value The starting point of the research environment is the ambition to gain knowledge about the conditions, processes and outcomes in healthcare education and healthcare organizations, both individually and collectively, intra- and inter-professionally, in the perspective of life-long learning. WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics is a research area that can carry out important research in healthcare education and healthcare organization and, thus, contribute to high-quality care meeting current and future needs.

  • 27.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Tomaszewska, Marzena
    Lorentzson Penttilä, Gabriella
    Nurses’ experience of caring for palliative-stage patients in a hospital setting in Sweden2015In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of caring for palliative-stage patients in a hospital setting.

    Methods: A qualitative study based on six interviews with strategically selected nurses in an oncology department in western Sweden. The interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.

    Results: The results identified three themes: 1) Developing professional self-confidence; 2) Developing communication skills; and 3) Having time for reflection. Each theme has at least two subthemes.

    Conclusions: Caring for palliative-stage patients requires a combination of knowledge, experience and professional and personal self-confidence. Nurses need regular coaching by staff and professionals with more experience dealing with and processing suffering, death and related existential issues. Nurses need to separate work from private life and have satisfying and relaxing leisure activities.

  • 28.
    Persson, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Rasmusson, Emma
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    District nurses' efforts to support patients in smoking cessation : Distriktssköterskans arbete med att stödja patienter i rökavvänjning2015In: Nordic Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Smoking is a public health problem. Supporting patients to achieve lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation, is one way for the district nurse to promote health.

    Aim: Investigate how the district nurse promotes health and supports patients in smoking cessation.

    Method: A questionnaire was sent to 124 district nurses working with smoking cessation in a region in western Sweden. The questionnaire contained both closed and open questions. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and manifest content analysis.

    Findings: The district nurses’ work includes motivating, educating, supporting, informing and following up patients in need of smoking cessation. Sixty-three percent of the district nurses consider themselves to have an important function in smoking cessation. Lack of time is a substantial problem and district nurses devote one to ten hours per week on smoking cessation. Forty-three percent felt that they did not have enough knowledge about smoking cessation. The district nurses wished to benefit from the experience of other colleagues.

    Conclusion: District nurses experience lack of time and knowledge. In order to provide quality support for smoking cessation district nurses should possess medical knowledge and be empathic and involved.

  • 29.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture. University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture. University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture. University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    Pilhammar, Ewa
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Clinical Course Content as a Dynamic Variable in Supervision of Medical Students.2009In: The Internet Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2155-6725, E-ISSN 2155-6725, The Internet Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2155-6725, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During clinical supervision, medical students are expected to gain experience through clinical work, with the support of their clinical supervisor. What each supervisor chooses to emphasize and considers important will have a decisive impact on students’ understanding of what is content necessary to master in order to gain clinical skills. Therefore, in this study, the focus of attention is on what supervisors choose to emphasise during clinical supervision of fourth year medical students during a surgical course.

    Method An ethnographic approach was used, including a selective intermittent time mode, where observation and informal interviews were conducted. Twelve supervisors and nine medical students at a teaching hospital in Sweden participated. Field notes were made during observation; these were transcribed and analysed qualitatively.

    Results The analysis resulted in six topic areas describing what was emphasized during supervision. The topic areas were: 1) Identifying, collecting and combining information, 2) Problem-solving and decision-making, 3) Handling treatment of disease, 4) Practical skills and illustration of technical equipment, 5) Communicating with patients, and 6) Handling organisational demands.

    Conclusions The findings of this study show the existence of several areas that are focused on in supervision. In authentic clinical situations, these topic areas were intertwined and overlapped and often appeared simultaneously. The clinical situations were adjusted neither to the students’ clinical experience nor to the needs of the students. Consequently, the students may find it difficult to determine what to learn and what to achieve during supervision. They may also find it difficult to understand the situations in the same way as their supervisors, because students focus on handling situations with a more theoretical and declarative approach to a larger extent than do their supervisors. The students therefore need supervisor support to develop and integrate theoretical knowledge. One conclusion that can be made is that supervisor awareness of students’ understanding is of crucial significance for the effective supervision. Regarding the nature of the content chosen in supervised situations, research in other settings and specialities would be required to map and to determine a more general theory of what is focused during medical supervision

  • 30.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Samuelsson, Bo
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Pilhammar, Ewa
    Insitute of Health Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Attitudes Emphasizing in the Clinical Supervision of Medical Students: An Ethnographic Study in Sweden2012In: The Open Medical Education Journal, ISSN 1876-519X, Vol. 5, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Medical student's professional attitudes are expected to be developed in medical school, and particularly during clinical education. In this study we focus on supervision in order to describe the attitudes emphasized in the clinical education of fourth-year medical students taking a surgical course.Methods: An ethnographic approach was applied where observation and interviews were conducted. Nine medical students and twelve supervisors at a teaching hospital in Sweden participated. Field notes were made during observation as well as interviews; these were transcribed and analysed qualitatively.Result: The analysis resulted in six topic areas describing the attitudes emphasized. The medical students were expected to be: 1) Informed and effective decision makers, 2) Sensitive to patients' needs and expectations, 3) Communicative, 4) Authoritative and patriarchal, 5) Adaptable to organizational demands, and 6) Mindful of nurse's knowledge and requests.Conclusions: This study reveals that the attitudes emphasised during supervision are: dualistic and complex to learn, developed by a former generation and influence student learning. Students need support in order to handle the state of tension that exists in the attitudes emphasized. Medical students might experience difficulties in adopting some attitudes belonging to a former generation. There is a need for competence development among supervisors concerning how students may experience the attitudes emphasized in supervision.

  • 31.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Pilhammar, Ewa
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Pedagogical Strategies Used in Clinical Medical Education: An Observational Study2010In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 10, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students.

    Methods:  Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively.

    Results:  Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening.

    Conclusions:  This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning.

  • 32. Wester, Agneta
    et al.
    Larsson, Lena
    Olofsson, Lena
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Caregivers’ experiences of caring for an elderly next of kin in Sweden2013In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Care of elderly changed in the 1990s in Sweden; treatment sessions were shortened in particular. Consequently, patients have a greater need for care when returning home from hospital. This task may seem overwhelming and caregivers can feel lonely, worn out and resigned in their situation. Aim: Explore how caregivers experience caring for an elderly next of kin in ordinary living. Method: Qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with eleven Swedish caregivers. Findings: Caregivers experienced their situation as something to be endured. In particular, they felt a need for belonging, a need for controlling everyday life, and a need for support. Conclusion: Home care nurses, health centres and home support workers should be aware of and respect caregivers’ needs in terms of support.

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