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  • 1.
    Alsén, Pia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Illness perceptions of fatigue and the association with sense of coherence and stress in patients one year after myocardial infarction.2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 3-4, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. To explore the associations between illness perceptions offatigue, sense of coherence and stress in patients one year after myocardial infarc-tion.Background. Post-myocardial infarction fatigue is a stressful symptom that is dif-ficult to cope with. Patients' illness perceptions of fatigue guide professionals inpredicting how individuals will respond emotionally and cognitively to symptoms.Individuals' sense of coherence can be seen as a coping resource in managingstressors.Design. A cross-sectional study design was used.Method. One year post-myocardial infarction, a total of 74 patients still experi-encing fatigue completed four questionnaires: the Multidimensional Fatigue ScaleInventory -20, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherencescale (sense of coherence-13) and a single-item measure of stress symptoms.Descriptive statistics, correlations and stepwise regression analysis were carriedout.Results. Strong negative associations were found between illness perceptions offatigue, sense of coherence and stress. Sense of coherence has an impact on illnessperceptions of fatigue. Of the dimensions of sense of coherence, comprehensibilityseemed to play the greatest role in explaining illness perceptions of fatigueone year after myocardial infarction.Conclusion. To strengthen patients' coping resources, health-care professionalsshould create opportunities for patients to gain individual-level knowledge thatallows them to distinguish between common fatigue symptoms and warning signsfor myocardial infarction.Relevance to clinical practice. There is a need to improve strategies for copingwith fatigue. It is also essential to identify patients with fatigue after myocardialinfarction, as they need explanations for their symptoms and extra support

  • 2.
    Daoud, Nihaya
    et al.
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna
    Ben-Gurion University of Negev.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Sagy, Shifra
    Ben-Gurion University of Negev.
    Sense of coherence and depressive symptoms among low-incomeBedouin women in the Negev Israel2014In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 307-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher sense of coherence (SOC) has been associated with lower depression in Western societies; however, it is not clear whether this association manifests similarly in non-Western cultural contexts.Aims: To examine the associations between different levels of SOC and depressive symptoms (DS) among indigenous-minority Arab Bedouin women in Israel and explore possible explanatory variables for this association.Methods: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 464 women (aged 18–49 years). DS was measured based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. We used the SOC-13 questionnaire and conducted path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling to examine the contribution of two levels of SOC (low/high) to predict DS beyond psychological resources and socioeconomic position.Results: The mean score of SOC was 3.42, standard deviation (SD) = 1.15. While high SOC (mean = 4.38, SD = 0.66, range = 3.5–6.38) was positively and significantly associated with DS (r = 0.46), SOC was not associated (r = 0.02) with DS in the low SOC group (mean = 2.4, SD = 0.56, range = 1–3.42).Conclusions: Relationships between high versus low SOC and DS among Bedouin women differ from those found in Western societies. This raises questions about the use of SOC as a universal tool in different cultural contexts.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Leena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Salutogenesis and empowerment as prominent approaches for a sustainable health promotion: Some theoretical comparisons2011In: Health Technology Assessment Society (HTAi): 8th Annual Meeting, 2011, p. 294-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive evidence proposes Antonovsky’s salutogenic theory as a pathway to health promotion. The fundamental concept of salutogenesis is Sense of Coherence (SOC). Salutogenesis is defined as the process of movement towards the health-end of the health ease/dis-ease continuum. The aim of empowerment is to reduce inequity through a learning process and mobilize the uneducated for social action. Empowerment is defined as a process enabling the people to increase control over their health determinants. Empowerment still lacks a coherent theoretical basis. It is claimed that empowerment and SOC have much common and are sometimes overlapping. However, the relationship between these concepts has not been verified by research.

    Objectives: To compare the salutogenic theory with the empowerment concept and approach.

    Methods: Data consists of a worldwide systematic research synthesis (1992-2003) including 471 scientific publications and an on-going follow-up to 2010. The search was performed through PubMed, Libris, ISI, PsychInfo, Cinahl, Social Services Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts. The analysis was conducted by comparing selected indicators of both theories, such as approach, theoretical focus, definitions, orientation, key concepts, measurement instruments, outcomes and applicability.

    Findings: There are both similarities and differences between the concepts, which also somewhat overlap. Several unique and distinctive features for each concept were found. Salutogenesis is based on stress theories whereas empowerment has its roots in pedagogy and social psychology. Both concepts are process oriented. Empowerment can be seen as both means and an outcome whereas salutogenesis is a global life-orientation. Both concepts can be applied at the individual, group, health systems and societal levels. Both proved to be effective in promoting health. The two concepts differ when it comes to definitions and theoretical foundations.

    Conclusion: Both approaches are promising methods that can lead to improved health outcomes and are seen as viable public health strategies.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Folkhälsa och salutogenes2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning] / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 105-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    From healthy settings to sustainable healthy societies:: The salutogenic approach to planning and health promotion2011In: World Health Design, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 66-75Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    -

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Kritik av den salutogena teorin2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning] / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 78-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Perspectives on salutogenesis of scholars writing in Swedish2016In: The Handbook of Salutogenesis / [ed] Mittelmark, M. B. et al., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2016, 1, p. 1-467Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Research Supervision as a Mutual Learning Process: Introducing Salutogenesis into supervision using "The Collegial Model"In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Monica
    Folkhälsans forskningscentrum, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Salutogenes och känsla av sammanhang: begrepp inom vården?2007In: Vård i fokus, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 5-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences. University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung - från forskning till praktisk tillämpning2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok ger ett vetenskapligt perspektiv på salutogenes - det goda livets ursprung. Forskningsfältet salutogenes beskrivs här med utgångspunkt i människors strävan efter det goda livet, mitt i arbete med att ta hand om barn och familj och att göra en fullödig insats inom arbetslivet antingen man är ledare eller medarbetare. Principer för tillämpning i arbetslivet diskuteras också.Läs merForskningsfältet salutogenes beskrivs här med utgångspunkt i människors strävan efter det goda livet, mitt i arbete med att ta hand om barn och familj och att göra en fullödig insats inom arbetslivet antingen som ledare eller medarbetare. Principer för tillämpning i arbetslivet diskuteras också. Boken är skriven av forskare med god kännedom på området och bidrar med ny kunskap då salutogenes sätts i ett sammanhang. Författarna relaterar kunskapsområdet till hälsofrämjande och visar hur viktiga människors olika förmågor och resurser för hälsa och välbefinnande är för hälsofrämjande.Om författarnaMonica Eriksson är politices doktor och docent i socialpolitik med inriktning hälsofrämjande. Författarna är verksamma vid Högskolan Väst och Centrum för Salutogenes och arbetar dagligen med frågor kring hälsa i olika sammanhang.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning]2015 (ed. 1. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Salutogenes är mer än känsla av sammanhang2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning] / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 92-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Salutogenesis2014In: Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research / [ed] Michalos, AC, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, 2014, p. 5623-5631Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Samband mellan SOC och hälsa: en kunskapsinventering2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning] / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 47-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Sense of Coherence across the lifecourse: Findings from a systematic review 1992-20102011In: International Conference on Assets for Health and Wellbeing across the Life Course, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty years ago Aaron Antonovsky introduced the salutogenic theory of health, claiming that a strong Sense of Coherence has an impact on health and wellbeing. The SOC is a global orientation to view life as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. This presentation report findings from an extensive research synthesis on the SOC concept 1992-2010 based on about thousand peer reviewed papers, partly published and defended in a thesis (1992-2003) and partly from an ongoing synthesis (2004-2010). The presentation focuses on the relationship between SOC and age across the life course, on health and wellbeing, on different settings such as schools, working life, and on some related concepts (empowerment, resilience, connectedness). The findings from the systematic review show the SOC to be strongly related to perceived good health, especially mental health and wellbeing. The SOC has a main, moderating or mediating role in the explanation of health. The predicting capacity of the SOC for good health is encouraging. Opposite to Antonovsky the findings show that the SOC increases across the life course, the oldest people reported the strongest SOC. A strong SOC buffers against stress in working life and in schools. Other concepts closely related to the SOC are compared and discussed.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Teorin om hälsans ursprung: en systematisk forskningsöversikt2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 14-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    The Salutogenic Framework for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention2014In: The Handbook of Behavioral Medicine / [ed] Mostofsky, David I., Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 1, p. 973-993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    The sense of coherence in the salutogenic model of health2016In: The Handbook of Salutogenesis / [ed] Mittelmark B. et al., Springer-Verlag New York, 2016, 1, p. 91-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unravelling the Mystery of Salutogenesis: The evidence base of the salutogenic research as measured by Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale2007 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Utblick2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning] / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 209-211Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Alsén, Pia
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Lycke, Liselott
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    ARK: modell för att systematiskt arbeta med hållbart arbetsliv inom universitet och högskola (UoH)2018In: FALF 2018 - program och abstraktbok / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: University Press , 2018, p. 123-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Hållbart arbetsliv är idag ledord för arbetslivets förändrade villkor. Inom UoH i Sverige fanns i slutet av 2017 omkring 75 000 anställda varav ca 35 000 inom forskning och undervisning (UKÄ, 2017). Det är en sektor med stor betydelse för samhällsutvecklingen i Sverige. Arbetsmiljön inom sektorn ställer särskilda krav på personalen. Förvånansvärt få studier har gjorts i Sverige om arbetsmiljön för personal inom UoH. Med förebild från Norge implementeras nu för första gången i Sverige en forskningsbaserad (krav-resurs-modellen) och sektorsspecifik ny modell för att systematiskt arbeta med arbetsmiljön, den s.k. Ark-modellen (arbeidsmiljø- og klimaundersøkelser, se figur) vid Högskolan Väst. Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrift 2015:4 betonar den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön, vilket väl tillgodoses i denna modell.

    Syfte

    Att systematiskt och långsiktigt arbeta med arbetsmiljön ur ett främjande, förebyggande och rehabiliterande perspektiv på såväl individ- som organisatorisk nivå för att utveckla förhållanden som bidrar till ett hållbart arbetsliv.

    Metod

    Genom KIWEST (Knowledge Intensive Work Environment Survey Target) kartläggs arbetsmiljön utifrån 28 olika dimensioner. Kategorier som belyses är t.ex. sociala, uppgiftsbaserade och organisatoriska resurser samt jobbkrav och tillhörighet till jobbet. Organisatoriska förhållanden mäts med FaktaARK 1 medan genomförda insatser mäts med FaktaARK 2.

    Resultat

    KIWEST sändes till all personal med 20 % anställning eller mer. Utav 539 tillfrågade personer svarade 376, vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 69,8 %. Resultatet visar att specifikt för sektorn är upplevelsen av tidspress samtidigt som arbetet upplevs som meningsfullt och viktigt. Nu följer analyser, planering, genomförande och utvärdering av insatser på olika nivåer inom högskolan. KIWEST-formuläret sänds till personalen med 3-års intervall. I förbättringsarbetet ingår även att granska och utvärdera genomförandet, därvid ingår även metodutveckling. Förbättringsarbetet sätts in i ett större organisatoriskt perspektiv och är en naturlig del i kvalitetssäkringsprocessen och ledningssystemet. ARK-processen förväntas bidra till teoriutveckling av krav- och resursmodellen samt öka kunskapen om arbetsmiljön inom UoH.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Ingela
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Conceptual Clarification of Wellness and Sense of Coherence (SOC).: Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis in health care settings2018In: Nordic Conference in Nursing Research Methods and Networks for the future: Programme - Abstracts 2018 13-15 June Oslo, 2018, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clarification of concepts is important in the process of developing theories and concepts. The concept of «wellness» is frequently used, but the content is still unclear. Is the content of «wellness» the same as «health»,«sense of coherence», «wellbeing», «spirituality», «quality oflife» or another content

    Objective: To conceptually explore the concept of«wellness» in health care settings, and relate the results to the salutogenic core concept SOC.

    Method: Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis is used for the theoretical analysis of the data. The focus has been on attributes, related concepts, consequences, antecedents,references, exemplars and implications. The literature search has been performed through manual review of reference lists and online search in databases for relevant papers. The abstracts has been examined to identify relevant studies for further review. The inclusion criteria was peer reviewed papers in English, published in scientific journals using the keywords wellness/health/health care/healthcare and wellness/sense of coherence/salutogenesis, discussing and/or defining the concept of wellness. The search was run in Cinahl and PubMed via EBSCO and in ProQuest. Results: Fifty studies met the inclusion criteria. Preliminary results confirm a multidimensional property of «wellness». It seems to be used interchangeable with related concepts such as «health», «SOC», «wellbeing», «spirituality» or«quality of life» without a deeper clarification of theoretical aspects. A general impression is that wellness is strongly related to individual lifestyle and health behavior.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindstrom, B
    University of Trondheim.
    Salutogenesis and Resilience: two sides of the same coin?2012In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 27, no Suppl1, p. 41-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Conceptual clarification of salutogenesis (Antonovsky 1987) and resilience – what is common and different? Methods: A systematic research synthesis 1992–2010 based on about 1300 papers on Sense of Coherence. Findings: Similarities and differences emerge. Salutogenesis stems from stress research exploring why some people stay healthy despite major life events and adversities while resilience research refer to risk of negative health development. Both concepts emphasize resources: the salutogenic framework talks about Generalized Resistance Resources while resilience uses protective factors. The two concepts differ when it comes to the adjustment process where resilience concept always is connected with risk factors. Discussion: The new knowledge derived from the research synthesis on the SOC reveal promising results indicating the usefulness in health promotion research, expanding the knowledge from resilience research on risks to salutogenic research on resources. While salutogenesis has its focus on health promotion resilience is more connected to health protection.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. Folkhäsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Research Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkhäsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Research Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    A salutogenic interpretation of the Ottawa Charter2008In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 190-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty years have passed since the philosophy and principals were formulated in the Ottawa Charter for health promotion. A critical reflection of the content and success of the Ottawa Charter was published before the IUHPE World Conference in Vancover in June 2007. This paper contextualizes and discusses Salutogenesis and Antonovsky in the development of health promotion practice and research and, further, relates the salutogenic concept Sense of Coherence (SOC) to the Ottawa Charter. An overview of the development of health promotion and the salutogenic theory of health is presented. In addition, this is illustrated in a new way using the metaphors of ‘health in the river of life’ and ‘SOC in a life course perspective’. Health promotion, including the Ottawa charter, lacks a clear theoretical foundation. The results of a systematic review of salutogenic research are used to demonstrate how the salutogenic framework could support the philosophical and practical intentions of the OC. The salutogenic model contributes to the maintenance and development of health and quality of life (QoL), i.e. the process and outcome of the principles of the OC. The metaphor of the river and the life cycle are new ways of demonstrating the paradigm shift provided by the Salutogenesis and health promotion in relation to public health and medicine. The salutogenic theory is an important contribution to the theory base of health promotion research and practice.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale and It's Relation with Quality of Life: A systematic review2007In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 938-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to synthesise findings on the salutogenic concept, sense of coherence (SOC), and its correlation with quality of life (QoL). This study is descriptive and analytic, with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published in 1992–2003. This review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses on salutogenesis. In all, 32 papers had the main objective of investigating the relationship between SOC and QoL. This study is based on scientific publications in eight authorised databases, doctoral theses and available books. The SOC seems to have an impact on the QoL; the stronger the SOC, the better the QoL. Furthermore, longitudinal studies confirm the predictive validity of the SOC for a good QoL. The findings correspond to the core of the Ottawa Charter—that is, the process of enabling people to live a good life. Therefore, a certain possibility to modify and extend the health construct is becoming discernible, implicating a construct including salutogenesis and QoL. The SOC concept is a health resource, influencing QoL.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale and the relation with health: a systematic review2006In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 376-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective

    The aim of this paper is to synthesise empirical findings on the salutogenic concept sense of coherence (SOC) and examine its capacity to explain health and its dimensions.

    Design

    The study is descriptive and analytical with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published 1992–2003. The review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses.

    Setting

    Worldwide, based on postgraduate scientific publications in eight authorised databases, doctoral theses, and available books.

    Main results

    SOC is strongly related to perceived health, especially mental health. The stronger the SOC the better the perceived health in general, at least for those with an initial high SOC. This relation is manifested in study populations regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, nationality, and study design. SOC seems to have a main, moderating or mediating role in the explanation of health. Furthermore, the SOC seems to be able to predict health. SOC is an important contributor for the development and maintenance of people's health but does not alone explain the overall health.

    Conclusion

    SOC seems to be a health promoting resource, which strengthens resilience and develops a positive subjective state of health. Salutogenesis is a valuable approach for health promotion and would be worth to implement in practice much more than to date.

    Keywords: Antonovsky, salutogenesis, sense of coherence, health promotion

    This paper continues to review, analyse, and synthesise the evidence base of research on the sense of coherence (SOC) concept in the light of 25 years of research undertaken by the authors.1,2,3,4 The main purpose is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the SOC concept from research between 1992–2003. This is a relevant contribution to health promotion and public health research. It is necessary to get deeper knowledge about the interaction between SOC and socioeconomic characteristics like age, sex, social class, and how SOC might be related to physical and mental health. Are there any relations and does the SOC have an impact on health at all?

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Forskningscentrum i Helsingfors, Finland.
    En resa till hälsans centrum: det salutogena perspektivet på hälsa och välbefinnande2011In: Hälsa och välfärd i ett föränderligt samhälle: festskrift till Gunborg Jakobsson / [ed] Nygård, Mikael och Finnäs, Fjalar, Åbo: Åbo Akademis Förlag, 2011, p. 65-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkha¨lsan Research Centre, Helsingfors.
    From health education to healthy learning: Implementing salutogenesis in educational science 2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no Suppl 6, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     Aim:

    The aim is to scrutinise the concept of health education (HE) and to broaden the concept of health literacy (HL) towardsa lifelong healthy learning concept. HL is a broader concept than HE. This paper dissects both the health and the education

    concepts, and puts them into the value system of health promotion (HP) of the Ottawa Charter (OC) using the core principles

    and values of HP, HL, and action competence (AC) in the light of the salutogenesis (SAL). Conceptually the salutogenic

    model focuses on the direction towards the healthy end of the health continuum. The salutogenic theory, based on resources

    and comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, can be integrated into a learning model. People are seen as active

    and participating subjects shaping their lives through their AC.

    Method:a combination of an analysis of the values andintentions of health promotion according to the OC combined with the existing evidence on the salutogenic approach to

    health, stemming from a systematic research synthesis 1992–2003 and an ongoing analysis 2004–2009 by the authors. In

    addition, the views from a discussion with the participants of a session in the NHPR Conference 2009 are integrated.

    Results:

    The similarities and differences between the salutogenesis, theOCand healthy learning were shown in a graph. Integrating the

    salutogenesis in educational sciences further expands the concepts of HE and HL into healthy learning.

    Conclusions: Theresults of the discussions will further develop and strengthen the concept of healthy learning. 

     

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim is to scrutinise the concept of health education (HE) and to broaden the concept of health literacy (HL) towards

    a lifelong healthy learning concept. HL is a broader concept than HE. This paper dissects both the health and the education concepts, and puts them into the value system of health promotion (HP) of the Ottawa Charter (OC) using the core principles and values of HP, HL, and action competence (AC) in the light of the salutogenesis (SAL). Conceptually the salutogenic model focuses on the direction towards the healthy end of the health continuum. The salutogenic theory, based on resources and comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, can be integrated into a learning model. People are seen as active and participating subjects shaping their lives through their AC. Method: a combination of an analysis of the values and intentions of health promotion according to the OC combined with the existing evidence on the salutogenic approach to health, stemming from a systematic research synthesis 1992–2003 and an ongoing analysis 2004–2009 by the authors. In addition, the views from a discussion with the participants of a session in the NHPR Conference 2009 are integrated. Results: The similarities and differences between the salutogenesis, theOCand healthy learning were shown in a graph. Integrating the salutogenesis in educational sciences further expands the concepts of HE and HL into healthy learning. Conclusions

    : The results of the discussions will further develop and strengthen the concept of healthy learning.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki.
    Life is more than survival: Exploring links between Antonovsky’s salutogenic theory and the concept of resilience2011In: Wayfinding through life's challenges: Coping and survival / [ed] Gow, Kathryn M., Celinski, Marek, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 31-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Salutogenesis2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 440-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The editor of the journal has taken the initiative to develop glossaries on central concepts in health promotion. The aim of this paper is to explain and clarify the key concepts of the salutogenic theory sense of coherence coined by Aaron Antonovsky. The explanations and interpretations are the result of an analysis of the scientific evidence base of the first 25 years of salutogenic research, described and discussed in an ongoing project on a systematic review by the above authors. The contemporary evidence shows the salutogenic approach could have a more central position in public health and health promotion research and practice. Furthermore, it could contribute to the solution of some of the most urgent public health problems of our time such as the question of mental health promotion. Finally, it could create a solid theoretical framework for health promotion.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Universitetet i Trondheim.
    The salutogenic framework for well-being: Implications for public policy2014In: Well-Being And Beyond: Broadening the Public and Policy Discourse / [ed] Hämäläinen, Timo & Michaelson, Juliet, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 68-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Validity of Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale: a systematic review2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: The aim of this paper is to systematically review and analyse the validity and reliability of Antonovsky’s life orientation questionnaire/sense of coherence scale (SOC).

    Design: The study is descriptive and analytical with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published 1992–2003. The review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses.

    Setting: Worldwide, based on postgraduate scientific publications in eight authorised databases, doctoral theses, and available books.

    Main results: The SOC questionnaire has been used in at least 33 languages in 32 countries with at least 15 different versions of the questionnaire. In 124 studies using SOC-29 the Cronbach’s α ranges from 0.70 to 0.95. The α values in 127 studies using SOC-13 range from 0.70 to 0.92, and in 60 studies using a modified SOC scale range from 0.35 to 0.91. Test-retest correlation show stability and range from 0.69 to 0.78 (1 year), 0.64 (3 years), 0.42 to 0.45 (4 years), 0.59 to 0.67 (5 years) to 0.54 (10 years). The means of SOC-29 range 100.50 (SD 28.50) to 164.50 (SD 17.10) points and SOC-13 from 35.39 (SD 0.10) to 77.60 (SD 13.80) points. After 10 years SOC seems to be comparatively stable, but not as stable as Antonovsky initially assumed. SOC tends to increase with age. The factorial structure of SOC seems rather to be multidimensional than unidimensional. SOC predicts a positive outcome in a long term perspective, although there are divergent findings reported. The SOC scale seems to be a reliable, valid, and cross culturally applicable instrument measuring how people manage stressful situations and stay well.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Research Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Research Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lilja, John
    Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademin, University, Turku, Finland.
    A sense of coherence and health. The Salutogenesis in a societal context: Åland - a special case?2007In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 684-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Antonovsky's salutogenic concept of a sense of coherence (SOC) has proved most influential in the way that health is now perceived.

    Aim:

    To (1) describe the distribution of SOC among 40–70-year-old Ålanders; (2) examine the distribution of depression in Åland, Finland, and its relationship with SOC; and (3) discuss the findings within a salutogenic framework in a societal context.

    Design:

    A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Antonovsky's SOC Questionnaire (13 items) and the Beck Depression Inventory (13 items) were used. In addition, in a separate questionnaire, sociodemographic information about each participant was sought, together with a question specific to this study and designed to measure self-rated health.

    Setting:

    Åland, an autonomous island province of Finland.

    Results:

    The proportion of respondents reporting good health was high (64%). The overall mean (SD) SOC was 70.7 (11.7) points, whereas for farmers and fishermen it was 73.88 (8.8) and 74.33 (9.2) points, respectively. SOC was significantly and strongly related to the self-rated health score. The higher the SOC, the better was the health of the respondents. Furthermore, the study provided clear evidence of the potential of the SOC concept as a positive mental health indicator.

    Conclusion:

    The SOC seems to be a health-promoting resource that supports the development of a positive subjective state of health.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mittelmark, Maurice B.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    The sense of coherence and its measurement2016In: The Handbook of Salutogenesis / [ed] Mittelmark, M. B., Sagy, Shifra, Eriksson, Monica, Bauer, Georg F., Pelikan, Jürgen M., Lindström, Bengt, Espnes, Geir Arild, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2016, 1, p. 97-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Sagy, Shifra
    Ben Gurion University of Negev, Dep. of the Sociology of Health, Center for Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources.
    A salutogenic perspective on mental health across the life time: Cultural aspects on the Sense of Coherence2012In: Exploring Mental Health: theoretical and Empirical Discourses on Salutogenesis / [ed] Mayer, Claude-Hélène, Krause, Christina, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers, 2012, p. 142-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this section is on mental health in a life course perspective and cultural aspects on the Sense of Coherence. According to Aaron Antonovsky the key concept, the Sense of Coherence (SOC),was considered as a universal construct measuring a global life orientation, away of viewing the life as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. The conclusions drawn in this section is based on an extensive systematic research synthesis of papers on salutogenesis  covering the time span 1992-2003 and published in 2007, completed with an ongoing work of additional papers up to 2010. The cultural aspects of the SOC are reflectedby using ethnic minorities as examples of groups affected by acculturative stress? The distribution of the SOC questionnaire is described?  The results showed that a strong SOC is related to good perceived mental health and well-being independent of age. Further, the SOC questionnaire has to date beenused in different countries on various languages all over the World, not onlyin Western countries. The proposed universal property of the SOC is questioned. The SOC seems to be influenced by culture. Further research is needed to get adeeper understanding how the SOC operates in different cultural contexts.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Wennerberg, Mia M.T.
    Lundgren, Solveig M.
    Danielson, Ella
    "Self-Employed" in Caregivinghood: The Contribution of Swedish Informal Caregivers' Environmental and Contextual Resistance Resources and Deficits2017In: Societies, ISSN 1090-9389, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informal caregivers provide the majority of care for older adults residing in their own homes. Caregivinghood, a new evidence-based concept, describes a time of life when relatives provide care at home. These caregivers need knowledge regarding resources to help them resolve the challenges they encounter. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is Antonovsky's salutogenic theory of health. This study had two aims: (1) to examine the salutogenic core concepts Generalized and Specific Resistance Resources and Deficits (GRRs/SRRs and GRDs/SRDs) described by Swedish informal caregivers as originating from the environmental and contextual domain of caregivinghood and (2) to discuss how this new knowledge might contribute to the development of health promotion initiatives. This qualitative and theory driven study used inductive and deductive data analysis. Data were gathered through salutogenically guided face-to-face interviews of 32 Swedish informal caregivers. In addition, the study relied on the salutogenic core concepts Specific and Generalized Resistance Resources and Deficits originating from their environment and context. Being in empowering surroundings reflects the presence of usable SRRs/GRRs, whereas Struggling in impeding surroundings reflects the presence of SRDs/GRDs. The results indicate that health-enhancing support has to be individualized (SRRs/SRDs) and generalized (GRRs/GRDs). This study's salutogenic approach and the methodology enhance the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of Sense of Coherence. The results contribute both empirically and theoretically to strengthen health promotion research and practice when developing activities and support for caregivers in stressful situations, such as informal caregiving.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Winroth, Jan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Health and culture.
    Hälsa och hälsofrämjande: klargöra begrepp2015In: Salutogenes: om hälsans ursprung : [från forskning till praktisk tillämpning] / [ed] Eriksson, Monica, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 1. uppl., p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Førland, Georg
    et al.
    Høgskulen på Vestlandet, Avdeling for helsefag, Haugesund, Norway.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för Lärande, Informatik, Management och Etik, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Karin C.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för Vårdvetenskap og Hälsa, Sahlgrenska Akademin,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sense of Coherence: learning to live with chronic illness through health education2018In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 96-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examines people's experiences of how to live with a chronic disease, their learning needs and their reasons for participating in a health education programme. The aim of the study was to examine if and how a Sense of Coherence (SOC) might guide an understanding of learning processes inhealth education. Methods: This study has a qualitative study design with data collected through five group interviews. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis to identify principal categories of response. Directed content analysis was then used to reference the categories emerging in the first step to the study's theoretical framework. Results: Three main categories were found: (1) the ability to cope with daily life, (2) assets for a better lifeboth in the present and for the future, and (3) the need for knowledge. A synthesis of empirical findings with reference to the first stage of analysis, the three main aspects of learning, and the three dimensions of a SOC revealed that a SOC may be useful in guiding an understanding of learning processes in health education asa life-oriented mastering resource. Conclusion: SOC offers a useful framework for informing health education. Research is needed to deepen an understanding of how salutogenic theory can strengthen the development of health education programmes and understanding of participants' learning

  • 39.
    Førland, Georg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Ringsberg, Karin C
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Searching and dealing, confirmation and feeling: Participants’ approaches to learning in a Health Education setting2017In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 326-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Health care is far from reaching the goal of people being part of their own care, and research is lacking on how to understand their perspective. This study explores people's intentions with the act of learning before attending a health education programme at a Learning and Mastery Centre (LMC) in Norway. The aim of this study was to understand participants' learning strategies for learning about their own health care in a health education setting.Methods: Data were collected through five group interviews and analysed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Findings revealed that participants' intentions of how and what to learn were influenced by their life experiences and interactions with the health care system. Three main categories of experience emerged: (1) sharing experiences, (2) second opinion and (3) capturing the news, brought together under the comprehensive theme: searching and dealing, confirmation and feeling, which reflects the underlying meaning of the categories.Conclusion: Results encourage us to see learning as an active construction process underpinned by health literacy, including both people's competencies and the health care system. If LMCs and similar health education initiatives are to make an important contribution to improving people's health literacy, significant attention should be given in the planning and implementation of initiatives

  • 40.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Pernilla
    Regional Office, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    "Happy when they arrive, happy when they go home": Focusing on promoting children's mental health creates a sense of trust at preschools2017In: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 386-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need for research on young children’s mental health has been identified. Moreover, there is a need to enhance teachers’ skills regarding health promotion work in preschool. The aim of the study is to examine the impact of a specific course on mental health promotion among Swedish preschool teachers. Data were gathered through interviews and documentation. A qualitative content analysis was used. Three categories: ‘attention’, ‘belonging’ and ‘personal growth’ – and six subcategories emerged from the analysis. The latent content of these categories is described in the theme: ‘Increased awareness, in thoughts and actions, of promoting mental health may create a sense of trust at preschools’. The results show that a specific course to promote mental health enhanced the teachers’ awareness of mental health which improved their work with children. This contributed to the development of a sense of trust at preschools, which is important to children’s mental health.

  • 41.
    Hassler, Sven
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Kullgren, Carina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Winroth, Jan
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Herrman, Margaretha
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Wallin, Mona
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Health promotive perspectives on sustainability: A review of the theoretical and conceptual premises for processes of organizational development and change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Herrman, Margaretha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Bunting, Leona
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Wallin, Emmie
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Mammor som kulturtolkar: En förstudie om invandrarkvinnors möten med skola i Västra Götaland2013Report (Other academic)
  • 43. Idan, Orly
    et al.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    Al-Yagon, Michal
    The salutogenic model: The role of generalized resistance resources2016In: The Handbook of Salutogenesis / [ed] Maurice B. Mittelmark, Shifra Sagy, Monica Eriksson, Georg F. Bauer, Jürgen M. Pelikan, Bengt Lindström, Geir Arild Espnes, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2016, p. 57-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Koelen, Maria
    et al.
    Wageningen University, Department of Social Sciences, Health and Society Group, Wageningen, Netherland.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cattan, Mima
    Northumbria University, Department of Health and Life Sciences, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Older people, sense of coherence and community2016In: The Handbook of Salutogenesis / [ed] Mittelmark, M. B. et al., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2016, p. 137-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population ageing is a global trend and even though years added to life often are lived in good health; it will have an impact on healthcare, housing and facilities, and social security costs. Healthy ageing in place, especially in one's own home and community, increasingly receives attention from health professionals, researchers, and policymakers. In this chapter, we first discuss the meaning of the concept of healthy ageing, and how Sense of Coherence contributes to this process. Next, we discuss the characteristics of the community in which older people live their lives and how the community can provide resources (GRR and SRR) to strengthen Sense of Coherence and hence perceived well-being and quality of life. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2017.

  • 45. Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Contextualising the Salutogenesis and Antonovsky in Public Health Development2006In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 238-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 20 years have passed since the American-Israeli medical sociologist Aaron Antonovsky introduced his salutogenic theory ‘sense of coherence’ as a global orientation to view the world, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health. Sense of coherence explains why people in stressful situations stay well and even are able to improve their health. The origin of salutogenesis derives from the interviews of Israeli women with experiences from the concentration camps of the Second World War who in spite of this stayed healthy. Sixty years after the Holocaust this paper aim to shed light on the salutogenic theory in the context of public health and health promotion. In addition, other approaches with salutogenic elements for the explanation of health are considered. A potential direction for public health of the early 21st century is proposed. The historical paradox is to honour the victims of the Holocaust and see the birth of post-modern public health and the salutogenic framework through the experience of its survivors in the ashes of Modernity.

  • 46.
    Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Guía del autoestopista salutogénico: camino salutogénico hacia la promoción de la salud2011Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    NTNU, Trondheims universitet.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Haikerens guide til salutogenese: Helsefremmende arbeid i et salutogent perspektiv2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    Trondheims universitet.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    La salutogenèse: petit guide pour promouvoir la santé2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    Au milieu des années 1970, un chercheur dans le domaine du stress, Aaron Antonovsky, a eu une intuition révolutionnaire dans l’univers des sciences de la santé : et si l’on tentait de comprendre ce qui génère la santé, la « salutogenèse », plutôt que de se concentrer essentiellement sur ce qui produit la maladie, la « pathogenèse », comme on le faisait depuis des siècles ? Ce livre permet, pour la première fois en langue française, de comprendre les possibilités et les limites de la salutogenèse, non seulement en tant que théorie, mais aussi en tant qu'orientation générale pour aborder les enjeux de santé du xxie siècle. À ce titre, il intéressa au premier chef les chercheurs et les praticiens des diverses disciplines du domaine de la santé et des services sociaux.

  • 49.
    Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Professor Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) - the father of the Salutogenesis2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 511-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50. Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    Eriksson, Monica
    Folkhälsans forskningscentrum, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Salutogeneesin teoria nostaa hyvän elämän voimavarat esiin2008In: Suomen Lääkärilehti, ISSN 0039-5560, no 6, p. 517-519Article in journal (Refereed)
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