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  • 1.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    A conceptual model for multi-agent communication applied on a plug & produce system2020Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 93, s. 347-352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, multi-agent systems are still uncommon in the industry because they require more time to be implemented than traditional manufacturing systems. In this paper, a conceptual model and guidelines are defined for communication and negotiation between agents for Plug & Produce systems. Standards for agent communication exists today, such as the FIPA collection of specifications. However, FIPA is a broad and general standard for any kind of system and leaves a lot of room for interpretation. This paper presents a new conceptual model and guidelines on how to simplify the implementation phase by limiting the choices an engineer must make when implementing a multi-agent system for a manufacturing system. © 2020 The Authors.

  • 2.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    A Method for Configuring Agents in Plug & Produce Systems2022Inngår i: SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Amos H.C. Ng, Anna Syberfeldt, Dan Högberg, Magnus Holm, IOS Press, 2022, Vol. 21, s. 135-146Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-agent technology, used for implementing Plug & Produce systems have many proposed benefits for fast adaption of manufacturing systems. However, still today multi-agent technology is not ready for the industry, due to the lack of mature supporting tools and guidelines. The result is that today, multi-agent systems are more complicated and time-consuming to use than traditional approaches. This hides their true benefits. In this paper, a new method for configuring agents is presented that includes automated deployment to manufacturing systems and by its flexible design opens the possibility to connect many other supporting tools when needed. A configuration tool is also designed that works with the proposed method by connecting to an agent configuration database. The overall aim of the method is to simplify the steps taken for adapting a manufacturing system for new parts and resources.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Identification of resources and parts in a Plug and Produce system using OPC UA2019Inngår i: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 38, s. 858-865Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method together with an implementation for automating the detection, identification and configuration of newly added resources and parts in a Plug and Produce system using OPC UA. In a Plug and Produce system, resources and parts are usually controlled by agents, forming a multi-agent system of collaborating resources. Hence, when a resource or part is connected to the system, a corresponding agent must be instantiated and associated with that specific device. In order to automate this, the system needs information about newly connected devices. This information could, for example, be positional data describing where the device is connected. Some devices like tools and parts to be processed have no own network connection, but still, they should get an agent with correct configuration instantiated. In this work, OPC UA is used for communication between devices and the corresponding agents. All agents and their communication are handled by an Agent Handling System, consisting of an OPC UA HUB together with functions for device detection and agent instantiation. The HUB is used for transferring data between devices and their agents in the network by OPC UA protocols. When a device is connected to the network, it is detected, and a connection is automatically created to the HUB that becomes configured for transmitting data between the device and its corresponding agent. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

  • 4.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Department of Signals and systems, Chalmers University of Technology (SWE).
    Goal-Oriented Process Plans in a Multiagent System for Plug & Produce2021Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 2411-2421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a framework for Plug & Produce that makes it possible to use configurations rather than programming to adapt a manufacturing system for new resources and parts. This is solved by defining skills on resources, and goals for parts. To reach these goals, process plans are defined with a sequence of skills to be utilized without specifying specific resources. This makes it possible to separate the physical world from the process plans. When a process plan requires a skill, e.g., grip with a gripper resource, then that skill may require further skills, e.g., move with a robot resource. This creates a tree of connected resources that are not defined in the process plan. Physical and logical compatibility between resources in this tree is checked by comparing several parameters defined on the resources and the part. This article presents an algorithm together with a multiagent system framework that handles the search and matching required for selecting the correct resources.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Bennulf, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Verification and deployment of automatically generated robot programs used in prefabrication of house walls2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, s. 272-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for automating the generation, verification and deployment of robot programs used in prefabrication of walls for family houses. The making of robot programs is today performed manually by experts, i.e. implying high costs. This is a huge disadvantage since each wall can be unique. The work demonstrates, with implementation and testing, a method to automate the generation of robot programs for fabrication of walls made of wood. This includes the task of generating collision free paths, automatic verification of path performance and deploying to a real industrial robot with minimal human interaction. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 6.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Collaborative Robots to Support Flexible Operation in a Manufacturing System2012Inngår i: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2012 / [ed] Hasse Nylund, Satu Kantti, Ville Toivonen, Seppo Torvinen, Tampere University, Finland, 2012, s. 531-538Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robotic systems where human(s) and robot(s) cooperate in performing a common task is an attractive solution to introduce automation combined with high flexibility for tasks that have a high complexity and characterized by low volume or down to one-off. By introducing collaboration in robotics systems, the operator can complement with cognitive capacity and skill in order to gain in flexibility and agility in the task operation. This paper describes on-going work related to work on collaboration between operator and robot. User scenarios are outlined together with methods, software components and hardware to support collaboration, where some of these are under development. As the standards related to collaborative robotic systems are soon to be completed, it is expected that this type of semi-automatic systems will be important for flexible and agile automation of production which otherwise cannot be automated.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Henric
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    General Time Synchronisation Method for PLC Programs Aiming at Virtual Verification and Development2008Inngår i: 17th IFAC World: Congress Proceedings of the 17th World Congress. The International Federation of Automatic Control. Soel, July 6-11, 2008, s. 4440-4445Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest state-of-the-art Computer Aided Production Engineering (CAPE) simulation technology offers OPC integration for PLC verification. A critical drawback with this technology has been identified and described within this paper. A new time synchronisation method and a simulation architecture are therefore presented and proposed. The time synchronisation method together with the architecture can be used when verifying and developing real-time dependent control logic for industrial control system, e.g. PLC with CAPE tools. The method described in this paper is general and should work on any PLCs that are compatible with the IEC 61131-3 standard. A test case was also carried out, showing that by disregarding time synchronisation it is impossible to verify real-time dependent PLC functions together with CAPE tools in a reliable way. However, the test case also shows that by applying the proposed time synchronisation method together with the described simulation architecture a successful industrial verification method is achieved

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Nilsson, Jim
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Automated Generation of Discrete Event System Simulation Models for Flexible Automation2011Inngår i: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taichung, Taiwan, June 26-29 2011, 2011, s. 825-832Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible automation cells with rapid product changes are an important competitive advantage for industries today. These cells can increase a company’s productivity and thereby increase their profits. A flexible cell shall be able to handle different products with none or minimal changes to the cell itself. A powerful tool, which can be used to analyse and verify such cells, is discrete event system simulation. Problems such as potential bottlenecks, deadlocks, answers to "what-if" questions and the level of resource utilisation can be gathered. The drawback of discrete event system simulation is that the modelling task is both time consuming and difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, state-of-the-art discrete event system simulation tools that are used in the industry today are not suitable for flexible automation. If the production scenario is changed, e.g. introduction of a new product, the simulation and modelling has to be redone and this is both time consuming and tedious. In this paper a new approach will be presented that enables discrete event simulation models to be generated automatically. The models are generated from information retrieved from a PLM/PDM database system, which is shared among other engineering tools such as robot simulation, CAD and process planning. Hence, when the cell and the database are updated a new model can easily be generated. The database is also connected to the real cell so up-to-date data can be retrieved from the real cell. The model generator described in this paper was implemented and tested in a discrete event system simulation tool and showed promising results. With this approach it is possible to handle flexible automation cells more effectively in a process planning stage.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A General Virtual Manufacturing Concept for Programming, Verification and Optimisation of Complex Control Functions2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2008: June 30th - July 2nd, 2008, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, Skövde, 2008, s. 668-675Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a general virtual manufacturing concept for industrial control systems. Our virtual manufacturing concept provides a distinct advantage; programming, verification and optimisation of complex real-time dependent control functions described by real control code, which can be directly transferred to the real manufacturing system. To achieve this distinct advantage, a time synchronised virtual manufacturing system is a necessity. The aim of this paper is thus to present and to describe in detail, our proposed virtual manufacturing concept. To the authors’ knowledge no such general virtual manufacturing concept, i.e. one that can correctly handle complex real-time dependent control functions, currently exists. To summarise previous work related to virtual manufacturing and industrial control systems, several critical issues have been identified. The virtual manufacturing concept proposed in this paper addresses these issues. To verify that our concept can manage these critical issues found and further is suitable in industrial applications a virtual manufacturing test case is also presented. The test case, that includes motion control (i.e. servo), complex control functions, real control systems etc., was carried out with success.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Methods for Reliable Simulation-Based PLC Code Verification2012Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, ISSN 1551-3203, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 267-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation based PLC code verification is a part of virtual commissioning, where the control code is verified against a virtual prototype of an application. With today’s general OPC interface it is easy to connect a PLC to a simulation tool for e.g. verification purposes. However, there are some problems with this approach that can lead to an unreliable verification result. In this paper, four major problems with the OPC interface are described, and two possible solutions to the problems are presented: a general IEC 61131-3 based software solution, and a new OPC standard solution

  • 11.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Heralic, Almir
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Automation of a robotised metal deposition system using laser melting of wire2008Inngår i: 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM 2008): Skövde, 30 June-2 July, 2008, s. 122-129Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a system for full automation of free-form-fabrication of fully dense metal structures using robotized laser melting of wire. The structure is built of beads of melted wire laid side by side and layer upon layer governed by synchronized robot motion. By full automation is here meant that the process starts with a product specification of a component, and ends in a geometrically validated dense metal component fulfilling industrial material requirements. Due to the complexity of this flexible manufacturing system, a number of different disciplines are involved. This paper discusses mainly the system design, which includes how off-line programming is used for automatic generation of code and how feedback control is used for on-line adjustment of parameters based on desired building properties. To meet industrial needs, the project is carried out in a close cooperation between research and development activities in academy and industry.

  • 12.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik (HTU).
    Ericsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik (HTU).
    Computer Aided Robotics combined with a Finite Element Analysis for Process Simulation of Welding2004Inngår i: 35th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2004: Paris, mars 2004, Paris: International Federation of Robotics , 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    An Adaptable Process Planning Tool: A Tool for Information, Communication, and Interaction in a Robot Cell2011Inngår i: ADAPTIVE 2011: the Third International Conference on Adaptive and Self-Adaptive Systems and Applications / [ed] Fox, Jorge & Rausch, Andreas, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2011, s. 15-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents work in progress on how to develop a process-planning tool to handle interaction between human operators and robots within a robot cell. First, we introduce how to include human activities in the process flow; then, we turn to our ideas for communication and feedback systems inside a robot cell. A small example of how to design interactive and re-programmable screens is presented.

  • 14.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Haijun, Xing
    Högskolan Väst.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    A Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Holonic Manufacturing Systems2012Inngår i: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2012: Helsinki, 10-13 June / [ed] Hasse Nylund, Satu Kantti, Ville Toivonen, Seppo Torvinen, Tampere University, Finland: Tampere University of Technology, 2012, s. 515-522Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Holonic Manufacturing System (HMS) is an integrated multi-agent technology that represents the developing direction in the automation field. HMS can be represented as a non-hierarchical manufacturing architecture with no or limited supervision. However, it is a challenge for a single holon in a non-hierarchical system to make globally optimal decisions. This paper presents a simulation-based optimization method for HMS by introducing a new wizard holon. A wizard holon collects the necessary information from the entire HMS and uses Discrete Event System (DES) simulation to evaluate the cost of different decisions. Since a non-hierarchical approach is used the wizard input is only treated as an advice to achieve more globally optimal decisions. The decisions are still taken by the local holon. Even for an experienced operator it might be hard to predict the outcome of a decision in a critical situation. Hence, wizard advices are valuable for all types holons, including machines, robots, and operators.

  • 15.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Hansbo, Anita
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Control system verification by emulation: an application to off-line pressline throughput rate orpimization2002Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems, ISSN 0219-6867, E-ISSN 1793-6896, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 159-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a research project aims at off-line programming and verification of industrial control systems. In this paper, an off-line method for press line throughput rate optimization and control system verification is proposed, implemented and evaluated. The main tool is a virtual press station, developed by the first author, consisting of an emulated control system for a feeder/extractor robot which communicates with 3D-simulated production equipment. Moreover, several virtual press stations have been coupled and synchronized in a virtual press line. An important feature of the system is that the virtual robot controller is emulated, yielding an exact representation of the control logic and the possibility to run the entire system in virtual real time. The application considered is a sheet metal forming process where it is difficult to achieve maximum capacity utilization. There is much to gain if the control logic is improved and the throughput rate is increased. For this purpose, an automated robot motion optimization method is implemented and evaluated, using the virtual press line.

  • 16.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Moore, P
    Eriksson, P
    Validation, off-line programming and optimisation of industrial control logic2003Inngår i: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 571-585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a classification of different methods for validation, off-line programming and optimisation of control logic. The classification is an overview of different methods available and includes advantages and disadvantages for each method. The method overview points out a superior method, control system emulation, which is the most cost-effective and flexible method. The control system emulation method is also general and may be applied to validate and optimise control logic in various applications. Further, the method is compared with several other methods for validation of industrial control systems. However the method requires a standardised system architecture. This article proposes such architecture for the control system emulation method. Here, a control system emulator has also been implemented with the specific system architecture described in this article. An application case is also provided to demonstrate an approach to the integration of a control system emulator into a virtual manufacturing system.

  • 17.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A flexible lean automation concept for robotized manufacturing industry2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Swedish Production Symposium: 3 - 5, May, Lund, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2011, s. 361-367Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to constant changesin the market there is a need for low-cost and low-volume manufacturing.Usually this type of production is difficult to automate due to the time ittakes to become profitable and the inflexibility of such solutions.  Therefore, flexible automation solutions needto be addressed together with cost effective aspects. In this paper, a newconcept for the design of a flexible, robotized solution based on leanautomation is presented and simulated. The proposed lean automation concept isformed of standardized robot stations, human-robot collaboration and costeffective level of automation. The main goals are flexible automated productionsystem and reduced production cost. This paper shows that the proposed flexiblelean automation concept has some key advantages compared to the traditionalrobot cells; a longer lifetime for the robot cell as well as being easier tore-balance, introduce new parts to and expand the cell. Further, it also showsthat the proposed concept reduces the cost for automation of products with low volume.

  • 18.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Flexible Robotized Automation in Manufacturing Systems2011Inngår i: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taiwan, 26-29 June 2011, 2011, s. 207-214Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to constant changes in the market there is a need for low-cost and low-volume manufacturing. Usually this type of production is difficult to automate due to the time it takes to become profitable and the inflexibility of such solutions. Therefore, flexible automation solutions need to be addressed together with cost effective aspects. In this paper, a new concept for the design of a flexible, robotized solution based on lean automation is presented and simulated. The proposed lean automation concept is formed of standardized robot stations, human-robot collaboration and cost effective level of automation. The main goals are flexible automated production system and reduced production cost. This paper shows that the proposed flexible lean automation concept has some key advantages compared to the traditional robot cells; a longer lifetime for the robot cell as well as being easier to re-balance, introduce new parts to and expand the cell. Further, it also shows that the proposed concept reduces the cost for automation of products with low volume.

  • 19.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Gustavsson, Steve
    Högskolan Väst.
    A Flexible Lean Automation Concept for Robotized Manufacturing Industry2010Inngår i: MESM 2010: 11th Middle Eastern Simulation Multiconference / [ed] Mar wan Al-Akai di, Ostend: Eurosis , 2010, s. 101-104Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a general virtual manufacturing concept for industrial control systems. Our virtual manufacturing concept provides a distinct advantage; programming, verification and optimisation of complex real-time dependent control functions described by real control code, which can be directly transferred to the real manufacturing system. To achieve this distinct advantage, a time synchronised virtual manufacturing system is a necessity. The aim of this paper is thus to present and to describe in detail, our proposed virtual manufacturing concept. To the authors’ knowledge no such general virtual manufacturing concept, i.e. one that can correctly handle complex real-time dependent control functions, currently exists. To summarise previous work related to virtual manufacturing and industrial control systems, several critical issues have been identified. The virtual manufacturing concept proposed in this paper addresses these issues. To verify that our concept can manage these critical issues found and further is suitable in industrial applications a virtual manufacturing test case is also presented. The test case, that includes motion control (i.e. servo), complex control functions, real control systems etc., was carried out with success.

  • 20.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    He, Jun
    Högskolan Väst.
    Integration of humans into a multi-agent system2013Inngår i: ESM'2013 The 2013 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Stephan Onggo and Antonin Kavicka, Ostend, Belgien: EUROSIS-ETI Publication , 2013, s. 257-259Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe on-going work in the integration of humans in automated manufacturing systems. The intention is to achieve a flexible manufacturing system to meet the rapid developing and changing of today’s industry. The approach is based on a control concept with multi-agents. Humans, which are considered as a valuable factor in industrial production, are proposed as flexible agent resources for the automated manufacturing system.

    A test case was performed on a manufacturing system where three different groups of humans where integrated in the system; inspection, carrier and recovery. The P-SOP agent generator was used to automatically generate IEC 61131-3 PLC control code for the system.

  • 21.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Reddy, Dhanush
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    A genetic algorithm with shuffle for job shop scheduling problems2015Inngår i: Modelling and simulation 2015: The European simulation and modelling conference 2015, ESM 2015, October 26-28 Leicester, United Kingdom / [ed] Marwan Al-Akaidi & Aladdin Ayesh, Ostend: ESM , 2015, s. 363-367Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Job shop scheduling problems are computationally complex combinatorial optimization problems. Genetic algorithms have been used in various forms and in combination with other algorithms to solve job shop scheduling problems. A partially flexible job shop with precedence constraints increases this complex behaviour. There are two main parts to optimizing ajob shop, the routing and the scheduling. The objective here is to get consistent optimal makespan using a genetic algorithm. This paper firstly, presents a simulation approach for the considered partially flexible job shop scheduling problem. Which take into account the precedence constraints and reduce situations of deadlock. To solve the partially flexible job shop scheduling problem a genetic algorithm was used and improved. It utilise a genetic crossovers for routing and a new random shuffle feature is introduced for the scheduling. The computational results have shown that the algorithm performs well in terms of finding a consistent optimal schedule for the given problem

  • 22.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Nylén, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap.
    Off-line programming of robots for metal deposition2005Inngår i: Trends in welding research: Proceedings of the 7th international conference, May 16-20. Pine Mountain, Georgia, 2005, s. 629-634Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal Deposition (MD) is a rapid prototyping technique to build parts by depositing metal in a required fashion. When a complex-shaped part is to be built, a simulation tool is needed to define robot trajectories. Three different simulation-based methods for robot trajectory generation are introduced and compared in this study. The methods are; reversed milling, adapted rapid prototyping and application programming in a computer aided robotics software. All methods were shown capable of creating robot paths for complex shapes, with the CAR software approach being the most flexible. Using this method, the geometry to be built is automatically sliced into layers and a robot path is automatically generated. The method was tentatively evaluated and appears to provide a powerful technique in the design and optimisation of robot paths for MD. Experiments showed that it is possible to manufacture fully dense parts using an Nd-Yag laser.

     

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Zhang, Xiaoxiao
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Wang, Zhiping
    Research and Technology Development, Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Conceptual framework of scheduling applying discrete event simulation as an environment for deep reinforcement learning2022Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 107, s. 955-960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased environmental awareness is driving the manufacturing industry towards novel ways of energy reduction to become sustainable yet stay competitive. Climate and enviromental challenges put high priority on incorporating aspects of sustainability into both strategic and operational levels, such as production scheduling, in the manufacturing industry. Considering energy as a parameter when planning makes an already existing highly complex task of production scheduling even more multifaceted. The focus in this study is on inverse scheduling, defined as the problem of finding the number of jobs and duration times to meet a fixed input capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how scheduling can be formulated, within the environment of discrete event simulation coupled with reinforcement learning, to meet production demands while simultaneously minimize makespan and reduce energy. The study applied the method of modeling a production robot cell with its uncertainties, using discrete event simulation combined with deep reinforcement learning and trained agents. The researched scheduling approach derived solutions that take into consideration the performance measures of energy use. The method was applied and tested in a simulation environment with data from a real robot production cell. The study revealed opportunities for novel approaches of studying and reducing energy in the manufacturing industry. Results demonstrated a move towards a more holistic approach for production scheduling, which includes energy usage, that can aid decision-making and facilitate increased sustainability in production. We propose a conceptual framework for scheduling for minimizing energy use applying discrete event simulation as an environment for deep reinforcement learning.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimisation for interacting production stations2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 78, nr 1-4, s. 673-688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimisation of the control function for multiple automated interacting production stations is a complex problem, even for skilled and experienced operators or process planners. When using mathematical optimisation techniques, it often becomes necessary to use simulation models to represent the problem because of the high complexity (i.e. simulation-based optimisation). Standard optimisation techniques are likely to either exceed the practical time frame or under-perform compared to the manual tuning by the operators or process planners. This paper presents the Constructive cooperative coevolutionary (C3) algorithm, which objective is to enable effective simulation-based optimisation for the control of automated interacting production stations within a practical time frame. C3 is inspired by an existing cooperative coevolutionary algorithm. Thereby, it embeds an algorithm that optimises subproblems separately. C3 also incorporates a novel constructive heuristic to find good initial solutions and thereby expedite the optimisation. In this work, two industrial optimisation problems, involving interaction production stations, with different sizes are used to evaluate C3. The results illustrate that with C3, it is possible to optimise these problems within a practical time frame and obtain a better solution compared to manual tuning.

  • 25.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Optimisation of Interacting Production Stations using a Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Approach2014Inngår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 322-327Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based optimisation carries the burden of computationally expensive fitness calculations. It is very often used to tackle large-scale optimisation problems with a relatively high level of complexity. Therefore, it is of interest to have optimisation techniques dedicated to simulation-based optimisation. This paper proposes a simulation-based optimisation approach, called Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary (C3) search procedure, to optimise the control of interacting production stations. An optimisation algorithm is embedded in the C3 search procedure to optimise subproblems separately. It includes a novel constructive heuristic that creates a feasible solution for the considered problem efficiently. It also incorporates an extended version of the existing cooperative coevolutionary method that can handle large-scale optimisation problems. Furthermore, this paper presents a case study considering a sheet metal press line as an example of interacting production stations. In this case study, the performance of the proposedC3 search procedure is evaluated and compared with other optimisation algorithms. This shows that the C3 search procedure is able to successfully optimise the press line within a given number of fitness calculations, outperforming existing algorithms. Also, it is shown that C3 can be embedded with either stochastic or deterministic optimisation algorithms, without sacrificing performance.

  • 26.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Parthasarathy, Prithwick
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Energy Consumption Model for 2D-Belt Robots2016Inngår i: 7th Swedish Production Symposium Conference proceedings, Lund: SPS16 , 2016, s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production that incorporates robotics consumes energy and the trend today is to reduce consumed energy not only to lower the cost but also to be a more energy efficient entity. Energy models can be used to predict the energy consumed by robot(s) for optimising the input parameters which determine robot motion and task execution. This paper presents an energy model to predict the energy consumption of 2D-belt robots used for press line tending. Based on the components’ specifications and the trajectory, an estimation of the energy consumption is computed. The capabilities of the proposed energy model to predict the energy consumption during the planning-phase (i.e. before installation), avoiding the need for physical experiments, are demonstrated. This includes predicting potential energy reductions achieved by reducing the weight of the gripper tools. Additionally, it is also shown how to investigate the energy saving achieved by using mechanical brakes when the robot is idle. This effectively illustrates the purpose and usefulness of the proposed energy model.

  • 27.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom (GBR).
    Parthasarathy, Prithwick
    ISolve Technologies, Chennai, 600018, India (IND).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Energy model for motion planning of 2D-belt press line tending robots2020Inngår i: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 52-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A current trend in production is to reduce energy consumption where possible not only to lower the cost but also to be a more energy efficient entity. This paper presents an energy model to estimate the electrical energy consumption of 2D-belt robots used for material handling in multi-stage sheet metal press lines. An estimation of the energy consumption is computed by the proposed energy model based on the robot components’ specifications, the robot path and trajectory. The proposed model can predict the energy consumption offline by simulation, and thus, before installation, avoiding the need for physical experiments. It is demonstrated that it can be used for predicting potential energy reductions achieved by optimising the motion planning. Additionally, it is also shown how to investigate the energy saving achieved by using mechanical brakes when the robot is idle. This effectively illustrates the usefulness of the proposed energy model. © 2020 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 28.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap, Avd för elektro- och lantmäteri. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithm Applied to Press Line Optimisation2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation / [ed] F. Frank Chen, Lancaster, PA, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc. , 2014, s. 909-916Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based optimisation often considers computationally expensive problems. Successfully optimising such large scale and complex problems within a practical time frame is a challenging task. Optimisation techniques to fulfil this need to be developed. A technique to address this involves decomposing the considered problem into smaller subproblems. These subproblems are then optimised separately. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for simulation-based optimisation is proposed. The proposed algorithm extends the cooperative coevolutionary algorithm, which optimises subproblems separately. To optimise the subproblems, the proposed algorithm enables using a deterministic algorithm, next to stochastic genetic algorithms, getting the flexibility of using either type. It also includes a constructive heuristic that creates good initial feasible solutions to reduce the number of fitness calculations. The extension enables solving complex, computationally expensive problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm has been applied on automated sheet metal press lines from the automotive industry. This is a highly complex optimisation problem due to its non-linearity and high dimensionality. The optimisation problem is to find control parameters that maximises the line’s production rate. These control parameters determine velocities, time constants, and cam values for critical interactions between components. A simulation model is used for the fitness calculation during the optimisation. The results show that the proposed algorithm manages to solve the press line optimisation problem efficiently. This is a step forward in press line optimisation since this is to the authors’ knowledge the first time a press line has been optimised efficiently in this way.

  • 29.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Constructive cooperative coevolution for large-scale global optimisation2017Inngår i: Journal of Heuristics, ISSN 1381-1231, E-ISSN 1572-9397, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 449-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary ( C3C3 ) algorithm, applied to continuous large-scale global optimisation problems. The novelty of C3C3 is that it utilises a multi-start architecture and incorporates the Cooperative Coevolutionary algorithm. The considered optimisation problem is decomposed into subproblems. An embedded optimisation algorithm optimises the subproblems separately while exchanging information to co-adapt the solutions for the subproblems. Further, C3C3 includes a novel constructive heuristic that generates different feasible solutions for the entire problem and thereby expedites the search. In this work, two different versions of C3C3 are evaluated on high-dimensional benchmark problems, including the CEC'2013 test suite for large-scale global optimisation. C3C3 is compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms, which shows that C3C3 is among the most competitive algorithms. C3C3 outperforms the other algorithms for most partially separable functions and overlapping functions. This shows that C3C3 is an effective algorithm for large-scale global optimisation. This paper demonstrates the enhanced performance by using constructive heuristics for generating initial feasible solutions for Cooperative Coevolutionary algorithms in a multi-start framework.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and systems, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Improved Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Differential Evolution for Large-Scale Optimisation2016Inngår i: Computational Intelligence, 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on, IEEE, 2016, s. 1703-1710, artikkel-id 7376815Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is widely used for real-world global optimisation problems in many different domains. To improve DE's performance on large-scale optimisation problems, it has been combined with the Cooperative Coevolution (CCDE) algorithm. CCDE adopts a divide-and-conquer strategy to optimise smaller subcomponents separately instead of tackling the large-scale problem at once. DE then evolves a separate subpopulation for each subcomponent but there is cooperation between the subpopulations to co-adapt the individuals of the subpopulations with each other. The Constructive Cooperative Coevolution (C3DE) algorithm, previously proposed by the authors, is an extended version of CCDE that has a better performance on large-scale problems, interestingly also on non-separable problems. This paper proposes a new version, called the Improved Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary Differential Evolution (C3iDE), which removes several limitations with the previous version. A novel element of C3iDE is the advanced initialisation of the subpopulations. C3iDE initially optimises the subpopulations in a partially co-adaptive fashion. During the initial optimisation of a subpopulation, only a subset of the other subcomponents is considered for the co-adaptation. This subset increases stepwise until all subcomponents are considered. The experimental evaluation of C3iDE on 36 high-dimensional benchmark functions (up to 1000 dimensions) shows an improved solution quality on large-scale global optimisation problems compared to CCDE and DE. The greediness of the co-adaptation with C3iDE is also investigated in this paper.

  • 31.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Multi-objective constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimization of robotic press-line tending2017Inngår i: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273, Vol. 49, nr 10, s. 1685-1703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates multi-objective optimization of the robot trajectories and position-based operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems, such as press lines, to improve the production rate and obtaining smooth motions to avoid excessive wear of the robots’ components. Different functions for handling the multiple objectives are evaluated on realworld press lines, including both scalarizing single-objective functions and Pareto-based multi-objective functions. Additionally, the Multi-Objective Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary (moC3) algorithm is proposed, for Pareto-based optimization, which uses a novel constructive initialization of the subpopulations in a co-adaptive fashion. It was found that Paretobased optimization performs better than the scalarizing single-objective functions. Furthermore, moC3 gives substantially better results compared to manual online tuning, as currently used in the industry. Optimizing robot trajectories and operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems using the proposed method with moC3 significantly improves productivity and reduces maintenance. This article hereby addresses the lack of systematic methods for effectively improving the productivity of press lines.

  • 32.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS). Chalmers.
    Optimised Control of Sheet Metal Press Lines2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, s. 1-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the control parameters for sheet metal press lines is a large scale and complex optimisation problem. These control parameters determine velocities, time constants, and cam values of critical interactions between the equipment. The complexity of this problem is due to the nonlinearities and high dimensionality. Classical optimisation techniques often underperform in solving this kind of problems within a practical timeframe. Therefore, specialised techniques need to be developed for these problems. An existing approach is simulation-based optimisation, which is to use a simulation model to evaluate the trial solutions during the optimisation. In this paper, an efficient simulation-based optimisation algorithm for large scale and complex problems is proposed. The proposed algorithm extends the cooperative coevolutionary algorithm, which optimises subproblems separately. Hence, the optimisation problem must be decomposed into subproblems that can be evaluated separately. To optimise the subproblems, the proposed algorithm allows using embedded deterministic algorithms, next to stochastic genetic algorithms, getting the flexibility of using either type. It also includes a constructive heuristic that creates good initial feasible solutions to expedite the optimisation. The extension enables solving complex, computationally expensive problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm has been applied on an automated sheet metal press line from the automotive industry. The objective is to find control parameters that maximise the line’s production rate. The results show that the proposed algorithm manages to find optimal control parameters efficiently within the practical timeframe. This is a step forward in press line optimisation since to the authors’ knowledge this is the first time a press line has been optimised efficiently in this way.

  • 33.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automationssystem. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Simulation-based Time and Jerk Optimisation for Robotic Press Tending2015Inngår i: Modellling and Simulation: The European simulation and modelling conference 2015, ESM 2015, Ostende: ESM , 2015, s. 377-384Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased production rate and robot motion smoothness in a sheet metal press line are essential. Smooth robot motions avoid unplanned production interruptions and excessive wear of the robots. Reaching high production rate and smooth motions requires tuning of the tending press robot control to minimise the cycle time and jerk. Doing this for a press line with multiple robots is a complex large-scale problem. To model such problems for the optimisation process, computer simulations become almost essential. This work presents simulation-based optimisation of the time and jerk of robotic press tending operations and investigates the importance of including the robot motion’s smoothness. An optimiser works in concert with a simulation model of a sheet metal press line and its parametrised control system. The effect of including jerk minimisation in the objective function is tested on a real-world problem concerning a sheetmetal press line. The results illustrate the importance of including jerk-minimisation as an objective in the optimisation.Furthermore, the performance of this approach is compared with manual tuning by experienced operators. The results show that the proposed simulation-based optimisation approach outperforms manual tuning.

  • 34.
    Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Parthasarathy, Prithwick
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    An energy model for press line tending robots2016Inngår i: ESM'2016, the 2016 European simulation and Modelling Conference: Modelling and Simulation '2016 / [ed] José Evora-Gomez & José Juan Hernandez-Cabrera, Eurosis , 2016, s. 377-383Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today most industries aim at reducing energy consumption to become sustainable and environment-friendly. The automotive industry, with mass production and large volumes, is one such example. With many robots working round the clock, there is great potential to save energy. In this climate there is a need for robot simulation models that can be used for motion and task execution optimisation and which are aimed lowering energy consumption. This paper presents an energy consumption model for 2D-belt robots for press line tending in the automotive sector. The energy model is generic for 2D-belt robots and is entirely based on component specifications (e.g., dimensions, masses, inertia). An implementation and validation against a real 2D-belt tending robot used in the automotive industry is performed and presented. The purpose and usefulness of the energy model is also demonstrated by two application cases; the investigation of potential energy reductions achieved by reducing the weight of gripper tools, and by using mechanical brakes when the robot is idle.

  • 35.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön produktionsteknik(PTW).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A Virtual Manufacturing Approach for Integrating Fixture Design with Process Planning2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the sixth CIRP-sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology: 14-16 dec, HongKong, 2009, s. 483-496Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Aided Process Planning has received more attention recently due to considerable progress in the aspects of both technology and theory. Beside the traditional trends and efforts to integrate the product design and process planning activities usually referred to as concurrent engineering, virtual manufacturing tools have opened new horizons to this domain. This paper describes how to combine an existing modular fixture design with process planning and simulation tools. The proposed concurrent architecture consists of a functional model and an operational workflow for the design of modular fixtures within the process-planning phase. Two different paradigms, the Variant and the Generative, are discussed in relation to the proposed architecture. Fixtures for Body in White lines are a crucial design problem in the automotive industry. Therefore, the proposed architecture has been tested and investigated in such an environment.

  • 36.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Bennulf, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Model-based Plug & Produce in Assembly Automation2023Inngår i: 2023 IEEE 28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): 12-15 September 2023, IEEE, 2023, Vol. 2023-SeptemberKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual assembly systems are featured with high flexibility but with the risk of lower quality, higher cycle time, inefficient resource employment, and affecting sustainability goals in comparison to fully automated ones. Conventional automated assembly is challenged by the desired level of flexibility when compared to what automation through Plug & Produce system represents. Plug and Produce, during the last few decades aimed at addressing highly flexible automation systems handling rapid changes and adaptations as one dominant solution. Multi-agent System (MAS) as a tool to handle different areas of manufacturing control systems can be used in Plug & Produce representing every physical control entity (e.g., parts, resources) as agents. This article aims to describe a model-based configurable multi-agent design in Plug and Produce system together with a prototype implementation of the actual automated assembly use case of a kitting operation highlighting flexibility and reconfigurability and the model functionality. A model-based approach with a few models using UML standards describes the structure and behavior of the system. Model instantiation is introduced and followed by real prototype use case implementation. The use case study of advanced automated kitting operation in the assembly automation domain has been selected. Agent-based operation control systems have been applied during the assembly process. The evaluation was accomplished by testing several scenarios on Plug & Produce for kitting operation. To conclude, several desirable functionality features of the framework during the demonstration such as rapid instantiation and adaptation, and in particular, the flexibility features have been examined and evaluated with several failure-handling testing scenarios. © 2023 IEEE.

  • 37.
    Massouh, Bassam
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Zhang, Xiaoxiao
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Online Hazard Detection in Reconfigurable Plug & Produce Systems2024Inngår i: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Establishing Bridges for More Sustainable Manufacturing Systems.: FAIM 2023 / [ed] Silva, F.J.G., Pereira, A.B., Campilho, R.D.S.G., Springer Nature, 2024, s. 889-897Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plug & Produce is a modern automation concept in smart manufacturing for modular, quick, and easy reconfigurable production. The system’s flexibility allows for the configuration of production with abstraction, meaning that the production resources participating in a specific production plan are only known in the online phase. The safety assurance process of such a system is complex and challenging. This work aims to assist the safety assurance when utilizing a highly flexible Plug & Produce concept that accepts instant logical and physical reconfiguration. In this work, we propose a concept for online hazard identification of Plug & Produce systems, the proposed concept, allows for the detection of hazards in the online phase and assists the safety assurance as it provides the hazard list of all possible executable alternatives of the abstract goals automatically. Further, it combines the safety-related information with the control logic allowing for safe planning of operations. The concept was validated with a manufacturing scenario that demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed concept.

  • 38.
    Massouh, Bassam
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    A Framework for Hazard Identification of a Collaborative Plug&Produce System2022Inngår i: Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937, Vol. 1616 CCIS, s. 144-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plug&Produce systems accept reconfiguration and have the attribute of physical and logical flexibility. To implement the Plug&Produce system in a manufacturing plant, there is a need to assure that the system is safe. The process of risk assessment provides information that is used to implement the proper safety measures to ensure human and machine safety. An important step in the risk assessment process is hazard identification. Hazard identification of Plug&Produce system is unique as the hazard identification method provided in the safety standards do not consider system flexibility. In this paper, a framework for hazard identification of a collaborative Plug&Produce system is presented. A study case that includes a collaborative Plug&Produce system is presented and the framework is applied to identify the system’s hazards. Also, the generalisation of the framework application is discussed. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 39. Mosa, Waddah
    et al.
    Massouh, Bassam
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Software-supported Hazards Identification for Plug & Produce Systems2024Inngår i: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Establishing Bridges for More Sustainable Manufacturing Systems: FAIM 2023 / [ed] Silva, F.J.G., Pereira, A.B., Campilho, R.D.S.G., Springer Nature, 2024, s. 603-610Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-based safety software that performs Hazard Identification (HI) for Plug&Produce (P&P) systems automatically. P&P systems, inspired by Plug&Play in computers, aim to integrate devices and tools into the manufacturing system with minimum integration efforts and costs. When plugging a new resource, it will exchange all the required information with the manufacturing system and be ready to operate within minutes rather than days or weeks. One of the challenges that face this concept is performing proper risk assessment after each change in the system. Therefore, the risk assessment needs to be automated as much as possible. This paper is about automating one risk assessment step: Hazard Identification. A new safety model is designed to identify hazards. The presented software analyses this model by implementing a novel algorithm that uses lookup tables to cover various possible hazards when resources work together. This software will support the risk reduction team by drastically reducing the time needed for HI and being ready for the next steps in risk analyses. Automating identifying hazards is an essential step towards automating the entire risk assessment process and achieving safe P&P systems.

  • 40.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    A faster collision detection method applied on a sheet metal press line2011Inngår i: The 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2011, s. 467-472Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical collision detection is a time and resource consuming simulation task. In order to decrease time and resources, a general method applicable for 2D motions has been developed. The method is useful in simulation cases where 3D CAD data is part of an iterative method, e.g. optimization. The method is based on a transformation of a general 3D problem to a 2D problem, eliminating the need of 3D CAD models. Press Line simulations during the last decade have been accepted as a quality improvement method. Today simulations of automated press lines are done for internal collision checks in dies and external collision checks against dies and material handling equipment. If these collisions are not detected in simulations, they result in delays, in introduction of a new product in the line, so called line tryout or later when the line is ramped up to decide rate. The results of these collisions are used for pre-die design, design of grippers, maintenance and production planning. In this paper a new method, based on 2D simplifications, is developed and tested successfully in a virtual model of a press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing. Die Uppers 2 917 708 triangles and Die Lowers 602 686 triangles where reduced to 58 and 90 points. The result of the method shows substantial reduction of geometry data and considerable improvement in collision detection evaluation time over general 3D algorithms in the tested case.

  • 41.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, VCIT, Olofström, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    A faster collision detection method applied on a sheet metal press line2011Inngår i: The 21st International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Taiwan, 26-29 June 2011, 2011, s. 833-840Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical collision detection is a time and resource consuming simulation task. In order to decrease time and resources, a general method has been developed. The method is useful in simulation cases where 3D CAD data is part of an iterative method, e.g. optimization. The method is based on a transformation of a general 3D problem to a 2D problem, eliminating the need of 3D CAD models. Press Line simulations during the last decade have been accepted as a quality improvement method. Today simulations of automated press lines are done for internal collision checks in dies and external collision checks against dies and material handling equipment. If these collisions are not detected in simulations, they result in delays, in introduction of a new product in the line, so called line tryout or later on when the line is ramped up to decided rate. The results of these collisions are used for pre-die design, design of grippers, maintenance and production planning. In this paper a new method, based on 2D simplifications, is developed and tested successfully in a virtual model of a press line at Volvo Car Manufacturing. Die Uppers 2 917 708 triangles and Die Lowers 602 686 triangles where reduced to 58 and 90 points. The result of the method shows substantial reduction of geometry data and a considerable improvement in collision detection evaluation time over general 3D algorithms in the tested case.

  • 42.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning performed in stamping2012Inngår i: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 17th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012), Polen: IEEE, 2012, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to  perform efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning in stamping, three fields are investigated namely: simulation building time, collision detection time and optimization time. Hence, reducing time is the main theme of this paper. To reduce simulation building time and optimization time, an efficient stamping simulation model is built and tested. Collision detection time is examined by a relative motion method based on 3D to 2D geometrical collision detection. The presented results mean that simulation and virtual commissioning can be performed at least ten times faster compared to standard approaches.

  • 43.
    Nia, Nima K.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik. Volvo Cars IT.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för automation och datateknik.
    Toward efficient geometrical simulation and virtual commissioning in stamping2012Inngår i: s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Bennulf, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    A Classification of Different Levels of Flexibility in an Automated Manufacturing System and Needed Competence2021Inngår i: Towards Sustainable Customization: Bridging Smart Products and Manufacturing Systems: Proceedings of the 8th Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production Conference (CARV2021) and the 10th World Mass Customization & Personalization Conference (MCPC2021), Aalborg, Denmark, October/November 2021 / [ed] Ann-Louise Andersen, Rasmus Andersen, Thomas Ditlev Brunoe, Maria Stoettrup Schioenning Larsen, Kjeld Nielsen, Alessia Napoleone, Stefan Kjeldgaard, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, s. 27-34Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization has become more attractive but requires a transformation towards more flexible solutions in contrast to dedicated manufacturing systems. Flexibility includes complex tasks such as the introduction of new products or new manufacturing processes as well as to efficiently handle daily balancing. The main challenge when it comes to flexibility in manufacturing is to be able to handle the technical aspects and still be competitive. In this article we consider the cost for flexibility to include two main things; (1) setup time, e.g., time for planning, design, programming and configuration, installation, ramp-up, scrapping of old equipment, preparation of facility, hardware installation, and (2) need of competence, inhouse knowledge, external competence, or external expert competence. This article presents an overview of available solutions and the level of flexibility and the level of competence that is needed for a reconfiguration one can expect out of a specific solution. Further, most of the existing solutions found do not consider or address the full problem of flexibility. However, we describe a possible future of industrial concept: Plug & Produce, which can address flexibility within manufacturing more completely and sustainably over time. Methods for configuration instead of programming are developed by University West. 

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Customization and flexible manufacturing capacity using a graphical method applied on a configurable multi-agent system2023Inngår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 79, artikkel-id 102450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a Plug & Produce and goal-oriented configurable multi-agent system that admits adding and removing resources to balance the manufacturing capacity without doing any digital reconfiguration or reprogramming. To handle that a new part-agent strategy is developed and described. Goals are central in designing autonomous multi-agent systems, possibilities to execute goals in parallel are desirable when the process requirements admit concurrent use of resources. Also, a standardized graphical method, the sequence of goals chart, is proposed to define and visualize parallel and sequential goals independently of available resources. Premanufacturing of wooden houses belongs to one of many manufacturing industries that claim flexible automation systems due to the high degree of customized products and a fluctuating market. A physical Plug & Produce robot-based workstation was built up to verify the flexibility in altering capacity and adoption to product modifications of a house wall section. Further, the simplicity of modifying the proposed configurable multi-agent system was compared to more traditionally designed systems and plain multi-agent systems with superior results. The flexibility is built into the proposed system by default as a part of the concept, simple enough to be handled by existing in-house knowledge within manufacturing companies. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Svensson, Bo
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    From CAD to Plug & Produce: A generic structure for the integration of standard industrial robots into agents2023Inngår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 128, nr 11-12, s. 5249-5260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industries of low-batches or one-of manufacturing aim for automation that is competitive enough to adapt to new or modifed products daily through in-house knowledge that focuses on manufacturing processes and not on machine function programming. To solve this, a complete set of actions that utilize seamless data transfer from product design in CAD to a Plug & Produce automation concept is proposed together with a generic structure for the integration of standard industrial robots into agents. This structure enables agents to handle their local reference coordinate systems and locations relative to a global perspective. Seamless utilization of data from product designs to Plug & Produce will simplify and shorten the time of digital development through concurrently usable text-based and graphical confguration tools of a confgurable multi-agent system. Needed data extracts directly from the product design as requirements of operational goals. Extraction of data from the product design, sequence of goals, and process plans, which are recipes of how to solve goals, can by this concept be confgured by in-house knowledge that has the process knowledge but not necessarily programming competence.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Bennulf, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Zhang, Xiaoxiao
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Hammar, Samuel
    Graniten, Uddevalla, (SWE).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Online Path Planning in a Multi-agent-Controlled Manufacturing System2023Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364, s. 124-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the manufacturing sectors are migrating from mass production to mass customization. To be able to achieve mass customization, manufacturing systems are expected to be more flexible to accommodate the different customizations. The industries which are using the traditional and dedicated manufacturing systems are expensive to realize this transition. One promising approach to achieve flexibility in their production is called Plug & Produce concept which can be realized using multi-agent-based controllers. In multi-agent systems, parts and resources are usually distributed logically, and they communicate with each other and act as autonomous agents to achieve the manufacturing goals. During the manufacturing process, an agent representing a robot can request a path for transportation from one location to another location. To address this transportation facility, this paper presents the result of a futuristic approach for an online path planning algorithm directly implemented as an agent in a multi-agent system. Here, the agent systems can generate collision-free paths automatically and autonomously. The parts and resources can be configured with a multi-agent system in the manufacturing process with minimal human intervention and production downtime, thereby achieving the customization and flexibility in the production process needed. 

  • 48.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för industriautomation.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Ericsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för industriautomation.
    Sampling-Based Path Planning Algorithm for a Plug & Produce Environment2023Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, nr 22, s. 12114-12114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate a suitable path planning algorithm for a multi-agent-based Plug & Produce system that can run online during manufacturing. This is needed since in such systems, resources can move around frequently, making it hard to manually create robot paths. To find a suitable algorithm and verify that it can be used online in a Plug & Produce system, a comparative study between various existing sampling-based path planning algorithms was conducted. Much research exists on path planning carried out offline; however, not so much is performed in online path planning. The specific requirements for Plug & Produce are to generate a path fast enough to eliminate manufacturing delays, to make the path energy efficient, and that it run fast enough to complete the task. The paths are generated in a simulation environment and the generated paths are tested for robot configuration errors and errors due to the target being out of reach. The error-free generated paths are then tested on an industrial test bed environment, and the energy consumed by each path was measured and validated with an energy meter. The results show that all the implemented optimal sampling-based algorithms can be used for some scenarios, but that adaptive RRT and adaptive RRT* are more suitable for online applications in multi-agent systems (MAS) due to a faster generation of paths, even though the environment has more constraints. For each generated path the computational time of the algorithm, move-along time and energy consumed are measured, evaluated, compared, and presented in the article.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Peralippatt, Saptha
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Perumal, Balasubramanian
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Optimized Online Path Planning Algorithms Considering Energy2021Inngår i: Proceedings: 2021 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA ), IEEE conference proceedings, 2021, s. 1-08Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plug and produce demonstrators handles multiple processes in the industry, appropriate path planning is essential and at the same time there is an increasing emphasis on more sustainable processes. To ensure the sustainability and automate these processes optimized path planning is required. We present an implementation of a path planning algorithm, which creates a smooth collision free path and considers energy use. In the paper, we demonstrated the implementation of PRM (Probabilistic Road Map) path planning and Dijkstra based optimization algorithm in a simulation environment and thereafter test in a real plug and produce demonstrator. To validate the simulated results the real energy was measured through the signal analyzer online. The measured results outlined in this paper includes; computational time, move along path time, and energy use with different loads. From the experiments and results we conclude that the combination of the two algorithms, PRM with Dijkstra, can be used to generate a collision free optimized path. Here we have considered the distance as the cost function for Dijkstra optimization algorithm and measured the energy of the collision free optimized path. The practical implication of this research is as an enabler for any kind of application where there are large variations of orders e.g., kitting techniques in assembly operations for manufacturing industry.

  • 50.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Perumal, Balasubramaniam
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Peralippatt, Saptha
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Optimized Path Planning by Adaptive RRT* Algorithm for Constrained Environments Considering Energy2021Inngår i: Proceedings 2021: 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), IEEE conference proceedings, 2021, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimized path planning of robots are necessary for the industries to thrive towards greater flexibility and sustainability. This paper proposes an implementation of a collision-free path with the shortest distance. The novelty of the work presented is the new ARRT*(Adaptive Rapidly exploring Random Tree Star) algorithm, which is modified from the RRT*(Rapidly exploring Random Tree Star). In a constraint environment, RRT* algorithms tend to fail when searching for suitable collision-free paths. The proposed ARRT* algorithm gives an optimized feasible collision-free paths in a constraint environment. The feasibility to implement RRT* and ARRT* in a Multi Agent System as a path agent for online control of robots is demonstrated. We have created a digital twin simulated environment to find a collision-free path based on these two algorithms. The simulated path is tested in real robots for feasibility and validation purpose. During the real time implementation, we measured the following parameters: the algorithm computation time for generating a collision-free path, move along time of the path in real time, and energy consumed by each path. These parameters were measured for both the RRT* and the ARRT* algorithms and the test results were compared. The test results were showing that ARRT* performs better in a constrained environment. Both algorithms were tested in a Plug and Produce setup and we find that the generated paths for both algorithms are suitable for online path planning applications.

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