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  • 1.
    Boson, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Behavioral SDepartment of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (SWE) ;Department of Psychology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer (NOR).
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, Emma
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (SWE); Region Skåne, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Regional Outpatient Care, Lund University Hospital, Lund (SWE).
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Adolescent gaming and parent–child emotional closeness: bivariate relationships in a longitudinal perspective2024In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to add knowledge of the longitudinal associations between gaming and emotional closeness between parents and their children. We hypothesized that parent–child emotional closeness was linked to less gaming activity over time and that more gaming activity was linked to less parent–child emotional closeness over time. We also tested the moderating efect of child gender on these anticipated links. This study involved a sample of Swedish adolescents, spanning the developmental years from age 12.5 to 17, and included data from two time points (T1; year 2013 and T2; years 2017/2018) with N=782 participants (T1 Mage=12.10, SD=0.40; 49.6% girls). Utilizing a series of Cross-Lagged Panel Models, we found that emotional closeness to both mother and father predicted less time spent on gaming over time. More time spent on gaming predicted less emotional closeness to mother over time. Additionally, gaming activity among girls was specifcally related to less emotional closeness to their father over time. Strengthening parent–child relationships and emotional bonds may be crucial in safeguarding adolescents from developing habits of excessive gaming that could potentially pose problems for their psychosocial development.

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  • 2.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Einarsson, Isak
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (SWE); Region Skåne, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Regional Outpatient Care, Lund University Hospital, Lund (SWE).
    Boson, Karin
    Department of Psychology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (NOR).
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, Emma
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (SWE); Region Skåne, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Regional Outpatient Care, Lund University Hospital, Lund (SWE).
    Adolescents’ Perceptions of a Relapse Prevention Treatment for Problematic Gaming: A Qualitative Study2023In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 11, no 17, p. 2366-2366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the increasing prevalence of problematic gaming, in 2013, the diagnosis “Internetgaming disorder (IGD)” was included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) as a potential diagnosis. With a new diagnosis, it is important to determine treatment options. The importance of the parent–child relationship has been emphasised in problematic gaming and its treatment. This study aims to provide more knowledge about adolescents’ perceptions of a treatment for problematic gaming and understand whether such treatment may have a bearing on the parent–child relationship. We conducted individual interviews with nine adolescents who completed a treatment for problematic gaming. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed three themes.

    Theme 1: adolescents’ experiences of the new treatment;

    Theme 2: adolescents’ perceptions of the effect of the treatment on their gaming behaviour; and

    Theme 3: adolescents’ perceptions of changes in their parent–child relationships.

    The adolescents viewed the treatment as a way of gaining control of their gaming, a process in which a therapist played an integral part. For the majority of the adolescents in our study, the main effects of treatment were gaining insight into how their gaming and gaming-related behaviours affected other parts of their lives. The participants felt that the treatment improved their relationship with their parents through reducing everyday conflicts. This new knowledge can be used for the development of future interventions involving children and adolescents.

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  • 3.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Einarsson, Isak
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic, Region Skåne, Malmö (SWE).
    Werner, Marie
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic, Region Skåne, Lund (SWE).
    André, Frida
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund (SWE); Malmö Addiction Center and Competence Center Addiction, Region Skåne, Malmö (SWE).
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, Emma
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic, Region Skåne, Lund (SWE); Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    Relapse Prevention Therapy for Problem Gaming or Internet Gaming Disorder in Swedish Child and Youth Psychiatric Clinics: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial2023In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 12, p. e44318-e44318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Although gaming is a common arena where children socialize, an increasing number of children are exhibiting signs of problem gaming or internet gaming disorder. An important factor to the development of problem gaming is parent-child relationships. A cognitive behavioral therapy-based form of treatment, labeled relapse prevention, has been developed as a treatment for child and adolescent problem gaming or internet gaming disorder. However, no study has evaluated the effect of this treatment among Swedish children and youth nor the role of the parent-child relationships in this treatment.

    Objective:

    This study aims (1) to evaluate a relapse prevention treatment for patients showing signs of problem gaming or internet gaming disorder recruited from child and youth psychiatric clinics and (2) to test whether the quality of parent-child relationships plays a role in the effect of relapse prevention treatment and vice versa-whether the relapse prevention treatment has a spillover effect on the quality of parent-child relationships. Moreover, we explore the carer's attitudes about parent-child relationships and child gaming, as well as experiences of the treatment among the children, their carers, and the clinicians who carried out the treatment.

    Methods:

    This study is a 2-arm, parallel-group, early-stage randomized controlled trial with embedded qualitative components. Children aged 12-18 years who meet the criteria for problem gaming or internet gaming disorder will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either intervention (relapse prevention treatment) or control (treatment as usual), with a total of 160 (80 + 80) participants. The primary outcomes are measures of gaming and gambling behavior before and after intervention, and the secondary outcomes include child ratings of parent-child communication and family functioning. The study is supplemented with a qualitative component with semistructured interviews to capture participants' and clinicians' experiences of the relapse prevention, as well as attitudes about parent-child relationships and parenting needs in carers whose children completed the treatment.

    Results:

    The trial started in January 2022 and is expected to end in December 2023. The first results are expected in March 2023.

    Conclusions:

    This study will be the first randomized controlled trial evaluating relapse prevention as a treatment for child and adolescent problem gaming and internet gaming disorder in Sweden. Since problem behaviors in children interact with the family context, investigating parent-child relationships adjacent to the treatment of child problem gaming and internet gaming disorder is an important strength of the study. Further, different parties, ie, children, carers, and clinicians, will be directly or indirectly involved in the evaluation of the treatment, providing more knowledge of the treatment and its effect. Limitations include comorbidity in children with problem gaming and internet gaming disorder and challenges with the recruitment of participants.

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  • 4.
    Werner, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Skåne University Hospital, 22185 Lund (SWE); Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, 22100 Lund (SWE).
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (SWE).
    Nielsen, Maiken
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Andersson, Mitchell J.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, 22100 Lund (SWE); Malmö Addiction Center, Skåne University Hospital, 20502 Malmö (SWE).
    Panican, Alexandru
    School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro (SWE).
    Claesdotter-Knutsson, Emma
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Skåne University Hospital, 22185 Lund (SWE); Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, 22100 Lund (SWE).
    When the Relationship Is at Stake:: Parents’ Perception of the Relationship with a Child with Problematic Gaming and Their Perceived Need for Support2024In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 851-[863]Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrapersonal parental factors play a significant role in the development of problematic gaming in children. However, few studies have explored parental perspectives on their relationship with a child engaged in problematic gaming, as well as the need for support parents perceive in relation to the child’s gaming. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 parents (83.3% women) of 11 children (81.8% boys, Mage = 15 ± 2) to examine how parents of children with problematic gaming behavior perceive the parent–child relationship and their need for additional support. We analyzed qualitative accounts using thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes while drawing on the theoretical frameworks of Aaron Antonovsky’s theory of sense of coherence (SOC) and Jürgen Habermas’ theory of logic. Participants described difficulties regarding all three components of SOC (meaningfulness, comprehensibility, and manageability) in relation to their child’s gaming, with the most significant challenge being manageability. Parents primarily sought assistance from institutions and organizations, such as mental health services, to enhance manageability. The findings emphasize parents’ need for relational and practical support tailored to their unique context, as well as their wish to be more involved in the treatment of their children.

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