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  • 1.
    Bjurström, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University (SWE).
    Schüler, Martin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Strömberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University (SWE).
    Roxström, Git
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (SWE).
    Data quality and analysts’ role in AI enhanced C22023In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Command and Control (C2) raises questions about the interaction between operators on different levels on the one hand and AI-supported information systems on the other. For some purposes, the aggregation and analysis of large “big data”-sets creates potential for prediction and calculations of probabilities, while for other purposes human heuristics may be as promising depending on the situation. What has been more rarely discussed, is the very quality of data underpinning such calculations, and thus also operators’ awareness of the validity of predictions in relation to any specific situation. This is an urgent debate, considering the fact that full transparency may be impossible and underpinning data may be based on exercises, simulations, real-time data, or a mix thereof. Based on a fundamental classification of different kinds of uncertainties, this article discusses how data of different origins and quality can be managed and communicated to allow for operators to assess on what basis predictions are made. The article further suggests that looking at other fields of research may be useful for exploring unconventional ways of highlighting the existence and quality of different kinds of data of different origins in order to assess its predictive power. Finally, the article discusses how AI may change the role of analysts with regard to such issues.

  • 2.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Land Warfare Centre (SWE), Swedish Defence University (SWE).
    Bjurström, Erik
    Mälardalen University (SWE).
    Navigating in the zoo2023In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, 2023, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are taking the world by storm. Armed forces around the world are thinking about new concepts or adaptations to integrate ML and AI in different functions affecting the military work environment. The purpose of this article is to broaden the perspective and challenge the perception of a military ML or AI integration. Military exercises are important tools for armed forces throughout the world. Learning to fight wars in a safe environment which emphasizes learning, saves lives on the battlefield. Through the theoretical framework of human activity, it is possible to understand the challenges soldiers and officers face when conducting double-sided live field exercises. The introduction of ML and AI in the exercise environment also creates a new learning environment with two more learning participants. By understanding the human zone of proximal development, we can also better understand the learning limitations and constraints an integrated ML or AI must consider before adjusting the algorithm. Simply accepting every collected data stream from a double-sided live field exercise might lead to learned faults and errors endangering the lives of soldiers and officers. To mediate the risk a new type of exercise needs to be developed with a focus on all participants learning opportunities both human and machine

  • 3.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Försvarshögskolan, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Bjurström, Erik
    Försvarshögskolan, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Speed vs thought2021In: 26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Alberts, David, Washington, 2021, Vol. Topic 3, p. 1-8, article id 016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the conception of speed in command and control (C2) systems’ impact on human thought and to introduce the notion of “Combat Integrated Learning” (CIL). In a context of increased complexity, unpredictability and ambiguity, adaptation not only concerns agility in terms of speed, but through resilience, self- healing and – in lack of calculable consequence ethics – an Aristotelian notion of virtue as a stable equilibrium of the soul as a basis for choice of action “knowingly and for its own sake”. As humans we have many cognitive functions which impact how we perceive information i.e., sensemaking and situation awareness. But the essence of thinking is a philosophical issue where philosophers like Arendt previously explained the emergence of banal evil as ordinary men having lost their ability to think. C2 systems that make us reactive to a piece of information, inciting speed to act, minimize human reflection and learning. Developing time effective C2 systems could in fact lead to the creation of military stupidity. Authority, organizational and administrative procedures may lead to normalization of risk, morally questionable attitudes and actions, routinized humiliation and behavior that ultimately break down sensemaking and the sense of “self” in degraded environments. C2 systems and their uses may hamper intelligent action through the loss of an active agency of the individual, thus impede understanding and management of the battlespace, especially in the light of deception and disinformation, and unclear causal relations of events in constrained environments. This paper points at potential good practices in the face of ambiguity.

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