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  • 1.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Verification and deployment of automatically generated robot programs used in prefabrication of house walls2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, s. 272-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for automating the generation, verification and deployment of robot programs used in prefabrication of walls for family houses. The making of robot programs is today performed manually by experts, i.e. implying high costs. This is a huge disadvantage since each wall can be unique. The work demonstrates, with implementation and testing, a method to automate the generation of robot programs for fabrication of walls made of wood. This includes the task of generating collision free paths, automatic verification of path performance and deploying to a real industrial robot with minimal human interaction. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 2.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Collaborative Robots to Support Flexible Operation in a Manufacturing System2012Inngår i: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2012 / [ed] Hasse Nylund, Satu Kantti, Ville Toivonen, Seppo Torvinen, Tampere University, Finland, 2012, s. 531-538Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robotic systems where human(s) and robot(s) cooperate in performing a common task is an attractive solution to introduce automation combined with high flexibility for tasks that have a high complexity and characterized by low volume or down to one-off. By introducing collaboration in robotics systems, the operator can complement with cognitive capacity and skill in order to gain in flexibility and agility in the task operation. This paper describes on-going work related to work on collaboration between operator and robot. User scenarios are outlined together with methods, software components and hardware to support collaboration, where some of these are under development. As the standards related to collaborative robotic systems are soon to be completed, it is expected that this type of semi-automatic systems will be important for flexible and agile automation of production which otherwise cannot be automated.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Henric
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    General Time Synchronisation Method for PLC Programs Aiming at Virtual Verification and Development2008Inngår i: 17th IFAC World: Congress Proceedings of the 17th World Congress. The International Federation of Automatic Control. Soel, July 6-11, 2008, s. 4440-4445Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest state-of-the-art Computer Aided Production Engineering (CAPE) simulation technology offers OPC integration for PLC verification. A critical drawback with this technology has been identified and described within this paper. A new time synchronisation method and a simulation architecture are therefore presented and proposed. The time synchronisation method together with the architecture can be used when verifying and developing real-time dependent control logic for industrial control system, e.g. PLC with CAPE tools. The method described in this paper is general and should work on any PLCs that are compatible with the IEC 61131-3 standard. A test case was also carried out, showing that by disregarding time synchronisation it is impossible to verify real-time dependent PLC functions together with CAPE tools in a reliable way. However, the test case also shows that by applying the proposed time synchronisation method together with the described simulation architecture a successful industrial verification method is achieved

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Nilsson, Jim
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Automated Generation of Discrete Event System Simulation Models for Flexible Automation2011Inngår i: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taichung, Taiwan, June 26-29 2011, 2011, s. 825-832Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible automation cells with rapid product changes are an important competitive advantage for industries today. These cells can increase a company’s productivity and thereby increase their profits. A flexible cell shall be able to handle different products with none or minimal changes to the cell itself. A powerful tool, which can be used to analyse and verify such cells, is discrete event system simulation. Problems such as potential bottlenecks, deadlocks, answers to "what-if" questions and the level of resource utilisation can be gathered. The drawback of discrete event system simulation is that the modelling task is both time consuming and difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, state-of-the-art discrete event system simulation tools that are used in the industry today are not suitable for flexible automation. If the production scenario is changed, e.g. introduction of a new product, the simulation and modelling has to be redone and this is both time consuming and tedious. In this paper a new approach will be presented that enables discrete event simulation models to be generated automatically. The models are generated from information retrieved from a PLM/PDM database system, which is shared among other engineering tools such as robot simulation, CAD and process planning. Hence, when the cell and the database are updated a new model can easily be generated. The database is also connected to the real cell so up-to-date data can be retrieved from the real cell. The model generator described in this paper was implemented and tested in a discrete event system simulation tool and showed promising results. With this approach it is possible to handle flexible automation cells more effectively in a process planning stage.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A General Virtual Manufacturing Concept for Programming, Verification and Optimisation of Complex Control Functions2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2008: June 30th - July 2nd, 2008, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, Skövde, 2008, s. 668-675Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a general virtual manufacturing concept for industrial control systems. Our virtual manufacturing concept provides a distinct advantage; programming, verification and optimisation of complex real-time dependent control functions described by real control code, which can be directly transferred to the real manufacturing system. To achieve this distinct advantage, a time synchronised virtual manufacturing system is a necessity. The aim of this paper is thus to present and to describe in detail, our proposed virtual manufacturing concept. To the authors’ knowledge no such general virtual manufacturing concept, i.e. one that can correctly handle complex real-time dependent control functions, currently exists. To summarise previous work related to virtual manufacturing and industrial control systems, several critical issues have been identified. The virtual manufacturing concept proposed in this paper addresses these issues. To verify that our concept can manage these critical issues found and further is suitable in industrial applications a virtual manufacturing test case is also presented. The test case, that includes motion control (i.e. servo), complex control functions, real control systems etc., was carried out with success.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Methods for Reliable Simulation-Based PLC Code Verification2012Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, ISSN 1551-3203, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 267-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation based PLC code verification is a part of virtual commissioning, where the control code is verified against a virtual prototype of an application. With today’s general OPC interface it is easy to connect a PLC to a simulation tool for e.g. verification purposes. However, there are some problems with this approach that can lead to an unreliable verification result. In this paper, four major problems with the OPC interface are described, and two possible solutions to the problems are presented: a general IEC 61131-3 based software solution, and a new OPC standard solution

  • 7.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Heralic, Almir
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Automation of a robotised metal deposition system using laser melting of wire2008Inngår i: 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM 2008): Skövde, 30 June-2 July, 2008, s. 122-129Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a system for full automation of free-form-fabrication of fully dense metal structures using robotized laser melting of wire. The structure is built of beads of melted wire laid side by side and layer upon layer governed by synchronized robot motion. By full automation is here meant that the process starts with a product specification of a component, and ends in a geometrically validated dense metal component fulfilling industrial material requirements. Due to the complexity of this flexible manufacturing system, a number of different disciplines are involved. This paper discusses mainly the system design, which includes how off-line programming is used for automatic generation of code and how feedback control is used for on-line adjustment of parameters based on desired building properties. To meet industrial needs, the project is carried out in a close cooperation between research and development activities in academy and industry.

  • 8.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik (HTU).
    Ericsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik (HTU).
    Computer Aided Robotics combined with a Finite Element Analysis for Process Simulation of Welding2004Inngår i: 35th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2004: Paris, mars 2004, Paris: International Federation of Robotics , 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    An Adaptable Process Planning Tool: A Tool for Information, Communication, and Interaction in a Robot Cell2011Inngår i: ADAPTIVE 2011: the Third International Conference on Adaptive and Self-Adaptive Systems and Applications / [ed] Fox, Jorge & Rausch, Andreas, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2011, s. 15-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents work in progress on how to develop a process-planning tool to handle interaction between human operators and robots within a robot cell. First, we introduce how to include human activities in the process flow; then, we turn to our ideas for communication and feedback systems inside a robot cell. A small example of how to design interactive and re-programmable screens is presented.

  • 10.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Haijun, Xing
    Högskolan Väst.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    A Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Holonic Manufacturing Systems2012Inngår i: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2012: Helsinki, 10-13 June / [ed] Hasse Nylund, Satu Kantti, Ville Toivonen, Seppo Torvinen, Tampere University, Finland: Tampere University of Technology, 2012, s. 515-522Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Holonic Manufacturing System (HMS) is an integrated multi-agent technology that represents the developing direction in the automation field. HMS can be represented as a non-hierarchical manufacturing architecture with no or limited supervision. However, it is a challenge for a single holon in a non-hierarchical system to make globally optimal decisions. This paper presents a simulation-based optimization method for HMS by introducing a new wizard holon. A wizard holon collects the necessary information from the entire HMS and uses Discrete Event System (DES) simulation to evaluate the cost of different decisions. Since a non-hierarchical approach is used the wizard input is only treated as an advice to achieve more globally optimal decisions. The decisions are still taken by the local holon. Even for an experienced operator it might be hard to predict the outcome of a decision in a critical situation. Hence, wizard advices are valuable for all types holons, including machines, robots, and operators.

  • 11.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Hansbo, Anita
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Control system verification by emulation: an application to off-line pressline throughput rate orpimization2002Inngår i: Journal of advanced manufacturing systems, ISSN 0219-6867, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 159-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a research project aims at off-line programming and verification of industrial control systems. In this paper, an off-line method for press line throughput rate optimization and control system verification is proposed, implemented and evaluated. The main tool is a virtual press station, developed by the first author, consisting of an emulated control system for a feeder/extractor robot which communicates with 3D-simulated production equipment. Moreover, several virtual press stations have been coupled and synchronized in a virtual press line. An important feature of the system is that the virtual robot controller is emulated, yielding an exact representation of the control logic and the possibility to run the entire system in virtual real time. The application considered is a sheet metal forming process where it is difficult to achieve maximum capacity utilization. There is much to gain if the control logic is improved and the throughput rate is increased. For this purpose, an automated robot motion optimization method is implemented and evaluated, using the virtual press line.

  • 12.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Moore, P
    Eriksson, P
    Validation, off-line programming and optimisation of industrial control logic2003Inngår i: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 571-585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a classification of different methods for validation, off-line programming and optimisation of control logic. The classification is an overview of different methods available and includes advantages and disadvantages for each method. The method overview points out a superior method, control system emulation, which is the most cost-effective and flexible method. The control system emulation method is also general and may be applied to validate and optimise control logic in various applications. Further, the method is compared with several other methods for validation of industrial control systems. However the method requires a standardised system architecture. This article proposes such architecture for the control system emulation method. Here, a control system emulator has also been implemented with the specific system architecture described in this article. An application case is also provided to demonstrate an approach to the integration of a control system emulator into a virtual manufacturing system.

  • 13.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A flexible lean automation concept for robotized manufacturing industry2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Swedish Production Symposium: 3 - 5, May, Lund, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2011, s. 361-367Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to constant changesin the market there is a need for low-cost and low-volume manufacturing.Usually this type of production is difficult to automate due to the time ittakes to become profitable and the inflexibility of such solutions.  Therefore, flexible automation solutions needto be addressed together with cost effective aspects. In this paper, a newconcept for the design of a flexible, robotized solution based on leanautomation is presented and simulated. The proposed lean automation concept isformed of standardized robot stations, human-robot collaboration and costeffective level of automation. The main goals are flexible automated productionsystem and reduced production cost. This paper shows that the proposed flexiblelean automation concept has some key advantages compared to the traditionalrobot cells; a longer lifetime for the robot cell as well as being easier tore-balance, introduce new parts to and expand the cell. Further, it also showsthat the proposed concept reduces the cost for automation of products with low volume.

  • 14.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Flexible Robotized Automation in Manufacturing Systems2011Inngår i: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taiwan, 26-29 June 2011, 2011, s. 207-214Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to constant changes in the market there is a need for low-cost and low-volume manufacturing. Usually this type of production is difficult to automate due to the time it takes to become profitable and the inflexibility of such solutions. Therefore, flexible automation solutions need to be addressed together with cost effective aspects. In this paper, a new concept for the design of a flexible, robotized solution based on lean automation is presented and simulated. The proposed lean automation concept is formed of standardized robot stations, human-robot collaboration and cost effective level of automation. The main goals are flexible automated production system and reduced production cost. This paper shows that the proposed flexible lean automation concept has some key advantages compared to the traditional robot cells; a longer lifetime for the robot cell as well as being easier to re-balance, introduce new parts to and expand the cell. Further, it also shows that the proposed concept reduces the cost for automation of products with low volume.

  • 15.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Gustavsson, Steve
    Högskolan Väst.
    A Flexible Lean Automation Concept for Robotized Manufacturing Industry2010Inngår i: MESM 2010: 11th Middle Eastern Simulation Multiconference / [ed] Mar wan Al-Akai di, Ostend: Eurosis , 2010, s. 101-104Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a general virtual manufacturing concept for industrial control systems. Our virtual manufacturing concept provides a distinct advantage; programming, verification and optimisation of complex real-time dependent control functions described by real control code, which can be directly transferred to the real manufacturing system. To achieve this distinct advantage, a time synchronised virtual manufacturing system is a necessity. The aim of this paper is thus to present and to describe in detail, our proposed virtual manufacturing concept. To the authors’ knowledge no such general virtual manufacturing concept, i.e. one that can correctly handle complex real-time dependent control functions, currently exists. To summarise previous work related to virtual manufacturing and industrial control systems, several critical issues have been identified. The virtual manufacturing concept proposed in this paper addresses these issues. To verify that our concept can manage these critical issues found and further is suitable in industrial applications a virtual manufacturing test case is also presented. The test case, that includes motion control (i.e. servo), complex control functions, real control systems etc., was carried out with success.

  • 16.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    He, Jun
    Högskolan Väst.
    Integration of humans into a multi-agent system2013Inngår i: ESM'2013 The 2013 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Stephan Onggo and Antonin Kavicka, Ostend, Belgien: EUROSIS-ETI Publication , 2013, s. 257-259Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe on-going work in the integration of humans in automated manufacturing systems. The intention is to achieve a flexible manufacturing system to meet the rapid developing and changing of today’s industry. The approach is based on a control concept with multi-agents. Humans, which are considered as a valuable factor in industrial production, are proposed as flexible agent resources for the automated manufacturing system.

    A test case was performed on a manufacturing system where three different groups of humans where integrated in the system; inspection, carrier and recovery. The P-SOP agent generator was used to automatically generate IEC 61131-3 PLC control code for the system.

  • 17.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Reddy, Dhanush
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    A genetic algorithm with shuffle for job shop scheduling problems2015Inngår i: Modelling and simulation 2015: The European simulation and modelling conference 2015, ESM 2015, October 26-28 Leicester, United Kingdom / [ed] Marwan Al-Akaidi & Aladdin Ayesh, Ostend: ESM , 2015, s. 363-367Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Job shop scheduling problems are computationally complex combinatorial optimization problems. Genetic algorithms have been used in various forms and in combination with other algorithms to solve job shop scheduling problems. A partially flexible job shop with precedence constraints increases this complex behaviour. There are two main parts to optimizing ajob shop, the routing and the scheduling. The objective here is to get consistent optimal makespan using a genetic algorithm. This paper firstly, presents a simulation approach for the considered partially flexible job shop scheduling problem. Which take into account the precedence constraints and reduce situations of deadlock. To solve the partially flexible job shop scheduling problem a genetic algorithm was used and improved. It utilise a genetic crossovers for routing and a new random shuffle feature is introduced for the scheduling. The computational results have shown that the algorithm performs well in terms of finding a consistent optimal schedule for the given problem

  • 18.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Nylén, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Off-line programming of robots for metal deposition2005Inngår i: Trends in welding research: Proceedings of the 7th international conference, May 16-20. Pine Mountain, Georgia, 2005, s. 629-634Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal Deposition (MD) is a rapid prototyping technique to build parts by depositing metal in a required fashion. When a complex-shaped part is to be built, a simulation tool is needed to define robot trajectories. Three different simulation-based methods for robot trajectory generation are introduced and compared in this study. The methods are; reversed milling, adapted rapid prototyping and application programming in a computer aided robotics software. All methods were shown capable of creating robot paths for complex shapes, with the CAR software approach being the most flexible. Using this method, the geometry to be built is automatically sliced into layers and a robot path is automatically generated. The method was tentatively evaluated and appears to provide a powerful technique in the design and optimisation of robot paths for MD. Experiments showed that it is possible to manufacture fully dense parts using an Nd-Yag laser.

     

  • 19.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimisation for interacting production stations2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 78, nr 1-4, s. 673-688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimisation of the control function for multiple automated interacting production stations is a complex problem, even for skilled and experienced operators or process planners. When using mathematical optimisation techniques, it often becomes necessary to use simulation models to represent the problem because of the high complexity (i.e. simulation-based optimisation). Standard optimisation techniques are likely to either exceed the practical time frame or under-perform compared to the manual tuning by the operators or process planners. This paper presents the Constructive cooperative coevolutionary (C3) algorithm, which objective is to enable effective simulation-based optimisation for the control of automated interacting production stations within a practical time frame. C3 is inspired by an existing cooperative coevolutionary algorithm. Thereby, it embeds an algorithm that optimises subproblems separately. C3 also incorporates a novel constructive heuristic to find good initial solutions and thereby expedite the optimisation. In this work, two industrial optimisation problems, involving interaction production stations, with different sizes are used to evaluate C3. The results illustrate that with C3, it is possible to optimise these problems within a practical time frame and obtain a better solution compared to manual tuning.

  • 20.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Optimisation of Interacting Production Stations using a Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Approach2014Inngår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 322-327Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based optimisation carries the burden of computationally expensive fitness calculations. It is very often used to tackle large-scale optimisation problems with a relatively high level of complexity. Therefore, it is of interest to have optimisation techniques dedicated to simulation-based optimisation. This paper proposes a simulation-based optimisation approach, called Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary (C3) search procedure, to optimise the control of interacting production stations. An optimisation algorithm is embedded in the C3 search procedure to optimise subproblems separately. It includes a novel constructive heuristic that creates a feasible solution for the considered problem efficiently. It also incorporates an extended version of the existing cooperative coevolutionary method that can handle large-scale optimisation problems. Furthermore, this paper presents a case study considering a sheet metal press line as an example of interacting production stations. In this case study, the performance of the proposedC3 search procedure is evaluated and compared with other optimisation algorithms. This shows that the C3 search procedure is able to successfully optimise the press line within a given number of fitness calculations, outperforming existing algorithms. Also, it is shown that C3 can be embedded with either stochastic or deterministic optimisation algorithms, without sacrificing performance.

  • 21.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Parthasarathy, Prithwick
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Energy Consumption Model for 2D-Belt Robots2016Inngår i: 7th Swedish Production Symposium Conference proceedings, Lund: SPS16 , 2016, s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production that incorporates robotics consumes energy and the trend today is to reduce consumed energy not only to lower the cost but also to be a more energy efficient entity. Energy models can be used to predict the energy consumed by robot(s) for optimising the input parameters which determine robot motion and task execution. This paper presents an energy model to predict the energy consumption of 2D-belt robots used for press line tending. Based on the components’ specifications and the trajectory, an estimation of the energy consumption is computed. The capabilities of the proposed energy model to predict the energy consumption during the planning-phase (i.e. before installation), avoiding the need for physical experiments, are demonstrated. This includes predicting potential energy reductions achieved by reducing the weight of the gripper tools. Additionally, it is also shown how to investigate the energy saving achieved by using mechanical brakes when the robot is idle. This effectively illustrates the purpose and usefulness of the proposed energy model.

  • 22.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap, Avd för elektro- och lantmäteri. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithm Applied to Press Line Optimisation2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation / [ed] F. Frank Chen, Lancaster, PA, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc. , 2014, s. 909-916Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based optimisation often considers computationally expensive problems. Successfully optimising such large scale and complex problems within a practical time frame is a challenging task. Optimisation techniques to fulfil this need to be developed. A technique to address this involves decomposing the considered problem into smaller subproblems. These subproblems are then optimised separately. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for simulation-based optimisation is proposed. The proposed algorithm extends the cooperative coevolutionary algorithm, which optimises subproblems separately. To optimise the subproblems, the proposed algorithm enables using a deterministic algorithm, next to stochastic genetic algorithms, getting the flexibility of using either type. It also includes a constructive heuristic that creates good initial feasible solutions to reduce the number of fitness calculations. The extension enables solving complex, computationally expensive problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm has been applied on automated sheet metal press lines from the automotive industry. This is a highly complex optimisation problem due to its non-linearity and high dimensionality. The optimisation problem is to find control parameters that maximises the line’s production rate. These control parameters determine velocities, time constants, and cam values for critical interactions between components. A simulation model is used for the fitness calculation during the optimisation. The results show that the proposed algorithm manages to solve the press line optimisation problem efficiently. This is a step forward in press line optimisation since this is to the authors’ knowledge the first time a press line has been optimised efficiently in this way.

  • 23.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Constructive cooperative coevolution for large-scale global optimisation2017Inngår i: Journal of Heuristics, ISSN 1381-1231, E-ISSN 1572-9397, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 449-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary ( C3C3 ) algorithm, applied to continuous large-scale global optimisation problems. The novelty of C3C3 is that it utilises a multi-start architecture and incorporates the Cooperative Coevolutionary algorithm. The considered optimisation problem is decomposed into subproblems. An embedded optimisation algorithm optimises the subproblems separately while exchanging information to co-adapt the solutions for the subproblems. Further, C3C3 includes a novel constructive heuristic that generates different feasible solutions for the entire problem and thereby expedites the search. In this work, two different versions of C3C3 are evaluated on high-dimensional benchmark problems, including the CEC'2013 test suite for large-scale global optimisation. C3C3 is compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms, which shows that C3C3 is among the most competitive algorithms. C3C3 outperforms the other algorithms for most partially separable functions and overlapping functions. This shows that C3C3 is an effective algorithm for large-scale global optimisation. This paper demonstrates the enhanced performance by using constructive heuristics for generating initial feasible solutions for Cooperative Coevolutionary algorithms in a multi-start framework.

  • 24.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and systems, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Improved Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Differential Evolution for Large-Scale Optimisation2016Inngår i: Computational Intelligence, 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on, IEEE, 2016, s. 1703-1710, artikkel-id 7376815Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is widely used for real-world global optimisation problems in many different domains. To improve DE's performance on large-scale optimisation problems, it has been combined with the Cooperative Coevolution (CCDE) algorithm. CCDE adopts a divide-and-conquer strategy to optimise smaller subcomponents separately instead of tackling the large-scale problem at once. DE then evolves a separate subpopulation for each subcomponent but there is cooperation between the subpopulations to co-adapt the individuals of the subpopulations with each other. The Constructive Cooperative Coevolution (C3DE) algorithm, previously proposed by the authors, is an extended version of CCDE that has a better performance on large-scale problems, interestingly also on non-separable problems. This paper proposes a new version, called the Improved Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Differential Evolution (C3iDE), which removes several limitations with the previous version. A novel element of C3iDE is the advanced initialisation of the subpopulations. C3iDE initially optimises the subpopulations in a partially co-adaptive fashion. During the initial optimisation of a subpopulation, only a subset of the other subcomponents is considered for the co-adaptation. This subset increases stepwise until all subcomponents are considered. The experimental evaluation of C3iDE on 36 high-dimensional benchmark functions (up to 1000 dimensions) shows an improved solution quality on large-scale global optimisation problems compared to CCDE and DE. The greediness of the co-adaptation with C3iDE is also investigated in this paper.

  • 25.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Multi-objective constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimization of robotic press-line tending2017Inngår i: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273, Vol. 49, nr 10, s. 1685-1703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates multi-objective optimization of the robot trajectories and position-based operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems, such as press lines, to improve the production rate and obtaining smooth motions to avoid excessive wear of the robots’ components. Different functions for handling the multiple objectives are evaluated on realworld press lines, including both scalarizing single-objective functions and Pareto-based multi-objective functions. Additionally, the Multi-Objective Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary (moC3) algorithm is proposed, for Pareto-based optimization, which uses a novel constructive initialization of the subpopulations in a co-adaptive fashion. It was found that Paretobased optimization performs better than the scalarizing single-objective functions. Furthermore, moC3 gives substantially better results compared to manual online tuning, as currently used in the industry. Optimizing robot trajectories and operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems using the proposed method with moC3 significantly improves productivity and reduces maintenance. This article hereby addresses the lack of systematic methods for effectively improving the productivity of press lines.

  • 26.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Chalmers.
    Optimised Control of Sheet Metal Press Lines2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, s. 1-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the control parameters for sheet metal press lines is a large scale and complex optimisation problem. These control parameters determine velocities, time constants, and cam values of critical interactions between the equipment. The complexity of this problem is due to the nonlinearities and high dimensionality. Classical optimisation techniques often underperform in solving this kind of problems within a practical timeframe. Therefore, specialised techniques need to be developed for these problems. An existing approach is simulation-based optimisation, which is to use a simulation model to evaluate the trial solutions during the optimisation. In this paper, an efficient simulation-based optimisation algorithm for large scale and complex problems is proposed. The proposed algorithm extends the cooperative coevolutionary algorithm, which optimises subproblems separately. Hence, the optimisation problem must be decomposed into subproblems that can be evaluated separately. To optimise the subproblems, the proposed algorithm allows using embedded deterministic algorithms, next to stochastic genetic algorithms, getting the flexibility of using either type. It also includes a constructive heuristic that creates good initial feasible solutions to expedite the optimisation. The extension enables solving complex, computationally expensive problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm has been applied on an automated sheet metal press line from the automotive industry. The objective is to find control parameters that maximise the line’s production rate. The results show that the proposed algorithm manages to find optimal control parameters efficiently within the practical timeframe. This is a step forward in press line optimisation since to the authors’ knowledge this is the first time a press line has been optimised efficiently in this way.

  • 27.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Simulation-based Time and Jerk Optimisation for Robotic Press Tending2015Inngår i: Modellling and Simulation: The European simulation and modelling conference 2015, ESM 2015, Ostende: ESM , 2015, s. 377-384Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased production rate and robot motion smoothness in a sheet metal press line are essential. Smooth robot motions avoid unplanned production interruptions and excessive wear of the robots. Reaching high production rate and smooth motions requires tuning of the tending press robot control to minimise the cycle time and jerk. Doing this for a press line with multiple robots is a complex large-scale problem. To model such problems for the optimisation process, computer simulations become almost essential. This work presents simulation-based optimisation of the time and jerk of robotic press tending operations and investigates the importance of including the robot motion’s smoothness. An optimiser works in concert with a simulation model of a sheet metal press line and its parametrised control system. The effect of including jerk minimisation in the objective function is tested on a real-world problem concerning a sheetmetal press line. The results illustrate the importance of including jerk-minimisation as an objective in the optimisation.Furthermore, the performance of this approach is compared with manual tuning by experienced operators. The results show that the proposed simulation-based optimisation approach outperforms manual tuning.

  • 28.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Parthasarathy, Prithwick
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    An energy model for press line tending robots2016Inngår i: ESM'2016, the 2016 European simulation and Modelling Conference: Modelling and Simulation '2016 / [ed] José Evora-Gomez & José Juan Hernandez-Cabrera, Eurosis , 2016, s. 377-383Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today most industries aim at reducing energy consumption to become sustainable and environment-friendly. The automotive industry, with mass production and large volumes, is one such example. With many robots working round the clock, there is great potential to save energy. In this climate there is a need for robot simulation models that can be used for motion and task execution optimisation and which are aimed lowering energy consumption. This paper presents an energy consumption model for 2D-belt robots for press line tending in the automotive sector. The energy model is generic for 2D-belt robots and is entirely based on component specifications (e.g., dimensions, masses, inertia). An implementation and validation against a real 2D-belt tending robot used in the automotive industry is performed and presented. The purpose and usefulness of the energy model is also demonstrated by two application cases; the investigation of potential energy reductions achieved by reducing the weight of gripper tools, and by using mechanical brakes when the robot is idle.

  • 29.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön produktionsteknik(PTW).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A Virtual Manufacturing Approach for Integrating Fixture Design with Process Planning2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the sixth CIRP-sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology: 14-16 dec, HongKong, 2009, s. 483-496Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Aided Process Planning has received more attention recently due to considerable progress in the aspects of both technology and theory. Beside the traditional trends and efforts to integrate the product design and process planning activities usually referred to as concurrent engineering, virtual manufacturing tools have opened new horizons to this domain. This paper describes how to combine an existing modular fixture design with process planning and simulation tools. The proposed concurrent architecture consists of a functional model and an operational workflow for the design of modular fixtures within the process-planning phase. Two different paradigms, the Variant and the Generative, are discussed in relation to the proposed architecture. Fixtures for Body in White lines are a crucial design problem in the automotive industry. Therefore, the proposed architecture has been tested and investigated in such an environment.

  • 30.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A faster collision detection method applied on a sheet metal press line2011Inngår i: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taiwan, 26-29 June 2011, 2011, s. 833-840Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical collision detection is a time and resource consuming simulation task. In order to decrease time and resources, a general method has been developed. The method is useful in simulation cases where 3D CAD data is part of an iterative method, e.g. optimization. The method is based on a transformation of a general 3D problem to a 2D problem, eliminating the need of 3D CAD models. Press Line simulations during the last decade have been accepted as a quality improvement method. Today simulations of automated press lines are done for internal collision checks in dies and external collision checks against dies and material handling equipment. If these collisions are not detected in simulations, they result in delays, in introduction of a new product in the line, so called line tryout or later on when the line is ramped up to decided rate. The results of these collisions are used for pre-die design, design of grippers, maintenance and production planning. In this paper a new method, based on 2D simplifications, is developed and tested successfully in a virtual model of a press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing. Die Uppers 2 917 708 triangles and Die Lowers 602 686 triangles where reduced to 58 and 90 points. The result of the method shows substantial reduction of geometry data and a considerable improvement in collision detection evaluation time over general 3D algorithms in the tested case.

  • 31.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A faster collision detection method applied on a sheet metal press line2011Inngår i: The 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2011, s. 467-472Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical collision detection is a time and resource consuming simulation task. In order to decrease time and resources, a general method applicable for 2D motions has been developed. The method is useful in simulation cases where 3D CAD data is part of an iterative method, e.g. optimization. The method is based on a transformation of a general 3D problem to a 2D problem, eliminating the need of 3D CAD models. Press Line simulations during the last decade have been accepted as a quality improvement method. Today simulations of automated press lines are done for internal collision checks in dies and external collision checks against dies and material handling equipment. If these collisions are not detected in simulations, they result in delays, in introduction of a new product in the line, so called line tryout or later when the line is ramped up to decide rate. The results of these collisions are used for pre-die design, design of grippers, maintenance and production planning. In this paper a new method, based on 2D simplifications, is developed and tested successfully in a virtual model of a press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing. Die Uppers 2 917 708 triangles and Die Lowers 602 686 triangles where reduced to 58 and 90 points. The result of the method shows substantial reduction of geometry data and considerable improvement in collision detection evaluation time over general 3D algorithms in the tested case.

  • 32.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning performed in stamping2012Inngår i: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 17th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012), Polen: IEEE, 2012, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to  perform efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning in stamping, three fields are investigated namely: simulation building time, collision detection time and optimization time. Hence, reducing time is the main theme of this paper. To reduce simulation building time and optimization time, an efficient stamping simulation model is built and tested. Collision detection time is examined by a relative motion method based on 3D to 2D geometrical collision detection. The presented results mean that simulation and virtual commissioning can be performed at least ten times faster compared to standard approaches.

  • 33.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Toward efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning in stamping2012Inngår i: s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    A new Combined Optimisation Algorithm for Sheet-Metal Press Line Tuning2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS12: 6th-8th of November 2012 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Mats Björkman, Linköping: Produktionsakademien, The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, s. 479-485Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how a new combined optimisation algorithm can improve the efficiency in simulation-based parameter tuning of sheet-metal press lines. In automotive tandem sheet-metal press lines there are a number of critical interactions between moving parts to consider during the loading and unloading motions. All these interactions, both within each station and between the stations, are time-critical and must be synchronised to reach high production rates and avoid collisions. This cause conditions such as a highly non-linear objective functions with multiple local optima, considerable number of parameters, and long evaluation times. It is a great challenge to obtain an efficient direct search algorithm for global multi-criteria optimisation fulfilling all these conditions.

    The new combined algorithm starts with the Lipschitzian algorithm DIRECT as global search and then switches over to the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm for local convergence. Furthermore, during the switch over, the algorithm determines all local candidates of the set of points evaluated by DIRECT, and starts multiple Nelder-Mead local searches in each of these.

  • 35.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Improving Performance in Flexible Manufacturing by a P-sop Approach2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a Part oriented Sequence of Operation (P-SOP) approach that address flexibility, robustness and deployment in manufacturing cells up to plant level. A P-SOP description language has been formulated where the control strategy based on actual circumstances easily can be defined. Furthermore, a P-SOP multi-agent generator has been created that compiles the strategy description to multi-agents that control the manufacturing. Deadlock free IEC 61131-3 PLC code are directly generated from the description language. The code is not optimised for a specific scenario since the general description contains all possible routing paths and all resources available.

  • 36.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Off-Line Parameter Tuning of a Sheet-Metal Press Line2011Inngår i: The 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2011, s. 459-466Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anautomotive sheet-metal press line is an excellent example of an automatedmanufacturing system with time dependent complex control functions. The PLCcontrol functions include not only discrete events and supervisory control, butalso analogue feedback and motion control. Furthermore, most press line tuningmethods today are on-line and highly empirical, depending on individualoperators. Thus, there is a need of an objective off-line parameter tuningmethod. This paper presents an off-line parameter tuning of an automotivesheet-metal press line. Improved production performances have been reached,both in terms of increased production rate and smoother robot motions, comparedto today’s industrial on-line method. Two suitable optimisation algorithms havebeen implemented and evaluated. The challenge is to handle highly non-linearfunctions, considerable number of parameters, and long evaluation times in thesimulation. The utilised off-line method is a combination of simulation basedoptimisation and time synchronised hardware-in-the-loop simulation, i.e. avirtual manufacturing system including real PLCs. This method provides adistinct advantage, since it describes all complex control functions byexecuting the same PLC control code used in the manufacturing plant. A furtherbenefit is that all tuned process parameters can be directly transferred to themanufacturing plant.

  • 37.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    P-SOP -€“ A multi-agent based control approach for flexible and robust manufacturing2015Inngår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 36, s. 109-118, artikkel-id 1301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a truly flexible manufacturing system the description of the control strategy must be updated every day. Hence, a new way to handle changes in the environment down to control system deployment and production is required. This paper presents a novel approach, based on P-SOP, to handle multi-agent based control and verification. The P-SOP approach addresses flexibility, robustness and deployment in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort. P-SOP includes a description language where the control strategy based on actual circumstances easily can be defined. Based on the description multi-agents, to control the manufacturing, are automatically generated. An industrial advantage is that the multi-agent generator creates IEC 61131-3 PLC code that can be executed on standard PLC’s. This feature eliminates the need for experts in PLC programming and reduce deployment time to become more efficient. Hence, this flexibility enables small series down to one off production in a competitive way. With multi-agent control it is also possible to handle rebalancing due to market changes, scheduling of available humans, introduction of new part types, and rerouting due to a machine break down or planned service. The generated agents are not optimised for a final solution with specific timings. All decisions are made on-line and the generated solution adapts to the circumstances that arise. With the P-SOP multi-agents it is easy to manually remove or introduce parts to the manufacturing cell without disturbing the system, e.g. for manually random inspections, removal of parts due to restart. The formulated description language and the multi-agent generator has been successfully tested and evaluated in an industrial environment.

  • 38.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A Virtual Real-Time Model for Control Software Development: applied on a Sheet-Metal Press Line2005Inngår i: Industrial Simulation Conference 2005 / [ed] Jörg Kruger, Alexei Lisounkin, Gerhard Schreck, 2005, s. 119-123Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    An efficient algorithm for press line optimisation2013Inngår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 68, nr 5, s. 1627-1638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated manufacturing processes such as automotive tandem press lines include time dependent complex control functions. All motions and critical interactions between moving parts must be synchronised to avoid collisions and reach high production rate. It is even for a skilled operator hard to optimise these processes on-line. Therefore, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation including real industrial control systems and its control code establish an essential tool for optimisation. Additionally, an efficient optimisation algorithm is required to reach a useful simulation-based optimisation method. This paper proposes a new optimisation algorithm starting with the Lipschitzian algorithm DIRECT as global search and then switches over to the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm for local convergence. During the switch over, the new algorithm determines all local candidates of the set of points evaluated by DIRECT and starts multiple Nelder-Mead local searches in each of these. An optimisation study for an automotive press line shows that the proposed algorithm combines the benefits of the Lipschitzian and the simplex algorithms in an efficient way. The importance of multiple local searches from all local candidates found is also shown in the study. Based on the same number of function evaluations, it is also shown that this algorithm reaches improved press line performances compared to the stochastic differential evolution algorithm.

  • 40.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Off-Line Optimisation of Complex Automated Production Lines: Applied on a Sheet-Metal Press Line2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, IEEE , 2007, s. 82-87Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a successful off-line

    optimisation case study of a sheet-metal press line for the

    automotive industry. The proposed off-line optimisation

    method results not only in increased production rate but also in

    obtaining smoother material handling motions. The off-line

    optimisation method contains two parts. The first part is a

    parameter study, combining factorial design with production

    line simulation including emulated control systems and

    resulting in a simplified performance model based on multiple

    linear regression. The second part is an optimisation on the

    simplified performance model using the Nelder Mead simplex

    method aiming at production optimisation. Due to the

    complexity in a modern production line, it is not possible to

    create a useful model representation of the entire control

    system code/function. Therefore, the proposed optimisation

    method is based on using production line simulation including

    emulated control systems with the real IEC 61131-3 control

    code. Our approach in this work is a parameter variation

    strategy for optimisation, i.e. adjusting the control system

    parameters in the same way as the line operators do, and not

    changing any control strategy.

  • 41.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Simulation based optimization of a sheet-metal press line2009Inngår i: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, ETFA 2009, 2009, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An off-line optimization of a sheet-metal press line is performed with improved production performances, both in terms of increased production rate and smoother robot motions. Smooth motions prevent the sheet-metal to slide out of position or even fall out, thereby causing lengthy down times. The simulation based method use a process optimizer connected to a time synchronized virtual manufacturing model including real industrial control systems, e.g. PLC. The key benefit herein is that all tuned control system parameters can be directly downloaded to the real press line without any post-processing or transformations. The challenge to find suitable optimization algorithms for a press line that handle highly nonlinear, discontinuous functions; considerable number of parameters; and long evaluation times is reached.

  • 42.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Time-synchronised hardware-in-the-loop simulation - Applied to sheet-metal press optimisation2012Inngår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 792-804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an off-line process parameter tuning method, focussing on complex control functions for automated manufacturing systems. The proposed method is based on a combination of simulation-based optimisation and time-synchronised hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Real indus- trial control systems, e.g., PLCs, are included in the simulation, executing the unchanged control code from the manufacturing plant. This approach allows all plant control functions to be included, even time-critical feedback loops and vendor secret blocks such as motion control. Consequently, the method suggested manages the problems identified in previously presented simulation-based approaches. Furthermore, a case study of an automotive sheet-metal press line has been performed to verify the proposed method, with successful results.

  • 43.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Virtual Real-Time Model: a Tool for Increased Production2005Inngår i: Mekatronikmöte 2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the total number of produced components in a pre-existing production line, which is a large-scale mechatronic system, is a continuous and never-ending story in industry. There is a need for tools and methods to develop the control software off-line, i.e. to manage programming, verification, validation, optimisation, training new operators, etc. without using the real production line. Therefore a general Virtual Real-Time Model, VRTM, for simulating industrial production lines is proposed. The VRTM is intended to be used for off-line control software development and is aimed at increase the throughput in highly automated production lines. The main features of the VRTM are that the same control software is used as in the real production line and that virtual real-time is used, implying that everything is time-synchronised and works in the same way as in the real production line (including security functions). An applied VRTM simulating a sheet-metal press line is implemented and validated. A comparison test with the press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing in Göteborg is performed with a satisfactory agreement. This shows that the VRTM can be used for off-line control software development.

  • 44.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Nia, Nima K.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Sheet-Metal Press Line Parameter Tuning using a Combined DIRECT and Nelder-Mead Algorithm2011Inngår i: The 16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation: Toulouse, France, September 5-9, 2011, 2011, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a great challenge to obtain an efficient algorithm for global optimisation of nonlinear, nonconvex and high dimensional objective functions. This paper shows how the combination of DIRECT and Nelder-Mead algorithms can improve the efficiency in the parameter tuning of a sheet-metal press line. A combined optimisation algorithm is proposed that determines and utilises all local optimal points from DIRECT algorithm as Nelder-Mead starting points. To reduce the total optimisation time, all Nelder-Mead optimisations can be executed in parallel. Additionally, a Collision Inspection Method is implemented in the simulation model to reduce the evaluation time. Altogether, this results in an industrially useful parameter tuning method. Improvements of an increased production rate of 7% and 40% smoother robot motions have been achieved.

  • 45.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    P-SOP Agent Generator for Flexible Manufacturing2013Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364, Vol. 7, s. 341-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a flexible manufacturing industry the production planner may need to make an updated description of the control strategy every day. The description contains all possible routing paths and is based on actual circumstances. It varies depending on, e.g., rebalancing due to market changes, scheduling of available operators, introduction of new parts, and rerouting due to a machine break down or planned service. A Part oriented Sequence of Operation (P-SOP) description language has been formulated to assist the production planner to be able to handle these flexible manufacturing scenarios. Multi-agents to control the manufacturing are automatically generated from the P-SOP description language. The P-SOP agent generator creates IEC 61131-3 PLC code that can be executed on standard PLC’s. An agent consists of a head, a communicator and a body. The head and the communicator are the automatically generated part with a predefined interface against the physical body, e.g., the mechanical/electrical structure of a robot. This feature eliminates the need for an external expert in PLC programming. The head contains many small sub-sequences for all operations that are defined for the specific body. The purpose of the communicator is to communicate with surrounding neighbour agents to form a multi-agent system. The formulated language and the P-SOP agent generator has been successfully tested and evaluated in an industrial environment.

1 - 45 of 45
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